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1

Project SAGE: Solar assisted gas energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans are formulated to: improve solar assisted gas energy (SAGE) technical design and performance; reduce SAGE costs; refine SAGE market assessment; and identify policies to encourage the use of SAGE. Two SAGE water heating systems were installed and tested. One system was retrofit onto an existing apartment building; the other was installed in a new apartment building. Each installation required approximately 1000 square feet of collector area tilted to an angle of 37(0) from the horizontal, and each was designed to supply about 70 percent of the energy for heating water for approximately 32 to 40 units of a typical two-story apartment complex, in Southern California. Construction costs were compiled, and both installations were equipped with performance monitoring equipment. The operating and maintenance requirements of each installation was evaluated by gas company maintenance engineers. Market penetration was assessed by developing a computer simulation program using the technical and economic analysis from the installation experience.

1980-03-01

2

Project SAGE: solar assisted gas energy. Interim report number two, CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project SAGE is a four-phased plan to define the equipment design, cost requirements, government policies and initiatives, market requirements, and necessary institutional changes for the successful commercial application of solar assisted gas energy (SAGE) water heating. Project SAGE developed out of a multidisciplinary effort focused on the broad problem of introducing solar energy in the U.S. building industry on a

A. Hirshberg; R. Barbieri; R. Bartera; J. Lingwall; R. Schoen; R. Vault

1976-01-01

3

Innovative gas energy systems for use with passive solar residences  

SciTech Connect

The GRI asked Booz, Allen, and Hamilton to analyze the integration of passive solar with gas-fired energy systems for heating and cooling homes. Direct gain, trombe wall, thermosiphon and thermal roof storage heating systems were studied. Solar load control, evaporative cooling, earth coupling, and night radiation cooling systems were investigated. The drawbacks of conventional gas backup systems are discussed. Innovative passive/gas combinations are recommended. These include multizone gas furnace, decentralized gas space heater, gas desiccant dehumidifier, and gas dehumidifier for basement drying. The multizone furnace saves $1500, and is recommended for Pilot Version development.

Hartman, D.; Kosar, D.

1983-06-01

4

Assessment of residential passive solar/gas-fired energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was made to provide a comprehensive analysis of the issues involved in integrating passive solar with gas-fired back-up energy systems including: characterize major passive solar technologies; analyze technical and economic requirements of back-up heating and cooling systems; evaluate potential improvements for gas-fired heating equipment that could enhance its fit with passive solar heating; investigate the feasibility of passive solar cooling coupled with gas dehumidification equipment; and identify R&D opportunities for GRI which offer benefits to the gas ratepayer and to the gas industry. Passive solar heating, because of its potential to significantly reduce home heating loads and of the ease with which electric backup systems can be installed could result in a decrease in gas market share, as a primary heating fuel in new housing.

Hartman, D. L.; Hirshberg, A. S.

1982-12-01

5

Solar energy systems provide electric power for gas pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Solar energy collected by six 40 x 108-in. panels now supplies the power for Houston Natural Gas Corp.'s data-transmission system at a pipeline tie-in near Blessing, TX. Another solar facility - a 4 x 10-ft, 22-section panel - provides cathodic protection for HNG's 15-mile Apollo-to-Quito crossover pipeline. Both systems can operate for 7-9 days without sunlight. Maintenance is minimal, and the batteries recharge themselves when the sun is shining.

Not Available

1982-03-01

6

ADAPTATION AND MODIFICATION OF GAS TURBINES FOR SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adapting a gas turbine to high-temperature solar receivers and solar tower technology constitutes real progress towards commercial solar power utilization with high efficiency combined cycle power system. Solar gas turbine systems can also be adapted to hybrid solar\\/fossil fuel operation, thanks to its high efficiency conversion, relatively small solar field, and quick response to load fluctuations, low CO2 emissions, easy

Joseph Sinai; Chemi Sugarmen; Uriyel Fisher

7

Open-loop transport of solar energy using natural-gas networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the feasibility of transporting solar energy via a thermochemical-energy process and natural-gas networks. The high-temperature solar energy from a central receiver is converted to chemical-bond energy by steam reforming of natural gas to synthesis gas: HEAT + CHâ + HâO ..-->.. CO + 3Hâ. The synthesis gas is dehydrated and transported in the natural-gas pipeline. At the

Nix

1983-01-01

8

A combined heat and power system for buildings driven by solar energy and gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hybrid solar\\/gas system intended to provide cooling\\/heating and electricity generation for buildings was developed. The system is based on the combination of an ejector heat pump cycle with a Rankine cycle. It is driven by solar energy and supplemented by a gas burner. The system also uses an environmentally friendly refrigerant to have minimal impact on the environment.

A. C. Oliveira; C. Afonso; J. Matos; S. Riffat; M. Nguyen; P. Doherty

2002-01-01

9

Comparison of the fossil fuel energy requirements for solar, natural gas, and electrical water heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison between solar and fossil fuel heating is presented with primary attention given to cost factors. In most areas of the United States, solar heating is found to be several times more cost efficient than comparable electric water heating, and about half as efficient as natural gas water heating per Joule of energy produced. An input\\/output flow model is

J. Zucchetto; S. Brown

1977-01-01

10

Solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pumps, solar power stations, air conditioners, fresh-water stills, solar homes, solar cookers, fruit driers, devices for (low temperature) steaming of reinforced concrete members, solar refrigerators, solar hothouses, welding and melting of metals presents a far from complete list of the devices and areas of the possible broad use of solar energy. The first plant of solar equipment is to

G. Y. Umarov; A. A. Yershov

1975-01-01

11

Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

12

Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

13

Personalized energy: the home as a solar power station and solar gas station.  

PubMed

Point-of-use solar energy would generate the exact amount of energy any one individual needs, at the location where it is needed. Such a means of energy supply would create a revolution in society's approach to energy use, and allow a more level playing field for all. This Viewpoint considers some of the key enablers for this technology. PMID:19408259

Nocera, Daniel G

2009-01-01

14

Solar energy  

SciTech Connect

This text on the thermal conversion of solar energy begins with fundamental principles, which are then developed and applied to a variety of solar conversion systems. In addition to system components-such as flat plate, salt gradient, and concentrating collectors, and thermal storage units-the author discusses active and passive space heating, hot water, air conditioning, dehumidification, air drying, distillation, and swimming pool heating systems. The f-chart system performance estimation techniques active systems, and load-collector-ratio technique for passive systems are presented. Contents: Introduction. Solar kinematics. Availability of Solar Energy. Solar Concentrators. Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Solar Systems. Flat Plate Collectors. Thermal Storage of Solar Energy. Solar Space and Hot water Heating Systems. Economics of Solar Energy Systems. Solar Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Dehumidification. Additional Solar Energy Applications and Collectors. Passive Solar Heating. Appendices.

Anderson, E.E.

1983-01-01

15

Solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

Rapp, D.

16

Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, which comes at the beginning of a 40-day sequence of activities in an energy module, students observe the transfer of solar energy to different appliances with a solar cell and investigate the effect of using different solar sources to supply energy to appliances.

Group, Environmental L.; University, Lehigh

17

A new type of modular dryer combining solar energy and producer gas  

SciTech Connect

The main concept of this research is to develop a flexible modular dryer that combines two different sources of non-conventional energy. In this study, solar energy and producer gas generated by an up-flow charcoal gasifier were considered. The drying system was set out by using a 0.6 m{sup 3} modular cabinet supporting a solar collector of 2.5 m{sup 2} surface area. 16 kg of charcoal was used in each batch to feed the gasifier. The experiment was performed for drying beef that required two different stages of drying temperature: the first, which used producer gas requires approximately 60 C for four hours and the second used solar energy at 40 C for six hours. The energy consumed for drying 16 kg of beef was 7.57 MJ/kg H{sub 2}O evaporated which obtained from solar energy, producer gas and blowers in percentages of 8.72%, 31.44% and 59.84%, respectively.

Hirunlabh, J.; Paraboon, T.; Pairintra, R.; Namprakai, P.; Khedari, J. [King Monkut`s Inst. of Tech. Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

1997-03-01

18

Coal gasification by CO 2 gas bubbling in molten salt for solar\\/fossil energy hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification with CO2 (the Boudouard reaction: C+CO2=2CO, ?rH°=169.2 kJ\\/mol at 1150 K), which can be applied to a solar thermochemical process to convert concentrated solar heat into chemical energy, was conducted in the molten salt medium (eutectic mixture of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, weight ratio=1\\/1) to provide thermal storage. When CO2 gas was bubbled through the molten salt, higher reaction

Jun Matsunami; Shinya Yoshida; Yoshinori Oku; Osamu Yokota; Yutaka Tamaura; Mitsunobu Kitamura

2000-01-01

19

Economic Aspects of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction by Utilisation of Wind and Solar Energies to Produce Electricity and hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of renewable wind and solar energy sources instead of fossil fuels to produce such energy carriers as electricity and hydrogen facilitates reductions in gaseous emissions. Unlike for traditional fossil fuel technologies, greenhouse gas emissions from renewable technologies are associated mainly with the construction of a power plant. With present costs of wind and solar electricity, it is shown that,

Mikhail Granovskii; Ibrahim Dincer; M. A. Rosen

2006-01-01

20

Solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laranda Solar Technologies Sdn. Bhd. and Sekolah Sri Cempaka have recently formed an alliance to embark on a campaign to create awareness among the Malaysian community on the many benefits of solar energy. Our efforts have included setting up a 1 kW peak grid connected solar electricity system on the balcony of Sekolah Sri Cempaka and by assuming the responsibilities

V. Rudra

2001-01-01

21

Economics of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy cost comparison for space and water heating systems using solar, gas, and electrical energy shows that a solar\\/gas heating system would cost more than an all-gas type by a factor of 1.3 to 2.0, but would be cheaper than electrical heating. Based on a 15-yr useful life for each alternative, the comparison demonstrates that although the calculated consumer

Capener

1976-01-01

22

Methodology for the energy analysis of an air cooled GAX absorption heat pump operated by natural gas and solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a methodological analysis and energy evaluation of an air cooled absorption system, with generator–absorber heat exchange (GAX), and operated by a hybrid natural gas–solar energy source is presented. Given the characteristic non-linearity of the resulting system of equations, the methodology proposed envisages a calculation sequence for the external currents and an iterative procedure for the internal currents.The

N. Velázquez; R. Best

2002-01-01

23

Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper is subdivided into three main paragraphs: basic principles of solar radiation, main applications, and a case study\\u000a of a rural electrification in China. The first paragraph will introduce the basic principles of solar energy, highlighting\\u000a the advantages and disadvantages of this kind of renewable energy in comparison with other types of energy supply. The second\\u000a paragraph will introduce

Roberto Barile

24

Solar energy almanac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the topics covered in this book are: the passive solar house; the history of passive solar design; a career in solar energy; solar tax credits; solar energy's growth and potential; the underground house; the solar greenhouse; finding a solar designer or builder; solar access; solar use in the cities; storing solar heat; and solar communities. Also included are: tables

McPhillips

1983-01-01

25

Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

Building Design and Construction, 1977

1977-01-01

26

Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)|

Building Design and Construction, 1977

1977-01-01

27

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

1981-01-01

28

Weightless solar energy collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weightless, tracking, concentrating solar collectors are described emphasizing balloon shape, balloon materials, balloon fill gas, balloon tethering, probes for collecting solar energy as heat, probes for direct conversion to electricity, probe cooling systems, tracking mounts, thin-wall conical reinforced concrete bases, lightning rods, aircraft warning lights, estimated costs and anticipated performance.

Hall

1978-01-01

29

Solar thermal energy receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.

1991-03-01

30

Solar thermal energy receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.

1992-05-01

31

Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 11 of PDF), learners compare the air pressure within a dark and a light bottle both heated by the sun, and discover that solar energy can be collected and stored in many ways. Although this was created as a post-visit activity for a workshop about photosynthesis, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity.

Cosi

2009-01-01

32

Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

Knapp, Henry H., III

33

Alternative Energy: Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of the sun's energy. Topics include the history of solar energy usage and its more recent adaptations. There is also discussion of how the sun produces and radiates energy, what happens when it reaches Earth, types of solar systems, and the most common use of solar energy (heating). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate the effects of color and collection area on the amount of solar energy absorbed by a system. They will use aluminum pie pans of different sizes and colors and compare the relative effect by their ability to heat water placed in them.

Pratte, John

2008-12-25

34

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel demand and solar energy conversion efficiency in European bioethanol production for automotive purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop derived biofuels such as (bio)ethanol are increasingly applied for automotive purposes. They have, however, a relatively low efficiency in converting solar energy into automotive power. The outcome of life cycle studies concerning ethanol as to fossil fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions associated with such inputs depend strongly on the assumptions made regarding e.g. allocation, inclusion of upstream processes

L. Reijnders; M. A. J. Huijbregts

2007-01-01

35

Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

O'Brien, Alexander

36

Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

O'Brien, Alexander

37

An overview of solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews briefly some of the main approaches under study and development for harnessing the sun's energy. This includes solar heating and cooling systems, renewable gas and oil fuels, solar heat engine power plants, wind energy, ocean thermal gradients, direct energy conversion using solar cells, and solar energy conversion in space for use on earth. It is pointed out

P. E. Glaser

1974-01-01

38

Advanced solar energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

Lee, J. H.

1981-08-01

39

Solar Energy and You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

40

Solar energy collector  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

Brin, Raymond L. (Cedar Crest, NM); Pace, Thomas L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1978-01-01

41

Solar energy almanac  

SciTech Connect

Among the topics covered in this book are: the passive solar house; the history of passive solar design; a career in solar energy; solar tax credits; solar energy's growth and potential; the underground house; the solar greenhouse; finding a solar designer or builder; solar access; solar use in the cities; storing solar heat; and solar communities. Also included are: tables of solar radiation; sources for further reading, and lists of manufacturers and other resources for those who wish to build a solar house. (MHR)

McPhillips, M. (ed.)

1983-01-01

42

Solar energy for healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

With costly and uncertain fuel supplies, the potential of solar energy use in the health care industry is being examined. Solar energy is not considered a cure-all for energy problems in the health field, but health facilities with solar energy systems may avoid severe hardships. At present solar energy can help these institutions with three major problems: emergency power failures;

Downey

1975-01-01

43

The solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothermic decomposition of natural gas into a carbon-rich condensed phase and a hydrogen-rich gas phase, using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat, is considered as a model reaction for conducting a 2nd-law analysis of a solar decarbonization process in which carbon is removed from fossil fuels prior to their use for power generation. The theoretical

D. Hirsch; M. Epstein; A. Steinfeld

2001-01-01

44

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar...

1985-01-01

45

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required or advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar ...

1988-01-01

46

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required or advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar ...

1995-01-01

47

Solar energy collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus and methods for concentrating and collecting solar energy and for lowering the cost and increasing the efficiency of solar energy systems are disclosed. Solar energy is concentrated by economical refringent lenses or lens systems including fluid lenses and\\/or fresnel-type lenses. The lenses concentrate the solar energy preferably along lines in continuous linear foci or in discrete foci at an

1981-01-01

48

Solar energy assessment using remote sensing technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 20% of the final energy consumed in Europe is used in buildings. The active and passive use of solar energy is an approach to reduce the fossil energy consumption and the greenhouse gas emissions originated by buildings. Consideration of solar energy technologies in urban planning demands accurate information of the available solar resources. This can be achieved by the

Annette Hammer; Detlev Heinemann; Carsten Hoyer; Rolf Kuhlemann; Elke Lorenz; Richard Müller; Hans Georg Beyer

2003-01-01

49

Solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology will allow radiation from the sun to provide nonpolluting and cheap fuels, as well as electricity. It is unlikely that a single solar technology will predominate. Regional variations in economics and the availability of sunlight will naturally favor some approaches over others. Electricity may be generated by burning biomass, erecting wind turbines, building solar-powered heat engines, laying out photovoltaic

Hoagland

1995-01-01

50

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy system is disclosed in which the solar energy is converted to electrical energy for immediate use or the energy may be stored for use at a later date. The solar energy is converted to electrical energy by a large photo-voltaic array and the output of the photo-voltaic array is fed through an inverter and other control circuitry

1983-01-01

51

A Solar Energy Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 5,000 references to literature through 1976 dealing with various aspects of solar energy. Categories are established according to area of solar research. These categories include: (1) overview; (2) measurement; (3) low-range solar energy collection (below 120 degrees C); (4) intermediate-range solar energy collection (120…

Guthrie, David L.; Riley, Robert A.

52

A Solar Energy Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains 5,000 references to literature through 1976 dealing with various aspects of solar energy. Categories are established according to area of solar research. These categories include: (1) overview; (2) measurement; (3) low-range solar energy collection (below 120 degrees C); (4) intermediate-range solar energy collection (120…

Guthrie, David L.; Riley, Robert A.

53

Solar Energy Usage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar…

Crank, Ron

54

Solar Energy Usage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar…

Crank, Ron

55

Solar Thermal Energy Receiver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy...

K. W. Baker M. O. Dustin

1991-01-01

56

History of Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Solar Center offers this history of Solar Energy. Written by John Perlin, author of "From Space to Earth - The Story of Solar Electricity," the article summarizes three major solar energy subjects -- photovoltaics, solar thermal, and passive solar architecture. Visitors can get a quick overview of "how we have learned to capture sunlight and use it to make electricity, heat water and heat our homes."

57

Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy generation of electricity is advocated as a means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions associated with the generation from fossil fuels. Whilst it is true that renewable sources do not generate significant carbon dioxide whilst producing electricity, as with fossil-fuelled plants they do embody significant emissions in their materials of construction. The “full-chain” environmental impacts of wind, hydro, solar-thermal

Brian Norton; Phillip C Eames; Steve NG Lo

1998-01-01

58

Solar energy recovery system  

SciTech Connect

A solar tracking system for a sun sensitive system such as a solar energy generating unit is described. Means for tracking the sun in bright sunlight and in cloudy conditions having a sun sensing mode and a blind mode are disclosed. Solar energy generating units compatible with the solar tracking system capable of automatically operating a stock watering system are also disclosed.

Arbogast, C.C.

1984-10-16

59

National Energy Act statutes and solar energy  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

Howard, J.

1980-02-01

60

Incoming Solar Energy Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet plots the incoming solar energy at the top of the atmosphere (no absorption by the atmosphere) for two locations at once. Students will learn how the date, hemisphere, and latitude impact the distribution of solar energy.

Ackerman, Steve; Whittaker, Tom

61

Solar energy - An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the potential of solar energy as a viable alternative for fossil fuels is presented. The present status of the six classes of solar energy conversion systems - (1) heating and cooling of buildings, (2) solar-thermal electric power, (3) photovoltaic power, (4) ocean thermal-gradient power, (5) bioconversion, and (6) wind energy conversion - is discussed and projections of

J. M. Cherne

1975-01-01

62

Hydrogen from solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both coal and nuclear energy are considered the primary energy sources from which hydrogen will be produced in the near term. However, alternate energy sources must be sought and developed for the long term. The most obvious energy source possessing the required attributes is solar energy. Use of solar energy has not become widespread largely due to the costs of

K. E. Cox

1977-01-01

63

Solar Energy Technician/Installer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

Moore, Pam

2007-01-01

64

Solar Energy Technician/Installer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

Moore, Pam

2007-01-01

65

Diffusion and Adoption of an Efficient, Integrated Alternative Energy System: A Producer Gas-Solar Greenhouse for Farmstead Operation. Final Technical Report, September 1, 1980-October 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy awarded College of the Siskiyous a grant to provide a demonstration project that coordinated a variety of energy-related technologies: a 100-foot, two-podded solar greenhouse, a producer gas generator fired by wood chips, thermal ...

G. T. Peterson

1983-01-01

66

Forecasting solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past cloud studies help electric utilities evaluate the future impact of solar equipment because demand will go up with successive-day occurrences of low solar energy when solar customers must use their backup systems. Statistical probabilities developed for central Missouri on the basis of 25 years of solar-radiation measurements show how utilities can benefit from historical data in planning future demand.

1981-01-01

67

Solar energy receptor apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating system operating on a phase-change cycle and suitable for operation in buildings is disclosed. A solar heating panel is positioned to receive solar energy, and fluid passages within the panel are connected in a sealed closed fluid system. The closed fluid system is charged with a fluid medium which is vaporized by solar heating occurring in the

J. M. Lents; B. V. Sr. Rhodes

1979-01-01

68

Solar energy emplacement developer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

69

Solar energy systems cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five major areas of work currently being pursued in the United States in solar energy which will have a significant impact on the world's energy situation in the future are addressed. The five significant areas discussed include a technical description of several solar technologies, current and projected cost of the selected solar systems, and cost methodologies which are under development.

Lavender

1980-01-01

70

Experimenting with Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

Roman, Harry T.

2004-01-01

71

Experimenting with Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing…

Roman, Harry T.

2004-01-01

72

Solar energy modulator  

SciTech Connect

A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror thereby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

Mcdougal, A.R.; Hale, R.R.

1981-07-01

73

Coal gasification using solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another redirected through the receiver with steam to form CO and H2. Carbonaceous fuels are burned whenever sunlight is not available. Comparisons are made for costs of Lurgi, Bi-gas, Hygas, CO2 Acceptor, and Peat Gas processes and hybrid units for each. Solar thermal systems are projected to become economical with 350 MWt output and production of 1,420,000 cu m of gas per day. The laboratory bench scale unit was tested with Montana rosebud coal to derive a heat balance assessment and analyse the product gas. Successful heat transfer through a carrier gas was demonstrated, with most of the energy being stored in the product gas.

Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.

