Sample records for gas solar energy

  1. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  2. Assessment of residential passive solar/gas-fired energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, D. L.; Hirshberg, A. S.

    1982-12-01

    The study was made to provide a comprehensive analysis of the issues involved in integrating passive solar with gas-fired back-up energy systems including: characterize major passive solar technologies; analyze technical and economic requirements of back-up heating and cooling systems; evaluate potential improvements for gas-fired heating equipment that could enhance its fit with passive solar heating; investigate the feasibility of passive solar cooling coupled with gas dehumidification equipment; and identify R&D opportunities for GRI which offer benefits to the gas ratepayer and to the gas industry. Passive solar heating, because of its potential to significantly reduce home heating loads and of the ease with which electric backup systems can be installed could result in a decrease in gas market share, as a primary heating fuel in new housing.

  3. A solar simulator-pumped gas laser for the direct conversion of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. R.; Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Most proposed space power systems are comprised of three general stages, including the collection of the solar radiation, the conversion to a useful form, and the transmission to a receiver. The solar-pumped laser, however, effectively eliminates the middle stage and offers direct photon-to-photon conversion. The laser is especially suited for space-to-space power transmission and communication because of minimal beam spread, low power loss over large distances, and extreme energy densities. A description is presented of the first gas laser pumped by a solar simulator that is scalable to high power levels. The lasant is an iodide C3F7I that as a laser-fusion driver has produced terawatt peak power levels.

  4. An Application of Solar Energy Storage in the Gas: Solar Heated Biogas Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Kocar; A. Eryasar

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor that may affect the performance of anaerobic digestion. Therefore, biogas plants without heating system work only in warmer regions for the whole year. In regions with extreme temperature variations, for instance in Turkey, the biogas plant should be built with heating system. One of the methods is to use solar energy to increase the reactor

  5. A space-based combined thermophotovoltaic electric generator and gas laser solar energy conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesil, Oktay

    This paper describes a spaceborne energy conversion system consisting of a thermophotovoltaic electric generator and a gas laser. As a power source for the converson, the system utilizes an intermediate blackbody cavity heated to a temperature of 2000-2400 K by concentrated solar radiation. A double-layer solar cell of GaAs and Si forms a cylindrical surface concentric to this blackbody cavity, receiving the blackbody radiation and converting it into electricity with cell conversion efficiency of 50 percent or more. If the blackbody cavity encloses a laser medium, the blackbody radiation can also be used to simultaneously pump a lasing gas. The feasibility of blackbody optical pumping at 4.3 microns in a CO2-He gas mixture was experimentally demonstrated.

  6. Toward the renewables - A natural gas/solar energy transition strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, J. A.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The inevitability of an energy transition from today's non-renewable fossil base toward a renewable energy base is considered from the viewpoint of the need for a national transition strategy. Then, one such strategy is offered. Its technological building blocks are described in terms of both energy use and energy supply. The strategy itself is then sketched at four points in its implementation; (1) initiation, (2) early transition, (3) late transition, and (4) completion. The transition is assumed to evolve from a heavily natural gas-dependent energy economy. It then proceeds through its transition toward a balanced, hybrid energy system consisting of both centralized and dispersed energy supply technologies supplying hydrogen and electricity from solar energy. Related institutional, environmental and economic factors are examined briefly.

  7. Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Design and Construction, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

  8. Project SAGE: solar assisted gas energy. Final report and executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Phase III basic objective was establishment of a technical and economic baseline for proper assessment of the practical potential of solar water heating for apartments. Plans can then be formulated to improve SAGE technical design and performance; reduce SAGE costs; refine SAGE market assessment; and identify policies to encourage the use of SAGE. Two SAGE water heating systems were installed and tested. One system was retrofit onto an existing apartment building; the other was installed in a new apartment building. Each installation required approximately 1000 square feet of collector area tilted to an angle of 37/sup 0/ from the horizontal, and each was designed to supply about 70 percent of the energy for heating water for approximately 32 to 40 units of a typical two-story apartment complex in Southern California. Actual contruction costs were carefully compiled, and both installations were equipped with performance monitoring equipment. In addition, the operating and maintenance requirements of each installation was evaluated by gas company maintenance engineers. Upon completion of the installation analysis, the SAGE installation cost was further refined by obtaining firm SAGE construction bids from two plumbing contractors in Southern California. Market penetration was assessed by developing a computer simulation program using the technical and economic analysis from the installation experience. Also, the project examined the public policies required to encourage SAGE and other solar energy options. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  9. Homeowners survey: gas utilities and the residential solar market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    The market potential for a gas\\/solar energy market in the residential sector prompted the American Gas Association's Solar Energy Committee to analyze national homeowner data collected by Gallup for the Solar Energy Research Institute to see if it applies to gas-utility diversification. The survey results show that the public is interested in utility involvement. Key findings in the survey cover

  10. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel demand and solar energy conversion efficiency in European bioethanol production for automotive purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Reijnders; M. A. J. Huijbregts

    2007-01-01

    Crop derived biofuels such as (bio)ethanol are increasingly applied for automotive purposes. They have, however, a relatively low efficiency in converting solar energy into automotive power. The outcome of life cycle studies concerning ethanol as to fossil fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions associated with such inputs depend strongly on the assumptions made regarding e.g. allocation, inclusion of upstream processes

  11. Solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, W. [W. Hoagland & Associates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Technology will allow radiation from the sun to provide nonpolluting and cheap fuels, as well as electricity. It is unlikely that a single solar technology will predominate. Regional variations in economics and the availability of sunlight will naturally favor some approaches over others. Electricity may be generated by burning biomass, erecting wind turbines, building solar-powered heat engines, laying out photovoltaic cells or harnessing the energy in rivers with dams. Hydrogen fuel can be produced by electrochemical cells of biological processes-involving microorganisms or enzymes-that are driven by sunlight. Fuels such as ethanol and methanol may be generated from biomass or other solar technologies. At present, developed nations consume at least 10 times the energy per person than is used in developing countries. But the demand for energy is rising fast everywhere. Solar technologies could enable the developing world to skip a generation of infrastructure and move directly to a source of energy that does not contribute to global warming or otherwise degrade the environment. Developed countries could also benefit by exporting these technologies-if additional incentives are at all necessary for investing in the future of energy from the sun. 4 refs.

  12. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  13. Alternative Energy: Solar Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pratte, John

    This lesson provides an introduction to the use of the sun's energy. Topics include the history of solar energy usage and its more recent adaptations. There is also discussion of how the sun produces and radiates energy, what happens when it reaches Earth, types of solar systems, and the most common use of solar energy (heating). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate the effects of color and collection area on the amount of solar energy absorbed by a system. They will use aluminum pie pans of different sizes and colors and compare the relative effect by their ability to heat water placed in them.

  14. The solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hirsch; M. Epstein; A. Steinfeld

    2001-01-01

    The endothermic decomposition of natural gas into a carbon-rich condensed phase and a hydrogen-rich gas phase, using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat, is considered as a model reaction for conducting a 2nd-law analysis of a solar decarbonization process in which carbon is removed from fossil fuels prior to their use for power generation. The theoretical

  15. Solar energy and energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Dumon

    1977-01-01

    The centrality of the problem of storage of solar energy to cope with day\\/night alternation, inclement weather, and cloudiness or cloud passages that render solar energy input variable and unpredictable is addressed, and advances in energy storage pertinent to large-scale solar energy use are reviewed. Energy storage in general, storage of nuclear energy and solar energy in particular, and problems

  16. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Norton; Phillip C Eames; Steve NG Lo

    1998-01-01

    Renewable energy generation of electricity is advocated as a means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions associated with the generation from fossil fuels. Whilst it is true that renewable sources do not generate significant carbon dioxide whilst producing electricity, as with fossil-fuelled plants they do embody significant emissions in their materials of construction. The “full-chain” environmental impacts of wind, hydro, solar-thermal

  17. Gas-grain energy transfer in solar nebula shock waves: Implications for the origin of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Horanyi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Meteoritic chondrules provide evidence for the occurrence of rapid transient heating events in the protoplanetary nebula. Astronomical evidence suggests that gas dynamic shock waves are likely to be excited in protostellar accretion disks by processes such as protosolar mass ejections, nonaxisymmetric structures in an evolving disk, and impact on the nebula surface of infalling 'clumps' of circumstellar gas. Previous detailed calculations of gas-grain energy and momentum transfer have supported the possibility that such shock waves could have melted pre-existing chondrule-sized grains. The main requirement for grains to reach melting temperatures in shock waves with plausibly low Mach numbers is that grains existed in dust-rich zones (optical depth greater than 1) where radiative cooling of a given grain can be nearly balanced by radiation from surrounding grains. Localized dust-rich zones also provide a means of explaining the apparent small spatial scale of heating events. For example, the scale size of at least some optically thick dust-rich zones must have been relatively small (less than 10 kilometers) to be consistent with petrologic evidence for accretion of hot material onto cold chondrules. The implied number density of mm-sized grains for these zones would be greater than 30 m(exp -3). In this paper, we make several improvements of our earlier calculations to include radiation self-consistently in the shock jump conditions, and we include heating of grains due to radiation from the shocked gas. In addition, we estimate the importance of momentum feedback of dust concentrations onto the shocked gas which would tend to reduce the efficiency of gas dynamic heating of grains in the center of the dust cloud.

  18. A Solar Energy Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, David L.; Riley, Robert A.

    This document contains 5,000 references to literature through 1976 dealing with various aspects of solar energy. Categories are established according to area of solar research. These categories include: (1) overview; (2) measurement; (3) low-range solar energy collection (below 120 degrees C); (4) intermediate-range solar energy collection (120…

  19. Solar Energy Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar…

  20. [Efficiency of oxidant gas generator cells powered by electric or solar energy].

    PubMed

    Brust Carmona, H; Benitez, A; Zarco, J; Sánchez, E; Mascher, I

    1998-02-01

    Diseases caused by microbial contaminants in drinking water continue to be a serious problem in countries like Mexico. Chlorination, using chlorine gas or chlorine compounds, is one of the best ways to treat drinking water. However, difficulties in handling chlorine gas and the inefficiency of hypochlorite solution dosing systems--due to sociopolitical, economic, and cultural factors--have reduced the utility of these chlorination procedures, especially in far-flung and inaccessible rural communities. These problems led to the development of appropriate technologies for the disinfection of water by means of the on-site generation of mixed oxidant gases (chlorine and ozone). This system, called MOGGOD, operates through the electrolysis of a common salt solution. Simulated system evaluation using a hydraulic model allowed partial and total costs to be calculated. When powered by electrical energy from the community power grid, the system had an efficiency of 90%, and in 10 hours it was able to generate enough gases to disinfect about 200 m3 of water at a cost of approximately N$8 (US $1.30). When the electrolytic cell was run on energy supplied through a photoelectric cell, the investment costs were higher. A system fed by photovoltaic cells could be justified in isolated communities that lack electricity but have a gravity-fed water distribution system. PMID:9542448

  1. Alternatives in solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  2. Incoming Solar Energy Applet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steve Ackerman

    This applet plots the incoming solar energy at the top of the atmosphere (no absorption by the atmosphere) for two locations at once. Students will learn how the date, hemisphere, and latitude impact the distribution of solar energy.

  3. Solar Energy Entrepreneurs

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region May 31, 2012 #12;Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region Meeting Objectives potential partners, employees, customers · Combine areas of strength for synergistic

  4. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power

    E-print Network

    Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Over the last thirty years, more-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation could publication (Burkhardt et al. 2012). LCA of Energy Systems Concentrating Solar Power Coal #12;Published

  5. Matter & Energy Solar Energy

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    standard semiconductor in most electronic devices, including the photovoltaic cells that solar panels use efficient than the more commonly used silicon. (Credit: John Rogers) Ads by Google Solar Panel Available Now windturbines solar panels www.c

  6. Solar energy potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of solar energy as a national resource is discussed. Research and development programs for the development of eleven concepts are described to show the proposed funding for each year over a fifteen year period. The estimated energy contributions by period for each of the solar concepts are analyzed. The estimated impact of the solar concepts to the year 2020 are tabulated.

  7. Luminescent solar concentrators and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells for solar energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica Sholin

    2008-01-01

    Increasing energy demand and the parallel increase of greenhouse gas emissions are challenging researchers to find new and cleaner energy sources. Solar energy harvesting is arguably the most promising candidate for replacing fossil-fuel power generation. Photovoltaics are the most direct way of collecting solar energy; cost continues to hinder large-scale implementation of photovoltaics, however. Therefore, alternative technologies that will allow

  8. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  9. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  10. Iowa and solar energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    What are some different ways solar energy is used in our society? This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to five uses for solar energy in the state of Iowa. They include signs by the department of transportation, roof grids, solar cars, thin-film photovoltaics, and tents produced for the U.S. Army. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  11. Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  12. Solar energy systems cost

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Five major areas of work currently being pursued in the United States in solar energy which will have a significant impact on the world's energy situation in the future are addressed. The five significant areas discussed include a technical description of several solar technologies, current and projected cost of the selected solar systems, and cost methodologies which are under development. In addition, sensitivity considerations which are unique to solar energy systems and end user applications are included. A total of six solar technologies - biomass, photovoltaics, wind, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), solar thermal, and industrial process heat (IPH) have been included in a brief technical description to present the variety of systems and their techncial status. System schematics have been included of systems which have been constructed, are currently in the detail design and test stage of development, or are of a conceptual nature.

  13. Brayton cycle solarized advanced gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Described is the development of a Brayton Engine/Generator Set for solar thermal to electrical power conversion, authorized under DOE/NASA Contract DEN3-181. The objective was to design, fabricate, assemble, and test a small, hybrid, 20-kW Brayton-engine-powered generator set. The latter, called a power conversion assembly (PCA), is designed to operate with solar energy obtained from a parobolic dish concentrator, 11 meters in diameter, or with fossil energy supplied by burning fuels in a combustor, or by a combination of both (hybrid model). The CPA consists of the Brayton cycle engine, a solar collector, a belt-driven 20-kW generator, and the necessary control systems for automatic operation in solar-only, fuel-only, and hybrid modes to supply electrical power to a utility grid. The original configuration of the generator set used the GTEC Model GTP36-51 gas turbine engine for the PCA prime mover. However, subsequent development of the GTEC Model AGT101 led to its selection as the powersource for the PCA. Performance characteristics of the latter, thermally coupled to a solar collector for operation in the solar mode, are presented. The PCA was successfully demonstrated in the fuel-only mode at the GTEC Phoenix, Arizona, facilities prior to its shipment to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for installation and testing on a test bed concentractor (parabolic dish). Considerations relative to Brayton-engine development using the all-ceramic AGT101 when it becomes available, which would satisfy the DOE heat engine efficiency goal of 35 to 41 percent, are also discussed in the report.

  14. Solar Server: Forum for Solar Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in Germany, this site provides a forum for news and information regarding all aspects of solar energy. The site provides background information on the technical aspects pertaining to solar energy and photovoltaics. A variety of images and descriptions provide useful background information about photovoltaic roof tiles and their role in solar buildings.

  15. Solar Energy Project: Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

  16. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  17. SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment

    E-print Network

    Brownstone, Rob

    SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University..................................................................................................................... 1 2 Solar Resource Assessment ........................................................................................... 2 2.1 Solar Radiation

  18. Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

    This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)

  19. Solar energy collector assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nishiuma; T. Tonomura

    1983-01-01

    An evacuated, one-wall tubular housing having a reflector positioned at the opposite side of the tubular housing from the radiation energy of the sun. The tubular housing includes a solar energy absorber member of a cylindrical shape, for example, and a metal tube provided for maintaining an energy absorbing media such as water in good heat transfer relationship with the

  20. Solar-pumped gas laser development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of gas properties through detailed kinetic models led to the identification of critical gas parameters for use in choosing appropriate gas combinations for solar pumped lasers. Broadband photoabsorption in the visible or near UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to insure good solar absorption efficiency. The photoexcitation density is independent of the absorption bandwidth. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than 10 A to insure lasing threshold over reasonable gain lengths. The system should show a high degree of chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. Although photoexcitation of electronic vibrational transitions is considered as a possible system if the emission bands sufficiently narrow, it appears that photodissociation into atomic metastables is more likely to result in a successful solar pumped laser system.

  1. Electricity Production Using Solar Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Demirbas

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a solar-powered development project is used to identify whether it is possible to utilize solar technologies in the electricity production sector. Electricity production from solar energy has been found to be a promising method in the future. Concentrated solar energy can be converted to chemical energy via high-temperature endothermic reactions. Coal and biomass can be pyrolyzed or

  2. Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the possibilities afforded by solar energy as one of the alternative energy sources capable to take the place of the dwindling oil and gas reserves. Solar energy, being a nondepleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. Steps taken toward providing innovative solutions that are economically competitive with other systems are briefly reviewed.

  3. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  4. Solar Wind Neon from Genesis: Implications for the Lunar Noble Gas Record

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ansgar Grimberg; Heinrich Baur; Peter Bochsler; Fritz Bühler; Donald S. Burnett; Charles C. Hays; Veronika S. Heber; Amy J. G. Jurewicz; Rainer Wieler

    2006-01-01

    Lunar soils have been thought to contain two solar noble gas components with distinct isotopic composition. One has been identified as implanted solar wind, the other as higher-energy solar particles. The latter was puzzling because its relative amounts were much too large compared with present-day fluxes, suggesting periodic, very high solar activity in the past. Here we show that the

  5. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. R.

    1984-03-01

    This paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun.

  6. Solar energy reflecting system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Polley

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy reflecting system is disclosed which can modify its reflector configuration in accordance with the movement of the sun across the sky. The system includes a circular dish-like housing with upper and lower circular hoops in spaced relationship within the housing which can be displaced relative to each other. A series of reflector panels are sequentially spaced around

  7. Solar energy collector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Bartos; C. G. Currin

    1977-01-01

    A solar energy collector is made up of a first flat flexible sheet preferably of silicone, and a first sinuous sheet also preferably of silicone, sealingly adhered to the first sheet along a plurality of spaced parallel lines to provide a series of substantially parallel ducts which carry a liquid heat transfer medium. Either the first flat sheet or first

  8. Solar energy research and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

  9. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue] [Purdue

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  10. Catalysis in solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maugh, T. H., II

    1983-09-01

    The progress of technologies to convert solar energy into useful work is reviewed, with particular attention given to the functional principles of solar cells and photoelectrochemical cells. The current in a solar cell is completely electronic, while in a photoelectric cell (PC) the current is partially ionic, i.e., the electrical contact between electrodes is accomplished chemically. The PC can be activated by photons to perform photoassisted electrolysis in the presence of an external potential, thus producing hydrogen fuel. Various materials are under study as photoanodes, with layered metal dichalcogenide semiconductors the best performers so far. The chalcogenides include MoS2, WS2, MoSe2, and WSe2, which could be applied to photochemical synthesis of redox products. Employment of Pt or Rh on the electrode surface has increased H2 production efficiency to 13.3 percent.

  11. Solar eclipse monitoring for solar energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the interest in using solar energy as a major contributor to renewable energy applications has increased, and the focus to optimize the use of electrical energy based on demand and resources from different locations has strengthened. This article includes a procedure for implementing an algorithm to calculate the Moon's zenith angle with uncertainty of ±0.001° and azimuth angle with uncertainty of ±0.003°. In conjunction with Solar Position Algorithm, the angular distance between the Sun and the Moon is used to develop a method to instantaneously monitor the partial or total solar eclipse occurrence for solar energy applications. This method can be used in many other applications for observers of the Sun and the Moon positions for applications limited to the stated uncertainty.

  12. Central solar energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  13. A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer for solar and planetary observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Darrell L.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a prototype spectrometer for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. In this recently developed spectrometer, the energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

  14. SERI solar energy storage program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Baylin; R. J. Copeland; A. Kotch; T. Kriz; W. Luft; R. G. Nix; J. O. Wright

    1982-01-01

    Thermal energy storage technologies are identified for specific solar thermal applications. The capabilities and limitations of direct-contact thermal storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport are examined. Storage of energy from active solar thermal systems for industrial process heat and the heating of buildings is analyzed and seasonal energy storage is covered. The coordination of numerous thermal energy storage research

  15. New Directions for Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Peter E.; Burke, James C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes new applications being found for solar energy as a result of technical advances and a variety of economic and social forces. Discusses the basic requirements for a solar climate control system and outlines factors that should stimulate greater use of solar energy in the near future. (JR)

  16. Solar energy conversion through photosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Clayton

    1977-01-01

    Energy sources of possible quantitative significance which are directly or indirectly of contemporary solar origin are considered, taking into account wind-powered electric generators, ocean thermal gradients, direct solar heating, variations of agriculture, photosynthetic hydrogen production, and photoelectric devices. The most practical schemes for capturing solar energy appear at this time to be directly heating and harnessing the wind. Silicon photovoltaic

  17. New Mexico Solar Energy Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Association provides valuable educational resources for teaching students about solar energy. The site has a variety of student projects, resources, and curricula examples. The resources provided on the site cover solar cell demonstrations, DC electricity, photovoltaics, and sustainability.

  18. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

  19. SERI solar energy storage program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Copeland; J. D. Wright; C. E. Wyman

    1980-01-01

    Research on advanced technologies, system analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage program are presented. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are being performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and

  20. Diffusion and adoption of an efficient, integrated alternative energy system: a producer gas-solar greenhouse for farmstead operation. Final technical report, September 1, 1980-October 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.T.

    1983-10-10

    The Department of Energy awarded College of the Siskiyous a grant to provide a demonstration project that coordinated a variety of energy-related technologies: a 100-foot, two-podded solar greenhouse, a producer gas generator fired by wood chips, thermal storage devices (fish tanks, water filled drums, hydroponic reservoirs), and a group of related activities: alcohol fuels production with the carbon dioxide by-product being used in one pod of the greenhouse; growing small meat animals who would eat greens from the facility, would provide manure for the gardens, and would put off some heat for the facility; tank fish farming; an eleven acre appropriate technology homestead which would surround the greenhouse. At the time of this report, the greenhouse has been completed though devices (fans, stoves, louvers, shades)to minimize temperature shifts continue to be developed. The producer gas generator has had problems with tar buildup which gum up engines. Rather than running a motor off the unit to produce electricity for the greenhouse, the unit is being used to demonstrate how wood gasification can be used to run motors which in turn can be used to run generators, automobiles, etc. The facility is being used to experiment with a variety of growing periods, conditions, and materials.

  1. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOEpatents

    Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  2. Catalysis in solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Maugh, T.H. II

    1983-09-30

    The direct production of electrically and synthetic fuels from sunlight by means of photovoltaic devices is discussed with emphasis on the catalytic production of electricity in a photoelectrochemical cell. How solar energy works is explained with the operation of semiconductor-electrolyte junction stressed. The problem of silicon dioxide and sulfur blocking transport of charge carriers, thus destroying the cell's efficiency, is addressed. A naked silicon photoanode loses more than 90% of its efficiency in less than 5 minutes. Several approaches suggested for minimizing the problem of rapid recombination of electrons and holes and limitations on photovoltage produced by pinning.

  3. GASIFICATION OF WASTE TYRE AND PLASTIC (PET) BY SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Matsunami; S. Yoshida; O. Yokota; M. Nezuka; M. Tsuji; Y. Tamaura

    1999-01-01

    Waste tyre and plastic such as polyethylene terephthalate can be utilized as a useful material for conversion of solar energy into chemical energy by solar thermochemical gasification into synthesis gas (CO+H2) using concentrated solar energy. In the present paper, the gasification of waste tyre (C: 86 wt.%, H: 8.4 wt.%) and of PET (C10H8O4)n, were studied using ZnO as a

  4. Building interest in solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Today`s solar technology and growing availability of energy-efficient mortgages offer advantages to home builders around the country. This article describes the different types of solar technology as well as the financing incentives that reward buyers of energy-efficient homes. Inset information includes consumer survey results about consumer interest in buying homes with solar features, current extra expense, and future savings, established home energy rating programs, and individual state financial incentives.

  5. A Solar Energy Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregory Childs

    2007-03-01

    In sixth grade, students understand that Earth gets visible light from the Sun, but studentsmay also believe the Earth gets heat from the Sun. This last part is incorrect because the Sun is too far from the Earth to heat it directly. So, how does the Sun heat the Earth? When light strikes an object, it can be reflected or absorbed. Absorbed light usually increases the energy in an object, which causes the object to heat up. The following solar energy learning cycle (Exploration, Term Introduction, and Concept Application) was developed to help sixth-grade students better understand the concept. This learning cycle also facilitates technology integration and provides students opportunities to construct and generate experiments with scientifically testable questions. The cycle takes six 50-minute periods.

  6. Particle–gas reacting flow under concentrated solar irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Maag; W. Lipi?ski; A. Steinfeld

    2009-01-01

    A transient heat transfer model is developed for a reacting flow of CH4 laden with carbon particles directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation and undergoing thermal decomposition into carbon and hydrogen. The unsteady mass and energy conservation equations, coupling convective heat and mass transfer, radiative heat transfer, and chemical kinetics for a two-phase solid–gas flow, are formulated and solved numerically

  7. Energy production from solar ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    A method for obtaining solar energy in a useful form by utilizing solar ponds is described. The method comprises direct or indirect contact of hot liquid from the pond with a low boiling point immiscible working fluid for transfer of the heat energy from the liquid to the working fluid. The heated working fluid is separated from the liquid and

  8. Photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memming, Rüdiger

    In the present paper the progress in the field of solar energy conversion for the production of electricity and storable chemical fuels during the last decade is reviewed. The current-potential behavior of regenerative photovoltaic cells are derived and related to charge transfer processes at the solid/liquid interface. Various cells are critically analyzed in view of their stability and conversion efficiency. A number of factors limiting the photovoltage are discussed in terms of a stabilization mechanism, trapping of minority carriers at the interface and the forward dark current. Concerning the production of chemical fuels the photocleavage of water and hydrogen sulfide, the reduction of carbon dioxide and the formation of ammonia is evaluated. The main emphasis is laid here on catalytic processes at semiconductor electrodes and particles. The principle function of catalysts being deposited on extended electrodes and particles are discussed in detail.

  9. Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaHart, David E.

    This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics; (9)…

  10. Solar energy collection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Leininger; R. G. Decker

    1985-01-01

    A pyramid-shaped solar collector is provided which is capable of operation in conjunction with heat transfer media such as air, water and oil. A pre-heater assembly is provided for use in conjunction with the solar collector to develop improved thermal output capabilities. Series of mirrors are provided for use in conjunction with the solar collector and pre-heater to provide further

  11. Solar energy power generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, J.E.; Cochran, C.D.

    1986-05-06

    A solar energy power generation system is described which consists of: (a) means for collecting and concentrating solar energy; (b) heat storage means; (c) Stirling engine means for producing power; (d) first heat transfer means for receiving the concentrated solar energy and for transferring heat to the heat storage means; and (e) second heat transfer means for controllably transferring heat from the storage means to the Stirling engine means and including a discharge heat pipe means for transferring heat to the Stirling engine means and further including means for inserting and withdrawing the discharge heat pipe means into and out of the heat storage means.

  12. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  13. Satellite solar energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Flood

    1997-01-01

    Summary form only given. The first space solar array was carried aloft on Vanguard I on March 17, 1958. The array on Vanguard I consisted of six photovoltaic panels mounted on the outer surface of the satellite and produced one watt of power for over six years. Space solar arrays and power systems have grown in size and complexity since

  14. The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Chris

    1980-01-01

    The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)

  15. Critical issues in the development of hybrid solar/gas receivers for dish/Stirling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1991-12-31

    A hybrid solar/gas receiver system will allow Stirling engines to operate with combined solar and gas power sources. One of the most attractive options for building a hybrid system is to integrate a gas-fired heat pipe directly into a heat-pipe solar receiver. Before this union can take place, however, a number of technical issues must be resolved. A design must be found that properly distributes the heat-pipe`s working fluid over the heated surfaces and prevents fluid from accumulating at undesirable locations in the heat pipe. Experience that has been gained in developing solar receivers and gas-fired heat pipes under recent Department of Energy solar-thermal dish-electric programs is used in this paper to address many of the technical obstacles to building receiver systems. 16 refs.

  16. Critical issues in the development of hybrid solar/gas receivers for dish/Stirling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, D. R.; Rawlinson, K. S.