74

Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

None

2011-01-01

75

Solar Energy: Heat Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

Knapp, Henry H., III

76

Solar Energy: Heat Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

Knapp, Henry H., III

77

Solar Energy: Home Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

Knapp, Henry H., III

78

Solar Energy: Home Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

Knapp, Henry H., III

79

Energy: the solar prospect  

Microsoft Academic Search

About one-fifth of all energy used around the world now comes from solar resources--wind power; water power; biomass; and direct sunlight. According to Mr. Hayes, such renewable energy sources could provide 40 percent of the global energy budget by the year 2000; by 2025, humanity could obtain 75 percent of its energy from solar resources. Such a transition would not

1977-01-01

80

Luminescent solar concentrators and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells for solar energy harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing energy demand and the parallel increase of greenhouse gas emissions are challenging researchers to find new and cleaner energy sources. Solar energy harvesting is arguably the most promising candidate for replacing fossil-fuel power generation. Photovoltaics are the most direct way of collecting solar energy; cost continues to hinder large-scale implementation of photovoltaics, however. Therefore, alternative technologies that will allow

Veronica Sholin

2008-01-01

81

Nonrenewable energy cost and greenhouse gas emissions of a 1.5 MW solar power tower plant in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that renewable energy based systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and save fossil energy from the grid. Nevertheless, any energy conversion systems need extra energy to deliver energy into society. It is necessary to estimate the total direct and indirect fossil energy cost and associated greenhouse gas emissions by any system over its

G. Q. Chen; Q. Yang; Y. H. Zhao; Z. F. Wang

2011-01-01

82

Hybrid solar energy generating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid solar energy generating system is described for effectively utilizing the total solar spectrum gathered by a solar ray concentrator. The system include: a solar ray concentrator, a first solar ray receiver having photovoltaic solar cells for generating electricity, a second solar ray receiver for generating high temperature heat, a lens for focusing the solar rays on one of

Soule

1987-01-01

83

Hybrid mode solar power plant with gas and steam cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic improvement of combined gas and steam cycles by the addition of pressure stages is discussed. The terminal temperature difference between the gas turbine exhaust gas and the heated water\\/steam is reduced and the exhaust gas is cooled accordingly. For solar power plants which feed constant power into the electric grid, supplementary fossil fuel energy input into the cycle in

K. Bammert; H. H. Finckh

1983-01-01

84

Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

Knapp, Henry H., III

85

Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

Knapp, Henry H., III

86

Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

Knapp, Henry H., III

87

Solar energy and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's collection, storage, and utilization of solar energy is at the stage that, in the short term of the next 10 to 20 years, solar energy can be applied in the heating and cooling of buildings as well as in heating water. If a rational program can be adopted, reasonable projections indicate that by the year 2000, energy savings in

Rush

1976-01-01

88

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector is provided with a conduit in which tubing carries a heat collecting fluid within an evacuated jacket that encompasses the tubing and within which the tubing is located in an insulation space. The jacket is transparent to solar radiation within a solar radiation collection portion of the device, and may be armored externally thereof about the

1980-01-01

89

Iowa and solar energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are some different ways solar energy is used in our society? This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to five uses for solar energy in the state of Iowa. They include signs by the department of transportation, roof grids, solar cars, thin-film photovoltaics, and tents produced for the U.S. Army. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

90

Solar energy collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus and methods for concentrating and collecting solar energy are disclosed. In accordance with the invention, solar energy is concentrated by economical refringent lenses or lens systems including fluid lenses and\\/or Fresnel-type lenses. The lenses concentrate the solar energy preferably along lines in continuous linear foci or in discrete foci at an elongated collector comprising one or more fluid-carrying conduits

V. Stark; A. Vayda; P. Rousset

1979-01-01

91

Solar energy collection still  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus and methods for concentrating and collecting solar energy are disclosed. In accordance with the invention, solar energy is concentrated by economical refringent lenses or lens systems including fluid lenses and\\/or fresnel-type lenses. The lenses concentrate the solar energy preferably along lines in continuous linear foci or in discrete foci at an elongated collector comprising one or more fluid-carrying conduits

P. Rousset; V. Stark; A. Vayda

1982-01-01

92

Solar Energy Development Progresses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an engineering conference at which participants agreed that solar energy is a feasible energy source, although costs of such technology are presently very high. Also describes recent developments in solar energy research, and estimates the costs of this technology. (MLH)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

1975-01-01

93

Solar radiative energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation conversion into heat, and electrical and chemical energy is discussed. The theoretical limits of energy conservation along these conversion paths are considered. Thermal conversion is improved by use of optically selective absorbers. There are fundamental analogies between photovoltaics, photochemical and (optically selective) photothermal processes. Natural photosynthesis is taken as an example for a balance of energy yield from solar irradiance.

Sizmann, R.

1985-11-01

94

ENVIRONMENTAL METRICS FOR SOLAR ENERGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two metrics are discussed that exploit the greenhouse gas emission and water use advantages of solar energy technology. Furthermore, these metrics are generalized to be used for any environmental, cost or renewable resource consumption decision making. Future work is required on appropriate metrics for non-renewable resources.

Corinne Reich-Weiser; Steve Horne; David A Dornfeld

95

Energy strategies: Toward a solar future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book includes an assessment of energy requirements, nonrenewable and renewable energy resources, energy storage and transmission, and projections of energy demands. Topics also covered include coal gasification, oil shale, nuclear fission generators, geothermal energy, solar heating and cooling, photovoltaic cells, wind generators, biomass to gas conversion, ocean thermal energy, and wave energy extraction.

H. W. Kendall; S. J. Nadis

1980-01-01

96

Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

Buchanan, Marion; And Others

97

Solar-gas systems impact analysis study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities were measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the benefits or penalties of solar/gas systems on a combined basis for consumers sand distribution companies. It is shown that the combined benefits associated with solar/gas systems are generally greatest when the systems are purchased by customers who would have otherwise chosen high-efficiency electric systems (were solar/gas systems not available in the market place). The role of gas utilities in encouraging consumer acceptance of solar/gas systems was also examined ion a qualitative fashion. A decision framework for analyzing the type and level of utility involvement in solar/gas technologies was developed.

Neill, C. P.; Hahn, E. F.; Loose, J. C.; Poe, T. E.; Hirshberg, A. S.; Haas, S.; Preble, B.; Halpin, J.

1984-07-01

98

Solar thermal energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research and development conducted within the US Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program is described. The goal of the program is to advance the engineering and scientific understanding of solar thermal technology and to establish the technology base from which private industry can develop solar thermal power production options. Research areas emphasized include central receivers, distributed receiveres, and solar thermal materials. Brief descriptions are provided of the contractor's activities at the Sandia National Laboratories, Solar Energy Research Institute, and the San Francisco and Albuquerque DOE operations offices. A list of the FY 1984 publications is included.

1985-05-01

99

Solar energy outlook in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicted to be the clean energy of tomorrow, solar energy has been in the forefront of energy development in many developed countries and a potential source of energy to developing countries like Malaysia. This paper presents Malaysia's solar energy or solar photovoltaic developmental outlook. The study is done by first looking into the country's energy policies related to solar energy.

Shing Chyi Chua; Tick Hui Oh

100

Solar energy: principles and possibilities.  

PubMed

As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities. PMID:20222355

Rhodes, Christopher J

2010-01-01

101

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle pressure is close to atmospheric pressure, then the vacuum pump will evacuate the hydrogen gas from the first bottle to store into the second high pressure bottle. When the first bottle become vacuum then the procedure is repeated again.

Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

2009-09-01

102

Solar energy receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly efficient, open-ended solar energy receiver is disclosed having a porous element through which air passes and a conventional heat exchanger positioned above and immediately adjacent to the porous element such that when solar energy is focused onto the porous element, a constant controlled temperature hot air stream from the element is conveyed by the temperature controlled convectively rising

Colao

1981-01-01

103

Solar energy device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy powered hot air turbine is described comprising a heat collector having an air inlet and outlet with the turbine connected to the air inlet. The heat collector is heated by solar energy and is constructed so that the hot air exhausts through the air outlet thus sucking air in through the air inlet to power the turbine.

Newland

1977-01-01

104

Solar Energy Project. Reader.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This section of the solar energy curriculum material has been designed to give both teachers and students the opportunity to review a variety of representative articles on solar energy. Consideration is given to the sun's role in man's past, present, and ...

1979-01-01

105

Solar Energy Comes of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author sees evidence in Administration statements, announced public hearings, and Congressional interest in commercializing solar technology that a serious national commitment to solar energy is emerging. Fundamental to a solar policy is determining the appropriate funding and strategies for stimulating solar use. No definitive estimates have been made of the total quad potential of solar energy, although solar space

Sandra E. Bregman

1978-01-01

106

Legal aspects of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this book is to facilitate the realization of solar energy's potential through an analysis of the fundamental legal barriers that presently impede its widespread use. An overview of solar energy is provided and aspects of solar technology are examined, taking into account the sun, active solar-energy system, distribution, storage, applications, passive systems, the costs of solar systems,

J. H. Minan; W. H. Lawrence

1981-01-01

107

Solar Server: Forum for Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Germany, this site provides a forum for news and information regarding all aspects of solar energy. The site provides background information on the technical aspects pertaining to solar energy and photovoltaics. A variety of images and descriptions provide useful background information about photovoltaic roof tiles and their role in solar buildings.

2007-08-28

108

Solar-pumped dimmer gas lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many attempts were made in the past to convert Solar light to Laser light. To date, only two systems were demonstrated successfully: Photo-Dissociation Lasers and Solid State Solar lasers. The absorption spectrum of many dimmer molecules posses a broad structural spectrum overlapping with the solar spectrum and can be good candidates for direct solar pumping. In the gas phase, the

Idit L. Pe'Er; Irina Vishnevetsky; Nir Naftali; Amnon Yogev

1999-01-01

109

Florida Solar Energy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An institute of the University of Central Florida, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is the largest and most active state-supported renewable energy and energy efficiency research, training, testing and certification institute in the United States. FSEC's mission is to research and develop energy technologies that enhance Florida's economy and environment, and to educate the public, students and practitioners on the results of the research. Their website contains educational resources for children and adults, including workshops and courses about working with solar energy systems, energy gauge rater training, and building science training and certification. Also available are useful guides about home energy ratings, maximizing energy efficiency in the home, energy efficient home-design tips, and information about solar energy.

2002-04-04

110

Multiple reflection solar energy absorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of converting solar energy into heat energy thereby generating power is described comprising the steps: (a) focusing said solar energy by means of a primary concentrator, (b) concentrating said solar energy from said primary concentrator by means of a secondary concentrator located at the focal point of said primary concentrator, (c) slowing the flux of said solar energy

Cooley

1993-01-01

111

Applied Solar Energy  

SciTech Connect

This book, a revision of the first edition published in 1979, includes chapters on the application of solar energy to greenhouses, heat pumps, and solar pond technology. It was written for those planning to install solar heating systems and for general readers who want to learn abou this subject. The authors include a subject index and an appendix showing conversion factors to assist the understanding of SI and Imperial units.

Kut, D.; Hare, G.

1983-01-01

112

Environmental Impacts of the Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global energy consumption is expected to increase dramatically in the next decades, driven by rising standards of living and a growing population worldwide. The increased need for more energy will require enormous growth in energy generation capacity, more secure and diversified energy sources, and a successful strategy to tame greenhouse gas emissions. Solar energy systems provide significant environmental benefits in

K. Kaygusuz

2009-01-01

113

Solar energy computer models directory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This directory describes models developed and available in the US for six solar and renewable energy technologies. These technologies are: biomass; solar heating, cooling, and conservation; ocean energy; photovoltaics; solar thermal; and wind.

1985-08-01

114

Solar energy in Peru  

SciTech Connect

The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

Pierson, H.

1981-12-01

115

Solar Energy Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty articles addressing different aspects of solar energy are compiled in this book. They represent the views of different governmental and non-governmental organizations, members of congress, and other individuals including, for example, Barry Commoner and Amory Lovins. Topics discussed include the need for federal support, passive solar…

Rose, Harvey, Ed.

116

Solar Energy Project: Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

117

Solar Energy Project: Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

118

The Solar Energy Notebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

119

Energy from solar balloons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar balloons are hot air balloons in which the air is heated directly by the sun, by means of a black absorber. The lift force of a tethered solar balloon can be used to produce energy by activating a generator during the ascending motion of the balloon. The hot air is then discharged when the balloon reaches a predefined maximum

Roberto Grena

2010-01-01

120

The Solar Energy Notebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

121

Basics of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic data related to solar energy are summarized, including mass, radius, average density, and average surface temperature of the sun, as well as definitions of the common terminology. Equations are given for the calculation of the solar declination and the length of the day.

A. A. M. Sayigh

1979-01-01

122

Solar Energy Project: Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to give both teachers and students the opportunity to review a variety of representative articles on solar energy. Consideration is given to the sun's role in man's past, present, and future. The present state of solar technology is examined theoretically, economically, and comparatively in light of growing need for…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

123

Solar energy in the building  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of experience to date in the practical application of solar energy in a number of countries is provided. Methods of determining the amount of solar energy available in a given geographical area are described, and the thermodynamic principles governing the use of solar energy are treated. The basic components of solar energy systems are discussed, with special attention

C. Chauliaguet; P. Baratsabal; J.-P. Battellier

1977-01-01

124

Factors influencing solar energy commercialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospects for solar energy commercialization in Arizona are examined. Topics considered include the relative demand potential for selected solar energy products, factors influencing current and future demand for solar energy products, and recommended business and government actions to accelerate commercialization. A Delphi process was used to collect survey data. Water heaters were identified as the solar energy products with

B. J. Walker

1978-01-01

125

Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)

Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

126

Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)|

Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

127

Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

2011-03-01

128

Uses and promises of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book covers solar energy measurements, the impact of the energy crisis; trapping, conversion, and utilization of solar energy; household use of solar energy; solar energy costs on an industrial scale; architecture of large and small buildings for best utilization of solar energy; and solar energy in the urban environment. Specific topics include: storage of solar energy, direct photothermic conversion,

J. R. Vaillant

1976-01-01

129

Solar energy in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of the potential use of solar energy in Ireland began shortly after the oil crisis of 1973–74. Subsequently, various EEC programmes were joined, and national programmes established.In solar thermal energy, work has been ongoing involving collector testing, computer modelling, pilot test facilities, and performance monitoring. Individual projects have included ones connected with absorption cooling systems, ultra-high absorptivity spectral selective

I. J. Cowan

1985-01-01

130

Using Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how solar energy can be used to heat water. Learners first discuss energy usage in their daily lives and then divide into pairs to conduct an experiment in which they use the sun to heat water. As an optional extension, learners can follow this activity with a project to design their own alternative energy invention.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

131

Solar energy: perspective and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

With solar energy promising to supplement the nation's energy resources, its prospects are reviewed. The Federal government through NSF and subsequently through ERDA, has been supporting solar research. Also, the utility industry has been supporting research through EPRI. The program at EPRI is summarized briefly. Technology reviews and assessments of solar heating and cooling, solar electric power generation, wind energy

Bos

1976-01-01

132

Coal gasification using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another

V. K. Mathur; R. W. Breault; S. Lakshmanan

1983-01-01

133

Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

1980-01-01

134

Solar Energy Technical Training Directory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Available solar energy offerings in the technical training area are presented. Institutions are listed alphabetically by state. Each listing includes an institution address and phone number, solar programs or curricula offered, and detailed solar couse in...

G. Corcoleotes K. Kramer K. O'Connor

1979-01-01

135

Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)|

Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

1980-01-01

136

The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)|

Bockris, J. O'M.

1974-01-01

137

The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

Bockris, J. O'M.

1974-01-01

138

How hot is solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion), one of six solar energy technology options that constituted the original United States solar energy plan is described. OTEC uses the oceans; an intermediate media; as its direct source of energy. The real advantage of OTEC, which is not shared with the other forms of solar energy, is that it can operate 24 hours a

1977-01-01

139

Solar Energy Applications in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. Turkey lays in a sunny belt between 36° and 42° N latitudes and is geographically well situated with respect to solar energy potential. The objective of the present study is to investigate many aspects of solar energy applications in Turkey,

ARIF HEPBASLI; KORAY ULGEN; RUSTU EKE

2004-01-01

140

Solar energy and the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems for the conversion of solar energy to heat, electricity, and chemical energy are reviewed, and experimental programs involving solar energy are described. The relative advantages and disadvantages of solar and nuclear energy are discussed, with special emphasis on their complementary roles in meeting future energy needs. It is concluded that although nuclear power will supply the largest share of

M. Perrot; M. Touchais

1975-01-01

141

Multi-Power Port Gas Turbine Configurations for Solar Cogeneration Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy, unlike fossil fuel energy, is a constrained source of power. It is constrained by its diurnal and seasonal variations and by weather upsets. Solar energy, unlike fossil fuel energy, which is highly concentrated and highly commandable, cannot be directly commanded. The only means to control the solar power input to a gas turbine is the flow rate of

Dorel Damsker; Paul Curto

1982-01-01

142

Hydrogen Production from Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is potentially the most abundant renewable energy resource available to us and hydrogen production from solar\\u000a energy is considered to be the ultimate solution for sustainable energy. The various methods for utilizing solar energy for\\u000a hydrogen production are examined and both their advantages and disadvantages are compared. The technology of splitting water\\u000a using solar energy can be divided

Engin Ture; Sabri Ulker Sok

143

Solar Interior: Energy Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy generated deep in the SOLAR INTERIOR via the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium provides the 3.9×1026 J s-1 radiated by the surface of the Sun. Beginning in the 1920s the foundations of nuclear astrophysics were laid on the basis of (a) the recognition that the solar system was several billion years old (based on the decay of radioactive elements such as uranium), (b) the recognition t...

Parker, P.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

144

Energy from solar balloons  

SciTech Connect

Solar balloons are hot air balloons in which the air is heated directly by the sun, by means of a black absorber. The lift force of a tethered solar balloon can be used to produce energy by activating a generator during the ascending motion of the balloon. The hot air is then discharged when the balloon reaches a predefined maximum height. A preliminary study is presented, along with an efficiency estimation and some considerations on possible realistic configurations. (author)

Grena, Roberto [C. R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy)

2010-04-15

145

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is an improved solar energy collection device and method of making the device. A low shear strength solid, a thixotropic or approximately solid coagulum of black energy absorbing material is used to fill an open topped insulated tray, the top of which is glazed with one or more panels of light transmissive material. A heat transfer tube means is

McRae

1978-01-01

146

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect

If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces an equally rich future, with nanoscience enabling the discovery of the guiding principles of photonic energy conversion and their use in the development of cost-competitive new technologies.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S. (Materials Science Division); (California Inst. of Tech.)

2008-03-01

147

Solar energy absorber  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy absorber module is described comprising a molded substantially rigid top sheet of translucent plastic material and a molded substantially rigid bottom sheet of solar energy absorbing substantially opaque plastic material bonded together by circular bond indentations formed in each of the top sheet and the bottom sheet. The circular bond indentation on each sheet is spaced from each other a distance equal to the diameter of the circular bond thereby forming convex lens-like elliptical sites located between adjacent circular bond indentations for augmentation of solar energy, the circular bond indentations being formed in successive offset rows to define longitudinal tortuous sinusoidal channels in communication with a header at each end of the module for passage of working fluid therethrough.

Smith, W.F.

1988-08-16

148

Solar energy and storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution consists of two parts. The first one deals with the problem that substituting oil by solar energy implies also to find a long term storage for high quality energy. The conclusion of the rather general discussion is that solar high temperature chemistry, electrochemistry and photochemistry are probably the most important R&D fields to be emphasized in the future. In the second part mostly work done at EIR is presented. The topics sketched are remarks concerning underground heat storage, capacity determination for medium term (days to weeks) hot water storages, the energy density in latent heat storage and a few remarks to the problem of using the grid to store (or buffer) solar (photovoltaic) electricity.

Kesselring, P.

1982-11-01

149

Solar energy in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the state of solar energy research and application in Southern Africa. The history of energy and solar energy, the requirements at present and various predictions for the future are outlined. Wind, wave, wood, and similar solar energy resources are also briefly discussed.

B. G. A. Schaller

1978-01-01

150

Solar energy storage and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for storing and utilizing solar energy is disclosed which includes the use of solar energy collectors attached to heat pipes for changing solar flux into heat energy and transmitting the heat energy into the earth below the surface of the ground. An expanding array of pipes, formed of heat conductive material, distributes the heat throughout a large, unconstrained

Yuan

1979-01-01

151

Potential of solar energy for Texas. Project N\\/T-3, final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home heating and cooling via solar energy as well as integration of solar energy into electric and gas utilities are considered. Large-scale collection of solar energy via the solar tower or central receiver concept results in heat collection at a cost estimated to be equivalent to oil at $8\\/bbl. Introduction of solar energy technology could cause as much as $35

1974-01-01

152

Solar energy applications in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a seminar on the use of solar energy in tropical regions. Topics considered at the seminar included solar decision making, solar radiation measurement, solar air conditioning, solar refrigeration, solar collectors, solar water heaters, photovoltaics, solar architecture, solar heating systems, research programs, solar drying, and performance testing.

1983-01-01

153

Hydrogen production from solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the

M. M. Eisenstadt; K. E. Cox

1975-01-01

154

Consumer incentives for solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents several types of solar energy incentives for industrial energy consumers. First, past industrial solar energy costs are reviewed. The discussion then continues with a development of solar incentives. The incentives are formulated using Stackelberg game theory, with the government as a leader offering incentives to the consumer (followers). Finally, the paper concludes with a description of current

John K. Sharp

1981-01-01

155

Process heat from solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Solar Tower System, solar energy is reflected from a field of tracking mirrors or heliostats to a central receiver. Here the concentrated sunlight is absorbed and the energy used in a process, or it is converted to sensible heat and brought to the ground. Heliostat fields have been used to collect solar energy via optical transmission to a

Vant-Hull

1982-01-01

156

Solar Energy Equipment (Iran).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in Iran for solar energy equipment; to examine growth trends in Iranian end-user industries over the next few years; to identify specific product categories that ...

1977-01-01

157

Solar energy conversion unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy converter is provided in the form of a unit for assembly together with other similar units to build up a solarenergy conversion installation. Each unit includes a fixed support structure, a mounting element articulated on the support structure, and an optical concentrator carried by the mounting element. The optical concentrator consists of a plurality of coplanar, spherical

M. Palazzetti; C. Ponti; P. L. Tenci

1981-01-01

158

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector includes an absorber and connecting pipes which are to go to a utilization installation. A cover for the absorber is provided by a first shell, which is transparent and has a peripheral flange. The absorber is carried on a sheet of thermally insulating material which is positioned over a plate of phenol foam. The plate is

B. J. Busschaert; C. A. Ivorra; A. L. Schwob

1981-01-01

159

Solar Photovoltaic Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

1979-01-01

160

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector is made up of a plurality of flexible sheets separated by a plurality of extruded flexible spacer members adhered to the sheets in parallel spaced relationship forming channels between the spacer members. The bottom sheet or middle sheet is light absorbing while the top sheet or sheets are light transmitting and all of the sheets and

Hagarty

1977-01-01

161

Gas fixation solar cell using gas diffusion semiconductor electrode  

SciTech Connect

A gas diffusion semiconductor electrode and solar cell and a process for gaseous fixation, such as nitrogen photoreduction, CO/sub 2/ photoreduction and fuel gas photo-oxidation are described. The gas diffusion photosensitive electrode has a central electrolyte porous matrix with an activated semiconductor material on one side adapted to be in contact with an electrolyte and a hydrophobic gas diffusion region on the opposite side adapted to be in contact with a supply of molecular gas.

Ang, P.G.; Sammells, A.F.

1980-12-23

162

Advances in solar energy technology. Volume 3. Heating, agricultural and photovoltaic applications of solar energy  

SciTech Connect

This volume discusses the heating, agricultural and photovoltaic applications of solar energy, and contains the following chapters, solar cookers, solar desalination, solar food drying, solar-powered water pumps, solar greenhouses, solar cells.

Garg, H.P.

1987-01-01

163

Gas and solar. the end of the affair (cooperation between the two industries seems less likely)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy\\/natural gas alliance, in which gas would serve as a backup to solar hot water or space heating, may not be realized because of an apparent current excess supply of gas and the U.S. Department of Energy's goal of maximizing the use of gas to replace oil. Limited capital and high-priority commitments such as exploration for gas by

1979-01-01

164

Solar energy storage using phase change materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the climb in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind efforts to more effectively utilise various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. However, the large-scale utilisation of this form

Murat Kenisarin; Khamid Mahkamov

2007-01-01

165

Central solar energy receiver  

DOEpatents

An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

166

Central solar energy receiver  

SciTech Connect

An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver is disclosed for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedgeshaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

Dyost, M.K.

1983-07-26

167

Energy payback and CO{sub 2} gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences  

SciTech Connect

A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

Kulcinski, G.L.

2002-12-01

168

Solar/gas Brayton/Rankine cycle heat pump assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10-ton gas-fired heat pump is currently under development at AiResearch under joint DOE and GRI sponsorship. This heat pump features a highly efficient, recuperated, subatmospheric Brayton-cycle engine which drives the centrifugal compressor of a reversible vapor compression heat pump. The investigations under this program were concerned initially with the integration of this machine with a parabolic dish-type solar collector. Computer models were developed to accurately describe the performance of the heat pump packaged in this fashion. The study determined that (1) only a small portion (20 to 50 percent) of the available solar energy could be used because of a fundamental mismatch between the heating and cooling demand and the availability of solar energy, and (2) the simple pay back period, by comparison to the baseline non-solar gas-fired heat pump, was unacceptable (15 to 36 years).

Rousseau, J.; Liu, A. Y.

1982-05-01

169

An Introduction to Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is solar energy. Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly by the sun and collected elsewhere, nor- mally the Earth. The sun creates its energy through a thermonuclear process that

Eric W. Brown

170

CCMS solar energy pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Solar Energy Pilot Study of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the exchange of information on the solar heating and cooling systems programs and projects of each participating country so as to encourage the cost-effective and practical application of solar energy to heating and cooling

F. H. Morse; I. B. Rose

1976-01-01

171

CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Solar Energy Pilot Study of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the exchange of information on solar heating and cooling-systems programs and projects of each participating country so as to encourage the cost-effective and practical application of solar energy to heating and cooling in residential,

F. H. Morse; I. B. Rose

1976-01-01

172

Solar energy conversion through photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy sources of possible quantitative significance which are directly or indirectly of contemporary solar origin are considered, taking into account wind-powered electric generators, ocean thermal gradients, direct solar heating, variations of agriculture, photosynthetic hydrogen production, and photoelectric devices. The most practical schemes for capturing solar energy appear at this time to be directly heating and harnessing the wind. Silicon photovoltaic

R. K. Clayton

1977-01-01

173

New Mexico Solar Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Mexico Solar Energy Association provides valuable educational resources for teaching students about solar energy. The site has a variety of student projects, resources, and curricula examples. The resources provided on the site cover solar cell demonstrations, DC electricity, photovoltaics, and sustainability.

2008-03-25

174

Fundamentals of solar energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This textbook strives to strengthen a student's knowledge of the basic sciences as well as to provide a practical background in solar energy conversion. Particular consideration is given to solar geometry, the availability of solar energy, solar concentrators, elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer in solar systems, flat-plate collectors, and thermal storage of solar energy. The use of solar energy for specific types of loads is then discussed. The application of active solar systems to space and hot-water heating is considered, and a description is given of the empirical f-chart method for thermal-performance analysis. The economics of solar systems is examined along with the application of solar energy to cooling and dehumidification loads as well as the application of solar energy to industrial and other thermal loads. The concept of passive systems is explained, and the evaluation of thermal performance on the basis of the empirical load/collector ratio method is described. Appendixes are presented with such information as solar-position charts, tables of solar radiation and climatic data, and programs for hand-held calculators.

Anderson, E. E.

175

Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power  

ScienceCinema

From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

176

Environmental Aspects of Solar Energy Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technolog...

C. L. Strojan

1980-01-01

177

Decentalized Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic sys...

M. C. Krupka

1980-01-01

178

Solar energy application of natural zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of solar energy for cooling is usually achieved by means of sorption-refrigeration cycles. However, the conventional cycles using ammonia-water or lithium bromide-water solutions are inefficient because of the low solution temperatures obtainable with solar radiation and the high condenser temperatures required by air-cooled condensers. Zeolites provide a unique opportunity for a solid-gas adsorption cooling system because of their

D. I. Tchernev

1978-01-01

179

Solar energy grade cadmium sulfide  

SciTech Connect

A composition consisting essentially of discrete particles of cadmium sulfide that are relatively free of anionic, cationic and volatile impurities has an average particle size of from about 8 to about 25 micrometers and a bulk density of from about 1.7 to about 1.9 grams per cubic centimeter and has superior properties for use in solar energy applications. The composition is prepared by forming a finely-divided impure cadmium sulfide by chemical precipitation, heating the resulting precipitate to an intermediate temperature in a flow of an inert gas, heating the material at an elevated temperature in a flowing sulfide atmosphere selected from hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide and cooling the heated material in a sulfide atmosphere to about the intermediate temperature and cooling to ambient temperature in an inert gas.

Chiola, V.; Faria, S.

1981-03-03

180

Solar energy applications in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy deficit budget of Pakistan demands for an energy transition from limited fossil fuel reserves to abundant renewable energy sources. With a modest research and development programme for solar energy utilisation, PCSIR and DGNRER concentrated on both solar thermal and PV systems. The achievements as a result of research and development over the last decade has been discussed in

Iftikhar A. Raja; M. G. Dougar; R. S. Abro

1996-01-01

181

Gravitational energy, solar radius and solar cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-consistent approach is used. From the change (1.2 W/m2) in the solar constant (1367 W/m2) during a solar cycle we deduced a relation between the change in solar radius ?R and the depth d = (1-?)R in the convection zone where the expansion starts. A second relation is obtained by equating the gravitational energy required for the expansion and the decrease in luminosity during half a solar cycle. This yields values for ?R ? 8 km, d ? 0.96R (super-granular region) and for the change in gravitational energy ?E ? 1032J. Similar considerations are made for the Maunder Minimum yielding ?R ? 60 km, d ? 0.94R and ?E ? 1033J. There is some change, say 40 per cent, if we use a quadratic expansion instead of a linear one. Moreover this theory suits a qualitative explanation why the Sun expands during a minimum of the magnetic activity.

Callebaut, Dirk K.; Makarov, Valentine I.; Tlatov, Andrej G.

2002-03-01

182

Exergy analysis of solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is a clean, abundant and easily available renewable energy. Usage of solar energy in different kinds of systems provides scope for several studies on exergy analysis. In the present work, a comprehensive literature review has been carried out on exergy analysis of various solar energy systems. The systems considered under study are solar photovoltaic, solar heating devices, solar

R. Saidur; G. BoroumandJazi; S. Mekhlif; M. Jameel

183

Solar energy for health care institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is discussed in a booklet designed to help health care administrators prepare to use solar energy to achieve savings and stabilize rising energy costs. Solar energy is suggested because the sun is the most abundant and inexhaustible source of energy available. Equipment for the use of solar energy includes the solar collector which is used for hot water

Cummings

1976-01-01

184

Gas Research Institute experience in solar fuel research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1981-1989, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) conducted a fundamental research program aimed at low-cost conversion of inorganic materials to gaseous fuels, using solar energy. Although the program focussed on photochemical approaches, thermochemical pathways were also evaluated. General conclusions are presented in the following areas: photochemical fuel synthesis, thermochemical fuel synthesis, photochemical processes, thermal processes, and collector systems.

Krist, Kevin

185

Comparative Evaluation of Solar, Fission, Fusion, and Fossil Energy Resources. Part 1: Solar Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean ...

J. R. Williams

1974-01-01

186

Solar energy - Promises and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although solar energy systems cannot be justified economically as providers of 100% of a home's heating requirements, combinations of solar heating and conventional utilities for space and hot water heating are feasible. Studies by Mitre-ERDA and the Office of Technology Assessment indicate that in most parts of the U.S. solar heating is now competitive with electricity; in many areas, tax

R. B. Peterson

1977-01-01

187

Solar energy for the hospital?  

PubMed

You can't scrap your boiler and expect solar panels to provide steam for process and heating, but solar systems are cost-effective now for domestic hot water generation, according to a leading solar energy engineering/design/build firm. PMID:10249853

188

Solar energy systems for industrialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a presentation given to illustrate a need for solar energy, and to suggest a solution as well as its implementation. Current sources of global energy mainly consist of fossil fuels, which are finite in their supply as well as harmful to the environment. A viable solution is solar energy, which is relatively inexhaustible in supply and available with

Peter E. Glaser; Raymond S. Leonard

1994-01-01

189

Solar energy: the awakening science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book concerns answers to the questions: (1) is solar energy the key to the future of our energy needs; and (2) what are the facts and true potential of this enormous, still largely unexplored source of renewable power. It reviews the knowledge of solar energy from the mirrors that Archimedes used to set a Roman fleet aflame in 215

D. Behrman

1976-01-01

190

Fuels and chemicals made from solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of high temperature solar energy for the production of fuels and chemicals from various feed stocks is reviewed. The promises and problems of this technology are highlighted. The New Hampshire University two-stage Sun Gas process is described. The role of chemical engineers and the future of Sun Fuels and chemicals are discussed.

V. K. Mathur; F. K. Manasse; S. Lakshmanan

1981-01-01

191

Solar energy receiver  

DOEpatents

An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

Schwartz, Jacob (Arlington, MA)

1978-01-01

192

SERI solar energy storage program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage technologies are identified for specific solar thermal applications. The capabilities and limitations of direct-contact thermal storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport are examined. Storage of energy from active solar thermal systems for industrial process heat and the heating of buildings is analyzed and seasonal energy storage is covered. The coordination of numerous thermal energy storage research and development activities is described.

Baylin, F.; Copeland, R. J.; Kotch, A.; Kriz, T.; Luft, W.; Nix, R. G.; Wright, J. O.

1982-05-01

193

A Solar Energy Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In sixth grade, students understand that Earth gets visible light from the Sun, but studentsmay also believe the Earth gets heat from the Sun. This last part is incorrect because the Sun is too far from the Earth to heat it directly. So, how does the Sun heat the Earth? When light strikes an object, it can be reflected or absorbed. Absorbed light usually increases the energy in an object, which causes the object to heat up. The following solar energy learning cycle (Exploration, Term Introduction, and Concept Application) was developed to help sixth-grade students better understand the concept. This learning cycle also facilitates technology integration and provides students opportunities to construct and generate experiments with scientifically testable questions. The cycle takes six 50-minute periods.

Childs, Gregory

2007-03-01

194

Solar energy for village development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the result of a joint workshop between the US National Academy of Sciences and the Government of Tanzania in August 1977, conclusions were reached with regard to the potential for solar energy in Tanzanian villages. The costs of five energy technologies (photovoltaic power generators, small-scale hydropower, biogas generation, windmill generators and solar refrigeration) were compared with the costs of

N. L. Brown; J. W. Howe

1978-01-01

195

Overcoming solar energy commercialization problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Delphi survey was conducted to determine the demand for solar products, the parameters affecting demand, and the roles of business and government in the commercialization of solar energy products. Of the 660 individuals surveyed, 216 responded and 147 answered more indepth questions in a second survey. Publicity, energy costs, government support, and product quality were identified as the major

Decker; Cesta

1978-01-01

196

Passive solar energy in buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing commercial, institutional and domestic buildings so that they reap the benefits of freely available solar energy, is explored fully. People have been orientating buildings to make use of sunlight since they first began to live in permanent dwellings. New techniques are now available for employing passive solar energy in the home. On a bigger scale, these and other techniques

1988-01-01

197

Energy production from solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for obtaining solar energy in a useful form by utilizing solar ponds is described. The method comprises direct or indirect contact of hot liquid from the pond with a low boiling point immiscible working fluid for transfer of the heat energy from the liquid to the working fluid. The heated working fluid is separated from the liquid and

1977-01-01

198

SOLAR ENERGY FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to determine which existing or emerging pollution control processes are best suited to make use of solar energy input and to determine the potential benefits of such applications. Pollution control processes were matched with compatible solar energy systems,...

199

Solar Energy Project: Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of materials supports the teaching of solar energy concepts in the context of secondary school science. Included in this collection are a basic teacher's guide to activities involved in the curriculum; a discussion of multi-disciplinary extensions of solar energy education by subject area; a section on hardware needed for the…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

200

Biological solar energy.  

PubMed

Through the process of photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight has been harnessed, not only to create the biomass on our planet today, but also the fossil fuels. The overall efficiency of biomass formation, however, is low and despite being a valuable source of energy, it cannot replace fossil fuels on a global scale and provide the huge amount of power needed to sustain the technological aspirations of the world population now and in the future. However, at the heart of the photosynthetic process is the highly efficient chemical reaction of water splitting, leading to the production of hydrogen equivalents and molecular oxygen. This reaction takes place in an enzyme known as photosystem II, and the recent determination of its structure has given strong hints of how nature uses solar energy to generate hydrogen and oxygen from water. This new information provides a blue print for scientists to seriously consider constructing catalysts that mimic the natural system and thus stimulate new technologies to address the energy/CO2 problem that humankind must solve. After all, there is no shortage of water for this non-polluting reaction and the energy content of sunlight falling on our planet well exceeds our needs. PMID:17272238

Barber, James

2007-04-15

201

Solar radiation dependent degradation of solar energy related materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported of investigations to determine the basic underlying physical causes of optical and structural degradation in solar energy related materials under high temperatures, in reactive environments and under intense solar and solar simulated irradiation. Research on problems principally in the area of solar absorbing materials are studied with specific interest in electrodeposited solar selective black chrome coatings. Experimentally

Ignatiev

1983-01-01

202

New and emerging developments in solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy can potentially play a very important role in providing most of the heating, cooling and electricity needs of the world. With the emergence of solar photocatalytic detoxification technology, solar energy also has the potential to solve our environmental problems. However, we do not see widespread commercial use of solar energy. Some of the emerging developments in solar may

D. Y. Goswami; S. Vijayaraghavan; S. Lu; G. Tamm

2004-01-01

203

Solar energy conversion unit  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy converter is provided in the form of a unit for assembly together with other similar units to build up a solarenergy conversion installation. Each unit includes a fixed support structure, a mounting element articulated on the support structure, and an optical concentrator carried by the mounting element. The optical concentrator consists of a plurality of coplanar, spherical lenses the centers of which are located at the vertices of a polygon. The center of the polygon lies on a line extending perpendicularly to the plane of the lenses through the point of articulation of the mounting element on the support structure. Each unit further includes a plurality of converter modules located at the foci of respective ones of the spherical lenses and carried by respective connecting legs which extend from the mounting element. Each converter module includes a photovoltaic cell and means for transferring the heat dissipated in the photovoltaic cell to a liquid.

Palazzetti, M.; Ponti, C.; Tenci, P.L.

1981-07-28

204

Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics;…

LaHart, David E.

205

Solar energy collector panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar collector panel including a housing having a solar window therein and which contains a loop of tubing through which a fluid is pumped for heating of the fluid. A heat absorbing porous wicking membrane containing a vaporizable working liquid is positioned within the housing for collecting solar heat and transferring that heat to the fluid within the tubing.

Cutchaw

1975-01-01

206

High-temperature Solar Thermal Energy Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mislocation of solar energy production facilities and points of demand and the temporal mismatch of solar energy availability and energy demand make transport and storage of solar energy essential. Research at the Solar Energy Research Institute has focused on high-temperature, diurnal storage because of the frequency of use and the potential for conservation of premium fossil fuels. Also, high-temperature

Werner Luft

1985-01-01

207

Solar energy decision support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy plays a prominent role in human society. As a result of technological and industrial developments, the demand for energy is rapidly increasing. Existing power sources that are mainly fossil fuel based are leaving an unacceptable legacy of waste and pollution apart from diminishing stock of fuels. Hence, the focus is now shifted to large-scale propagation of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Solar energy is one such renewable energy. Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Estimation of solar energy potential of a region requires detailed solar radiation climatology, and it is necessary to collect extensive radiation data of high accuracy covering all climatic zones of the region. In this regard, a decision support system (DSS) would help to estimate solar energy potential considering the regions’ energy requirement. This article explains the design and implementation of DSS for assessment of solar energy. The DSS with executive information systems and reporting tools helps to tap vast data resources and deliver information. The main hypothesis is that this tool can be used to form a core of practical methodology that is resilient and can be used by decision-making bodies to assess various scenarios. It also offers means of entering, accessing and interpreting the information for the purpose of sound decision-making.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Rajeev Kumar, J.; Vamsee Krishna, S.; Shruthi, B. V.

2006-03-01

208

Solar energy decision support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy plays a prominent role in human society. As a result of technological and industrial development, the demand for energy is rapidly increasing. Existing power sources that are mainly fossil fuel based are leaving an unacceptable legacy of waste and pollution apart from diminishing stock of fuels. Hence, the focus is now shifted to large-scale propagation of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Solar energy is one such renewable energy. Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Estimation of solar energy potential of a region requires detailed solar radiation climatology, and it is necessary to collect extensive radiation data of high accuracy covering all climatic zones of the region. In this regard, a decision support system (DSS) would help in estimating solar energy potential considering the region's energy requirement. This article explains the design and implementation of DSS for assessment of solar energy. The DSS with executive information systems and reporting tools helps to tap vast data resources and deliver information. The main hypothesis is that this tool can be used to form a core of practical methodology that will result in more resilient in time and can be used by decision-making bodies to assess various scenarios. It also offers means of entering, accessing, and interpreting the information for the purpose of sound decision making.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Vamsee Krishna, S.; Shruthi, B. V.

2005-12-01

209

The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)|

Whipple, Chris

1980-01-01

210

High flux solar energy transformation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O' Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

1991-04-09

211

Reflectors for solar energy collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosure illustrates an improved reflector for a solar energy collector. The reflector is made up of a thin, vacuum formed, elongated, trough like sheet having a reflective parabolic surface for reflecting and focusing solar radiation. A structural sheet conforms to and supports the thin sheet. The structural sheet has a series of integrally formed depressions extending away from the

Uroshevich

1981-01-01

212

The Geography of Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After learning about two promising techniques for generating electricity--photovoltaic cells and wind energy conversion systems--secondary students analyze two maps of the United States showing solar radiation and available wind power to determine which U.S. regions have potential for these solar electric systems. (RM)|

LaHart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

1984-01-01

213

Solar energy collection system  

SciTech Connect

A pyramid-shaped solar collector is provided which is capable of operation in conjunction with heat transfer media such as air, water and oil. A pre-heater assembly is provided for use in conjunction with the solar collector to develop improved thermal output capabilities. Series of mirrors are provided for use in conjunction with the solar collector and pre-heater to provide further improvements, a first series of mirrors primarily serving to amplify the quantity of incident solar radiation delivered to the solar collector and pre-heater, and a second series of mirrors primarily serving to compensate for movement of the sun with respect to the solar collector and pre-heater throughout the day.

Leininger, R. W.; Decker, R. G.

1985-09-17

214

SolarEnergy: A framework for solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foundation of the modern life is based on energy generation. As metropolitan regions have become over time more populous, private and public companies have started to research renewable energy sources. In order to follow such demand new computer techniques have had to be developed. This paper presents a framework, SolarEnergy, which aims to assist the developer in the project

G. Guidoni; M. Song; S. Yoshioka; I. Reis; F. Papatella; L. Zarate; E. Pereira

2008-01-01

215

Solar Energy: true computations and deceiving hopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the point of economic competitiveness of solar technologies in France is given. Payback period criterion and Cost-Benefit Analysis are discussed for the case of the solar hotwater heater and the solar heatina of houses and flats. Macroeconomic obstacles to the penetration of solar energy are considered along with financial efforts in favour of solar energy and the

Jacques Percebois

1982-01-01

216

Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems

A. S. Hirshberg; E. S. Davis

1977-01-01

217

Greenhouse gas emissions reduction by use of wind and solar energies for hydrogen and electricity production: Economic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses economic aspects of introducing renewable technologies in place of fossil fuel ones to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike for traditional fossil fuel technologies, greenhouse gas emissions from renewable technologies are associated mainly with plant construction and the magnitudes are significantly lower. The prospects are shown to be good for producing the environmentally clean fuel hydrogen via water

Mikhail Granovskii; Ibrahim Dincer; Marc A. Rosen

2007-01-01

218

Economics of solar energy: the public-utility interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more critical analysis of the economic feasibility of solar energy is called for than the government's incentive program to reduce oil and gas consumption. The interface between solar space conditioning and waterheating and the electric utilities is examined to identify the potential tradeoffs; to define the interface between building design and utility economics; and to determine the true benefits

S. L. Feldman; R. M. Wirtshafter

1980-01-01

219

Australia speeds up solar energy research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term projects are concentrared on improving the efficiency and ; reducing the cost of existing types of solar water heaters and solar water-; desalination plants. Larger-term projects include fundamental studies on thermal ; transfer problems energy measurement, heat storage media, and solar-energy ; collectors. An investigation of the distribution of solar energy over the ; continent is being carried out

Scholes

1973-01-01

220

Residential solar energy use in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential use of solar energy has meant installation of various types of solar systems for home and water heating and, to a lesser degree, for electrical power and cooling. This study represents an analysis of solar energy as an innovation and the perception of that innovation by recent system adopters. Specific objectives include an analysis of the solar energy adoption

H. C. Jr

1987-01-01

221

Think GREEN - Utilizing Renewable Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar energy is radiant energy that is produced by the Sun. Every day the Sun radiates an enormous amount of energy. How much solar energy a place on Earth receives depends on several conditions. In this lesson, students will explore real NASA satellite data for energy from the Sun and cloud cover for their area to determine if they can harness this solar energy, a renewable energy source, by using a solar collector. They will develop skills in graphing and reading graphs.