    A hybrid solar/gas receiver system will allow Stirling engines to operate with combined solar and gas power sources. One of the most attractive options for building a hybrid system is to integrate a gas-fired heat pipe directly into a heat-pipe solar receiver. Before this union can take place, however, a number of technical issues must be resolved. A design must be found that properly distributes the heat-pipe's working fluid over the heated surfaces and prevents fluid from accumulating at undesirable locations in the heat pipe. Experience that has been gained in developing solar receivers and gas-fired heat pipes under recent Department of Energy solar-thermal dish-electric programs is used in this paper to address many of the technical obstacles to building receiver systems.

  17. Solar energy utilization in the USSR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Shpilrain

    1991-01-01

    The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying

  18. Solar powered gas generation. [combined solar thermal power plant for electrolysis of seawater and solar still

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to the utilization of solar energy by means of a reflector, a boiler and a turbogenerator whereby solar heat is concentrated and electric power is produced, utilization of the exhaust heat from the power cycle in the distillation of sea water, and utilization of the electric power in a plurality of electrolytic cells whereby hydrogen and oxygen

  19. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664677 Invited article

    E-print Network

    Romeo, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664­677 Invited article Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells G. Khrypunova , A. Romeob , F. Kurdesauc , D.L. Ba¨ tznerd , H. Zogge , A Abstract Recent developments in the technology of high vacuum evaporated CdTe solar cells are reviewed

  20. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  1. GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSIS OF SOLAR-THERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. LENZEN

    1999-01-01

    Solar-thermal electricity generation contributes to climate change because it incurs the emission of greenhouse gases during the provision of services and the production of materials needed for the construction and operation of solar power plants. These greenhouse gas costs (GGC) can be determined using either material inventories in physical units or monetary cost breakdowns. Solar-only plants employing parabolic troughs, central

  2. Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy

    PubMed Central

    Nocera, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both legacy and non-legacy worlds, and minimally contributes to increasing the anthropogenic level of carbon dioxide. Because PE will be possible only if solar energy is available 24 hours a day, 7 day a week, the key enabler for solar PE is an inexpensive storage mechanism. HX (X = halide or OH?) splitting is a fuel-forming reaction of sufficient energy density for large scale solar storage but the reaction relies on chemical transformations that are not understood at the most basic science level. Critical among these are multielectron transfers that are proton-coupled and involve the activation of bonds in energy poor substrates. The chemistry of these three italicized areas is developed, and from this platform, discovery paths leading to new HX and H2O splitting catalysts are delineated. For the case of the water splitting catalyst, it captures many of the functional elements of photosynthesis. In doing so, a highly manufacturable and inexpensive method has been discovered for solar PE storage. PMID:19775081

  3. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  4. Australia speeds up solar energy research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scholes

    1973-01-01

    Short-term projects are concentrared on improving the efficiency and ; reducing the cost of existing types of solar water heaters and solar water-; desalination plants. Larger-term projects include fundamental studies on thermal ; transfer problems energy measurement, heat storage media, and solar-energy ; collectors. An investigation of the distribution of solar energy over the ; continent is being carried out

  5. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  6. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  7. Think GREEN - Utilizing Renewable Solar Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Solar energy is radiant energy that is produced by the Sun. Every day the Sun radiates an enormous amount of energy. How much solar energy a place on Earth receives depends on several conditions. In this lesson, students will explore real NASA satellite data for energy from the Sun and cloud cover for their area to determine if they can harness this solar energy, a renewable energy source, by using a solar collector. They will develop skills in graphing and reading graphs.

  8. Solar energy collection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorbeck

    1980-01-01

    An efficient solar collector includes an outer evacuated envelope having an upper transparent surface to admit light rays to the envelope and a tube extending in the envelope from one end towards the other for conveying fluid to be heated into the collector and for removing heated fluid from the collector. A selectively absorbing surface is provided on the tube

  9. Solar energy research and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The role is described that solar energy will play in the heating and cooling of buildings, the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts on the various energy markets and estimated costs of such systems are discussed along with illustrations of some of the processes to accomplish the goals. The conclusions of the NSF/NASA Solar Energy Panel (1972) are given along with the estimated costs to accomplish the 15 year recommended program and also the recent and near future budget appropriations and recommendations are included.

  10. Analysis of state solar energy options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Jones; H. M. Sramek; J. M. Pelster

    1976-01-01

    Criteria are evaluated for use by state governments in considering actions to stimulate the solar market. Areas discussed are solar market economics, tax incentives, and solar energy and electric utilities.

  11. Organic Solar Energy and Berries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    Students learn about how a device made with dye from a plant, specifically cherries, blackberries, raspberries and/or black currents, can be used to convert light energy into electrical energy. They do this by building their own organic solar cells and measuring the photovoltaic devices' performance based on power output.

  12. Active solar energy market trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Freidman; P. E. Mihlmester

    1983-01-01

    The analyses presented in this paper summarize the U.S. active solar market shifts or trends as depicted by the 1980 and 1981 market surveys developed for the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The trends identified and analyzed represent the first such analyses based on extensive survey data obtained from questionnaires sent out annually to

  13. Solar Energy - Solution or Pipedream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Joyce

    This series of lessons and class activities is designed for presentation in a sequence of nine class days. The collection is intended to provide the student in advanced science classes with awareness of the possibilities and limitations of solar energy as a potential solution to the energy crisis. Included are discussion of the following: (1)…

  14. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  15. Solar wind neon from Genesis: implications for the lunar noble gas record.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Ansgar; Baur, Heinrich; Bochsler, Peter; Bühler, Fritz; Burnett, Donald S; Hays, Charles C; Heber, Veronika S; Jurewicz, Amy J G; Wieler, Rainer

    2006-11-17

    Lunar soils have been thought to contain two solar noble gas components with distinct isotopic composition. One has been identified as implanted solar wind, the other as higher-energy solar particles. The latter was puzzling because its relative amounts were much too large compared with present-day fluxes, suggesting periodic, very high solar activity in the past. Here we show that the depth-dependent isotopic composition of neon in a metallic glass exposed on NASA's Genesis mission agrees with the expected depth profile for solar wind neon with uniform isotopic composition. Our results strongly indicate that no extra high-energy component is required and that the solar neon isotope composition of lunar samples can be explained as implantation-fractionated solar wind. PMID:17110575

  16. SOLAR ENERGY Andrew Blakers

    E-print Network

    . Other problems include oil spills, oil-related warfare (for example, the Gulf wars) and pollution from. These are energy from the sun (in its various forms), nuclear energy (fission and fusion), fossil energy (coal, oil

  17. Can industry afford solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreith, F.; Bezdek, R.

    1983-03-01

    Falling oil prices and conservation measures have reduced the economic impetus to develop new energy sources, thus decreasing the urgency for bringing solar conversion technologies to commercial readiness at an early date. However, the capability for solar to deliver thermal energy for industrial uses is proven. A year-round operation would be three times as effective as home heating, which is necessary only part of the year. Flat plate, parabolic trough, and solar tower power plant demonstration projects, though uneconomically operated, have revealed engineering factors necessary for successful use of solar-derived heat for industrial applications. Areas of concern have been categorized as technology comparisons, load temperatures, plant size, location, end-use, backup requirements, and storage costs. Tax incentives have, however, supported home heating and not industrial uses, and government subsidies have historically gone to conventional energy sources. Tax credit programs which could lead to a 20% market penetration by solar energy in the industrial sector by the year 2000 are presented.

  18. Institutionalizing solar energy education

    SciTech Connect

    Arwood, J.W. [Arizona Dept. of Commerce, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Energy Office

    1997-12-31

    As America entered the final decade of the 20th century, millions of people turned out to celebrate Earth Day`s 20th anniversary. Environmental awareness was on an upswing, and as a result, environmental education became a priority across the country. Environmental education was making significant headway into the public school system, and recycling emerged as the vanguard of this movement. At first the exclusive province of school children, recycling soon became a household habit. As children collected cans for cash, they also taught their parents to recycle. In its movement from classroom to curbside, recycling rode the school bus to Main Street and, within a few short years, became institutionalized. In this paper, the author demonstrates how the Solar Information and Education Program has evolved to the point where it has become an institutionalized, lasting part of the school experience for thousands of Arizona students. It is hoped that the solar experience for the state`s young people will duplicate the recycling experience of a decade ago, this time taking solar technology from chalkboard to rooftop.

  19. Hydrogen Without Tears: Addressing the Global Energy Crisis via a Solar to Hydrogen Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Abbott

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the dominant scaleable vision is a solar-hydrogen economy, where solar thermal collectors are preferred to solar cells. Also for mobile storage, pure hydrogen (liquid and\\/or gas) is preferred to both electric batteries and hydrogen fuel cells. Placing this form of a solar hydrogen economy as an end vision on our energy policy. Governments profits, as they can

  20. Magnetospheric feedback in solar wind energy transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Palmroth; H. E. J. Koskinen; T. I. Pulkkinen; P. K. Toivanen; P. Janhunen; S. E. Milan; M. Lester

    2010-01-01

    The solar wind kinetic energy fueling all dynamical processes within the near-Earth space is extracted in a dynamo process at the magnetopause. This direct energy transfer from the solar wind into the magnetosphere depends on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) as well as other solar wind parameters, such as the IMF magnitude and solar wind velocity. Using

  1. Chapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy spectrum

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jianfang

    Solar cell plant #12;Cars powered by photovoltaic devices PHYS5320 Chapter Nine 5 #12;Solar EnergyChapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy-V characteristics Series and shunt resistanceSeries and shunt resistance Temperature effectse pe a u e e ec s Solar

  2. Solar-wind energy conversion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    A combined solar-wind energy conversion system in which the combined effects of solar and wind energy are utilized in raising water from a lower to an upper water storage tank to increase its potential energy for generation of electricity. Incoming solar energy heats water to form steam which is temporarily stored. The stored steam is vented to one of first

  3. Solar-wind energy conversion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    A combined solar-wind energy conversion system in which the combined effects of solar and wind energy are utilized in raising water from a lower to an upper water storage tank to increase its potential energy for generation of electricity. Incoming solar energy heats water to form steam which is temporarily stored. The stored steam is vented to one of first

  4. Solar energy: Markets, economics and policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Govinda R. Timilsina; Lado Kurdgelashvili; Patrick A. Narbel

    Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much

  5. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Roy; Y. S. Deol; Manish Kumar; Narottam Prasad; Yojana Janu

    2011-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy

  6. Advanced solar energy research program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Nozik

    1981-01-01

    Photobiology, photochemical conversion and storage, photoelectrochemistry, and materials research are reported. Three areas of photobiological research under investigation are discussed: in vitro energy conversion, microbiological hydrogen production, and algal hydrocarbon production. Sensitizers for solar photochemistry, redox catalysis, coupled systems, and inorganic photochemistry are reviewed. Theory and modeling of the energetics of semiconductor\\/electrolyte junctions and the effects of inversion are reported

  7. NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy: Methodology

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    1 NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy: Methodology community. In general, meteorology and solar insolation were obtained from the NASA Earth Science Enterprise and validated based on recommendations from partners in the energy industry. Researchers from several

  8. Relative energy risk: is solar energy riskier than nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Inhaber, H.

    1981-01-01

    The discussion of risk analysis is divided into three parts: (a) a brief discussion of the methodology which can be used, (b) a listing of some of the major assumptions, and (c) the results of a comparison of eleven energy systems. The energy systems considered here can be divided into two groups: conventional, i.e., those in fairly widespread use, like coal or nuclear, and non-conventional, i.e., all others, like solar and wind. In general, although some of these non-conventional systems have been described as risk-free, they are not. In fact, compared to some conventional systems like natural gas and nuclear, technologies like solar and windpower have relatively high risk. The reason is simple. Because of the dilute nature of the energy they handle, solar and wind systems, when compared on the quantity of their energy production, require a considerable amount of apparatus as compared to other systems. In turn, this apparatus requires a large amount of material and construction labor to build and install. Associated with each ton of material and hour of labor is a definite number of accidents, diseases and deaths, according to labor statistics. When the risk is summed up in this way, we find that non-conventional systems generally have high risk. In particular, to answer the question posed in the title of this talk, solar energy seems to have a higher risk than nuclear power, when the methodology outlined below is used.

  9. Experimental investigation of an atmospheric-open cyclone solar reactor for solid-gas thermochemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, A.; Imhof, A.; Mischler, D. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland))

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports that a solar receiver-reactor has been designed to conduct solid-gas chemical reactions, using concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of high-temperature process heat. It consists of a conical cyclone gas-particle separator that has been modified to let concentrated solar energy enter the cavity through a windowless (atmospheric-open) aperture. It combines the advantages of cavity receivers and volumetric reactors, and permits continuous mode of operation. A small-scale prototype reactor to conduct the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate at 1300 K was experimentally investigated in a solar furnace. Its thermal performance was evaluated. The mean energy absorption efficiency, based on the optically measured power incident on the receiver aperture, was 43 percent. Reaction products showed high degree of calcination.

  10. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  11. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Müjgan Çetin; Nilüfer E?rican

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which

  12. Solar energy conversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.; Materials Science Division; Cal Tech

    2007-03-01

    The Sun provides Earth with a staggering amount of energy - enough to power the great oceanic and atmospheric currents, the cycle of evaporation and condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow, and the typhoons, hurricanes, and tornadoes that so easily destroy the natural and built landscape. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906, with magnitude 7.8, released an estimated 10{sup 17} joules of energy, the amount the Sun delivers to Earth in one second. Earth's ultimate recoverable resource of oil, estimated at 3 trillion barrels, contains 1.7 x 10{sup 22} joules of energy, which the Sun supplies to Earth in 1.5 days. The amount of energy humans use annually, about 4.6 x 10{sup 20} joules, is delivered to Earth by the Sun in one hour. The enormous power that the Sun continuously delivers to Earth, 1.2 x 10{sup 5} terawatts, dwarfs every other energy source, renewable or nonrenewable. It dramatically exceeds the rate at which human civilization produces and uses energy, currently about 13 TW.

  13. Universal solar energy desalination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, V. S.

    Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

  14. Central solar-energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  15. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  16. Analysis of state solar energy policy options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Jones; H. M. Sramek; J. M. Pelster

    1976-01-01

    Criteria needed by state governments for considering actions to stimulate the solar market are evaluated. Discussed in this report are solar market economics, tax incentives, and solar energy and electric utilities. The results of this study strongly imply that the state policy most significantly affecting solar thermal market penetration rates is the establishment of electric utility rate structures. A second

  17. Luminescent solar concentrators and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells for solar energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholin, Veronica

    Increasing energy demand and the parallel increase of greenhouse gas emissions are challenging researchers to find new and cleaner energy sources. Solar energy harvesting is arguably the most promising candidate for replacing fossil-fuel power generation. Photovoltaics are the most direct way of collecting solar energy; cost continues to hinder large-scale implementation of photovoltaics, however. Therefore, alternative technologies that will allow the extraction of solar power, while maintaining the overall costs of fabrication, installation, collection, and distribution low, must be explored. This thesis focuses on the fabrication and testing of two types of devices that step up to this challenge: the luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells. In these devices I make use of novel materials, semiconducting polymers and inorganic nanoparticles, both of which have lower costs than the crystalline materials used in the fabrication of traditional photovoltaics. Furthermore, the cost of manufacturing LSCs and the nanoparticle solar cells is lower than the manufacturing cost of traditional optics-based concentrators and crystalline solar cells. An LSC is essentially a slab of luminescent material that acts as a planar light pipe. The LSC absorbs incoming photons and channels fluoresced photons toward appropriately located solar cells, which perform the photovoltaic conversion. By covering large areas with relatively inexpensive fluorescing organic dyes or semiconducting polymers, the area of solar cell needed is greatly reduced. Because semiconducting polymers and quantum dots may have small absorption/emission band overlaps, tunable absorption, and longer lifetimes, they are good candidates for LSC fabrication, promising improvement with respect to laser dyes traditionally used to fabricate LSCs. Here the efficiency of LSCs consisting of liquid solutions of semiconducting polymers encased in glass was measured and compared to the efficiency of LSCs based on small molecule laser dyes and on quantum dots. Factors affecting the optical efficiency of the system such as the luminescing properties of the fluorophors were examined. The experimental results were compared to Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results suggest that commercially available quantum dots cannot serve as viable LSC dyes because of large absorption/emission band overlap and relatively low quantum yield. Materials such as Red F demonstrate that semi-conducting polymers with high quantum yield and small absorption/emission band overlap are good candidates for LSCs. Recently, a solar cell system based purely on CdSe and Cite nanoparticles as the absorbing materials was proposed ans it was suggested that its operational mechanism was that of polymer donor/acceptor systems. Here we present solar cells consisting of a sintered active bilayer of CdSe and PbSe nanoparticles in the structure ITO/CdSe/interlayer/PbSe/Al, where an interlayer of LiF or Al2O3 was found necessary to prevent low shunt resistance from suppressing the photovoltaic behavior. We fabricated unoptimized solar cells with a short-circuit current of 6 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.18 V, and a fill factor of 41%. External quantum efficiency spectra revealed that photons from the infrared portion of the spectrum were not collected, suggesting that the low bandgap PbSe film did not contribute to the photocurrent of the structure despite exhibiting photoconductivity. Other measurements, however, showed that the PbSe film was indeed necessary to produce a photovoltage and transport electrons. Through sintering, the nanoparticle films acquired bandgaps similar to those of the corresponding bulk materials and became more conductive. Because the PbSe films were found to be considerably more conductive than the CdSe ones, we suggest that the PbSe layer is effectively behaving like a low conductivity electrical contact. Therefore, in contrast to the photovoltaics presented in the seminal research on CdSe/Cite solar cells, the CdSe/PbSe solar cell system presented here d

  18. Solar energy conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W. Crabtree; Nathan S. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides Earth with a staggering amount of energy - enough to power the great oceanic and atmospheric currents, the cycle of evaporation and condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow, and the typhoons, hurricanes, and tornadoes that so easily destroy the natural and built landscape. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906, with magnitude 7.8, released

  19. Gas-magnetic field interactions in the solar corona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Pneuman; Roger A. Kopp

    1971-01-01

    It is evident from eclipse photographs that gas-magnetic field interactions are important in determining the structure and dynamical properties of the solar corona and interplanetary medium. Close to the Sun in regions of strong field, the coronal gas can be contained within closed loop structures. However, since the field in these regions decreases outward rapidly, the pressure and inertial forces

  20. Solar energy collector/storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  1. Fort Hood solar energy project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-30

    During the period April 1975 to March 1978, the American Technological University (ATU) of Killeen, Texas, was awarded several follow-on contracts by the Division of Solar Energy (DSE), Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), which subsequently became the Division of Solar Technology (DST), Department of Energy (DOE). The contracts were to design a solar total energy system for use at Fort Hood, Texas. A review encompassing the period of the project from January 1975 to March 1978, was conducted by the Office of Inspector General (IG), DOE. The review examined both the management of the project by ATU and ERDA personnel and the award and administration by ERDA of the contracts to ATU for support of the project. The IG review found that: (1) there was a lack of continuity in the management of the project by both ATU and ERDA; (2) ERDA failed to maintain control of the project and failed to issue specific project direction to ATU; (3) ERDA failed to follow existing procurement regulations for the review and acceptance of unsolicited proposals from ATU; (4) the ERDA Headquarters program Manager and the Contract Administrator for the conceptual design phase of the project had failed to ensure that all the tasks which had been funded were performed by ATU; and (5) the decision by the Director, ERDA/DSE, to award successive contracts to ATU was questionable in view of ATU's performance on the project.

  2. Solar energy meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An instrument was developed to continually integrate the energy available in incident light on a specifically oriented surface. The unit was designed for outdoor use in remote locations and is capable of operation over a temperature range of -20 to +60 C with good accuracy. The unit is weather resistant, requires low power, has a high input impedance, is inexpensive, and has a visual readout and an analog output for recording.

  3. Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)

  4. Advanced research in solar energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WERNER LUFT

    1983-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800 C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The

  5. The SERI Solar Energy Storage Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Copeland; John D. Wright; Charles E. Wyman

    1980-01-01

    The SERI Solar Energy Storage Program provides research on advanced technologies, system analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Systems. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are

  6. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Lewis

    2010-02-26

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  7. SOLAR ENERGY A New York perspective,

    E-print Network

    Perez, Richard R.

    SOLAR ENERGY A New York perspective, Richard Perez & Thomas Thompson (Based upon a manuscript misconception that New York doesn't get enough sun and that solar power is both too expensive and too unreliable the St. Lawrence Seaway to Montauk Point, solar electric PV power can lower the cost of energy in NYS

  8. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theocharis Tsoutsos; Niki Frantzeskaki; Vassilis Gekas

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers.To

  9. Module 6: Solar Energy for Agriculture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eastern Iowa Community College provides this learning module to teach students about solar energy basics, active and passive solar technology, basic components of solar equipment, and a number of other topics related to agricultural energy. Users can download a zip file in which they will find a syllabus, student handouts, a quiz, and 65 slide PowerPoint presentation.

  10. Optimal energy management for solar car race

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Wright

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a solar car simulation and race strategy program developed for the University of Illinois Sunrayce 95 solar car race team. The goal is to complete the ten-day race course in the minimum total running time, using solar energy alone. In cloudy weather, even the most competitive cars can become energy-limited. The strategic choice in that case, is

  11. Solar total energy project Shenandoah

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-01-10

    This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

  12. Cocoon drying through solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kulunk, M.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

  13. Thermochemical solar energy and the Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, T.A.

    1981-08-01

    Thermochemical energy transport is described, which is a new technology which promises to be especially valuable for the collection of solar energy. Practical demonstrations are expected within one to three years. When combined with storage, thermochemical solar energy systems could be used to meet major portions of the energy requirements of selected Navy facilities. 7 refs.

  14. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  15. Nanostructured solar irradiation control materials for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Marshall, Iseley A.; Torrico, Mattew N.; Taylor, Chase R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel; Sauti, Godfrey; Gibbons, Luke J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Park, Cheol; Lowther, Sharon E.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2012-10-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (?s) and thermal emissivity (?T) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The ?s and ?T were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the ?s and ?T by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  16. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  17. Solar energy recorder. [for converter site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, R. B.; Mandt, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    A serious obstacle to the large-scale terrestrial application of solar energy lies in the scarcity of reliable data on the amount of solar energy at candidate converter sites. This paper describes a system designed to monitor and record, automatically, the values of the direct and total (sun and sky) solar radiation which would be seen by either tracking or fixed-type solar converters. A further pressing need addressed by the system is the means for efficiency testing and evaluation of solar cells, solar collectors and solar concentrator systems, under outdoor exposure to natural sunlight and weather conditions for extended periods. The design was accomplished in support of the Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, where design concepts and materials for large-scale terrestrial solar energy converters are currently being evaluated.

  18. Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2009-09-01

    Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

  19. Solar Energy Development onSolar Energy Development on DoD Installations in the

    E-print Network

    Solar Energy Development onSolar Energy Development on DoD Installations in the Mojave & Colorado and Implications fReport is available for download at: http://www.icfi.com/insights/reports/2012/full-report-solar the technical and economic potential to site solar on 9 major DoD installations in the Mojave and Colorado

  20. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  1. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.

    PubMed

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-08-13

    Taking the UK as a case study, this paper describes current energy use and a range of sustainable energy options for the future, including solar power and other renewables. I focus on the area involved in collecting, converting and delivering sustainable energy, looking in particular detail at the potential role of solar power. Britain consumes energy at a rate of about 5000 watts per person, and its population density is about 250 people per square kilometre. If we multiply the per capita energy consumption by the population density, then we obtain the average primary energy consumption per unit area, which for the UK is 1.25 watts per square metre. This areal power density is uncomfortably similar to the average power density that could be supplied by many renewables: the gravitational potential energy of rainfall in the Scottish highlands has a raw power per unit area of roughly 0.24 watts per square metre; energy crops in Europe deliver about 0.5 watts per square metre; wind farms deliver roughly 2.5 watts per square metre; solar photovoltaic farms in Bavaria, Germany, and Vermont, USA, deliver 4 watts per square metre; in sunnier locations, solar photovoltaic farms can deliver 10 watts per square metre; concentrating solar power stations in deserts might deliver 20 watts per square metre. In a decarbonized world that is renewable-powered, the land area required to maintain today's British energy consumption would have to be similar to the area of Britain. Several other high-density, high-consuming countries are in the same boat as Britain, and many other countries are rushing to join us. Decarbonizing such countries will only be possible through some combination of the following options: the embracing of country-sized renewable power-generation facilities; large-scale energy imports from country-sized renewable facilities in other countries; population reduction; radical efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes; and the growth of non-renewable low-carbon sources, namely 'clean' coal, 'clean' gas and nuclear power. If solar is to play a large role in the future energy system, then we need new methods for energy storage; very-large-scale solar either would need to be combined with electricity stores or it would need to serve a large flexible demand for energy that effectively stores useful energy in the form of chemicals, heat, or cold. PMID:23816908

  2. The Solar Energy Timetable. Worldwatch Paper 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Denis

    This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are…

  3. SOLAR ENERGY AND OUR ELECTRICITY FUTURE

    E-print Network

    SOLAR ENERGY AND OUR ELECTRICITY FUTURE Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia;Outline of Today's Discussion Background Solar Cells and the Photoelectric Effect From Cells to PV Systems Modeling PV Performance Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Some things not addressed in this presentation

  4. Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Energy Balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ornulf Sandbaek; Egil Leer

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a parameter study of a two-fluid and a one-fluid model of the solar wind where coronal heating and solar wind acceleration is treated as one problem. To study the energy balance in the corona\\/solar wind system, we consider a \\

  5. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  6. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  7. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  8. Practical solar energy heating and cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. ONeill; A. J. McDanal; W. H. Sims

    1973-01-01

    A practical solar energy heating and cooling system technically and economically feasible for residential application, according to a NASA study by Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., would include a flat-plate solar collector, a thermal energy storage system, an absorption-cycle heat pump for both heating and cooling, and a hot water system that uses heat from the thermal energy storage system.

  9. Light harvesting for quantum solar energy conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas Markvart

    2000-01-01

    Despite wide structural and functional differences, the laws that govern quantum solar energy conversion to chemical energy or electricity share many similarities. In the photosynthetic membrane, in common with semiconductor solar cells, the conversion process proceeds from the creation of electron–hole pairs by a photon of light, followed by charge separation to produce the required high-energy product. In many cases,

  10. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To the extent increases are present for some solar adopters, the analysis seeks to determine whether there is a "solar rebound" effect analogous to the "rebound" or "take-back" effect that has been observed and studied within the energy efficiency literature. Similarly, to the extent that electric users may decrease overall consumption after installation of a solar system, the study seeks to explore the possibility that solar adoption is part of a continued effort towards clean energy practices more generally, such as energy efficiency and conservation. In this way, the study seeks to determine whether there is a synergistic effect between solar and decreased consumption, for solar adopters generally or for some subsets therein. The assembled data allowed testing of various hypotheses that could help explain observed changes in consumption in different households. One variable that was carefully examined was the sizing of the solar system. As part of the study, analysis of 4,355 systems was conducted to determine how each residential solar system was sized with respect to pre-installation energy consumption. Other potentially interesting or explanatory variables for which information was available include total and net costs of the solar system; age of the home; the climate zone (inland or coastal) where the home is located; the home's pre-installation energy consumption; home characteristics such as assessed value and square footage; and the identity of the solar installation contractor. Aside from extending the literature on the rebound effect to the context of home-based energy generation, this study links to the innovation diffusion literature by focusing on solar "innovators" to understand more about the characteristics that may drive behavior, or conditions under which they also adopt clean energy technologies and practices. The results have clear policy relevance with regard to the development and coordination of policies to promote integration of solar and energy efficiency. Currently

  11. Biomimetic utilization of solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, Aleksandr E.

    2012-12-01

    The most interesting recent publications dealing with so-called artificial photosynthesis, i.e., the development of photocatalytic converters of solar energy to the chemical bond energy using the fundamental principles of natural oxygenic photosynthesis, are discussed. The key stages of photosynthesis that should be reproduced in the artificial converters include light harvesting and transport of the light quantum to reaction centres where photoinduced charge separation occurs to give elementary reducing agents and oxidants (electrons and holes). The dark catalytic reactions involving the elementary reducing agents and oxidants give stable end products, namely, dioxygen and carbohydrates in the natural photosynthesis or dioxygen and hydrogen in the artificial photosynthesis. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  12. Analysis of steam injected gas turbines for solar thermal applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linker

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Program has as one of its program elements the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies which are applicable to Distributed Receiver Systems. The primary research and development activities, for the past several years, have involved the so-called dish-electric concept in which a heat engine, solar receiver, and generator are combined as a