222

Chemistry of personalized solar energy.  

PubMed

Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet's energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both legacy and nonlegacy worlds and minimally contributes to an increase in the anthropogenic level of carbon dioxide. Because PE will be possible only if solar energy is available 24 h a day, 7 days a week, the key enabler for solar PE is an inexpensive storage mechanism. HY (Y = halide or OH(-)) splitting is a fuel-forming reaction of sufficient energy density for large-scale solar storage, but the reaction relies on chemical transformations that are not understood at the most basic science level. Critical among these are multielectron transfers that are proton-coupled and involve the activation of bonds in energy-poor substrates. The chemistry of these three italicized areas is developed, and from this platform, discovery paths leading to new hydrohalic acid- and water-splitting catalysts are delineated. The latter water-splitting catalyst captures many of the functional elements of photosynthesis. In doing so, a highly manufacturable and inexpensive method for solar PE storage has been discovered. PMID:19775081

Nocera, Daniel G

2009-11-01

223

Solar Energy Technology Programs: Photovoltaic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main page for the U.S. Department of Energy website on photovoltaics. "The U.S. Department of Energy works to provide clean, reliable, affordable solar electricity for the nation through its research programs in photovoltaic (PV) energy systems. The following pages explain the "how's" and "why's" of PV. Whether you are a student, consumer, engineer, or researcher, there is something here for you. The website includes the following pages: -How PV works -Why PV is important -How and why PV is used -How DOE is supporting research of solar energy -How you, the consumer, can use PV and other solar energy technologies -How students, educators, and trainers can learn more about PV.

2012-01-02

224

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar thermal systems providing medium- and high-temperature heat have a wide range of applications such as agricultural and industrial process heat, electric power generation, cogeneration, repowering of existing power plants, and production of fuels and...

1986-01-01

225

Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis,…

Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

226

Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis, the…

Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

227

Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)|

Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

1978-01-01

228

Environmental Impacts from the Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable, and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. Solar energy systems (i.e., photovoltaics, solar thermal) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources. It is known that these systems have some minor negative impacts on the environment during their production and operation. This study presents

H. Gunerhan; A. Hepbasli; U. Giresunlu

2008-01-01

229

Solar energy program. Annual report, 1978  

SciTech Connect

this annual report describes the work done at Argonne National Laboratory on the Solar Energy Program during FY 1978 (July 1, 1977 to June 30, 1978). Areas included in this report are solar energy collection, heating and cooling, thermal energy storage, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, satellite power systems, bioconversion, central receiver solar thermal power, and wind energy conversion.

None

1979-02-01

230

Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise…

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

231

High intensity solar energy converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic energy converter is described for converting incident radiant energy, such as solar energy, to electrical energy. The converter comprises a cell formed from integrally interconnected p-n junction-containing semiconductor wafers. The wafers are stacked end-to-end so that the respective junctions in each wafer are parallel to each other. The efficiency and performance of the cell is improved, upon exposure

R. E. House; R. A. Irvin; D. F. Kane

1978-01-01

232

Organic Solar Energy and Berries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how a device made with dye from a plant, specifically cherries, blackberries, raspberries and/or black currents, can be used to convert light energy into electrical energy. They do this by building their own organic solar cells and measuring the photovoltaic devices' performance based on power output.

University Of Houston

233

The economy of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is often regarded as environmentally-friendly, but, at the same time as not economical. A global economical view shows, however, that renewable energies can bring about substantial economic and social benefits today, even before their wide market introduction has begun. They are a basic economic innovation for durably overcoming the ever increasing risk innate in the current economic development:

Scheer

1994-01-01

234

Photochemical conversion of solar energy.  

PubMed

Energy is the most important issue of the 21st century. About 85% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, a finite resource unevenly distributed beneath the Earth's surface. Reserves of fossil fuels are progressively decreasing, and their continued use produces harmful effects such as pollution that threatens human health and greenhouse gases associated with global warming. Prompt global action to solve the energy crisis is therefore needed. To pursue such an action, we are urged to save energy and to use energy in more efficient ways, but we are also forced to find alternative energy sources, the most convenient of which is solar energy for several reasons. The sun continuously provides the Earth with a huge amount of energy, fairly distributed all over the world. Its enormous potential as a clean, abundant, and economical energy source, however, cannot be exploited unless it is converted into useful forms of energy. This Review starts with a brief description of the mechanism at the basis of the natural photosynthesis and, then, reports the results obtained so far in the field of photochemical conversion of solar energy. The "grand challenge" for chemists is to find a convenient means for artificial conversion of solar energy into fuels. If chemists succeed to create an artificial photosynthetic process, "... life and civilization will continue as long as the sun shines!", as the Italian scientist Giacomo Ciamician forecast almost one hundred years ago. PMID:18605661

Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

2008-01-01

235

Hydrogen Without Tears: Addressing the Global Energy Crisis via a Solar to Hydrogen Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the dominant scaleable vision is a solar-hydrogen economy, where solar thermal collectors are preferred to solar cells. Also for mobile storage, pure hydrogen (liquid and\\/or gas) is preferred to both electric batteries and hydrogen fuel cells. Placing this form of a solar hydrogen economy as an end vision on our energy policy. Governments profits, as they can

Derek Abbott

2009-01-01

236

Solar energy in Israel: Utilization and research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State of Israel has been a pioneer in solar energy development and utilization since it was founded. In the 50's, solar domestic hot water heaters (DHWS) became commercially available. At the same time, research work was started in different areas of solar energy, which led to more advanced solar systems for additional applications. The presentation includes some details on commercial utilization of solar energy and a brief description of the main R&D projects in industry, universities and research institutes.

Zvirin, Y.; Zamkow, Sophie

1991-05-01

237

Solar powered gas generation. [combined solar thermal power plant for electrolysis of seawater and solar still  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to the utilization of solar energy by means of a reflector, a boiler and a turbogenerator whereby solar heat is concentrated and electric power is produced, utilization of the exhaust heat from the power cycle in the distillation of sea water, and utilization of the electric power in a plurality of electrolytic cells whereby hydrogen and oxygen

1978-01-01

238

Solar energy education. Renewable energy: A background text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the Sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the Sun's composition and the relationship between the Earth, Sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy.

239

Solar energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains over 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Experimental analysis of a rotary silica gel dehumidifier: Adiabatic air dehumidification in laminar flow desiccant materices; A simplified design tool for composite Trombe-Michel wall solar collectors; and Wind tunnel tests on scale models of parabolic trough concentrators.

L. M. Murphy; H. M. Guven; P. Lowrey

1987-01-01

240

Process heat from solar energy  

SciTech Connect

In the Solar Tower System, solar energy is reflected from a field of tracking mirrors or heliostats to a central receiver. Here the concentrated sunlight is absorbed and the energy used in a process, or it is converted to sensible heat and brought to the ground. Heliostat fields have been used to collect solar energy via optical transmission to a central receiver for many years. Systems covering the thermal range from 25 kW to 35 MW have been built and operated, and systems as large as 1600 MW have been designed and costs have been estimated. With appropriate designs the capital cost of the system is only a weak function of the power level, and design operating temperatures from ambient to 800 K are readily achieved. With care in design and some additional cost, the temperature range can be extended to well over 2000 K. 3 figures.

Vant-Hull, L.

1982-06-01

241

Solar energy: Markets, economics and policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much

Govinda R. Timilsina; Lado Kurdgelashvili; Patrick A. Narbel

242

Solar Energy for Health Care Institutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar energy is discussed in a booklet designed to help health care administrators prepare to use solar energy to achieve savings and stabilize rising energy costs. Solar energy is suggested because the sun is the most abundant and inexhaustible source of...

R. D. Cummings

1976-01-01

243

Solar-wind energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined solar-wind energy conversion system in which the combined effects of solar and wind energy are utilized in raising water from a lower to an upper water storage tank to increase its potential energy for generation of electricity. Incoming solar energy heats water to form steam which is temporarily stored. The stored steam is vented to one of first

1984-01-01

244

Solar-wind energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined solar-wind energy conversion system in which the combined effects of solar and wind energy are utilized in raising water from a lower to an upper water storage tank to increase its potential energy for generation of electricity. Incoming solar energy heats water to form steam which is temporarily stored. The stored steam is vented to one of first

1982-01-01

245

Solar Energy Update: a current awareness journal  

SciTech Connect

Solar Energy Update (SEU) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs from all sources on solar energy. All information announced in SEU, plus additional backup information, is included in the energy information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center. The subject matter covered by SEU includes solar thermal, photovoltaic, and biomass conversion, ocean thermal gradient utilization, solar heating and cooling, and wind and wave energy conversion.

Smith, L.B. (ed.)

1983-01-01

246

SOLARES - A new hope for solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system of orbiting reflectors, SOLARES, has been studied as a possible means of reducing the diurnal variation and enhancing the average intensity of sunlight with a space system of minimum mass and complexity. The key impact that such a system makes on the economic viability of solar farming and other solar applications is demonstrated. The system is compatible with

K. W. Billman; W. P. Gilbreath; S. W. Bowen

1978-01-01

247

PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report addresses the environmental consequences of three kinds of solar energy utilization: photovoltaic, concentrator (steam electric) and flat plate. The application of solar energy toward central power generating stations is emphasized. Discussions of combined modes and o...

248

Solar-assisted low energy dwellings  

SciTech Connect

The Zero Energy House Group was formed as a subproject of the CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study in 1974 by seven participating countries experimenting with solar-assisted low-energy dwellings for temperate and northern European climatic conditions. A Zero Energy House is one in which solar energy is used to meet the reduced energy needs of buildings incorporating various thermal energy conservation features. This final report of the Zero Energy House Group includes brief descriptions of 13 major low-energy dwellings in the participating CCMS countries. An overall assessment of the state-of-the-art in solar-assisted low-energy dwellings is also included.

Esbensen, T V

1980-02-01

249

SERI (Solar Energy Research Institute) solar radiation resource assessment project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth receives vast amounts of energy from the sun in the form of incident solar radiation. Solar radiation drives the earth's weather and sustains life. As a result of the increasing costs, uncertain availability, and potentially severe environmental impacts of other sources of energy, insolation is being considered as a clean renewable energy source for our needs for heating,

R. L. Hulstrom; E. Maxwell; C. Riordan; M. Rymes; T. Stoffel

1989-01-01

250

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is

Purnomo Sidi Priambodo; Feri Yusivar; Aries Subiantoro; Ridwan Gunawan

2009-01-01

251

Universal solar energy desalination system  

SciTech Connect

The design which has been developed for a solar-powered water desalination plant is a highly flexible one; and thus, suitable for worldwide application. The system is modular in nature, utilizing a combination of solar thermal and wind energy to operate the reverse osmosis desalination unit. The system's flexibility lies in the fact that the configuration of the plant can be altered so that it is suitable for any given site. Plant capacity and the size of the solar thermal and wind energy systems are dependent upon a variety of site-specific characteristics. Furthermore, the design of each of the subsystems is also highly interdependent. Examination of the site characteristics and their interactions will allow a design which is optimal for the site.

Fusco, V.S.

1982-08-01

252

Solar wind neon from Genesis: implications for the lunar noble gas record.  

PubMed

Lunar soils have been thought to contain two solar noble gas components with distinct isotopic composition. One has been identified as implanted solar wind, the other as higher-energy solar particles. The latter was puzzling because its relative amounts were much too large compared with present-day fluxes, suggesting periodic, very high solar activity in the past. Here we show that the depth-dependent isotopic composition of neon in a metallic glass exposed on NASA's Genesis mission agrees with the expected depth profile for solar wind neon with uniform isotopic composition. Our results strongly indicate that no extra high-energy component is required and that the solar neon isotope composition of lunar samples can be explained as implantation-fractionated solar wind. PMID:17110575

Grimberg, Ansgar; Baur, Heinrich; Bochsler, Peter; Bühler, Fritz; Burnett, Donald S; Hays, Charles C; Heber, Veronika S; Jurewicz, Amy J G; Wieler, Rainer

2006-11-17

253

Food dehydration by solar energy.  

PubMed

Solar driers that are currently being investigated for drying of agricultural products can be divided into two major divisions, depending upon how they transfer the incident solar energy to the product to be dried. These two divisions are direct and indirect drying, with some work also being done on combination drying procedures. In direct solar driers, the product to be dried is usually either inside a tent, greenhouse, or a glass-topped box, where the product to be dried is heated by the direct rays from the sun and the moist air is removed by ambient wind movement. These dryers do accelerate moisture loss rate and the product is usually safe from inclement weather. These dryers usually do not require fans for forced air circulation. With indirect drying, the opposite is true, where most require powered fans for forced air circulation. With this type of dryer, both flatplate and inflated tube solar heat absorbers are used, with each offering certain advantages. Also, combination dryers have been built that utilize both direct and indirect principles. Product evaluation of solar dried foods indicate that in most cases the physical properties, flavor, and vitamin A and C retention were as good as, or better than, conventional dried foods. The economics of the solar systems indicate that most drying procedures are economically feasible for use in small-scale operations only, with the exception of grain drying. PMID:7047079

Bolin, H R; Salunkhe, D K

1982-01-01

254

GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSIS OF SOLAR-THERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-thermal electricity generation contributes to climate change because it incurs the emission of greenhouse gases during the provision of services and the production of materials needed for the construction and operation of solar power plants. These greenhouse gas costs (GGC) can be determined using either material inventories in physical units or monetary cost breakdowns. Solar-only plants employing parabolic troughs, central

M. LENZEN

1999-01-01

255

Thermodynamic analysis of solar energy use for reforming fuels to hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method is proposed for reforming fuels to hydrogen using solar energy at distributed locations (industrial sites, residential and commercial buildings fed with natural gas, remote settlements supplied by propane etc). In order to harness solar energy a solar concentrator is used to generate high temperature heat to reform fuels to hydrogen. A typical fuel such as

W. R. Wagar; C. Zamfirescu; I. Dincer

2011-01-01

256

Solar total-energy community project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a solar total-energy community entails collecting solar ; energy at a central area, converting part of it to electricity, and distributing ; the rest of it to homes and\\/or businesses for space heating or cooling. The ; Sandia Laboratories' concept for such uses of solar energy, its departure from ; other solarenergy approaches, and the development program

Brandvold

1974-01-01

257

Solar Energy in the Home. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended for grades 10-12 physical, earth, or general science classes, this 5-7 day unit is designed to give students a general understanding of solar energy and its use as a viable alternative to present energy sources. Along with this technology, students examine several factors of solar energy which influence the choice of solar home site…

Roeder, Allen A.; Woodland, James A.

258

Solar Energy. A Bibliography: Citations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Citations of 9732 references to scientific and technical literature on the use of solar energy are included in TID-3351-R1P1. Arranged chronologically within subject category, the citations begin as far back as useful references could be obtained and cont...

1976-01-01

259

Panel for solar energy cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panel for mounting solar energy cells, and particularly those cells upon which light is to be concentrated, includes an enclosure for holding the cells and has at least one wall formed from a good conductor of heat. The cells are mounted within the enclosure on a resinous cushion that is a relatively good conductor of heat and a poor

Varadi

1977-01-01

260

Unveiling Extensive Clouds of Dark Gas in the Solar Neighborhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the comparison of interstellar gas tracers in the solar neighborhood (HI and CO lines from the atomic and molecular gas, dust thermal emission, and gamma rays from cosmic-ray interactions with gas), we unveil vast clouds of cold dust and dark gas, invisible in HI and CO but detected in gamma rays. They surround all the nearby CO clouds and

Isabelle A. Grenier; Jean-Marc Casandjian; Régis Terrier

2005-01-01

261

Solar Energy: Potential Powerhouse for Jobs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Components of solar energy systems are described, the development of the solar industry discussed, and implications are drawn for employment opportunities in industries (which may expand into new, solar-related areas) and in the professions, from law to sales, upon the advent of solar heating. (AJ)

McCallion, Tom

1976-01-01

262

Optical interfaces in solar energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential approaches for utilizing solar energy are examined. It is concluded that it would be difficult to obtain consumer acceptance for systems providing solar heating and cooling for homes. However, solar electrical power via community or central power stations meets the requirement of minimum perturbation of the current socio-economic system. It is thought that economically feasible solar power systems could

A. B. Meinel

1975-01-01

263

Building Integration Of Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way solar systems are used in buildings is different from what it used to be. Buildings are no longer designed to use just passive solar energy systems, such as windows and sunspaces, or active solar systems, such as solar water collectors. In fact, the words passive and active no longer make sense, as the newer buildings combine several of

Anne Grete Hestnes

1999-01-01

264

Solar energy and the oil refining industry  

SciTech Connect

This paper surveys process heat requirements of the major petroleum refinery processes. Previous studies have overestimated requirements for process heat at high temperatures. About 22% of the process heat in a refinery is consumed below 550/sup 0/F; 62.5% is consumed between 550/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/F. A refinery gets about 40% of its total energy supply, and 50% of its process heat, from natural gas and fuel oil. Technological constraints limit the use of alternatives such as coal or solar energy to processes operating below 700/sup 0/F (about 25% of process heat requirements). Curtailments of natural gas supplies and advances in bottom of the barrel oil processing technology will produce strong incentives to develop alternatives to the burning of liquid fuels for low-temperature processes. Energy from coal or solar radiation is most appropriately generated at a central facility to heat a heat transfer fluid, which is then heat exchanged with the process medium. The same process could also produce steam. The cost of installing coal-burning equipment can be up to eight times the cost of the equivalent gas or oil-burning facility. The major obstacle ot the use of coal is environmental. An analysis of a central-receiver solar system, without storage, and sized to deliver a maximum of 25% of process heat needs, indicates that 4.1% of refinery fuel needs could be displaced. For the entire industry, this is equivalent to 57,000 BPD of fuel oil. If long-term cost goals are achieved, capital expenditures to realize these savings would amount to $6.5 billion.

May, E.K.

1980-03-01

265

Upper limit for the conversion of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semiconductor in the solar radiation field acts as a thermal electronic engine. It converts absorbed radiation heat into chemical energy of the excited electron-hole gas. In flow equilibrium, a homogeneous semiconductor gives off this chemical energy by radiative recombination to the surroundings. If provision is made, as by a p-n junction, to divert the excited electrons and holes, before

W. Ruppel; P. Wuerfel

1980-01-01

266

Burning Buried Sunshine: Human Consumption of Ancient Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuels developed from ancient deposits of organic material, and thus can be thought of as a vast store of solar energy from which society meets >80% of its current energy needs. Here, using published biological, geochemical, and industrial data, I estimate the amount of photosynthetically fixed and stored carbon that was required to form the coal, oil, and gas

Jeffrey S. Dukes

2003-01-01

267

Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)|

Glaser, Peter E.

1972-01-01

268

Solar energy for village development.  

PubMed

The National Academy of Sciences held a joint workshop with the Government of Tanzania last August on the potential of solar energy for the villages of that country. Costs of five solar technologies (mini-hydroelectric generators, wind, methane generation from organic wastes, photovoltaic cells, and flat-plate solar collectors) were compared with costs of diesel-generated electricity and with electricity from the national grid. Each of the five technologies is either now competitive with diesel or will be in a few years. Although the figures presented are not conclusive since they are derived from calculations rather than an actual test, the results are encouraging enough to warrant serious testing in Third World villages. PMID:17788101

Brown, N L; Howe, J W

1978-02-10

269

Universal solar energy desalination system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

Fusco, V. S.

270

Central solar-energy receiver  

DOEpatents

An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

Not Available

1981-10-27

271

Conversion of concentrated solar thermal energy into chemical energy.  