  13. Analysis of steam injected gas turbines for solar thermal applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linker

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Program has as one of its program elements the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies that are applicable to Distributed Receiver Systems. The primary research and development activities, for the past several years, have involved the dish--electric concept in which a heat engine, solar receiver, and generator are combined as a power

  14. Technical assessment of solar thermal energy storage technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan E. S. Fath

    1998-01-01

    Solar energy is recognized as one of the most promising alternative energy options. On sunny days, solar energy systems generally collect more energy than necessary for direct use. Therefore, the design and development of solar energy storage systems, is of vital importance and nowadays one of the greatest efforts in solar research. These systems, being part of a complete solar

  15. Density Perturbations in the Upper Atmosphere Caused by the Dissipation of Solar Wind Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd W. Prölss

    2010-01-01

    The upper atmosphere constitutes the outer region of the terrestrial gas envelope above about 100 km altitude. The energy budget of this outer gas layer is partly controlled by the dissipation of solar wind energy. Since this energy input is largely irregular, the resulting density changes are considered as perturbations. The properties and physics of such density perturbations are reviewed

  16. Density Perturbations in the Upper Atmosphere Caused by the Dissipation of Solar Wind Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd W. Prölss

    2011-01-01

    The upper atmosphere constitutes the outer region of the terrestrial gas envelope above about 100 km altitude. The energy budget of this outer gas layer is partly controlled by the dissipation of solar wind energy. Since this energy input is largely irregular, the resulting density changes are considered as perturbations. The properties and physics of such density perturbations are reviewed

  17. Thermal performance of gas-filled flat plate solar collectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Vestlund; Mats Rönnelid; Jan-Olof Dalenbäck

    2009-01-01

    A sealed space between absorber and cover glass in a flat plate solar collector makes it possible to reduce the influence of humidity condensate and dust at the same time as the enclosed space can be filled with a suitable gas for lowering the heat losses. This article describes the influence of different gases on the heat losses in a

  18. Energy portfolio of Iran: A case study of solar desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besharati, Adib

    Energy plays a very important role in the economic development of a country such as Iran where industrial progress and higher living standards increase demand for energy. Iran is one of the countries in the world that simultaneously produces and consumes large amounts of energy. Because of its geographic latitude and weather conditions, Iran has the potential to develop and use of both fossil and renewable energy sources. In South Iran, there are huge oil and gas resources, and at the same time high potential of solar radiation. However, at the present large-scale utilization, solar energy is prohibitively expensive for Iran. Therefore, this study investigates an economical way to utilize solar energy in a meaningful way for Iran. One of the possible uses of solar energy that is both economical and technically feasible is desalination of water using solar energy. People in South Iran live in different areas with relatively low population density. One of the critical problems in those areas is a lack of clean drinking water. As a result, there is an urgent need to investigate ways to produce clean water from the saltwater. Therefore, the present study conducts a case study of solar desalination in south Iran using solar. Different desalination methods, such as humidification dehumidification by using a solar collector, and reverse osmosis, are discussed. In the case study, a prototype desalination plant was considered and both technical and economic aspects of the plant were investigated in details. The results showed higher productivity of drinking water in reverse osmosis method for south Iran.

  19. Renewable Energy Living Lab: Smart Solar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Civil and Environmental Engineering Department,

    Students use real-world data to evaluate whether solar power is a viable energy alternative for several cities in different parts of the U.S. Working in small groups, they examine maps and make calculations using NREL/US DOE data from the online Renewable Energy Living Lab. In this exercise, students analyze cost and availability for solar power, and come to conclusions about whether solar power is a good solution for four different locations.

  20. Solar-wind krypton and solid/gas fractionation in the early solar nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, R.C.; Burnett, D.S.; Neugebauer, M. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA)); Pepin, R.O. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Krypton is the best candidate for determining limits on solid/gas fractionation in the early sun because of the smoothness of the odd-mass abundance curve in its mass region, which permits relatively precise interpolations of its abundance assuming no fractionation. Here the authors calculate the solar-system Kr abundance from solar-wind noble-gas ratios, determined previously by low-temperature oxidations of lunar ilmenite grains, normalized to Si by spacecraft solar-wind measurements. The estimated {sup 83}Kr abundance of 4.1 {plus minus} 1.5 per 10{sup 6} Si atoms is within uncertainty of estimates assuming no fractionation, determined from DI-chondrite abundances of surrounding elements. This is significant because it is the first such constraint on solid/gas fractionation, though the large uncertainty only confines it to somewhat less than a factor of two.

  1. SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Wyman

    1981-01-01

    The program provides research, system analysis, and assessments of thermal energy storage and transport in support of the Thermal Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Technology; emphasis is on thermal energy storage for solar thermal power and process heat applications and on thermal energy transport. Currently, research is in progress on direct-contact thermal energy storage and

  2. INTERACTION OF THE SOLAR WIND WITH THE NEUTRAL COMPONENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR GAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Holzer

    1972-01-01

    A model is constructed to represent the interaction between the solar wind and the neutral component of the interstellar gas. It is found that the neutral gas has several important effects on the solar-wind expansion beyond the orbit of the earth and that it should be possible to infer the presence of the neutral gas from observations of the solar

  3. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  4. From solar energy to mechanical power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fujii

    1990-01-01

    This book describes general methods of converting solar thermal energy to mechanical power, concentrating particularly on those having a small or moderate conversion scale. Beginning with a historical overview and an outline of requirements for a solar-mechanical power conversion system, the book describes in detail several energy conversion system, paying particular attention to the Rankine, Stirling and Brayton cycle engines.

  5. Solar energy refrigeration and air conditioning system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Pitts; H. A. Ingley; E. A. Farber; C. A. Morrison

    1977-01-01

    A solar energy refrigeration and air conditioning system for cooling an enclosed area comprising a low temperature vapor generator, condenser and evaporator specifically configured for use with a low boiling point refrigerant to use solar energy as a means of vapor generation is described. The low temperature vapor generator is coupled to an externally heated water source through a first

  6. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  7. Nuclear Processes at Solar Energy

    E-print Network

    Carlo Broggini

    2003-08-29

    LUNA, Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at Gran Sasso, is measuring fusion cross sections down to the energy of the nucleosynthesis inside stars. Outstanding results obtained up to now are the cross-section measurements within the Gamow peak of the Sun of $^{3}He(^{3}He,2p)^{4}He$ and the $D(p,\\gamma)^{3}He$. The former plays a big role in the proton-proton chain, largely affecting the calculated solar neutrino luminosity, whereas the latter is the reaction that rules the proto-star life during the pre-main sequence phase. The implications of such measurements will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained last year on the study of $^{14}N(p,\\gamma)^{15}O$, the slowest reaction of the CNO cycle, will also be shown.

  8. Solar Energy: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses many of the economic and policy questions related to the widespread introduction of solar power, presents recent progress in developing solar technologies and advancing their economic feasibility, and reviews some recommendations that have been made for achieving the early introduction and sustained application of solar…

  9. Solar Thermal Energy: Design a Solar Hot Water Heater System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bullwinkel, Matt

    This classroom activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has students examine a collector and tank for a solar hot water heater and estimate the amount of energy and money saved by replacing the traditional hot water heater. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  10. Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modisette, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

  11. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  12. Solar energy education: where do we stand

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, J. K.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine in detail the contents of the Education Data Base by analyzing the current distributions of solar energy courses, programs, and curricula offered in our nation's post-secondary educational institutions. A summary of the data base indicates that 892 educational institutions in the United States offer 2308 solar-related courses and 367 programs. The interest in these programs is reflected in the fact that in 1979, 760 institutions offered 1740 solar-related courses and 243 programs. The conclusion is that our nation's post-secondary institutions are responding to student demand and interest in solar energy.

  13. Kinetics of gas-Grain Reactions in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    2000-04-01

    Thermochemical equilibrium calculations predict gas phase, gas-grain, and solid phase reactions as a function of pressure and temperature in the solar nebula. However, chemical reactions proceed at different rates, which generally decrease exponentially with decreasing temperature. At sufficiently low temperatures (which vary depending on the specific reaction) there may not have been enough time for the predicted equilibrium chemistry to have taken place before the local environment cooled significantly or before the gaseous solar nebula was dispersed. As a consequence, some of the high temperature chemistry established in sufficiently hot regions of the solar nebula may be quenched or frozen in without the production of predicted low temperature phases. Experimental studies and theoretical models of three exemplary low temperature reactions, the formation of troilite (FeS), magnetite (Fe3O4), and hydrous silicates, have been done to quantify these ideas. A comparison of the chemical reaction rates with the estimated nebular lifetime of 0.1-10 million years indicates that troilite formation proceeded to completion in the solar nebula. Magnetite formation was much slower and only thin magnetite rims could have formed on metal grains. Hydrous silicate formation is predicted to be even slower, and hydrous silicates in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles probably formed later on the parent bodies of these objects, instead of in the solar nebula.

  14. A hybrid power generation system utilizing solar thermal energy with CO 2 recovery based on oxygen combustion method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pyong Sik Pak; Takeshi Hatikawa; Yutaka Suzuki

    1995-01-01

    A CO2-recovering power generation system utilizing solar thermal energy was proposed. In the system, relatively low temperature saturated steam around 200 °C is produced by using solar thermal energy and is utilized as the working fluid of a gas turbine in which generated CO2 is recovered based on the method of oxygen combustion. Solar thermal utilization efficiency becomes considerably high

  15. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation, and energy storage

    E-print Network

    MacKay, David J.C.

    Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation, and energy storage By David J C to the following journal article, published July 2013: MacKay DJC. 2013 Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy trans- portation and energy storage. Phil Trans R Soc A 371: 20110431. http://dx.doi.org/10

  16. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation, and energy storage

    E-print Network

    MacKay, David J.C.

    Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation, and energy storage By David J C to the following journal article, published July 2013: MacKay DJC. 2013 Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy trans­ portation and energy storage. Phil Trans R Soc A 371: 20110431. http://dx.doi.org/10

  17. Solar energy information user study: military engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Marle, T.L.; Belew, W.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report summarizes data from questionnaires administered to military engineers and architects attending a 2-day solar design workshop at Lowry Air Force Base, February 17 and 18, 1981. The workshop was designed to inform engineers when and where solar energy could be used more effectively. The study aimed to identify the (a) solar energy information needs and information habits of the professionals, (b) their familiarity with and appraisal of relevant military publications containing solar energy information currently available, and (c) the overall effectiveness of the workshops (including structure and content). To measure the effectiveness of the workshop itself and provide input on producing an effective and comprehensive information dissemination plan for military engineers nationwide, 2 questionnaires were designed and administered to the participants. The Pre-Workshop Questionnaire assessed the participant's knowledge of solar energy prior to attending the workshop.

  18. Hydrogen production through solar energy water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dini, D.

    Water electrolysis systems are seen as the principal means of producing a large amount of hydrogen in the future. Hydrogen energy production from direct solar energy conversion facilities located on the shores of oceans and lakes is discussed. The electrolysis interface is shown to be conveniently adapted to direct solar energy conversion; this, however, will depend on technical and economic feasibility aspects as they emerge from the research phases. The basic requirements for relatively immense solar collection areas for large-scale central conversion facilities, with widely variable electricity charges, are outlined. The operation of electrolysis and photovoltaic array combination is verified at various insolation levels. It is pointed out that solar cell arrays and electrolyzers are producing the expected results with solar energy inputs that are continuously varying.

  19. Solar electric energy supply at high altitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Knaupp; Eva Mundschau

    2004-01-01

    Solar-hydrogen systems were analyzed regarding their usability as energy supply system for high altitude platforms. In a first step for an assessment of solar and photovoltaic resources near-ground spectral transmittances of atmosphere were extended with simplified height correction functions to achieve spectral irradiance descriptions versus atmospheric height up to 25 km. The influence of atmospheric height to different solar cell technologies

  20. HISTORY OF SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH IN BRAZIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neelkanth G. Dhere; Pio C. Lobo; Ricardo Rüther; Leila R. Cruz; José R. T. Branco; Izete Zanesco; Católica Porto; Jorge H. G. Lima

    Brazil has large, unelectrified, geographic regions with very high insolation throughout the year. Development of solar energy research in Brazil evolved through establishment of well-equipped laboratories, spread of post-graduate education and basic research during 1958-72, intense applied research on solar thermal viz. collectors, refrigeration, furnaces, cookers, driers, and distillation; and photovoltaics viz. c-Si solar cells, Cu2S, CIGS, CdTe and a-

  1. Neutral interstellar gas atoms reducing the solar wind Mach number and fractionally neutralizing the solar wind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans J. Fahr; Daniel Rucinski

    1999-01-01

    Many stars are known to drive stellar winds of the solar wind type. Thus when moving through the ambient interstellar medium these stars not simply ionize this medium but also interact as moving stellar wind systems. Only neutral interstellar gas components can directly enter the inner stellar wind region and there undergo charge exchange reactions with the supersonic stellar wind

  2. Solar energy and hydrogen -- partners in a clean energy economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linkous

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) are getting closer to finding economic methods of using hydrogen as a storage medium for energy from renewable sources. Solar hydrogen is not just a single technology, but instead a rather varied menu of approaches to using sunlight as the primary energy source for producing H[sub 2]. Water is the ultimate source

  3. Solar electric-energy market penetration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Sarin; K. Nair

    1977-01-01

    A Bayesian approach was employed to forecast the solar electric market penetration by the years 1990 and 2000. The study identified a multitude of factors, including relative cost of competitive energy systems, government incentives, future environmental regulations, and new technologies, that would affect the solar market share. The judgments of several experts from utility companies, government agencies, and research laboratories

  4. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  5. High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona

    E-print Network

    Widom, A; Larsen, L

    2008-01-01

    Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

  6. Metal oxide semiconductors for solar energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elijah James Thimsen

    2009-01-01

    The correlation between energy consumption and human development illustrates the importance of this societal resource. We will consume more energy in the future. In light of issues with the status quo, such as climate change, long-term supply and security, solar energy is an attractive source. It is plentiful, virtually inexhaustible, and can provide more than enough energy to power society.