PubMed

When a concentrated solar beam is irradiated to the ceramics such as Ni-ferrite, the high-energy flux in the range of 1500-2500 kW/m(2) is absorbed by an excess Frenkel defect formation. This non-equilibrium state defect is generated not by heating at a low heating-rate (30 K/min), but by irradiating high flux energy of concentrated solar beam rapidly at a high heating rate (200 K/min). The defect can be spontaneously converted to chemical energy of a cation-excess spinel structure (reduced-oxide form) at the temperature around 1773 K. Thus, the O(2) releasing reaction (?-O(2) releasing reaction) proceeds in two-steps; (1) high flux energy of concentrated solar beam absorption by formation of the non-equilibrium Frenkel defect and (2) the O(2) gas formation from the O(2-) in the Frenkel defect even in air atmosphere. The 2nd step proceeds without the solar radiation. We may say that the 1st step is light reaction, and 2nd step, dark reaction, just like in photosynthesis process. PMID:22434435

Tamaura, Yutaka

2012-01-01

272

Solar Energy. Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

273

Solar Energy Education Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated bibliography lists publications and audiovisual materials devoted to renewable energy sources: sun, wind, water and biomass. A few general texts are included that present concepts fundamental to all energy sources. Materials were selected to be adaptable to classroom, workshops, and training sessions. Also, many do-it-yourself…

Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

274

History of solar energy applications - Solar energy yesterday, today and tomorrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is safe to assume that solar energy will become increasingly important as the alternative sources of energy approach their inevitable exhaustion. In the present paper, the history of solar energy research and application is reviewed, starting with the lens-type solar furnaces developed by Lavoisier, two hundred years ago, in France, via the silicon solar cell invented in the early

J. I. Yellott

1978-01-01

275

Luminescent solar concentrators and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells for solar energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing energy demand and the parallel increase of greenhouse gas emissions are challenging researchers to find new and cleaner energy sources. Solar energy harvesting is arguably the most promising candidate for replacing fossil-fuel power generation. Photovoltaics are the most direct way of collecting solar energy; cost continues to hinder large-scale implementation of photovoltaics, however. Therefore, alternative technologies that will allow the extraction of solar power, while maintaining the overall costs of fabrication, installation, collection, and distribution low, must be explored. This thesis focuses on the fabrication and testing of two types of devices that step up to this challenge: the luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells. In these devices I make use of novel materials, semiconducting polymers and inorganic nanoparticles, both of which have lower costs than the crystalline materials used in the fabrication of traditional photovoltaics. Furthermore, the cost of manufacturing LSCs and the nanoparticle solar cells is lower than the manufacturing cost of traditional optics-based concentrators and crystalline solar cells. An LSC is essentially a slab of luminescent material that acts as a planar light pipe. The LSC absorbs incoming photons and channels fluoresced photons toward appropriately located solar cells, which perform the photovoltaic conversion. By covering large areas with relatively inexpensive fluorescing organic dyes or semiconducting polymers, the area of solar cell needed is greatly reduced. Because semiconducting polymers and quantum dots may have small absorption/emission band overlaps, tunable absorption, and longer lifetimes, they are good candidates for LSC fabrication, promising improvement with respect to laser dyes traditionally used to fabricate LSCs. Here the efficiency of LSCs consisting of liquid solutions of semiconducting polymers encased in glass was measured and compared to the efficiency of LSCs based on small molecule laser dyes and on quantum dots. Factors affecting the optical efficiency of the system such as the luminescing properties of the fluorophors were examined. The experimental results were compared to Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results suggest that commercially available quantum dots cannot serve as viable LSC dyes because of large absorption/emission band overlap and relatively low quantum yield. Materials such as Red F demonstrate that semi-conducting polymers with high quantum yield and small absorption/emission band overlap are good candidates for LSCs. Recently, a solar cell system based purely on CdSe and Cite nanoparticles as the absorbing materials was proposed ans it was suggested that its operational mechanism was that of polymer donor/acceptor systems. Here we present solar cells consisting of a sintered active bilayer of CdSe and PbSe nanoparticles in the structure ITO/CdSe/interlayer/PbSe/Al, where an interlayer of LiF or Al2O3 was found necessary to prevent low shunt resistance from suppressing the photovoltaic behavior. We fabricated unoptimized solar cells with a short-circuit current of 6 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.18 V, and a fill factor of 41%. External quantum efficiency spectra revealed that photons from the infrared portion of the spectrum were not collected, suggesting that the low bandgap PbSe film did not contribute to the photocurrent of the structure despite exhibiting photoconductivity. Other measurements, however, showed that the PbSe film was indeed necessary to produce a photovoltage and transport electrons. Through sintering, the nanoparticle films acquired bandgaps similar to those of the corresponding bulk materials and became more conductive. Because the PbSe films were found to be considerably more conductive than the CdSe ones, we suggest that the PbSe layer is effectively behaving like a low conductivity electrical contact. Therefore, in contrast to the photovoltaics presented in the seminal research on CdSe/Cite solar cells, the CdSe/PbSe solar cell system presented here d

Sholin, Veronica

276

Maximum collectible solar energy by different solar tracking systems  

SciTech Connect

The output energy from any solar energy system depends on the solar energy input to that system. Using different ways to track the solar energy system to follow the sun can increase solar energy input according to the type of the tracker. A practical study was carried out on difference solar tract systems. The layout of these systems are a fixed system facing south and tilted 40{degree}, a vertical-axis tracker, a 6{degree} tilted-axis tracker, and a two-axis tracker. All the trackers are microprocessor controlled systems, and all systems have photovoltaic arrays for electric energy production. The evaluation of the different systems is based on a complete year of measurements for solar radiation input to the systems and the electric power output from them. The study also includes the effect of some operating parameters on the tracker operation. These studies showed that the collected solar energy as well as the electrical output energy of the tracking solar system are more than that of the stationary system. These gains are higher in the case of the two-axis tracker and decrease gradually from the vertical-axis tracker to the tilted-axis tracker.

Helwa, N.H.; Bahgat, A.B.G.; El Shafee, A.M.R.; El Shenawy, E.T.

2000-01-01

277

Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

2011-08-01

278

Locating solar and wind energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power hold out the promise of providing energy that does not produce greenhouse gases. One obstacle to realizing production of energy from the Sun and from wind, however, has been determining where these energy sources can best be tapped.A new project called the Solar and Wind Energy Survey Assessment (SWERA) plans to

Randy Showstack

2002-01-01

279

Solar energy thermal technology  

SciTech Connect

While it is debatable whether the United States has a coherent energy policy, there is a clear and compelling consensus on two germane matters. First, the nation continues its high reliance on petroleum (including imported varieties) to meet its energy demand. Second, there is a tremendous interest in all aspects of renewable energy resources during crises that are perceived in terms that indicate a threat to the uninterrupted supply of imported petroleum (such as the 1980-88 Iran-Iraw war and Operation Desert Storm in 1990). Once the crises abates, interest in renewable resources and their utilization wanes and subsequently evaporates.

Norton, B.

1991-12-31

280

Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers.To

Theocharis Tsoutsos; Niki Frantzeskaki; Vassilis Gekas

2005-01-01

281

A review of solar energy modeling techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation data provide information on how much of the sun's energy strikes a surface at a location on the earth during a particular time period. These data are needed for effective research in solar-energy utilization. Due to the cost of and difficulty in solar radiation measurements and these data are not readily available, alternative ways of generating these data

Tamer Khatib; Azah Mohamed; K. Sopian

2012-01-01

282

Considerations regarding a utilization of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic data regarding solar energy are considered, giving attention to solar radiation intensity at the boundary of the terrestrial atmosphere and at the surface of the earth. Questions of spectral distribution are examined along with aspects of radiation absorption, the latitude dependence of radiation, and temporal variations in radiation intensity. Systems for the utilization of solar energy are discussed,

S. M. Scala; K. Sittel

1974-01-01

283

Glasses for solar energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar technologies are projected to increase tremendously over the next 10 years. Glasses are playing an important role as transparent materials of photovoltaic (PV) cells and concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. Glasses are materials of short energy payback time and environmental compatibility suitable for sustainable energy concepts. The paper reviews recent solar applications. Surface structuring and coating of glasses are

J. Deubener; G. Helsch; A. Moiseev; H. Bornhöft

2009-01-01

284

Community leaders workshop on solar energy assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of activities and discussions and general format of a solar energy conference at Eugene, Oregon, to involve local groups in the assessment of environmental and social issues relating to solar energy development are presented. The topics of the three workshops were (1) solar heating and cooling, (2) fuels from biomass, and (3) agricultural and industrial heat.

C. Venolia

1977-01-01

285

Photovoltaics for solar energy applications II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various papers on photovoltaics for solar energy applications are presented. The topics considered include: promising thin film solar cells, commercial development of ovonic thin film solar cells, progress in amorphous silicon photovoltaics, improvement in photovoltaic performance of large area glass\\/TCO\\/p-i-n\\/metal a-Si:H solar cell, tandem type solar cells consisting of hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium alloys, and manufacture of amorphous silicon photovoltaic

Adler

1983-01-01

286

SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SERI Solar Energy Storage Program is summarized. The program provides research, systems analysis, and assessments of thermal energy storage and transport in support of the Thermal Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Technology...

C. E. Wyman

1981-01-01

287

Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS  

SciTech Connect

This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

Nathan Lewis Nancy Ryan Gray

2010-02-26

288

Meteorological Data for Solar Energy Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For planning, simulation and testing of solar energy plants, data on solar radiation and other meteorological quantities are necessary. This information is gained statistically by using many years of records and by immediate in situ measurements made simu...

P. Valko

1976-01-01

289

Alternative energy sources 6: Vol. 1: Solar energy and applications  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides information on insolation, solar collectors, and thermal energy storage. Phase change energy storage, chemical energy storage and heat pipes are also included as topics of discussion. The volume highlights solar drying, desalination, and heat pumps. Papers regarding solar energy applications are provided in this volume.

Verziroglu, T.N.

1985-01-01

290

Solar energy collector panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collector panel for thermal energy emanating from the sun comprises a coiled length of tubing arranged in a planar toroid and held in that position by a plurality of radial clamps. The tubing is continuous and carries the fluid to be heated, typically water from a swimming pool or similar container, in a spiral path in the plane of

1977-01-01

291

Solar Energy by Photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis, both natural and as a model process, was examined for ; its potential as a possible annually renewable resource for both material and ; energy. The conversion of carbohydrate from cane, beets, and other sources ; through fermentation alcohol to hydrocarbon may soon again become economic in the ; light of increasing costs of recovery of hydrocarbon from fossil

Melvin Calvin

1974-01-01

292

Solar Energy Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the energy-related problems of the poor and near-poor, including their lack of funds with which to pay sharply increasing utility bills, the decline in health and deterioration in living conditions when increasing numbers of families ...

1979-01-01

293

Solar Energy Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment demonstrates that energy from the Sun can be collected and stored in a variety of ways. Using plastic bottles painted black and white and capped with balloons, students will see that the black bottle becomes warmer, heating the air inside it and blowing up the balloon.

294

Solar Energy Window.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An energy absorbing venetian blind type device is provided for generating electricity, providing heat, and serving as a sun shade. A plurality of slats covered with an array of photovoltaic cells are enclosed between two panes of glass of a window housing...

R. L. Field

1977-01-01

295

Solar energy system performance evaluation, October 1980 - April 1981  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy system of a single-story, concrete block office building with 1670 square feet of conditioned space was studied. The retrofit active solar energy system is designed to supply 65% of the total heating. The system is equipped with 400 square feet of hydronic flat-plate collectors, a 2000-gallon steel tank for heat storage, and an auxiliary gas-fired boiler. The system can operate at low collection/storage temperature levels or utilize solar energy directly from storage in an oversized duct coil located in the system air handling unit. The measured solar fraction was 80%, compared to a predicted 82%. The solar savings ratio, accounting for system operating energy, was 65%.

Kendall, P. W.

296

Solar Energy For Transportation Fuel  

ScienceCinema

May 12, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Nate Lewis' talk looks at the challenge of capturing solar energy and storing it as an affordable transportation fuel — all on a scale necessary to reduce global warming. Overcoming this challenge will require developing new materials that can use abundant and inexpensive elements rather than costly and rare materials. He discusses the promise of new materials in the development of carbon-free alternatives to fossil fuel.

297

Mirrors for solar energy application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specular reflectance efficiencies of candidate mirrors for central-receiver solar-energy application were measured within 4 mrad by using a spectroflectometer and two different bidirectional-reflectance-distribution-function photometers. Both first- and second-surface mirrors that employ silver as the reflective material are found to have specular reflectance efficiencies in excess of 90%, but not first-surface mirrors with chemically deposited silver. Abrasion, film-integrity, and outdoor-exposure

H. Taketani; W. M. Arden

1977-01-01

298

Solar energy for the Naval Shore Establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis discusses the background and extent of the current national energy crisis, and reviews the alternative energy sources available to the United States Navy other than conventional fossil fuels. An in-depth analysis is made of the advantages, disadvantages and techniques of one of these alternatives, solar energy conversion. The National Solar Energy Program is reviewed, as is the role

B. B. Geibel

1977-01-01

299

Handbook of solar and wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general qualitative survey of the state of the art in solar and other nonfossil energy sources is presented together with a timetable of probable development. Attention is given to the relationship between solar and wind energy and the utility industry on the assumption that those most likely to exploit nonfossil energy sources are already in the energy business. Specific

F. Hickok

1975-01-01

300

Multimode solar energy collector and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a multimode solar energy collector comprising: a transparent tubular body portion having end closures sealing each end of said body portion providing a fluid-tight cavity within the tube, a concentrator-reflector within the tube, a focal-line solar energy absorber in the focus of said concentrator-reflector, means for removal of absorbed energy from said focal-line solar energy

1980-01-01

301

Some Recent Research on Solar Energy Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico is located in the Earth’s sunbelt, where solar energy is plentiful for potential applications of solar energy conversion\\u000a systems. According to several estimations (Renn? et al. 2000), the average insolation over the country’s surface amounts to 5 kWh\\/day, which puts Mexico in a privileged situation for\\u000a the deployment of solar energy technologies. Other renewable energy sources such as: wind,

Camilo A Arancibia-Bulnes; Antonio Jiménez; Oscar Jaramillo; Claudio Estrada

302

Carbon nanostructures for solar energy conversion schemes.  

PubMed

Developing environmentally friendly, renewable energy is one of the challenges to society in the 21st century. One of the renewable energy technologies is solar energy conversion--a technology that directly converts daylight into electricity. This highlight surveys recent breakthroughs in the field of implementing carbon nanostructures--fullerenes (0D), carbon nanotubes (1D), carbon nanohorns, and graphene (2D)--into solar energy conversion schemes, that is, bulk heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:20871887

Guldi, Dirk M; Sgobba, Vito

2010-09-27

303

Photovoltaics for solar energy applications II  

SciTech Connect

Various papers on photovoltaics for solar energy applications are presented. The topics considered include: promising thin film solar cells, commercial development of ovonic thin film solar cells, progress in amorphous silicon photovoltaics, improvement in photovoltaic performance of large area glass/TCO/p-i-n/metal a-Si:H solar cell, tandem type solar cells consisting of hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium alloys, and manufacture of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules. Also addressed are: properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon prepared by chemical vapor deposition from higher silanes, correlation between deposition parameters and performance of sputtered amorphous silicon solar cells, cost estimates for amorphous silicon deposition processes, high-efficiency crystalline tandem cells, and thin-film cadmium solar cells. Also discussed are: progress in copper indium diselenide thin-film photovoltaic device research, edge-stabilized ribbon growth, research on polycrystalline silicon solar cells, silicon ingot growth by an oscillating crucible technique, solar reversible energy fluctuation converter, and photovoltaic applications and economics.

Adler, D.

1983-01-01

304

Life cycle assessment of the conventional and solar thermal production of zinc and synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current industrial productions of zinc and synthesis gas are characterized by their high energy consumption and their concomitant environmental pollution. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) could be reduced substantially by combining both productions and by replacing fossil fuels with concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The extent of such a GHG mitigation has been quantified

Miriam Werder; Aldo Steinfeld

2000-01-01

305

Simple Experiments on the Use of Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 5 solar energy experiments that can be used in secondary school: flat-plate collector, solar thermoelectric generator, simple concentrators, solar cell, and natural storage of solar energy. (MLH)

Vella, G. J.; Goldsmid, H. J.

1976-01-01

306

Simple Experiments on the Use of Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes 5 solar energy experiments that can be used in secondary school: flat-plate collector, solar thermoelectric generator, simple concentrators, solar cell, and natural storage of solar energy. (MLH)|

Vella, G. J.; Goldsmid, H. J.

1976-01-01

307

Solar total energy project Shenandoah  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

None

1980-01-10

308

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science  

SciTech Connect

A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

Not Available

1980-01-01

309

Merged solar and meteorological data base for solar energy use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any evaluation of a solar system whether active or passive requires as input climate data. In most cases, the information required is not available at the site in question. In order to increase the climate data available for applications in the renewable energy field, work on the definition and development of a merged solar and meteorological data base was undertaken

McKay

1981-01-01

310

Assessment of energy conservation using solar energy in Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous depletion of fossil fuels has created a situation which demands a gradual replacement of quickly depletable resources by nondepletable resources such as solar energy. Growth of the use of solar energy systems is related to several factors such as solar energy rights, system cost-effectiveness, availability of data actually tested for construction costs, maintenance requirements, and system reliability, integration

J. T. Pytlinski

1978-01-01

311

Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 cslash/kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

2009-09-01

312

Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

Not Available

2008-04-01

313

SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program  

SciTech Connect

The SERI Solar Energy Storage Program is summarized. The program provides research, systems analysis, and assessments of thermal energy storage and transport in support of the Thermal Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Technology; emphasis is on thermal energy storage for solar thermal power and process heat applications and on thermal energy transport. Currently, research is in progress on direct-contact thermal energy storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. In addition, SERI is directing the definition of new concepts for thermal energy storage and supporting research on thermal energy transport by sensible and latent heat media. SERI is performing systems analyses of thermal energy storage for solar thermal application and coordinating thermal energy storage activities for solar applications.

Wyman, C.E.

1981-08-01

314

The Solar Energy Timetable. Worldwatch Paper 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are…

Hayes, Denis

315

Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

Reynolds, John S.

316

The Solar Energy Timetable. Worldwatch Paper 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are…

Hayes, Denis

317

Environmental benefits and costs of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental benefits and costs of deploying six generic solar energy systems are quantified in physical terms. The scope and limitations of the study are discussed briefly. Direct environmental impacts of solar technology are estimated from literature searches and discussions with solar experts. The Strategic Environmental Assessment System, a computer model based on input-output techniques, is used to evaluate indirect

Yokell

1980-01-01

318

Heat pipe central solar receiver gas turbine plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design for a 10-MWe heat-pipe central-receiver gas-turbine power plant has been developed. The heat-pipe central solar receiver uses heat pipes to transform the concentrated high solar heat flux at the receiver into a lower heat flux compatible with gas heat-transfer systems. Several Brayton cycles were studied to determine which cycles and operating conditions are technically and economically most

G. Carli; R. J. Zoschak

1978-01-01

319

Solar energy's economic and social benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed — and still developing — technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the

H. Scheer

1995-01-01

320

Testing and Analyzing of Solar Energy Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar energy resource of two typical areas was tested by taking advantage of different instruments from home and abroad in Inner Mongolia. Compared the actually tested data with satellite data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration, energy cost was estimated in different solar energy resource conditions through the use of RETScreen project analysis software form Canada. Analysis results show

Zhao Mingzhi; Liu Zhizhang; Zhang Qingzhu

2010-01-01

321

WELMM analysis and solar energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the WELMM (water, energy, land, materials, manpower) systems approach to the analysis of the competitiveness of solar energy conversion systems is discussed. Economic analyses of solar energy conversion systems are shown to depend on the values of parameters (interest and inflation rates and the price of petroleum) which are difficult to predict over the long term. The

J.-L. Abatut

1979-01-01

322

Hydrogen production through solar energy water electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water electrolysis systems are seen as the principal means of producing a large amount of hydrogen in the future. Hydrogen energy production from direct solar energy conversion facilities located on the shores of oceans and lakes is discussed. The electrolysis interface is shown to be conveniently adapted to direct solar energy conversion; this, however, will depend on technical and economic

D. Dini

1983-01-01

323

Apparatus for the utilization of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for the utilization of radiated solar energy to heat the interior space of a building includes a solar energy collector in the form of a south-facing wall, energy storage elements in the form of remaining wall structures that, in combination with the collector wall, define the interior space, and a combination of conduit and air moving apparatus to circulate

B. M. Beard; J. M. Beard

1983-01-01

324

Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

2011-01-01

325

Solar energy applications in UK buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that 40% to 50% of the UK energy consumption is used in buildings for heating, lighting, etc. Solar energy could assist in the provision of space and water heating and in the long term potentially cut energy consumption by 10% to 20%. The main characteristics of solar radiation in the UK are: (1) a high proportion

R. G. Courtney

1977-01-01

326

Solar energy applications at Army ammunition plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Army Ammunition Plants use significant quantities of fossil fuels. To reduce dependence on these scarce, costly, and non-renewable fuels, a study was conducted to investigate potential solar energy applications at the AAPs. Solar energy is a low-level energy source which is best applied to low temperature applications. It can be used at the AAPs to preheat boiler feedwater, provide

A. P. Lowry; S. M. Moy

1982-01-01

327

A preliminary assessment of solar energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the assessment of solar energy technology undertaken by an interdisciplinary team of students over a one-semester period. The methodology evolved by the group consists of problem definitions, a description of the state of technology, technological forecast, areas of impact, action-options, and recommendations. In addition, the paper discusses the solar energy component of the national energy plan, with

D. P. Garg

1976-01-01

328

Solar power. [Comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security. 17 refs.

Walton, A.L.; Hall, D.C. (JPL, Pasadena, CA (USA) California State Univ., Long Beach (USA))

1990-07-01

329

Solar Technological Progress and Use of Solar Energy in the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy can potentially play a very important role in providing most of the heating, cooling and electricity needs of the world The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. There are a variety of different technologies used in order to take advantage of solar energy. The primary solar

Mustafa Balat

2006-01-01

330

Advanced research in solar energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives an overview of the Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800 C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

Luft, W.

1983-01-01

331

Advanced research in solar-energy storage  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute is reviewed. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800/sup 0/C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

Luft, W.

1983-01-01

332

Bio-Inspired Solar Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The areas of solar-powered catalysts for energy rich fuels formation and bio-inspired molecular assemblies for integrating photon-to-fuels pathways have been identified by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. S. Department of Energy as challenges for the next generation of sustainable, high-efficiency solar energy conversion systems [1]. The light-harvesting, energy-transducing and carbon compound-synthesizing (carbon dioxide-fixing) reactions that are

Kurt Warncke

2009-01-01

333

Biomimetic utilization of solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most interesting recent publications dealing with so-called artificial photosynthesis, i.e., the development of photocatalytic converters of solar energy to the chemical bond energy using the fundamental principles of natural oxygenic photosynthesis, are discussed. The key stages of photosynthesis that should be reproduced in the artificial converters include light harvesting and transport of the light quantum to reaction centres where photoinduced charge separation occurs to give elementary reducing agents and oxidants (electrons and holes). The dark catalytic reactions involving the elementary reducing agents and oxidants give stable end products, namely, dioxygen and carbohydrates in the natural photosynthesis or dioxygen and hydrogen in the artificial photosynthesis. The bibliography includes 99 references.

Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, Aleksandr E.

2012-12-01

334

On-farm applications of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar energy used by photosynthesis must be supplemented with additional energy in order to maintain a highly productive agriculture. Petroleum energy, which supplies most of the energy for production agriculture appears to be nearing depletion. Approximately half of the energy requirement is for stationary uses, such as environmental temperature and humidity control, crop drying, water heating, and irrigation. Energy

1980-01-01

335

SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program provides research, system analysis, and assessments of thermal energy storage and transport in support of the Thermal Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Technology; emphasis is on thermal energy storage for solar thermal power and process heat applications and on thermal energy transport. Currently, research is in progress on direct-contact thermal energy storage and

C. E. Wyman

1981-01-01

336

Gas-magnetic field interactions in the solar corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is evident from eclipse photographs that gas-magnetic field interactions are important in determining the structure and dynamical properties of the solar corona and interplanetary medium. Close to the Sun in regions of strong field, the coronal gas can be contained within closed loop structures. However, since the field in these regions decreases outward rapidly, the pressure and inertial forces

G. W. Pneuman; Roger A. Kopp

1971-01-01

337

Licking County Community Solar Energy Program  

SciTech Connect

A Community Solar Energy Feasibility Study and Education Program for Central Ohio is described. LEADS Community Action Agency and the Denison University Homestead, with support of federal and university grants, designed and constructed five solar heating systems. Three passive solar greenhouses, one passive trombe wall and one active solar system were retrofitted on local structures between April 1979 and April 1980. Two semesters of community solar education through the Denison Experimental College and one semester through Ohio State University/Newark were coordinated with design, construction and performance of these five solar systems. Community residents received a balanced education including classroom training in solar energy practice. Classes and demonstrations were also conducted for such diverse groups as elementary, junior and senior high schools, senior citizens, mental health organizations, news media, other community action agencies and colleges statewide as well as interested individuals.

Downs, R. (LEADS, Newark, OH); Blynn, R.; Glosser, D.; Homestead, D.

1980-01-01

338

Regional assessment of solar pond energy costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost estimates are developed for solar pond energy output, using varied assumptions about application, location, pond size, and other system design and financial parameters. These estimates are compared with energy costs from alternatives, to indicate regions and applications where solar pond development may be economically viable.

S. C. Jones; E. I. H. Lin; A. L. Walton

1982-01-01

339

Solar energy - When, where and how  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review is presented of the conversion technologies by which solar energy may be turned into useful end products. The degree of maturity of these technologies, which include photovoltaics, biomass conversion, and direct and indirect solar thermal conversion systems such as wind energy and ocean thermal gradients, ranges from those that are available commercially, such as hot water heating,

K. J. Touryan

1981-01-01

340

Projects in a Solar Energy Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes student projects on applications of solar energy optics to home design. Project criterion (requiring sketches and detailed calculations of time rate of energy flow/production) is that half the heat for the heating season be taken from the solar resource; calculations must be based on meteorological data for a specific location. (JM)|

Lindsay, Richard H.

1983-01-01

341

Material considerations involved in solar energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations of the application of solar energy to electrical power generation which have proved encouraging in certain geographic locations in the United States are discussed. These encouraging findings have been due, in part, to the application of aerospace-related technology and systems engineering to critical elements of the solar energy system which have heretofore proven economically unrealistic. Results to date

R. L. Gervais; H. Taketani; H. W. Babel; G. F. Pittinato

1975-01-01

342

Design options in solar total energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar total energy system consists of a collector field which converts solar radiation to thermal energy in a working fluid which in turn drives a heat engine. Shaft power from this engine drives a mechanical electrical generator while exhaust from the heat engine is used for such applications as space heating, domestic hot water, and process heat. Cooling can

A. A. J. Hoffman; D. Rapp

1977-01-01

343

Solar energy conversion by water photodissociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects of the photochemical conversion of solar energy by simple nonbiological systems are discussed. The basic concepts of direct and catalyzed photodissociation of water are outlined. Water dissociation in closed-cycle processes based on endothermic photochemical reactions offers a potential solution to the problem of solar energy conversion. It is shown that transition metal commplexes whose excited state chemistry is

V. Balzani; L. Moggi; M. F. Manfrin; F. Bolletta; M. Gleria

1975-01-01

344

Solar Energy Applications and Related Legislation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the areas in which there is the greatest potential for state legislative action which would promote the use of solar energy in New York State. The report first describes those solar energy systems which have the greatest potential for...

D. A. Mongitore

1975-01-01

345

Solar Energy Applications at Army Ammunition Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army Ammunition Plants use significant quantities of fossil fuels. To reduce dependence on these scarce, costly, and non-renewable fuels, a study was conducted to investigate potential solar energy applications at the AAPs. Solar energy is a low-level...

A. P. Lowry S. M. Moy

1982-01-01

346

Solar energy applications and related legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas in which there is the greatest potential for state legislative action which would promote the use of solar energy in New York state are presented. Solar energy systems which have the greatest potential for use in New York state are described. The problems facing widespread implementation of these systems are enumerated, and legislative proposals which address these problems are

D. A. Mongitore

1975-01-01

347

Saudi Arabia's experience in solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in solar energy research in Saudi Arabia is discussed with emphasis on the efforts of a government research entity - King Adbulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Three programs currently underway at KACST are considered: the continuation of activities initiated under the Solar Energy Research American\\/Saudi (SOLERAS) program, a Saudi\\/German program, and projects developed and conducted completely

Fahad S. Huraib

1990-01-01

348

Optical materials for solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hundreds of square miles of optical materials, will be required every year for solar energy to have a significant input on the U.S. energy economy. Most of these materials will have to be fabricated at a very low areal cost. Various high volume, low cost production processes applicable to solar optical materials are presented. Major challenges

D. M. Mattox

1976-01-01

349

Rectenna developments for solar energy collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rectenna concept for solar energy collection rests on the dual wave\\/photon nature of light. The recent developments in nanotechnology and manufacturing led to the re-examination of the rectenna concept for solar energy collection. Two fundamental physical limitations, skin effect resistance and very low voltage per antenna element, were identified for the rectenna system. This paper reports on research efforts

Mohammad Sarehraz; Kenneth Buckle; Thomas Weller; Elias Stefanakos; Shekhar Bhansali; Yogi Goswami; Subramanian Krishnan

2005-01-01

350

Solar Total Energy Systems. Technical progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Solar Total Energy System (STES) is characterized by the use of solar energy for on-site generation of electricity, with recovery and reuse of turbine waste heat to meet thermal demands such as process heat, space heating and cooling, and water heating. The STES Mission Analysis being performed by The Aerospace Corporation has as objectives the identification and selection of

1977-01-01

351

Solar-wind krypton and solid\\/gas fractionation in the early solar nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Krypton is the best candidate for determining limits on solid\\/gas fractionation in the early sun because of the smoothness of the odd-mass abundance curve in its mass region, which permits relatively precise interpolations of its abundance assuming no fractionation. Here the authors calculate the solar-system Kr abundance from solar-wind noble-gas ratios, determined previously by low-temperature oxidations of lunar ilmenite grains,

Roger C. Wiens; D. S. Burnett; M. Neugebauer; R. O. Pepin

1991-01-01

352

New Mexico Solar Energy Association Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NMSEA is an educational nonprofit organization, dedicated to promoting solar energy and related sustainable practices. Membership includes a diverse group of citizens including architects, building contractors, engineers, educators, and planners specializing in renewable energy and sustainability.

2007-08-27

353

Status of Solar Energy Research and Development in Australia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper briefly describes the solar energy research and development program in Australia. Programs showing promise of widespread application being researched are: solar industrial process heat, solar air conditioning, solar electricity production, and b...

S. Saunders

1981-01-01

354

Solar Energy: An Infinite Source of Clean Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundance, cleanliness and widespread distri bution are great incentives for the application of solar energy to man's energy requirements. Recent and impend ing fuel shortages, cost increases of energy and environ mental degradation have provided strong incentives for the development of solar energy for wide practical use. However, its low intensity and high variability impose severe econo mic problems in

George O. G. Löf

1973-01-01

355

Solar energy food dehydration system: Concept development  

SciTech Connect

The research activities to be carried out to form the body of this work were planned, first, to increase the general knowledge in the areas of solar energy application and, secondly, to provide sufficient data for the development of a new solar energy powered food dehydrating system. The research work does not aim merely at pursuing the study and development of a new component or a new type of material to be used in the solar industry. But the final and main part of this research is devoted to the development and design of a solar energy system uncharted before the purpose of dehydrating various agricultural products. This proposed solar powered system development is thereby a contribution of technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. It is one of the viable and effective solutions to solving the world's food and energy shortage problem, especially in the less developed regions of the world. The body of this work, thus is divided into three major parts as follows: (1) The search for a thorough understanding of the origin and fundamental characteristics of solar energy. (2) Past and present applications of solar energy. (3) The development and design of a new solar energy powered system for the dehydration of food crops.

Pham, L.V.

1988-01-01

356

Solar Thermal Energy: Design a Solar Hot Water Heater System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has students examine a collector and tank for a solar hot water heater and estimate the amount of energy and money saved by replacing the traditional hot water heater. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Bullwinkel, Matt

2013-01-08

357

The design and construction of a low power gas turbine for solar energy conversion - An analytical model of operation of the installation in a variable mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic analysis of a Brayton cycle engine used for the conversion of solar thermal energy to electricity is presented and compared with experimental results. The power configuration is a parabolic concentrator with the engine placed at the focus. Its benefits are a minimal visual impact, modular construction, rapid start-up, simple site planning, and flexibility as to end use. Consideration is given to a generator powered by hot air and mounted in series with other modules, and to heating elements mounted in parallel. A numerical model accounts for system losses, and application is demonstrated with a system producing 2.5 kWe at 800 C, i.e., a 45 kWt output. A second model is devised to describe the isentropic efficiencies which can be expected during variable speed operations. Finally costs of the power plant are compared with costs of conventionally fueled facilities.

Leone, J. F.

358

A hybrid power generation system utilizing solar thermal energy with CO 2 recovery based on oxygen combustion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CO2-recovering power generation system utilizing solar thermal energy was proposed. In the system, relatively low temperature saturated steam around 200 °C is produced by using solar thermal energy and is utilized as the working fluid of a gas turbine in which generated CO2 is recovered based on the method of oxygen combustion. Solar thermal utilization efficiency becomes considerably high

Pyong Sik Pak; Takeshi Hatikawa; Yutaka Suzuki

1995-01-01

359

Energy analysis of the Solar Power Satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy requirements to build and operate the proposed Solar Power Satellite are evaluated and compared with the energy it produces. Because the technology is so speculative, uncertainty is explicitly accounted for. For a proposed 10-gigawatt satellite system, the energy ratio, defined as the electrical energy produced divided by the primary nonrenewable energy required over the lifetime of the system,

R. A. Herendeen; T. Kary; J. Rebitzer

1979-01-01

360

Game-theory approach to consumer incentives for solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is currently not competitive with fossil fuels. Fossil fuel price increases may eventually allow solar to compete, but incentives can change the relative price between fossil fuel and solar energy, and make solar compete sooner. Examples are developed of a new type of competitive game using solar energy incentives. Competitive games must have players with individual controls and

J. K. Sharp

1981-01-01

361

Heliostatic solar energy conversion system  

SciTech Connect

A heliostatic solar energy conversion system in which a plurality of multi-faceted heliostats are supported on one or more platforms that move in a segment of a circular path about a central receiver as a center. The heliostats are mounted in frames that pivot on the platform on an edge of each heliostat. In one embodiment the platforms are supported in a concave spherical depression in the ground. The heliostats of the invention are constructed with a plurality of intersecting beams and stringers, and the stringers are formed with parabolic flanges which support the facets so that the angle of incidence between the sun and the focal point of the central receiver is generally in the center of each facet. A vernier adjustment is provided for each heliostat.

Jones, D.

1982-12-28

362

Current developments in solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey covers the better payoff for solar heating in northern U.S. rather than southern U.S. because the long heating season is better able to pay the high fixed cost; water heating, the most economically justified solar application at present; solar heating and cooling of buildings waiting on equipment development and higher fossil-fuel prices; solar thermal electric generation available only

1977-01-01

363

Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce…

Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

364

Hybrid power towers: A solar boost for natural gas in the Southwest  

SciTech Connect

A new concept to combine central receiver technology with highly efficient natural gas turbines has sparked interest among key utilities in the southwestern United States. The result is a fully dispatchable hybrid power tower that`s expected to use 30% less natural gas than its conventional counterpart. Developed by researcher at the US DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the hybrid power tower is the focus of a developing partnership with the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) in California. Although some solar advocates criticize the use of nonrenewable natural gas, the hybrid concept mitigates many of the current barriers to commercializing solar thermal technology. NREL`s innovative concept uses a small central receiver plant to preheat combustion air for natural gas turbines. Solar thermal energy displaces the use of nonrenewable fossil fuel throughout much of the day. When solar heat is no longer available, the natural gas turbines ensure continuous operation to meet a utility`s need for baseload, intermediate, or peaking power, as desired. The combined-cycle power tower has many attractive features, but the bottom line is it can be commercialized in today`s utility market.

Brown, L.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-08-01

365

Solar Energy: Progress and Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report discusses many of the economic and policy questions related to the widespread introduction of solar power, presents recent progress in developing solar technologies and advancing their economic feasibility, and reviews some recommendations that have been made for achieving the early introduction and sustained application of solar…

Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

366

Climate fundamentals for solar energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Climate greatly influences the performance of any solar energy system. How many daylight hours are there in January. How much cloud cover is there in March. These are some of the first questions that must be asked when considering a solar heating or photovoltaic system for your home or community. The more direct sunlight a solar energy system receives, the better it will perform. In this fact sheet, sunlight is referred to as solar radiation. (It is also called solar irradiance and insolation.) Microclimate also has an important effect on solar heating and photovoltaic systems. Microclimate refers to the weather patterns (e.g., winds, fog, frost) that are unique to the building site. 28 refs., 5 figs.

Not Available

1988-04-01

367

Solar energy conversion and storage systems for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible utilization of solar energy in its various manifestations such as heat, winds, tides, and ocean thermal gradients is reviewed. Methods of solar energy collection, conversion, and utilization are examined, along with the solar energy potential. Special attention is given to various systems for meeting the needs of solar energy storage. The systems considered include: (1) thermal energy storage

R. Ramakumar; H. J. Allison; W. L. Hughes

1974-01-01

368

Solar electric energy supply at high altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-hydrogen systems were analyzed regarding their usability as energy supply system for high altitude platforms. In a first step for an assessment of solar and photovoltaic resources near-ground spectral transmittances of atmosphere were extended with simplified height correction functions to achieve spectral irradiance descriptions versus atmospheric height up to 25 km. The influence of atmospheric height to different solar cell technologies

Werner Knaupp; Eva Mundschau

2004-01-01

369

Assessment of energy storage for solar applications  

SciTech Connect

The first three phases of the Solar Applications Analysis for Energy Storage study performed for the Office of Advanced Conservation Technologies of the Department of Energy is presented. Phase 1 surveyed solar energy applications, phase 2 developed a uniform methodology for assessments, and phase 3 summarized prior applicable storage assessments. Three referenced reports thoroughly cover each of the phases and are available from the authors.

Edwards, D.J.; Rosenzweig, S.

1982-02-01

370

Analysis of steam injected gas turbines for solar thermal applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Program has as one of its program elements the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies that are applicable to Distributed Receiver Systems. The primary research and development activities, for the past several years, have involved the dish--electric concept in which a heat engine, solar receiver, and generator are combined as a power

Linker

1988-01-01

371

Analysis of steam injected gas turbines for solar thermal applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Program has as one of its program elements the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies which are applicable to Distributed Receiver Systems. The primary research and development activities, for the past several years, have involved the so-called dish-electric concept in which a heat engine, solar receiver, and generator are combined as a

Linker

1987-01-01

372

A total fuel cycle approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Solar generation technologies as greenhouse gas offsets in U.S. utility systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gas emissions in the electric utility sector occur not only at generation facilities, but also during upstream processes that support the construction and operation of energy facilities. A total fuel cycle approach is used to evaluate the potential greenhouse gas savings that could result from the deployment of solar generation technologies in utility systems in the United States. Total

Jennifer A. Martin

1997-01-01

373

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology  

SciTech Connect

An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1982-01-01

374

Solar energy-conversion processes in organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic semiconducting materials have demonstrated attractive light-absorption and photocurrent-generation functions due to their delocalized ? electrons as well as intra-molecular and inter-molecular charge separation processes. On the other hand, organic semiconducting materials have easy property tuning, are mechanically flexible, and have large-area thin film formation properties. As a result, organic materials have become potential candidates in solar energy applications. This article will review critical energy-conversion processes in organic solar cells with the focus on singlet and triplet photovoltaic responses.

Xu, Zhihua; Zang, Huidong; Hu, Bin

2008-09-01

375

Solar energy at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Basic concepts for using the energy of the sun have been known for centuries. The challenge today, the goal of the Department of Energy`s National Solar Energy Program is to create the technology needed to establish solar energy as a practical, economical alternative to energy produced by depletable fuels--and to use that solar-produced energy in a wide variety of applications. To assist the DOE in this national effort, Sandia sponsors industrial and university research and development, manages a series of technical programs, operates solar experimental facilities, and carries out its own scientific and engineering research. This booklet describes their projects, their technical objectives, and explains how their experimental facilities are used to find the answers we`re seeking. Prospective participants from companies involved in solar-energy development or applications should find it especially useful since it outlines broad areas of opportunity. Projects include: central receiver technology; line-focus thermal technology; photovoltaic systems technology; wind turbine development; energy storage technology; and applied research in improved polycrystalline materials for solar cells and photoelectrolysis of water.

NONE

1981-12-31

376

Compact, high energy gas laser  

DOEpatents

An electrically pumped gas laser amplifier unit having a disc-like configuration in which light propagation is radially outward from the axis rather than along the axis. The input optical energy is distributed over a much smaller area than the output optical energy, i.e., the amplified beam, while still preserving the simplicity of parallel electrodes for pumping the laser medium. The system may thus be driven by a comparatively low optical energy input, while at the same time, owing to the large output area, large energies may be extracted while maintaining the energy per unit area below the threshold of gas breakdown.

Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Stapleton, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM); Stratton, Thomas F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-08-03

377

Focusing on the future: Solar thermal energy systems emerge as competitive technologies with major economic potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens are now receiving a portion of their daily demand for electricity from large-scale solar thermal electric generating stations-power plants that use concentrated solar energy to drive electric power generators. Just as with coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and nuclear energy, concentrated solar energy can create working temperatures of around 600C and much higher. Also, solar power plants contribute almost nothing to the atmospheric greenhouse effect and pose few, if any, of the other environmental problems associated with conventional energy sources. As a result of research and development within the national Solar Thermal Technology Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), solar thermal energy is on the threshold of competing economically with conventional power plants and is now viable for international markets. Its potential for spurring American economic growth and exports is significant.

1989-03-01

378

Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

Antal, M. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

379

Specular mirrors for solar energy application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reflectance efficiency of heliostat mirror surfaces is a critical parameter in the central tower concept for conversion of solar energy. Reflectance efficiency was measured on silver coated surfaces and on second-surface mirrors of float and sheet glass for comparison in a solar heliostat. Abrasion tests were conducted to determine the effect of impingement of sand particles on the reflectance

H. Taketani; W. M. Arden

1978-01-01

380

System for collecting and storing solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for collecting and storing solar energy which includes solar panels which are installed between the joists of the roof so that the collector surface of each panel acts as part of the roof of each panel and also includes a heat storage system connected to the back side of each panel. Each heat storage system has

Hepp

1976-01-01

381

Chemical reactions driven by concentrated solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy can be used for driving endothermic reactions, either photochemically or thermally. The fraction of the solar spectrum that can be photochemically active is quite small. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to combine photochemical and thermal processes in order to increase the overall efficiency. Two thermally driven reactions are being studied: oil shale gasification and methane reforming.

Moshe Levy

1991-01-01

382

Solar energy its status and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different subprograms encompassed by the National Plan for Solar Research and Development recently issued by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) are described briefly. The subprograms are at widely differing stages of development. Direct thermal applications are well advanced. The technologies for solar heating are nearing the point of commercial applicability and are expected to become increasingly economical

D. Redfield

1976-01-01

383

Photocatalytic degradation of DBSNa using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports experimental results on photocatalytic degradation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBSNa), using the solar energy concentrator for photocatalysis studies (SECPS). The SECPS operation is based on the concentration of ultraviolet solar radiation on a reactor that contains contaminated water and a catalyst where the photocatalytic effect occurs. This effect produces ruptures in the toxic molecules, until transforming them

Antonio E Jiménez; Claudio A Estrada; Alma D Cota; Alberto Román

2000-01-01

384

Computer simulation of a solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating and cooling system designed for use at the El Camino Real School in Irvine, California is presented. The solar energy is collected by banks of evacuated glass tube collectors mounted on tilted platforms on the roof of the school and provide an effective collector area of 5000 sq ft. Along with the government-sponsored design and construction of

J. M. Key

1979-01-01

385

The New England solar energy atlas  

SciTech Connect

This book offers a convenient source of historical solar radiation data excerpted from the Solar Radiation Energy Resource Atlas of the United States. The collection of regional maps and the graphic summaries of the resource data pertinent to the New England area accomplish the author's goal of providing design data in a more compact format than that of the national atlas.

Cook, D.L.

1986-01-01

386

The utilization of solar energy in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research work conducted at two technical universities in Switzerland is considered. The investigations have shown that even at latitudes corresponding to those of Europe an economical use of solar energy for the heating of houses is possible if a good thermal insulation for the house is provided along with solar collectors of appropriate design. Heating throughout the entire year without

R. Huebner

1976-01-01

387

Technology assessment of solar energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general objectives and methods of Technology Assessment (TA) are outlined. Typical analysis steps of a TA for solar energy are reviewed: description of the technology and its further development; identification of impact areas; analysis of boundary conditions and definition of scenarios; market penetration of solar technologies; projection of consequences in areas of impact; and assessment of impacts and identification

F. Jaeger

1985-01-01

388

Meteorological data for solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological quantities and the mathematical techniques used for acquiring them are presented. Their relevance to solar energy utilization is emphasized. Following a discussion of the definitions of extraterrestrial solar radiation and terrestrial radiation (thermal radiation), meteorological radiation quantities are listed and a formula, easily adaptable to a programmable pocket calculator, for the calculation of the yearly variation in the global

M. Bruck

1978-01-01

389

Review of solar-energy drying systems II: an overview of solar drying technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy

O. V Ekechukwu; B Norton

1999-01-01

390

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

391

Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

392

Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

393

The long-range prospects for solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt is made to evaluate the long-range potential of various ways of using solar energy. Assuming the technology to be successfully established, the question is posed whether solar energy systems can be commercially feasible as a practical component of the nation's energy system in competition with alternative energy sources. In discussing direct uses of solar radiation, including solar heating

W. G. Pollard

1976-01-01

394

The Case for the Large Scale Development of Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of solar energy development. Discusses global effects (temperature, particle and other pollution) of burning fossil fuels. Provides energy balance equations for solar energy distribution and discusses flat plate collectors, solar cells, photochemical and photobiological conversion of solar energy, heat pumps. (CS)

O'Reilly, S. A.

1977-01-01

395

Research on solar energy technologies for the ecological architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The using of solar energy is very vital for ecological architecture. At present, the rich solar energy in China has not been brought into fully application in most cities. The investigation indicates that the application of solar energy technology in construction is a very efficient method, and we can make full use of solar energy technology by initiative means and

Wu Zhao; Yan Ma

2011-01-01

396

The Case for the Large Scale Development of Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces the history of solar energy development. Discusses global effects (temperature, particle and other pollution) of burning fossil fuels. Provides energy balance equations for solar energy distribution and discusses flat plate collectors, solar cells, photochemical and photobiological conversion of solar energy, heat pumps. (CS)|

O'Reilly, S. A.