  7. Solar–gas solid sorption heat pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L Vasiliev; D. A Mishkinis; A. A Antukh

    2001-01-01

    Solid sorption short cycle heat pump (?10 kW) which uses physical adsorption and is of interest to the space and domestic application is designed and tested. This heat pump has a very short (12 min), nonintermittent, two adsorber heat recovery cycles with an active carbon fiber as a sorbent bed and ammonia as a working fluid. It has two energy

  8. Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any Type Of System www.CleanEnergyAuthority.com Install Solar Panels Enter Your Zip Code & Connect To Pre-Screened Solar Panel Installers www.ServiceMagic.com Biomass Pumps Reliable metering for apps from microflow to scale-up & pilot plant www.isco.com The Solar

  9. Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    THE noble-gas elemental and isotopic composition in the Earth is significantly different from that of the present atmosphere, and provides an important clue to the origin and history of the Earth and its atmosphere. Possible candidates for the noble-gas composition of the primordial Earth include a solar-like component, a planetary-like component (as observed in primitive meteorites) and a component similar in composition to the present atmosphere. In an attempt to identify the contributions of such components, we have measured isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea1-3. We find a systematic enrichment in 20Ne and 21Ne relative to 22Ne, compared with atmospheric neon. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in our samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic and nucleogenic components. These data suggest that the noble-gas isotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solar-like component. We infer that this component was acquired during the formation of the Earth.

  10. Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Krupta

    1979-01-01

    A model residential photovoltaic system which utilizes a solar cell array roof shingle combination is discussed in relation to developing and generating the environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems. Material requirements, operating residuals, land requirements, water requirements, production processes, and production residuals for the systems operation are examined. Environmental, health, safety, and resource availability impacts are reported.

  11. Focusing on the future: Solar thermal energy systems emerge as competitive technologies with major economic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    Hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens are now receiving a portion of their daily demand for electricity from large-scale solar thermal electric generating stations-power plants that use concentrated solar energy to drive electric power generators. Just as with coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and nuclear energy, concentrated solar energy can create working temperatures of around 600C and much higher. Also, solar power plants contribute almost nothing to the atmospheric greenhouse effect and pose few, if any, of the other environmental problems associated with conventional energy sources. As a result of research and development within the national Solar Thermal Technology Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), solar thermal energy is on the threshold of competing economically with conventional power plants and is now viable for international markets. Its potential for spurring American economic growth and exports is significant.

  12. General solar energy information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  13. Greenhouse-gas emissions from solar electric- and nuclear power: A life-cycle study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasilis M. Fthenakis; Hyung Chul Kim

    2007-01-01

    Solar- and nuclear-electricity-generation technologies often are deemed “carbon-free” because their operation does not generate any carbon dioxide. However, this is not so when considering their entire lifecycle of energy production; carbon dioxide and other gases are emitted during the extraction, processing, and disposal of associated materials. We determined the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, namely, CO2, CH4, N2O, and chlorofluorocarbons due

  14. Solar Energy: Impacts & Management MeasuresSolar Energy: Impacts & Management Measures Vasilis Fthenakis

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    . #12;6 Solar Irradiation and Desert Lands are Abundant 2009: Total US Electricity ~4100 TWh Land Solar Energy from SW in the Winter Daily average and minimum solar irradiation for six SW locations: 45 year data (El Paso, Albuquerque, Tucson, Phoenix, Las Vegas, Daggett) 250,000 mi2 desert receiving 4

  15. Emerging NOAA Surface Solar Radiation for Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratovich, V.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Solar power has been growing at an annual rate of 40% in recent years. By 2025 it could grow to 10% of U.S. power needs. Sunlight is the fuel for solar power generation technologies, and as such one needs to know the quality and future availability of the fuel for accurate analysis of system performance. Sunlight (solar radiation) at the surface has been routinely estimated in real time from measurements of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) operated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). The GOES solar radiation data have been made available in the GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) suite since January 1996 for the contiguous U.S. every daytime hour at a spatial resolution of ~50 km (GSIP-V1). Since April 2009, solar radiation retrievals have been performed at a higher spatial resolution (~14 km) and cover larger areas (GSIP-V2). The GSIP-V1 data have recently been screened for quality, adjusted for changes in calibration, and parameters useful for the solar energy sector have been derived for the period of 1999-2009. In this presentation, we describe the quality control process and various adjustments applied, and provide examples of selected solar energy parameters (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.) and their evaluation. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), one of the flagship instruments of NOAA's new geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. The ABI algorithm, that is quite different from the one applied in GSIP-V1 and V2, uses atmospheric and surface data retrieved from multiple narrow bands using algorithms dedicated to the retrieval of these data. The algorithm is currently run with proxy data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the EOS satellites Terra and Aqua and the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. The ABI algorithm will be explained as well as examples will be shown.

  16. Tower-supported solar-energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple-collector tower system supports three receiver/concentrators that absorb solar energy reflected from surrounding field of heliostats. System overcomes disadvantages of tower-supported collectors. Booms can be lowered during heavy winds to protect arms and collectors.

  17. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries 

    E-print Network

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    The demand for renewable energy sources has stimulated technological advances in solar cell development. Initially, development and fabrication were extremely costly and no encouragement for use in industrial applications was made. Today, evidence...

  18. Regeneration of desiccants with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghate, S.R.; Butts, C.L.; Lown, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Saturated silica gel was regenerated with solar energy. This paper describes the experimental set-up for silica gel regeneration and data collection. The regenerated silica gel can be used to dry high moisture in-shell pecans.

  19. Energy transfer in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelbring, H.

    2013-12-01

    Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

  20. Solar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

  1. Review of solar-energy drying systems II: an overview of solar drying technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V Ekechukwu; B Norton

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy

  2. Solar Two High Energy Gamma Ray Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. O. Tumer; D. Bhattacharya; M. Chantell; Z. Conner; P. Coppi; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; U. Mohideen; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; H. Tom; D. A. Williams

    1997-01-01

    The Solar Two Gamma-Ray Telescope is planned as an extension to the STACEE Sandia experiment that is being developed for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy using the atmospheric Cherenkov detection technique in the energy range of 20 to 250 GeV. Because of its large effective light collection area, the STACEE and Solar Two Observatory will be able to reach low energy thresholds

  3. Solar wind-magnetosphere energy input functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Bargatze; R. L. McPherron; D. N. Baker

    1985-01-01

    A new formula for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy input parameter, P\\/sub i\\/, is sought by applying the constraints imposed by dimensional analysis. Applying these constraints yields a general equation for P\\/sub i\\/ which is equal to rho V³l\\/sub CF\\/²F(M\\/sub A\\/,theta) where, rho V³ is the solar wind kinetic energy density and l\\/sub CF\\/² is the scale size of the magnetosphere's

  4. From solar energy to mechanical power

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, I.

    1990-01-01

    This book describes general methods of converting solar thermal energy to mechanical power, concentrating particularly on those having a small or moderate conversion scale. Beginning with a historical overview and an outline of requirements for a solar-mechanical power conversion system, the book describes in detail several energy conversion system, paying particular attention to the Rankine, Stirling and Brayton cycle engines. For each engine, the principles of operation, efficiency and performance are discussed and working examples of each type are described.

  5. Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.

  6. Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine

    E-print Network

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine Dr. Fletcher Miller SDSU Department of Mechanical Engineering Abstract Solar thermal power for electricity will describe the design of a high temperature solar receiver capable of driving a gas turbine for power

  7. Solar wind energy as a source of upper-atmosphere heating on earth and Jupiter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. von Zahn; K. H. Fricke

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of thermospheric composition by the Esro 4 gas analyzer reveal a permanent increase in exospheric temperature at high latitudes. It is argued that the required energy is ultimately derived from the solar wind and that a 0.0005 part of the total solar-wind flux intercepted by the magnetosphere of earth will maintain the observed temperature increase. Heating of a planetary

  8. Solar wind energy as a source of upper-atmosphere heating on Earth and Jupiter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. von Zahn; K. H. Fricke

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of thermospheric composition by the Esro 4 gas analyzer reveal a permanent increase of exospheric temperature at high latitudes. It is argues that the required energy is ultimately derived from the solar wind and that 5 x 10⁻⁴ of the total solar wind flux intercepted by the magnetosphere of the earth will maintain the observed temperature increase. Heating of

  9. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  10. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  11. Solar energy receiver for a Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A solar energy receiver includes a separable endless wall formed of a ceramic material in which a cavity of substantially cylindrical configuration is defined for entrapping solar flux. An acceptance aperture is adapted to admit to the cavity a concentrated beam of solar energy. The wall is characterized by at least one pair of contiguously related segments separated by lines of cleavage intercepting the aperture. At least one of the segments is supported for pivotal displacement. A thermal-responsive actuator is adapted to respond to excessive temperatures within the cavity for initiating pivoted displacement of one segment, whereby thermal flux is permitted to escape from the cavity.

  12. Solar energy utilization in the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpilrain, E. E.

    1991-05-01

    The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

  13. The Case for the Large Scale Development of Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the history of solar energy development. Discusses global effects (temperature, particle and other pollution) of burning fossil fuels. Provides energy balance equations for solar energy distribution and discusses flat plate collectors, solar cells, photochemical and photobiological conversion of solar energy, heat pumps. (CS)

  14. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section 203...Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  15. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section 203...Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  16. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section 203...Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  17. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section 203...Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  18. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

    2011-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  19. Passive solar energy information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  20. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  1. Saudi Aramco Gas Operations Energy Efficiency Program 

    E-print Network

    Al-Dossary, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Aramco Gas Operations (GO) created energy efficiency strategies for its 5-year business plan (2011-2015), supported by a unique energy efficiency program, to reduce GO energy intensity by 26% by 2015. The program generated an energy savings...

  2. Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Solar energy, being a non-depleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. It can be used to generate electricity, for heating and cooling buildings, and for producing clean renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuel. There is little question of the technical feasibility for utilizing solar energy. The chief problem is rapidly providing innovative solutions that are economically competititive with other systems.

  3. Solar cycle dependence of solar wind energy coupling to the thermosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Burke

    2011-01-01

    Efficient solar wind energy coupling to storm time thermosphere depends on F10.7Estimates storm time energy partitioning between thermosphere and ring currentMethod adapts to specify solar wind\\/thermosphere energy coupling during storms

  4. Explore engineering with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.H. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-11-01

    An outreach program was initiated at the University of Minnesota by faculty and student members of the Society of Women Engineers in the spring of 1994 to interest students in 3rd through 9th grade, particularly girls, in careers in engineering. Interaction with elementary and junior high students focuses on hands-on experiences with portable solar devices. This paper reports progress of the program including descriptions of the solar devices, their use in visits to local schools, day visits to the University, and week-long summer camps, and continuing education programs for elementary and secondary school teachers.

  5. Solar Revolution: The Economic Transformation of the Global Energy Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis Bradford

    In Solar Revolution, fund manager and former corporate buyout specialist Travis Bradford argues—on the basis of standard business and economic forecasting models—that over the next two decades solar energy will increasingly become the best and cheapest choice for most electricity and energy applications. Solar Revolution outlines the path by which the transition to solar technology and sustainable energy practices will

  6. Solar Revolution: The Economic Transformation of the Global Energy Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis Bradford

    In Solar Revolution, fund manager and former corporate buyout specialist Travis Bradford argues--on the basis of standard business and economic forecasting models--that over the next two decades solar energy will increasingly become the best and cheapest choice for most electricity and energy applications. Solar Revolution outlines the path by which the transition to solar technology and sustainable energy practices will

  7. Germanium nanoparticles for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vörös, Márton; Wippermann, Stefan; Rocca, Dario; Galli, Giulia; Gali, Adam; Zimanyi, Gergely

    2013-03-01

    We propose a strategy to enhance the efficiency of solar energy conversion by elemental germanium, by using Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) in Ge nanoparticles with a ST12 core structure. The latter is the structure of a high pressure phase of solid Ge. MEG is more efficient in bulk Ge in the diamond phase than in several other semiconductors, e.g. Si. In principle it may be further improved at the nanoscale, due to an increased effective Coulomb interaction. However the electronic energy gap of semiconducting nanoparticles may be too large compared to the visible solar spectrum and their density of states (DOS) too low for efficient solar energy conversion. Using ab initio calculations we found that ST12 Ge nanoparticles of ~1-2 nm exhibit high impact ionization rates and thus presumably efficient MEG, as well as a gap of ~2 eV and a sizable DOS in the low energy part of the spectrum. Therefore these nanoparticles appear to be promising materials for solar energy conversion exploiting MEG. We propose a strategy to enhance the efficiency of solar energy conversion by elemental germanium, by using Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) in Ge nanoparticles with a ST12 core structure. The latter is the structure of a high pressure phase of solid Ge. MEG is more efficient in bulk Ge in the diamond phase than in several other semiconductors, e.g. Si. In principle it may be further improved at the nanoscale, due to an increased effective Coulomb interaction. However the electronic energy gap of semiconducting nanoparticles may be too large compared to the visible solar spectrum and their density of states (DOS) too low for efficient solar energy conversion. Using ab initio calculations we found that ST12 Ge nanoparticles of ~1-2 nm exhibit high impact ionization rates and thus presumably efficient MEG, as well as a gap of ~2 eV and a sizable DOS in the low energy part of the spectrum. Therefore these nanoparticles appear to be promising materials for solar energy conversion exploiting MEG. NSF Solar Collaborative DMR-1035468, NSF CHE-0802907

  8. Critical issues in the development of hybrid solar\\/gas receivers for dish\\/Stirling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Adkins; K. S. Rawlinson

    1991-01-01

    A hybrid solar\\/gas receiver system will allow Stirling engines to operate with combined solar and gas power sources. One of the most attractive options for building a hybrid system is to integrate a gas-fired heat pipe directly into a heat-pipe solar receiver. Before this union can take place, however, a number of technical issues must be resolved. A design must

  9. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1980-10-01

    Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities; and at LBL projects are in progress which span that range of activities. To assess various solar applications it is important to quantify the solar resource. In one project, LBL is cooperating with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in the implementation and operation of a solar radiation data collection network in northern California. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure the solar and circumsolar (around the sun) radiation. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs which use focusing collectors (mirrors or lenses) to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts are being made to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology. DOE's San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) has been given technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. The installation of a solar hot water and space heating system on an LBL building established model techniques and procedures as part of the DOE Facilities Solar Demonstration Program. Technical support is also provided for SAN in a DOE small scale technology pilot program in which grants are awarded to individuals and organizations to develop and demonstrate solar technologies appropriate to small scale use. In the near future it is expected that research will exert a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. An absorption air conditioner is being developed that is air cooled yet suitable for use with temperatures available from flat plate collectors. With inexpensive but sophisticated micro-electronics to control their operation, the performance of many-component solar heating and cooling systems may be improved, and work is under way to develop such a controller and to evaluate commercially available units. Research is continuing on 'passive' approaches to solar heating and cooling where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed in a collaborative project with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. These models will be incorporated into public domain building energy analysis computer programs to be used in systems studies and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, then provide 'coolness' to the building. The laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the 'shape-memory' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources such as solar heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central receiver system or a parabolic dish. The conversion of the concentrated sunlight to thermal energy would be accomplished by the absorption of the light by a dispersion of very small particles suspended in a gas. Work continued this year on chemical storage processes (such as 2SO

  10. Solar Energy of the North

    SciTech Connect

    Davis St. Peter Director of Faclities ( retired) Charles Bonin Vice President of Administration & Finance

    2012-01-12

    The concept of this project was to design a solar array that would not only provide electricity for the major classroom building of the campus but would also utilize that electricity to enhance the learning environment. It was also understood that the project would be a research and data gathering project.