1977-01-01

397

General solar energy information user study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1981-03-01

398

Solar Thermal Energy Conversion Program: Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Project summaries are given for contracts pertaining to the central receiver power plant, 5 Mwth solar thermal test facility, total energy systems, distributed collector systems, hybrid systems, research and development, and program application and suppor...

1976-01-01

399

Foreign Technology Alert Bibliography: Solar Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides a systematically organised collection of abstracts from the NTIS bibliographic data base relating to solar energy research and describing work originating outside the USA. A tailored search of the data base was performed and the out...

G. Wilkinson

1982-01-01

400

Technology Utilization: Incentives and Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Technology Delivery System (TDS) is used to explain the role of incentives in stimulating public use of solar energy. Summarizes the application, components, experimental verification, and agency responsibility for these incentives within the conceptual framework of TDS. (GS)|

Ezra, Arthur A.

1975-01-01

401

Evacuated balloon for solar energy collection  

SciTech Connect

A large cylindrically-shaped balloon-like structure having hemispherical ends with fins utilized in conjunction with airflow thereacross based upon Bernoulli's principle for maneuvering and maintaining stability. The balloon is compartmentalized, contains a uniquely designed structural support system, and contains pumps for evacuating the air therein. The structure may be used for any lifting application. In particular solar-energy is collected through a transparent portion of the structure and reflected from shaped surfaces that direct solar energy on energy converting panels. The electrical energy generated is utilized to operate an evacuation system, while the remainder of the electrical energy is beamed by microwaves to a receiving station on earth.

Bliamptis, E. E.

1985-08-13

402

Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques  

SciTech Connect

A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.

Balcomb, J.D.

1980-01-01

403

Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.  

PubMed

Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells. PMID:20931630

Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

2011-01-11

404

Solar energy thermalization and storage device  

DOEpatents

A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

1981-09-01

405

Solar energy utilization in the USSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

Shpilrain, E. E.

1991-05-01

406

Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition  

SciTech Connect

A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-03-01

407

Solar-wind krypton and solid/gas fractionation in the early solar nebula  

SciTech Connect

Krypton is the best candidate for determining limits on solid/gas fractionation in the early sun because of the smoothness of the odd-mass abundance curve in its mass region, which permits relatively precise interpolations of its abundance assuming no fractionation. Here the authors calculate the solar-system Kr abundance from solar-wind noble-gas ratios, determined previously by low-temperature oxidations of lunar ilmenite grains, normalized to Si by spacecraft solar-wind measurements. The estimated {sup 83}Kr abundance of 4.1 {plus minus} 1.5 per 10{sup 6} Si atoms is within uncertainty of estimates assuming no fractionation, determined from DI-chondrite abundances of surrounding elements. This is significant because it is the first such constraint on solid/gas fractionation, though the large uncertainty only confines it to somewhat less than a factor of two.

Wiens, R.C.; Burnett, D.S.; Neugebauer, M. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA)); Pepin, R.O. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

1991-02-01

408

The embedded energy costs in solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares the results of net energy analyses performed for active solar thermal and photovoltaic energy systems with that of conventional power generating systems. Current U.S. solar technology commercialization programs are discussed from the viewpoint of embedded (hidden) material and resource costs.

S BARON

1984-01-01

409

Assessment of solar energy as a national energy resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is received in sufflcient quantity to make a major ; contribution to the future U. S. heat and power requirements. There are numerous ; conversion methods by which solar energy can be used for heat and power, e.g., ; thermal, photosynthesis, bioconversion, photovoltaics, winds, and ocean ; temperature differences. There are no technical barriers to wide application of

P. Donovan; W. Woodward; W. R. Cherry; F. H. Morse; L. O. Herwig

1972-01-01

410

Solar energy and energy management microcomputer controller evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and development of six microprocessor-based systems for the control of energy systems including those utilizing solar energy are summarized with particular emphasis on data sensors and the interface circuitry required for communication between the sensors and the microprocessors. The initial system collects data from 14 sensors and a clock with date information in order to control the solar

T. M. Murray Jr.

1980-01-01

411

Solar energy policy: Malaysia vs developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countr ies all over the world is enquiring and taking efforts to implement the environment friendly renewable energy to mitigate the negative impacts of fossil fuels on the environment and their fast depletion. To reduce the reliance on fossil fuels and environmental degradation, many countries have focused and formulated solar energy related policies to increase its share into energy mix.

H. Fayaza; N. A. Rahim; R. Saidur; K. H. Solangi; H. Niaz; M. S. Hossain

2011-01-01

412

Low cost automatic solar energy trapping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the hardware design and implementation of a system that ensures a perpendicular profile of the solar panel with the sun in order to extract maximum energy falling on it. Renewable energy is rapidly gaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuel prices fluctuate.The unique feature of the proposed system is that instead of taking the earth

I. William Christopher; R. Ramesh; C. Saravanan

2011-01-01

413

Incentives for solar energy in industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax deductions for fuel expenses with tax credits for capital investments for energy. The result is a simple expression for tax

K. D. Bergeron

1981-01-01

414

Solar-processed metals as clean energy carriers and water-splitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-step solar thermochemical cycles and processes for the production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, and synthesis gas are considered. The first step is based on the thermal, electrothermal, or carbothermal reduction of metal oxides, producing metals, metal nitrides, metal carbides, or lower-valence metal oxides. These are hightemperature highly endothermic reactions that can be driven by concentrated solar energy, reducing the consumption of

A. Steinfeld; P. Kuhn; A. Reller; R. Palumbo; Y. Tamaura

1998-01-01

415

Solar energy in Jordan: current state and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the share of solar energy in the energy mix in Jordan for the years 2002 and 2007 is estimated by calculating the energy equivalent of solar energy systems whether utilized or to be utilized. The share of solar energy in the energy mix in Jordan in the year 2002 is estimated to be around 1.7–1.8%. The expected

Eyad S. Hrayshat; Mohammed S. Al-Soud

2004-01-01

416

Study of combined \\/photovoltaic-thermal\\/ solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis of a combined photovoltaic-thermal energy system for converting solar energy is presented. Optical concentration is employed to intensify the available solar energy density. The thermal energy extraction works both to cool the solar cells and to provide heat energy. Overall system efficiencies (total output energy, both thermal and electrical, divided by the available insolation) are shown to

R. C. Neville

1981-01-01

417

Thermochemical production of fuels with concentrated solar energy.  

PubMed

This review article develops some of the underlying science for converting concentrated solar energy into chemical fuels and presents examples of solar thermochemical processes and reactors. PMID:20588567

Steinfeld, Aldo; Weimer, Alan W

2010-04-26

418

Thermochemical production of fuels with concentrated solar energy.  

PubMed

This review article develops some of the underlying science for converting concentrated solar energy into chemical fuels and presents examples of solar thermochemical processes and reactors. PMID:20607892

Steinfeld, Aldo; Weimer, Alan W

2010-04-26

419

Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

This program involves the experimental and theoretical study of optically induced electron transfer and electronic excitation transport in systems with complex structures. The focus is to obtain an understanding of the intimate interplay among intermolecular interactions, structure, and dynamics. A combination of picosecond transient grating experiments, time resolved fluorescence depolarization experiments, conventional optical spectroscopy, and statistical mechanical theory is being employed to elucidated fundamental aspects of processes which are important in the conversion of solar energy to usable forms of energy. We are continuing to address the very important problem of electron back transfer following optically induced donor to acceptor electron transfer. In a system in which there are donors (low concentration) and acceptors (high concentration) randomly distributed in solution, optical excitation of a donor can be followed by transfer of an electron to an acceptor. One electron transfer has occurred. there exists a ground state radical cation (D{sup +}) near a ground state radical anion (A{sup {minus}}). Since the thermodynamically stable state is neutral ground state D and A, back transfer will occur. The electron will back transfer from A{sup {minus}} to D{sup +} to regenerate the neutral species. In liquid solution, back transfer competes with separation by diffusion. Separated ions are extremely reactive and can go on to do useful chemistry. 10 refs.

Fayer, M.D.

1987-01-01

420

Solar technology: Solar energy in practical application \\/3rd revised and enlarged edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book provides an overview of the vast range of applications to which solar energy has been put throughout the world. The solar programs of different countries are reviewed, and the basic design and operation of a number of actual engineering realizations are described, including solar stills for desalinization, room heating, sun houses, solar-driven air conditioning with heat pumps, solar

H. Rau

1976-01-01

421

Solar energy and electric utilities - Should they be interfaced  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation is conducted concerning the economics of solar energy systems which interface with conventional electric utility supply networks. It is found that solar collection systems generally will be economical only if they can deliver solar energy at a cost lower than the variable (fuel) cost component of off-peak electricity. It is concluded that solar energy systems and conventional electric

J. G. Asbury; R. O. Mueller

1977-01-01

422

A perspective of solar energy and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively comprehensive overview is presented of solar energy as a U.S. and worldwide resource and of solar technology as the means of implementing its usage broadly. The various direct and indirect forms of solar energy resources are described. To show the flexibility in the use of solar energy resources, the various technologies and applications are described for converting those

Lloyd O. Herwig; George O. G. Löf

1981-01-01

423

Selected results from the technology assessment of solar energy program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected results on the environmental, institutional and social impacts of the large-scale deployment of decentralized solar technologies obtained by the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy program of the Department of Energy are presented. The first phase of the program is almost complete and consisted of characterizing different solar technologies and quantifying the indirect residuals of solar energy acquisition. A second

M. C. Krupka; J. H. Altseimer

1979-01-01

424

Progress in solar energy technologies and applications: An authoritative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the third of a series of American Solar Energy Society (ASES) white papers on the progress and promise of solar energy technologies. The first white paper, published in 1989, provided an assessment of solar technologies as of January, 1989. The second white paper, published in 1992, presented cost information on solar energy and provided a basis for comparing

H. M. Hubbard; P. Notari; S. Deb; S. Awerbuch; B. M. Thayer

1994-01-01

425

New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV\\/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature

Takumi Takashima; Tadayoshi Tanaka; Takuya Doi; Junji Kamoshida; Tatsuo Tani; Takashi Horigome

1994-01-01

426

L'Energie Solaire, Sur Les Energies Nouvelles (Solar Energy, about New Energies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The uses of solar energy are extensively covered in this highly technical, thorough treatise. Geothermal energy and energy of the waves are briefly examined as other possible renewable, universal, clean sources of energy. Physical, thermodynamic and quant...

M. W. Kalenga I. K. Ng'Ise

1979-01-01

427

Waveguide assisted solar energy harvesting  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A photovoltaic (PV) system includes a fiber optical waveguide comprising an active core that hosts material configured to absorb and emit light, a cladding layer surrounding the active core, the cladding layer being configured to allow ambient light to pass through the cladding layer, and an exit port located proximate an end of the waveguide. The PV system further comprises one or more solar cells disposed at the exit port of the waveguide. The waveguide is configured to guide light to the one or more solar cells. Another photovoltaic (PV) system includes a waveguide comprising an active cladding layer hosting material configured to absorb and emit light, and a core layer configured to confine light emitted by the active cladding layer. The PV system further includes one or more solar cells disposed proximate the waveguide. The core layer is configured to guide light to the one or more solar cells.

Farahi; Faramarz (Charlotte, NC)

2013-06-11

428

Solar: A Clean Energy Source for Utilities (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Summarizes the activities that the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program conducts to collaborate with and benenfit utilities with the goal of accelerating solar technologies adoption by removing barriers to solar deployment.

Not Available

2009-07-01

429

Kinetics of gas-Grain Reactions in the Solar Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochemical equilibrium calculations predict gas phase, gas-grain, and solid phase reactions as a function of pressure and temperature in the solar nebula. However, chemical reactions proceed at different rates, which generally decrease exponentially with decreasing temperature. At sufficiently low temperatures (which vary depending on the specific reaction) there may not have been enough time for the predicted equilibrium chemistry to have taken place before the local environment cooled significantly or before the gaseous solar nebula was dispersed. As a consequence, some of the high temperature chemistry established in sufficiently hot regions of the solar nebula may be quenched or frozen in without the production of predicted low temperature phases. Experimental studies and theoretical models of three exemplary low temperature reactions, the formation of troilite (FeS), magnetite (Fe3O4), and hydrous silicates, have been done to quantify these ideas. A comparison of the chemical reaction rates with the estimated nebular lifetime of 0.1-10 million years indicates that troilite formation proceeded to completion in the solar nebula. Magnetite formation was much slower and only thin magnetite rims could have formed on metal grains. Hydrous silicate formation is predicted to be even slower, and hydrous silicates in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles probably formed later on the parent bodies of these objects, instead of in the solar nebula.

Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

2000-04-01

430

The Prospects of Solar Energy for Developing Nations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed are the potential application of solar energy and its possible benefits to developing countries. Various energy needs, including domestic, agricultural, and household, that could be met by using solar energy are discussed. (BT)|

Ramachandran, A.; Gururaja, J.

1979-01-01

431

The Prospects of Solar Energy for Developing Nations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the potential application of solar energy and its possible benefits to developing countries. Various energy needs, including domestic, agricultural, and household, that could be met by using solar energy are discussed. (BT)

Ramachandran, A.; Gururaja, J.

1979-01-01

432

Development of solar energy in Peru  

SciTech Connect

Peru receives a high degree of solar radiation, except for part of its coastal area, and has almost an ideal climate for the development of solar energy. A concerted effort has been made in Peru under the direction of ITINTEC's Division of Energy to take advantage of these conditions. Work focuses on (1) the development of low-temperature applications, including the design of passive solar-heated buildings for the high Andes, (2) the design and evaluation of various types of solar water heaters and crop dryers for both household and industrial uses (based on flat-plate collectors), and (3) the construction of a desalinization prototype plant. Photovoltaic systems are being investigated for suitable applications and have an excellent potential, especially in telecommunications.

Pierson, H.O.; Nahui, A.

1981-06-01

433

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California solar energy system performance evaluation, July 1980-June 1981  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory site is an office building in California with an active solar energy system designed to supply from 23 to 33% of the space heating load and part of the hot water load. The solar heating system is equipped with 1428 square feet of flat-plate collectors, a 2000-gallon water storage tank, and two gas-fired boilers to supply auxiliary heat for both space heating and domestic hot water. Poor performance is reported, with the solar fraction being only 4%. Also given are the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and the coefficient of performance. The performance data are given for the collector, storage, solar water heating and solar space heating subsystems as well as the total system. Typical system operation and solar energy utilization are briefly described. The system design, performance evaluation techniques, weather data, and sensor technology are presented. (LEW)

Wetzel, P.E.

1981-01-01

434

Performance of solar energy hot water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative analysis of solar energy hot water systems installed in sites monitored by the National Solar Data Network is presented. Two single family and two multi-family residences were selected for evaluation. These systems represent different types of hot water systems: passive hot water, active hot water with space heating, hot water with recirculation, and hot water thermosiphon. The data is provided in a number of forms including average monthly performance values for each hot water system, average monthly values for the summer and winter seasons, and estimated operational dollar savings. The conclusions are directed at both solar and conventional design features that cause good or bad performance.

Cramer, M. A.; Evans, K. D.; Rosenbusch, J. M.; Weinstein, R. A.

435

General solar energy information user study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy are presented. These results identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed: loan officers, real estate appraisers, tax assessors, insurers, lawyers, utility respresentatives, public interest group representatives, information and agricultural representatives, public interest group representatives, information and agricultural specialists at state cooperative extension service offices, and state energy office representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W. W.; Wood, B. L.; Marle, T. L.; Reinhardt, C. L.

1981-03-01

436

Florida Solar Energy Center: K-12 Curricula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains nine sets of curriculum materials on renewable energy sources, organized into units of instruction for Grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. In the High Energy Hydrogen units, students investigate how a fuel cell converts energy directly into usable electric power and why the process is pollution-free. The award-winning Solar Matters collection includes manuals for building a solar "still" to desalinate water, exploring properties of photovoltaic cells, and experimenting with fuel cells. Printable lesson plans are supplemented with interactive games and activities for use in the science classroom. Each instructional unit is aligned with science education standards.

2011-12-16

437

Mobil Solar Energy Corporation thin EFG octagons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobil Solar Energy Corporation manufactures photovoltaic modules based on its unique Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) process for producing octagon-shaped hollow polycrystalline silicon tubes. The octagons are cut by lasers into 100 mm x 100 mm wafers which are suitable for solar cell processing. This process avoids slicing, grinding and polishing operations which are wasteful of material and are typical of

J. P. Kalejs

1994-01-01

438

Solar and wind energy resources and prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and environmental issues are among the most important problems of public concern. There are increasing debates about whether to resort to drilling more oil and mining more coal or to using renewable, sustainable, and clean resources such as solar and wind energies. Through our analyses and modeling on the basis of the National Center for Environment Prediction data, we

Quanhua Liu; Qinxian Miao; Jue J. Liu; Wenli Yang

2009-01-01

439

Incentives for Solar Energy in Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax ...

K. D. Bergeron

1981-01-01

440

Using Solar Energy to Desalinate Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Material presented is adapted from Desalination with Solar Energy, a paper presented before the International Symposium on Energy Sources and Development, held in Spain in 1977. Desalination systems energized by the sun, conditions governing their efficiency, and their costs are discussed. (HM)|

Tabor, Harry Z.

1978-01-01

441

Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

442

The Status of Solar Energy as Fuel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discused is the biological conversion of solar energy via photosynthesis into stored energy in the form of biomass. Detailed are the research and development programs on biomass of the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Brazil, Philippines, Sahel, India, and China. (BT)|

Hall, D. O.

1979-01-01

443

Solar energy systems: Technical and policy perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomenal industrial growth in the recent past has brought about the realization of the ultimate depletion of the fossil fuel reserves and the associated environmental and social costs. The prospects of solar energy as an alternative energy source have now increased due to a decline in the prospects of nuclear breeder reactors and the uncertainty in the development of fusion

Diwan

1983-01-01

444

Iron disulfide for solar energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrite (Eg = 0.95 eV) is being developed as a solar energy material due to its environmental compatibility and its very high light absorption coefficient. A compilation of material, electronic and interfacial chemical properties is presented, which is considered relevant for quantum energy conversion. In spite of intricate problems existing within material chemistry, high quantum efficiencies for photocurrent generation (Eta

A ENNAOUI; S FIECHTER; C PETTENKOFER; N ALONSOVANTE; K BUKER; M BRONOLD; C HOPFNER; H TRIBUTSCH

1993-01-01

445

Optical materials for solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of optical materials to solar energy utilization is reviewed. It is shown that hundreds of square miles of optical materials will be required every year to have a significant input on the U. S. energy economy. Most of these materials will have to be fabricated at a very low areal cost. Various high-volume, low-cost production processes applicable to

D. M. MATTOX

1976-01-01

446

Perspectives on developing country solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses some of the fundamental issues involved in the harnessing of renewable energy resources for rural development in developing countries. Utilization of several manifestations of solar energy in tandem, with the integration of benefits occurring at the user's end, appears to be attractive both from the application and the economic points of view. This can be achieved by

R. Ramakumar; J. C. Beavers

1979-01-01

447

Solar versus nuclear: choosing energy futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospects for replacing the diminishing supplies of fossil fuels with either solar or nuclear energy as the primary future energy source are examined. The comparative advantages and viability of each system are examined from technical, economic, political, and insitutional standpoints and using Sweden for illustration. The findings indicate that there are many factors in the present supply system that

M. Loennroth; T. B. Johansson; P. Steen

1980-01-01

448

Energy conservation in housing design using solar energy, mechanical system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the first experimental full-scale house built by the Solar Energy Research Center of Baghdad to be heated and cooled by solar energy. The various architectural and environmental considerations which entered into the design process are discussed, as well as the range of passive techniques examined for their compatibility with the local climate and their ability to optimize the energy efficiency of the house. The mechanical systems which were ultimately implemented are described.

Bakir, N.M.W.

1985-01-01

449

Energy analysis of the solar power satellite.  

PubMed

The energy requirements to build and operate the proposed Solar Power Satellite are evaluated and compared with the energy it produces. Because the technology is so speculative, uncertainty is explicitly accounted for. For a proposed 10-gigawatt satellite system, the energy ratio, defined as the electrical energy produced divided by the primary nonrenewable energy required over the lifetime of the system, is of order 2, where a ratio of 1 indicates the energy breakeven point. This is significantly below the energy ratio of today's electricity technologies such as light-water nuclear or coal-fired electric plants. PMID:17758765

Herendeen, R A; Kary, T; Rebitzer, J

1979-08-01

450

Greenhouse-gas emissions from solar electric- and nuclear power: A life-cycle study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar- and nuclear-electricity-generation technologies often are deemed “carbon-free” because their operation does not generate any carbon dioxide. However, this is not so when considering their entire lifecycle of energy production; carbon dioxide and other gases are emitted during the extraction, processing, and disposal of associated materials. We determined the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, namely, CO2, CH4, N2O, and chlorofluorocarbons due

Vasilis M. Fthenakis; Hyung Chul Kim

2007-01-01

451

Solar gas nitriding of Ti6Al4V alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this work was to study the activating effect of concentrated solar energy (CSE) on the high-temperature nitriding of Ti6Al4V alloy. Solar nitriding was conducted using a low-cost solar installation based on a Fresnel lens with a maximum density power of 250 W/cm2 at its focus. Prior to the solar nitriding study, Ti6Al4V was submitted to high-temperature thermochemical treatments using an electrical furnace in a conventional manner. A comparison between the two processes considering the effect of nitriding time and temperature on the hardness, thickness and composition of the nitrided layer is presented. Characterisation of the treated samples by optical and SEM microscopy, microhardness measurements and XRD analysis reveals an important reduction in the nitriding time when concentrated solar energy is used versus the traditional method. The maximum hardness of the solar nitrided samples (2100 HV) was achieved after treatment at 1200 °C for 15 min. This value is similar to that obtained when samples were heated at the same temperature in the electrical furnace for 8 h.

Rodriguez, Gloria P.; Herranz, Gemma; Romero, Ana

2013-10-01

452

Economic penalties of problems and errors in solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience with a large number of installed solar energy systems in the HUD Solar Program has shown that a variety of problems and design\\/installation errors have occurred in many solar systems, sometimes resulting in substantial additional costs for repair and\\/or replacement. In this paper, the effect of problems and errors on the economics of solar energy systems is examined. A

K. Raman; H. R. Sparkes

1983-01-01

453

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.