  11. Florida Solar Energy Center: K-12 Curricula

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website contains nine sets of curriculum materials on renewable energy sources, organized into units of instruction for Grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. In the High Energy Hydrogen units, students investigate how a fuel cell converts energy directly into usable electric power and why the process is pollution-free. The award-winning Solar Matters collection includes manuals for building a solar "still" to desalinate water, exploring properties of photovoltaic cells, and experimenting with fuel cells. Printable lesson plans are supplemented with interactive games and activities for use in the science classroom. Each instructional unit is aligned with science education standards.

  12. Magnetospheric feedbacks in solar wind energy transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minna Palmroth; Tuija I. Pulkkinen; Chandrasekhar R. Anekallu; Ilja Honkonen; Hannu E. J. Koskinen; Elizabeth A. Lucek; Iannis Dandouras

    2010-01-01

    The solar wind kinetic energy, fueling all dynamical processes within the near-Earth space, is extracted by a dynamo process at the magnetopause converting kinetic energy into magnetic energy. We investigate the magnetopause energy transfer both in small and large scales; using Cluster observations as well as a three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation GUMICS-4. In the simulation, the spatial distribution of

  13. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California solar energy system performance evaluation, July 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory site is an office building in California with an active solar energy system designed to supply from 23 to 33% of the space heating load and part of the hot water load. The solar heating system is equipped with 1428 square feet of flat-plate collectors, a 2000-gallon water storage tank, and two gas-fired boilers to supply auxiliary heat for both space heating and domestic hot water. Poor performance is reported, with the solar fraction being only 4%. Also given are the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and the coefficient of performance. The performance data are given for the collector, storage, solar water heating and solar space heating subsystems as well as the total system. Typical system operation and solar energy utilization are briefly described. The system design, performance evaluation techniques, weather data, and sensor technology are presented. (LEW)

  14. Mathematics and Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humer, Barbara

    This learning module for use with junior high school students offers some basic career awareness in the energy field while covering some basic principles and aspects of energy use, such as vocabulary, basic electricity, energy efficiency, and home utility meter reading. Math problems are offered in volume and surface area, energy efficiency,…

  15. Using Solar Energy to Desalinate Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Harry Z.

    1978-01-01

    Material presented is adapted from Desalination with Solar Energy, a paper presented before the International Symposium on Energy Sources and Development, held in Spain in 1977. Desalination systems energized by the sun, conditions governing their efficiency, and their costs are discussed. (HM)

  16. Solar and wind energy resources and prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quanhua Liu; Qinxian Miao; Jue J. Liu; Wenli Yang

    2009-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues are among the most important problems of public concern. There are increasing debates about whether to resort to drilling more oil and mining more coal or to using renewable, sustainable, and clean resources such as solar and wind energies. Through our analyses and modeling on the basis of the National Center for Environment Prediction data, we

  17. Solar energy utilization by carbanion photolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, M. A.; Singletary, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    Photolysis of a variety of hydrocarbon anions with visible or long wavelength UV light leads to several classes of photoreactions. Orbital topology-controlled anionic photorearrangements and the occurrence of photoinduced electron transfers may be general pathways for anionic excited states. These reactions find application in the utilization of solar energy either in photochemical energy storage reactions or in photoelectrochemical cells.

  18. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  19. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Martin; Ruth Marchante; Marco Cony; Luis F. Zarzalejo; Jesus Polo; Ana Navarro

    2010-01-01

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as

  20. Thermoelectrics and aerogels for solar energy conversion systems

    E-print Network

    McEnaney, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about climate change, the world's growing energy needs, and energy independence are driving demand for solar energy conversion technologies. Solar thermal electricity generation has the potential to ll this demand. ...

  1. Density Perturbations in the Upper Atmosphere Caused by the Dissipation of Solar Wind Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd W. Prölss

    2011-01-01

    The upper atmosphere constitutes the outer region of the terrestrial gas envelope above about 100 km altitude. The energy\\u000a budget of this outer gas layer is partly controlled by the dissipation of solar wind energy. Since this energy input is largely\\u000a irregular, the resulting density changes are considered as perturbations. The properties and physics of such density perturbations\\u000a are reviewed here.

  2. Low energy particle composition. [energy spectra, particle emission - solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The energy spectra and composition of the steady or 'quiet-time' particle flux, whose origin is unknown was studied. Particles and photons which are associated with solar flares or active regions on the sun were also studied. Various detection techniques used to measure the composition and energy spectra of low energy particles are discussed. Graphs of elemental abundance and energy spectra are given.

  3. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ropp; Sigifredo Gonzalez; Alan Schaffer; Stanley Katz; Jim Perkinson; Ward Isaac Bower; Mark Prestero; Leo Casey; Houtan Moaveni; David Click; Kristopher Davis; Robert Reedy; Scott S. Kuszmaul; Lisa Sena-Henderson; Carolyn David; Abbas Ali Akhil

    2012-01-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in

  4. Manufacture of silicon carbide using solar energy

    DOEpatents

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using solar energy. The method is efficient and avoids the need for use of electrical energy to heat the reactants. Finely divided silica and carbon are admixed and placed in a solar-heated reaction chamber for a time sufficient to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

  5. Integrated solar energy harvesting and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel J. Guilar; Albert Chen; Travis Kleeburg; Rajeevan Amirtharajah

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT To explore integrated solar energy harvesting as a power,source for low power systems such as wireless sensor nodes, an array of energy,scavenging ,photodiodes ,based ,on a ,passive-pixel architecture for imagers and have been fabricated together with storage capacitors implemented ,using on-chip interconnect in a 0.35 ?m CMOS ,logic process. Integrated vertical plate capacitors enable dense energy storage without limiting

  6. Online National Solar Energy Directory and 2005 Solar Decathlon Product Directory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Julia; Taylor, Mike

    2008-12-31

    The Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), in partnership with the American Solar Energy Society, developed an online National Solar Energy Directory with clear, comprehensive information on suppliers and purchasing options. The site was originally located at FindSolar.com, but has recently been moved to Find-Solar.org. The original FindSolar.com domain name has been taken by the American Solar Energy Society (a partner in this project) and utilized for a similar but different project. This Find-Solar.org directory offers the rapidly growing base of potential solar customers a simple, straightforward destination to learn about their solar options. Members of the public are able to easily locate contractors in their geographic area and verify companiesâ?? qualifications with accurate third-party information. It allows consumers to obtain key information on the economics, incentives, desirability, and workings of a solar energy system, as well as competing quotes from different contractors and reviews from customers they have worked with previously. Find-Solar.org is a means of facilitating the growing public interest in solar power and overcoming a major barrier to widespread development of U.S. solar markets. In addition to the development of Find-Solar.org, SEPA developed a separate online product directory for the 2005 DOE Solar Decathlon to facilitate the communication of information about the energy efficiency and renewable energy products used in each university teamâ??s home.

  7. Relaxation and Transport of ENAs produced in Interaction between the Interstellar Gas and Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, V. A.; Lewkow, N.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate parameters of the momentum-energy relaxation and transport of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) in the local interstellar medium have been determined. To evaluate the rates of collision energy losses and to describe the ENA propagation in the interstellar gas, the angular and energy dependent cross sections have been computed using ab initio interaction potentials and quantum mechanical treatment of collision processes. Detailed analysis has been carried out for nascent keV hydrogen and helium ENAs, originating from the stellar/solar wind charge exchange processes, as they interact with the thermal interstellar gas and plasma. With the computed collision parameters, the momentum-energy transfer and energy relaxation rates of fast neutral H, He, and O atoms have been calculated for the local interstellar medium, consisting of both warm dense interstellar clouds and hot dilute plasma. Key parameters of He and H ENAs in the interstellar medium, such as energy and spatial distributions of the steady state ENA fluxes, averaged thermalization times and characteristic thermalization lengths, the reflection and transmission coefficients for ENAs interacting with the interstellar gas, have been determined through Monte Carlo simulations with accurate angular and energy dependent collision cross sections.

  8. Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs Solar Photovoltaic and Demand Response 

    E-print Network

    Tyra, K.; Hanel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs Solar Photovoltaic and Demand Response October 10, 2012 ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS OVERVIEW ?Program rules and guidelines established by Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) ?All Texas investor... their energy demand ?Increase the awareness of renewable energy 2 CURRENT SOLAR PV PROGRAM ?Oncor offered Solar PV as an eligible measure in energy efficiency since 2002 ?2008 Oncor developed a Solar PV Program for Residential and Commercial...

  9. A review of solar energy : markets, economics and policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Govinda R. Timilsina; Lado Kurdgelashvili; Patrick A. Narbel

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy developmentand deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher

  10. Sustainable desalination using solar energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veera Gnaneswar Gude; Nagamany Nirmalakhandan

    2010-01-01

    Global potable water demand is expected to grow, particularly in areas where freshwater supplies are limited. Production and supply of potable water requires significant amounts of energy, which is currently being derived from nonrenewable fossil fuels. Since energy production from fossil fuels also requires water, current practice of potable water supply powered by fossil fuel derived energy is not a

  11. A management strategy for solar panel — battery — super capacitor hybrid energy system in solar car

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Wu; Fang Zhuo; Fei Long; Weiwei Gu; Yang Qing; YanQin Liu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of solar energy - battery - super-capacitor hybrid energy storage system in solar electric vehicles. The key point is the proposed energy management control algorithm. The entire system consists of a solar panel, a boost converter, a battery, a super capacitor, a bi-directional DC\\/DC converter, and a brushless DC motor. This paper gives the details

  12. CAST solar axion search with 3^He buffer gas: Closing the hot dark matter gap

    E-print Network

    M. Arik; S. Aune; K. Barth; A. Belov; S. Borghi; H. Brauninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; E. Da Riva; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; P. Friedrich; J. Galan; J. A. Garcia; A. Gardikiotis; J. G. Garza; E. N. Gazis; T. Geralis; E. Georgiopoulou; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; H. Gomez; M. Gomez Marzoa; E. Gruber; T. Guthorl; R. Hartmann; S. Hauf; F. Haug; M. D. Hasinoff; D. H. H. Hoffmann; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakovcic; M. Karuza; K. Konigsmann; R. Kotthaus; M. Krcmar; M. Kuster; B. Lakic; P. M. Lang; J. M. Laurent; A. Liolios; A. Ljubicic; V. Lozza; G. Luzon; S. Neff; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; A. Rodriguez; M. Rosu; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; I. Shilon; P. S. Silva; S. K. Solanki; L. Stewart; A. Tomas; M. Tsagri; K. van Bibber; T. Vafeiadis; J. Villar; J. K. Vogel; S. C. Yildiz; K. Zioutas

    2014-09-15

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has finished its search for solar axions with 3^He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of g_a, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope IAXO.

  13. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOEpatents

    Salomon, Robert E. (Philadelphia, PA)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine.

  14. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOEpatents

    Salomon, R.E.

    1987-06-30

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine. 4 figs.

  15. Electron energy flux in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Sugiura, M.

    1971-01-01

    Description of studies of electrons between 10 eV and 9.9 keV in the solar wind. The transport of energy in the rest frame of the plasma is evaluated and shown to be parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The presence of electrons from solar events causes this energy-flux density to exceed the heat flow due to thermal electrons. In one such event, the observations are shown to be consistent with the solar-electron observations made at higher energies. When observations are made at a point connected to the earth's bow shock by an interplanetary-field line, a comparatively large energy flux along the field toward the sun is observed, but the heat flow remains outwardly directed during this time interval. In either situation the heat flow is found to be consistent with measurements made on Vela satellites by a different method. These values, less than .01 ergs/sq cm/sec, are sufficiently low to require modifications to the Spitzer-Harm conductivity formula for use in solar-wind theories.

  16. Sun tracking solar energy collector system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doundoulakis

    1981-01-01

    A sun tracking solar energy collector system comprises a plurality of light focusing elements disposed side by side in the form of a surface array, providing a linear array of foci; and a metallic heat exchanger tube having externally a high absorbtivity, low reflectivity coating containing a working fluid such as water, air, hydrogen or helium, to which a substantial

  17. Recirculating natural convection solar energy collector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soleau; B. S. Jr

    1979-01-01

    Recirculating natural convection solar energy collectors are disclosed. In one species of the invention, the collector comprises an insulated housing, a cover of glass or other suitable transparent material, a transparent plate of glass or other suitable material mounted inside said housing and spaced apart from the cover, a heat absorber mounted inside the housing and spaced apart from the

  18. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  19. The upper limit to solar energy conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean E. Wright; David S. Scott; James B. Haddow; Marc A. Rosen

    2000-01-01

    Petela carried out research to determine the maximum ideal theoretical work output obtainable from BR independent of any conversion device. However, omnicolor conversion is considered by many to be the ideal theoretical process for solar energy conversion. Petela's result for blackbody radiation (BR) exergy is often thought to be of little importance because it appears to neglect fundamental theoretical issues

  20. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soteris A. Kalogirou

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems comprise two major areas, expert systems and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The major objective of this paper is to illustrate how artificial intelligence techniques might play an important role in modelling and prediction of the performance of solar energy systems. The paper outlines an understanding of how expert systems and neural networks operate by way of

  1. Energy release in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of energy release in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free energy storage, and the fragmentation of energy release in time and space.