454

Solar energy mapping by using cloud images received from GMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy maps that indicate the wide-ranging spatial distribution of solar irradiation are required by the researchers of the solar power systems. However, the irradiation measurement networks at ground level are not enough to obtain reliable information of the solar energy distribution in the world. On the other hand, geostationary meteorological satellites (GMS) have provided the images of cloud fields

Kenji Otani; Tadashi Saitoh; I. Tsuda; K. Kurokawa

1994-01-01

455

Solar Energy Employment and Requirements, 1978-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on data collected from a mailed survey of 2800 employers engaged in solar energy activities, a study identified the characteristics of establishments engaged in solar work and the number and occupational distribution of persons working in solar energy activities in 1978, and projected solar labor requirements through 1983. The scope of the…

Levy, Girard W.; Field, Jennifer

456

Evaluation of the measured energy performance of four solar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the measured energy performance of four solar systems installed in military construction. Based on measured performance for a period of about 1 year, none of the solar systems provided the energy savings expected from the design calculations. When the fuel cost savings produced by the solar components of the systems were compared with the added solar costs,

D. L. Johnson; D. C. Hittle

1984-01-01

457

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.

458

Regulated utilities and solar energy: a legal-economic analysis of the major issues affecting the solar commercialization effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of public utilities to the addition (and competitive) sources of energy supplied by solar technologies will have a significant impact on the commercialization of solar energy. Decentralized applications of solar energy need utility-produced power to back up the energy produced by solar means. The cost and availability of this power will largely determine the acceptance of solar energy.

J. Laitos; R. J. Feuerstein

1979-01-01

459

Online National Solar Energy Directory and 2005 Solar Decathlon Product Directory  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), in partnership with the American Solar Energy Society, developed an online National Solar Energy Directory with clear, comprehensive information on suppliers and purchasing options. The site was originally located at FindSolar.com, but has recently been moved to Find-Solar.org. The original FindSolar.com domain name has been taken by the American Solar Energy Society (a partner in this project) and utilized for a similar but different project. This Find-Solar.org directory offers the rapidly growing base of potential solar customers a simple, straightforward destination to learn about their solar options. Members of the public are able to easily locate contractors in their geographic area and verify companiesâ?? qualifications with accurate third-party information. It allows consumers to obtain key information on the economics, incentives, desirability, and workings of a solar energy system, as well as competing quotes from different contractors and reviews from customers they have worked with previously. Find-Solar.org is a means of facilitating the growing public interest in solar power and overcoming a major barrier to widespread development of U.S. solar markets. In addition to the development of Find-Solar.org, SEPA developed a separate online product directory for the 2005 DOE Solar Decathlon to facilitate the communication of information about the energy efficiency and renewable energy products used in each university teamâ??s home.

Julia Hamm; Mike Taylor; America Solar Energy Society

2005-07-01

460

(Seminario Usos de la Energia Solar en la Vivienda) Solar Energy Applications for Dwellings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: National Ecoplan; National Urban Development Plan; The National Housing Program and the Use of Solar Systems and not Conventional Energies in Human Settlements; National Infrastructure for the Development of Solar Energy; Plans to Incorporate So...

1980-01-01

461

A two phase MHD generator - Prospects for use of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific aspects of a 10 kW pilot project dual phase MHD generator powered by solar heat are presented. A gas or vaporized liquid is injected into a liquid metal flow and the resulting biphasic conductor passes through a magnetized gap where electrodes at appropriate angles to the field and the flow convert the mechanical to electrical energy; the gas or

A. Alemany; J. C. Jay; J. P. Thibault

1980-01-01

462

Open cycle solar energy system utilizing buoyancy as a conversion force  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open cycle energy conversion system is described adaptable for use with, inter alia, solar collectors and other sources of available heat for increasing the temperature of a moving gas and employing a substantially vertically positioned gas expanding column comprising an endless arrangement of cups journaled for movement in a closed path in a liquid medium in the column for

Shaw

1977-01-01

463

The Cost of Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to estimate the electricity usage in their homes and calculate how many solar panels are needed to meet that demand along with total system costs. Additionally, students design systems that are practical for use in their homes, and calculate payback periods for their designs.

HEATWAVES GK-12 Program,

464

Solar Energy of the North  

SciTech Connect

The concept of this project was to design a solar array that would not only provide electricity for the major classroom building of the campus but would also utilize that electricity to enhance the learning environment. It was also understood that the project would be a research and data gathering project.

Davis St. Peter Director of Faclities ( retired) Charles Bonin Vice President of Administration & Finance

2012-01-12

465

Pumping system using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pumping system comprising a pumping unit formed by a motor and a pump and adapted to raise a liquid from an underground level to a utilization level, a vaporizable fluid flowing in a closed circuit between a solar evaporator and a condenser, the said motor being disposed in the outgoing branch between the evaporator and the condenser and a

P. Thureau; M. Bremont

1974-01-01

466

Solar energy collector and system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar collectors whose absorbers are made of a conventional building material form the outer surface of the roof and wall of a building. Air flows behind the absorbers and heat is transferred to the air by expanded metal conductors which extend from adjacent the outside surfaces of the absorbers into the flow passages. Heat from the collectors is stored in

Mcelwain

1982-01-01

467

Solar energy is growing up fast  

SciTech Connect

Few investors were willing - until recently - to put big money into large-scale solar investments, in part because they were not sure if they could find a willing buyer for the generated electricity. Several things have changed the equation in favor of solar energy - in fact, in favor of all sorts of non-traditional energy technologies. First, the cost of traditional fossil-fueled technologies has been steadily rising as fuel prices and construction costs escalate. Second, renewables-friendly policies have created a relatively low-risk market for renewables and/or low-carbon generation. Third, as investors scale up and innovate, the cost of alternative technologies has been rapidly falling. Combined, these trends have had a remarkable impact on solar energy technologies over the past couple of years, with stunning results. In particular, German policymakers are trying to create a new industrial base on par with car manufacturing and precision machine tools.

NONE

2008-06-15

468

A review of solar energy : markets, economics and policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy developmentand deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher

Govinda R. Timilsina; Lado Kurdgelashvili; Patrick A. Narbel

2011-01-01

469

National goals for solar energy: economic and social implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the likely costs and benefits of providing 20% of US energy requirements from solar energy by the year 2000. The implications are detailed for specific solar-energy technologies and market sectors of the economy. A major national commitment is necessary to resolve the obstacles hindering commercialization, but accelerating the use of solar energy

R. H. Bezdek; R. Wendling; G. E. Bennington; H. R. Chew

1982-01-01

470

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

471

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition, alteration...existing or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2010-04-01

472

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition, alteration...existing or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2009-04-01

473

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition, alteration...existing or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2013-04-01

474

Global solar energy use and social viability in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the enhancement of technology and alarming of global warming, various types of technologies are advanced worldwide nowadays to harness the energy from the sun such as solar thermal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion, solar ponds, solar tower and photovoltaic systems to utilize the energy in the majority of domestic applications and industrial sector to a certain extent. Subsequently,

M. S. Hossaina; N. A. Rahim; K. H. Solangi; R. Saidur; H. Fayaz; N. A. Madlool

2011-01-01

475

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Gas lasers with solar excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CONTENTS 1. Introduction 703 2. General requirements for laser media using solar excitation 704 3. Lasers with direct excitation by solar light 705 3.1. Basic characteristics of laser media. 3.2. Photodissociation Br2-CO2 lasers. 3.3. Interhalogen molecule lasers. 3.4. Iodine lasers. 3.5. Alkali metal vapor lasers. 4. Lasers with thermal conversion of solar pumping 709 4.1. General considerations. 4.2. CO2 laser with excitation in a black body cavity and with gas flow. 4.3. cw CO2 laser without gas flow. 5. Space laser media with solar excitation 713 5.1. Population inversion of molecular levels in the outer atmosphere of the Earth. 5.2. Laser effect in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 5.3. Terrestrial experimental technique for observing infrared emission in the atmospheres of planets. 5.4. Designs for laser systems in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 6. Conclusions 717 References 717

Gordiets, B. F.; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya

1986-07-01

476

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-11-01

477

Mathematics and Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module for use with junior high school students offers some basic career awareness in the energy field while covering some basic principles and aspects of energy use, such as vocabulary, basic electricity, energy efficiency, and home utility meter reading. Math problems are offered in volume and surface area, energy efficiency,…

Humer, Barbara

478

Mathematics and Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning module for use with junior high school students offers some basic career awareness in the energy field while covering some basic principles and aspects of energy use, such as vocabulary, basic electricity, energy efficiency, and home utility meter reading. Math problems are offered in volume and surface area, energy efficiency,…

Humer, Barbara

479

Solar\\/gas-driven absorption heat-pump systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the potential for the development of hybrid gas\\/solar-driven heat-pumps with the specific examples of a combined refrigeration and power-generation system and a sea-water purification system. Thermodynamic analysis has been performed on the systems using the water-ammonia and the lithium-bromide-water combinations. A desalination plant of this type is shown to have scope for a higher water yield than

M. Nguyen; S. B. Riffat; D. Whitman

1996-01-01

480

Zero energy homes: Combining energy efficiency and solar energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

In a typical Florida house, air-conditioning accounts for about 35% of all the electricity the home uses. As the largest single source of energy consumption in Florida, a home's air-conditioning load represents the biggest energy challenge facing Florida residents. The Florida Solar Energy Center designed a project to meet this challenge. Two homes were built with the same floor plan on near-by lots. The difference was that one (the control home) conformed to local residential building practices, and the other (the Zero Energy home) was designed with energy efficiency in mind and a solar technology system on the roof. The homes were then monitored carefully for energy use. The projects designers were looked to answer two questions: (1) could a home in a climate such as central Florida be engineered and built so efficiently that a relatively small PV system would serve the majority of its cooling needs--and even some of its daytime electrical needs; and (2) would that home be as comfortable and appealing as the conventional model built alongside it? The answer was yes, even though it was conducted in the summer of 1998--one of the hottest summers on record in Florida.

NREL

2000-03-09

481

Solar energy system with delayed drain-back  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy system is described comprising: a storage tank having upper and lower sections. The tank lower section is for holding a heat transferring liquid and the tank upper section is for holding a gas; a solar collector located above the storage tank and having a collector feed and a collector return wherein a first one of the collector feed and return couples to the lower section of the storage tank; a pump coupled to the lower section of the storage tank and to a second one of the collector feed and return. The pump exhibits an active state in which the pump moves a portion of the liquid into the solar collector and exhibits an inactive state; and means for preventing a portion of the gas from substantially replacing the liquid in the collector until a predetermined amount of time passes after the pump initially exhibits the inactive state. The preventing means are located above the storage tank and the preventing means have a drainback feed coupled to the solar collector and a drainback return coupled to the upper section of the storage tank.

Conner, L.B. Jr.; Conner, J.M.

1987-09-08

482

Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.  

PubMed

Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions. PMID:23298882

Mlinar, Vladan

2013-01-08

483

Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions.

Mlinar, Vladan

2013-02-01

484

Development of solar energy in Peru  

SciTech Connect

Peru receives a high degree of solar radiation, except for part of its coastal area, and has almost an ideal climate for the development of solar energy. However, only recently has a concerted effort been made in Peru to take advantage of these conditions. Work focuses on the development of low-temperature applications, including the design of passive solar-heated buildings for the high Andes, the design and evaluation of various types of solar water heaters and crop dryers for both household and industrial uses (based on flat-plate collectors), and the construction of a desalinization prototype plant. Photovoltaic systems are being investigated for suitable applications and have an excellent potential, especially in telecommunications.

Pierson, H.O.; Nahui, A.

1981-06-01

485

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-10-01

486

Integrated solar energy harvesting and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT To explore integrated solar energy harvesting as a power,source for low power systems such as wireless sensor nodes, an array of energy,scavenging ,photodiodes ,based ,on a ,passive-pixel architecture for imagers and have been fabricated together with storage capacitors implemented ,using on-chip interconnect in a 0.35 ?m CMOS ,logic process. Integrated vertical plate capacitors enable dense energy storage without limiting

Nathaniel J. Guilar; Albert Chen; Travis Kleeburg; Rajeevan Amirtharajah

2006-01-01

487

X-ray polarimetry towards high energy and solar science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the history of X-ray astronomy the only polarimetric measurement obtained with high significance dates back to the late '70s, when the Crab Pulsar Wind Nebula was observed. X-ray polarimetry remains a widely unexplored scientific field so far. The new 2-10 keV polarimetry era will be opened by GEMS satellite in the next future, while the extension to higher energies is still a challenging goal. The photoelectric polarimeter Gas Pixel Detector (GPD) could be employed with an Ar based gas mixture to measure the solar flares X-ray polarization up to about 35 keV, while coupling it with a Compton scattering polarimeter it would be possible to extend the energy range of measurements to higher energies.

Fabiani, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Berrilli, F.; Campana, R.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Muleri, F.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.

2012-10-01

488

Chemical reactions driven by concentrated solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energy can be used for driving endothermic reactions, either photochemically or thermally. The fraction of the solar spectrum that can be photochemically active is quite small. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to combine photochemical and thermal processes in order to increase the overall efficiency. Two thermally driven reactions are being studied: oil shale gasification and methane reforming. In both cases, the major part of the work was done in opaque metal reactors where photochemical reactions cannot take place. We then proceeded working in transparent quartz reactors. The results are preliminary, but they seem to indicate that there may be some photochemical enhancement. The experimental solar facilities used for this work include the 30 kW Schaeffer Solar Furnace and the 3 MW Solar Central Receiver in operation at the Weizmann Institute. The furnace consists of a 96 sq. m flat heliostat, that follows the sun by computer control. It reflects the solar radiation onto a spherical concentrator, 7.3 m in diameter, with a rim angle of 65 degrees. The furnace was characterized by radiometric and calorimetric measurements to show a solar concentration ratio of over 10,000 suns. The central receiver consists of 64 concave heliostats, 54 sq. m each, arranged in a north field and facing a 52 m high tower. The tower has five target levels that can be used simultaneously. The experiments with the shale gasification were carried out at the lowest level, 20 m above ground, which has the lowest solar efficiency and is assigned for low power experiments. We used secondary concentrators to boost the solar flux.

Levy, Moshe

489

Titania nanotubes for solar energy and catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since their discovery in 2001, anodic titania nanotubes formed from titanium foils have shown potential for use in photocatalytic and catalytic applications. This dissertation investigates the fabrication process in detail. A new kind of titania nanotube that makes use of a chlorine based electrochemistry, as opposed to existing fluorine based chemistry, is introduced. The chlorine based process is very rapid compared to the existing process and yield nanotubes with smaller diameters (˜ 15nm) and high aspect ratios (up to 1000 lengths to diameters). Several experiments that probe and reveal mechanistic aspects of nanotube formation on titanium foils are presented. In particular, field-enhanced dissolution does not occur by dissolving oxide (by a water forming reaction) but by Tix+ cation ejection. Attention is also given to the application of titania nanotube technology to two solar energy applications: hydrogen production by the photoelectrochemical (PEC) splitting of water and to photovoltaic electricity generation using dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's). The production of H2 by splitting water using solar energy would be an ideal future energy source since it is both a renewable and an environmentally friendly process. The natural bandgap of titania (3.2 eV) however is too wide to efficiently harvest solar energy (less than 5% of solar energy is accessible at this band gap). Hence carbon doping was investigated as a means to narrow the titania bandgap while retaining its water-splitting capability. Finally, in DSSC's a ruthenium dye was adsorbed onto the surface of titania nanotubes. The absorption spectrum of the dye has excellent overlap with the solar spectrum and can efficiently harvest photons. Titania nanotubes with their high surface area and order may be a superior dye support and charge collector in these cells compared to widely used sintered nanoparticulate films. Fabrication protocols are developed and evaluated that are specifically designed for optimal performance in DSSC's.

Richter, Christiaan P.

490

Application of Grey Prediction in a Solar Energy-Assisted Photocatalytic Low-Pressure Drying Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental solar energy-assisted photocatalytic low-pressure dryer (SEPLD) for batch food dehydration was developed and tested in an attempt to completely utilize green energy and contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The dryer consists of high-transmittance glass used to absorb heat from solar radiation, by which means the water content of food products was vaporized and removed using a low-pressure

Ho-Hsien Chen; Chao-Chin Chung; Chih-Hsiang Hsu; Tzou-Chi Huang

2010-01-01

491

Solar Energy Directory: A Directory of Domestic and International Firms Involved in Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory is intended to provide a link between suppliers of solar energy technology and information and potential users of these products. Included are over 1400 national and international entries. These listings include architects, associations, education sources, wind power technology and information sources, solar research organizations,…

Centerline Co., Phoenix, AZ.

492

Solar Energy Directory: A Directory of Domestic and International Firms Involved in Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This directory is intended to provide a link between suppliers of solar energy technology and information and potential users of these products. Included are over 1400 national and international entries. These listings include architects, associations, education sources, wind power technology and information sources, solar research organizations,…

Centerline Co., Phoenix, AZ.

493

Assessment of some energy technologies associated with solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report we present our study of three alternative energy generation concepts which employ solar energy in some part of the system. We will discuss these subjects: Salinity Gradient Solar Ponds, Osmotic Membrane Power Generation, and Thermochemical Storage and Transport. The treatment of these items is not uniform. The report will emphasize the ponds, briefly dwell on Osmotic Membranes and only touch on the third topic. This, in fact, reflects the assessment of the potential of the three concepts.

Abarbanel, H. D.; Case, K. M.; Flatte, S. M.; Nierenberg, W. A.; Watson, K. M.

1981-10-01

494

Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility  

SciTech Connect

SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR DEVICE FABRICATION LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT The space allocated for this laboratory was �¢����shell space�¢��� that required an upfit in order to accommodate nano-fabrication equipment in a quasi-clean room environment. This construction project (cost $279,736) met the non-federal cost share requirement of $250,000 for this award. The central element of the fabrication laboratory is a new $400,000+ stand-alone system, funded by other sources, for fabricating and characterizing photovoltaic devices, in a state-of-the-art nanofabrication environment. This congressionally directed project also included the purchase of an energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) detector for a pre-existing transmission electron microscope (TEM). This detector allows elemental analysis and elemental mapping of materials used to fabricate solar energy devices which is a key priority for our research center. TASK 2: SOLAR ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT (INSTRUMENTATION) This laboratory provides access to modern spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation for characterizing devices, materials and components on time scales ranging from femtoseconds to seconds and for elucidating mechanisms. The goals of this congressionally directed project included the purchase and installation of spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation that would substantially and meaningfully enhance the capabilities of this laboratory. Some changes were made to the list of equipment proposed in the original budget. These changes did not represent a change in scope, approach or aims of this project. All of the capabilities and experiments represented in the original budget were maintained. The outcome of this Congressionally Directed Project has been the development of world-class fabrication and spectroscopy user facilities for solar fuels research at UNC-CH. This award has provided a significant augmentation of our pre-existing instrumentation capabilities which were funded by earlier UNC SERC projects, including the Energy Frontier

Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

2011-11-11

495

Transparent heat mirrors for solar-energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent heat-mirror films, which transmit solar radiation but reflect IR thermal radiation, have potentially important applications in solar\\/thermal\\/electric conversion, solar heating, solar photovoltaic conversion, and window insulation. RF sputtering was used to prepare two types of films: TiO2\\/Ag\\/TiO2 and Sn-doped In2O3. To characterize the properties of heat-mirror films for solar-energy collection, two parameters are defined: the effective solar absorptivity and

J. C. C. Fan; F. J. Bachner

1976-01-01

496

Is Solar Energy the Fuel of the Future?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the present distribution of solar energy, traces its use through history, explores its potential utilization in the future, and presents the effects of the use of solar energy on pollution. (GS)|

Cetincelik, Mauammer

1974-01-01

497

Analytical Models for Solar-Photovoltaic Energy-System Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical models for components used in solar photovoltaic energy systems have been incorporated into subroutines that are part of the solar energy system analysis computer program SOLSYS. Array thermal models calculate cell temperature and illumination ...

M. W. Edenburn

1981-01-01

498

Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI) Solar Trend Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents trend analyses of various financial terms for solar photovoltaic (PV) projects and concentrated solar power (CSP) projects as reported in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (...

K. Cory M. Mendelsohn R. Hubbell T. Lowder

2012-01-01

499

Incentives for solar energy in industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax deductions for fuel expenses with tax credits for capital investments for energy. The result is a simple expression for tax equity. The effects that market penetration of solar energy has on conventional energy prices are analyzed with a free market model. It is shown that net costs of a subsidy program to the society can be significantly reduced by price. Several government loan guarantee concepts are evaluated as incentives that may not require direct outlays of government funds; their relative effectiveness in achieving loan leverage through project financing, and their cost and practicality, are discussed.

Bergeron, K. D.

1981-05-01

500

Magnetospheric feedbacks in solar wind energy transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar wind kinetic energy, fueling all dynamical processes within the near-Earth space, is extracted by a dynamo process at the magnetopause converting kinetic energy into magnetic energy. We investigate the magnetopause energy transfer both in small and large scales; using Cluster observations as well as a three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation GUMICS-4. In the simulation, the spatial distribution of the energy transfer exhibits a dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation, which is shown to agree with observational local estimates from Cluster spacecraft recordings. In both sythetic runs with artificial solar wind input as well as in reproductions of the observed solar wind we observe a "hysteresis" effect, where the magnetopause energy input stays enhanced longer than the traditional energy transfer proxies (e.g., epsilon) indicate. Specifically we focus in the simulation of a substorm sequence on Feb 18, 2004, during which an exceptional agreement between the simulation results and spacecraft recordings was observed on several orbits within the near-Earth space. In this event, we again observe the hysteresis effect and investigate the processes causing it at the magnetopause. We argue that since GUMICS-4 reproduces the observed signatures of the substorm sequence in question, the simulation results represent physical processes within the magnetosphere. We conclude that as the simulation energy input exhibits delays already at the magnetopause, the delays in the classical substorm loading - unloading cycle may be interpreted in a new light.

Palmroth, Minna; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.; Anekallu, Chandrasekhar R.; Honkonen, Ilja; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Lucek, Elizabeth A.; Dandouras, Iannis

2010-05-01