  2. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline TiO2

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yanyi

    2002-01-01

    photovoltaic converter has been a powerful alternative candidate for conventional silicon solar cells unmatched performance in dye staff studied as solar cell sensitizer before 1997. Only recently, a black dyeSolar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261­271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline Ti

  3. Is Solar Energy the Fuel of the Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetincelik, Mauammer

    1974-01-01

    Describes the present distribution of solar energy, traces its use through history, explores its potential utilization in the future, and presents the effects of the use of solar energy on pollution. (GS)

  4. Thermochemical hydrogen production using solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lindler, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    In order that solar energy may be fully utilized as a renewable energy source, a convenient and economical method of energy storage must be developed. Hydrogen is proposed as that storage medium. Furthermore, it is proposed that a thermochemical water splitting process be used to produce this hydrogen. Solar collectors are analyzed using both the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics. It is demonstrated that the Second Law is the appropriate design tool for the selection of the collector as well as the collector operating temperature. Thermochemical processes that require thermal energy at or near the optimum collector temperature are investigated to determine the most promising based on economics, separation and corrosion problems, system complexity, and safety hazards. A proposed system design, including controls and operating temperatures, is presented for the most promising thermochemical process.

  5. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries

    E-print Network

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    SOLAR ENERGY FOR CHARGING FORK TRUCK BATTERIES Trevor A. Viljoen Dr. Wayne C. Turner School of Industrial Engineering and Management Oklahoma State University Stillwater, Oklahoma i I i ABSTRACT i ! The demand for renewable energy... by Dr. Wayne example problem developed is designed to allow for as Turner and Dr. Ken Case of Oklahoma State University many relevant costs as possible. Two methods are used (7). The method developed by them analyzes the pre to evaluate the cost...

  6. Solar energy utilization by physical methods.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M

    1974-04-19

    On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will not cause a greater impact than other new energy sources, based on the reasoning that a self-consistent set of conditions will have to be fulfilled in order to achieve such large-scale use. Without cost competitiveness, other energy resources would fill the requirements, or, if their resource and cost structure also would create severe problems, the economic forecasts simply cannot be fulfilled. We also should not think of a "solar-only" energy future. First, there is still enough coal to last for several hundred years. Second, there should be enough fissionable fuel available to operate breeder reactors for a similar time span, and geothermal energy could satisfy some requirements for a long time. And finally, there may be fusion. It would be unlikely that any one of the available options should play a really dominant role. Rather, we should expect to be using an energy mix, just as we do now, with each energy source supplying the requirements which it can satisfy in the most suitable way, and solar energy should play an important role in this long-range future. PMID:17792569

  7. Conversion of laser energy to gas kinetic energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Caledonia

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for the gas phase absorption of laser radiation for conversion to gas kinetic energy are discussed. Absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung, in which laser energy is converted at a gas kinetic rate in a spectrally continuous process, is briefly described, and absorption by molecular vibrational rotation bands is discussed at length. High pressure absorption is proposed as a means of

  8. Simulation of solar hydrogen energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Kauranen, P.S.; Lund, P.D.; Manninen, L.M. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland))

    1994-09-01

    Solar hydrogen is a promising long-term global energy option for the post-fossil fuel era. On the other hand, solar hydrogen may have already found an early commercial application in the form of seasonal energy storage for remote stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) applications. In a stand-alone solar hydrogen energy system, the photovoltaic array is coupled with an electrolyser to produce H[sub 2] which is stored to be later converted back to electricity in a fuel cell. The system setup comprises several subsystems which have to be controlled in an optimal way. Numerical simulations are used to get a closer insight into the transient response behavior of these elegant, but rather complicated systems during variable insolation conditions and to estimate the overall system performance accurately over extensive periods of time. The simulations are performed with the H2PHOTO program which has been successfully used for the design of a solar hydrogen pilot plant. It has also shown good accuracy against experimental data.

  9. Internal refractor focusing solar energy collector apparatus and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy collector apparatus and method are described, the apparatus including an open-top shell-like structure. A Fresnel lens system and a mirror system inside the shell structure focus and direct solar energy toward a solar energy absorber apparatus also inside the shell structure. The shell structure is mounted upon a hollow axle in a framework for rotation about its

  10. Solar Energy Status and Perspectives Peter Ahm, Director

    E-print Network

    Solar Energy ­ Status and Perspectives Peter Ahm, Director PA Energy A/S (Ltd.) Snovdrupvej 16, DK-8340 Malling Phone: +45 86 93 33 33; Fax: +45 86 93 36 05; e-mail: ahm@paenergy.dk Abstract Solar energy in terms of thermal Solar Hot Water systems and electricity producing Photovoltaics contribute

  11. Financing Solar Energy in the U.S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Eckhart

    1999-01-01

    1. Summary The financing of solar energy, representing one of the final phases of the process of commercializing solar energy technologies, needs to be addressed as carefully as the previous stages of research, development, demonstration, and commercial utilization. The degree to which solar energy is financeable represents a key measure of its commercialization. Ultimately, the \\

  12. Solar thermal energy systems in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Lovegrove; Mike Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Australia has developed world leading solar thermal technologies, with only very low national market penetration. Domestic solar water heating is the most common solar thermal instrument, with around 5% of homes using it and most of these systems are conventional flat plate thermosyphon systems. Other low temperature solar thermal research includes solar crop drying, solar ponds and solar air heating

  13. Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Investigating Renewable Energy Data from Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Panels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using renewable sources of energy benefits the environment and contributes to more sustainable energy use. The burning of fossil fuels generates air pollution and increased CO2 in the atmosphere. CO2 is the major greenhouse gas warming our planet. Using more renewable sources of energy not only reduces pollution, but also conserves the current limited supply of fossil fuels. This chapter looks at how much solar energy is generated using photovoltaic panels on rooftops or exposed ground locations at installations around the U.S. The focus is on three different websites that monitor and report solar energy production from panels at a few hundred locations.

  14. Engineered biomimicry for harvesting solar energy: a bird's eye view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma; Akhlesh Lakhtakia

    2012-01-01

    All three methodologies of engineered biomimicry – bioinspiration, biomimetics, and bioreplication – are represented in current research on harvesting solar energy. Both processes and porous surfaces inspired by plants and certain marine animals, respectively, are being investigated for solar cells. Whereas dye-sensitized solar cells deploy artificial photosynthesis, bioinspired nanostructuring of materials in solar cells improves performance. Biomimetically textured coatings for

  15. Development of Semiconducting Polymers for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongye Liang; Luping Yu

    2010-01-01

    Semiconducting polymer solar cells are an attracting class of devices for low-cost solar energy harvesting. The bulk hetero-junction structure based on composite materials of semiconducting polymer donor and fullerene acceptor is an effective form of active layers for polymer solar cells. So far, the limiting factors for widespread, practical applications in polymers solar cell is their low power conversion efficiency

  16. SUPPORTING SOLAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GREEN POWER MARKETS Blair Swezey

    E-print Network

    Solar Installed Year Started Price Premium Commercial-scale PV Arizona Public Service Solar Partners 616SUPPORTING SOLAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GREEN POWER MARKETS Blair Swezey Lori Bird Christy or from a competitive green power supplier. Solar power from both utility-scale and small, distributed

  17. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  18. Energy 101: Solar Photovoltaic (PV)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Department of Energy

    This video, from the US Department of Energy, shows the basics of how a PV panel converts light radiated from the sun into usable power, whether on the electric grid or off, and without emissions or the use of fossil fuels.

  19. Solar energy conversion using surface plasmons for broadband energy transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    A new strategy for efficient solar energy conversion based on parallel processing with surface plasmons is introduced. The approach is unique in identifying: (1) a broadband carrier with suitable range for energy transport, and (2) a technique to extract more energy from the more energetic photons, without sequential losses or unique materials for each frequency band. The aim is to overcome the fundamental losses associated with the broad solar spectrum and to achieve a higher level of spectrum splitting than has been possible in semiconductor systems.

  20. Device for the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bellugue

    1981-01-01

    A device is described for the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy with the aid of a photovoltaic cell. A central lens forms a round radiation spot on the radiation-sensitive area of the cell, while a toric mirror arranged round the lens forms an annular radiation spot. Thus, it is ensured that the entire area of the cell remains

  1. Solar energy employment and requirements, 1978 - 1985. Summary and highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, G. W.; Field, J.

    1980-04-01

    The characterization of establishments engaged in solar energy work and the number and occupational distribution of persons working in solar energy activities in 1978 are described. Future solar manpower requirements through 1983 are projected. Included were all types of solar energy technologies and applications (space heating and cooling, water heating, industrial process heat, thermal power, ocean thermal conversion, photovoltaic conversion, wind conversion and biomass conversion), and all phases of work (research and development, manufacturing, marketing and distribution, and installation and maintenance).

  2. Solar energy, conservation, and rental housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, A.; Raab, J.

    1981-03-01

    Renters must pay the majority of energy costs either directly or in their rents. They have limited financial and legal abilities to make improvements necessary to increase substantially the energy efficiency of rental housing. This report discusses the problem of how to increase investments in energy conservation and solar energy devices for rental housing, which constitutes over one-third of US housing. As background, this report characterizes the rental-housing market, including owners' decision-making criteria. Federal, state, and local policies that affect energy-related investments in rental housing are described. Programs are divided into five major categories: (1) programs for tenants, (2) financial incentives for owners, (3) leasing of solar energy equipment, (4) mediation between tenants and landlords, and (5) regulation. The report concludes that energy and conservation programs aimed at the residential sector must disaggregate owner-occupied housing from rental housing for maximum effect. No one program is advocated since local rental-housing markets differ substantially. For improvements greater than no-cost or low-cost items, programs must be directed at rental-housing owners and not only at tenants.

  3. Conservation and solar energy potential at the community level: Ocean Township, New Jersey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boucher

    1984-01-01

    The energy use of the residents of Ocean Township was evaluated to determine the potential for the 5797 residents to reduce their annual consumption of energy from non-renewable sources (oil, natural gas, and electricity) through conservation measures and the use of solar energy. Ninety-two representative residents agreed to participate in a detailed on-site energy audit. If the conservation measures that

  4. Wave Energy Deposition in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Goossens, Marcel; Verth, Gary; Soler, Roberto; Gijsen, Stief; Andries, Jesse

    Recently, a significant amount of transverse wave energy has been estimated propagating along solar atmospheric magnetic fields. However, these estimates have been made with the classic bulk Alfven wave model which assumes a homogeneous plasma. In this talk, the kinetic, magnetic, and total energy densities and the flux of energy are first computed for transverse MHD waves in one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube models with a piecewise constant density profile. There are fundamental deviations from the properties for classic bulk Alfven waves. (1) There is no local equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy. (2) The flux of energy and the velocity of energy transfer have, in addition to a component parallel to the magnetic field, components in the planes normal to the magnetic field. (3) The energy densities and the flux of energy vary spatially, contrary to the case of classic bulk Alfven waves. This last property is then used to connect the energy flux in such a simple model to the energy flux in multiple flux tube systems. We use the plasma filling factor f to derive an ad-hoc formula for estimating the energy that is propagated in bundles of loops. We find that the energy flux in kink waves is lower than the energy computed from a bulk Alfven wave interpretation, by a factor that is (approximately) between f and 2f. We consider some geometric models to quantify this correction factor.

  5. SERI solar energy storage program: FY 1981 annual report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Baylin; R. J. Copeland; A. Kotch; T. Kriz; W. Luft; R. G. Nix; J. D. Wright

    1982-01-01

    Thermal energy storage technologies are identified for specific solar thermal applications. The capabilities and limitations of direct-contact thermal storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport are examined. Storage of energy from active solar thermal systems for industrial process heat and the heating of buildings is analyzed and seasonal energy storage is covered. The coordination of numerous thermal energy storage research

  6. SERI solar energy storage program: FY 1983 annual report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Luft; M. S. Bohn; R. J. Copeland; R. G. Nix

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Solar Energy Storage Program during its fifth year, FY 1985. This program provides supporting research and technology and systems analyses and assessments to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Thermal Energy Storage Program. In FY 1983, SERI researched direct-contact heat exchange, latent- and sensible-heat storage, and thermochemical energy

  7. SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program. FY 1982 annual report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Luft; M. Bohn; R. J. Copeland; R. G. Nix

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Solar Energy Storage Program during its fourth year, FY 1982. This program provides supporting research and technology and systems analyses and assessments to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Thermal Energy Storage Program. In FY 1982, SERI researched direct-contact heat exchange, latent- and sensible-heat storage, and thermochemical energy

  8. Solar energy collector\\/storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Bettis; F. R. Clearman

    1983-01-01

    A solar energy collector\\/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably

  9. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tripanagnostopoulos; M. Souliotis; Th. Makris

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal (PV\\/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV\\/Ts)

  10. Solar thermochemical energy conversion and transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. McCrary; G. E. McCrary

    1982-01-01

    The high temperature catalytic dissociation of SO3 and the CO2-CH4 reforming-methanation cycle are important chemical processes being considered in the development and application of solar-thermal energy conversion, transport, and storage systems. Separate facilities for evaluating chemical converter-heat exchangers at temperatures to 1000 C with high flow rates of SO3 and of mixtures of CO2 and CH4 feedstocks have been assembled

  11. Effectiveness of state government in promoting residential solar energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hohmann

    1983-01-01

    Public opinion polls show that a majority of residents believe solar energy has a role in the energy future of our country. However, residential consumers remain hesitant to invest in solar equipment or building design. One likely reason is a lack of specific, reliable information on the feasibility, performance, service and cost of solar technology. Although general, albeit often conflicting

  12. Domestic utilization of solar energy in the Michigan area

    SciTech Connect

    Varde, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    A model was constructed to determine the heating loads in a typical residential building in the Michigan area and the efficiency of solar energy collection system using flat plate solar collector. It was found that during the heating season solar energy may be attractive if used in conjunction with a heat pump. 8 refs.

  13. A new seawater desalination process using solar energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efat Chafik

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a new process to desalinate seawater using solar energy. By the proposed process, the solar energy heats airflow up to a temperature between 50 and 80°C. The moderate solar heated air will be humidified by injecting seawater into the air stream. Later on, the water being free of salt will be extracted from the

  14. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1994 review

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This is a report on DOE`s Solar Industrial Program. The topics of the report include an overview of the program, it`s participants and it`s objectives; solar detoxification--using solar energy to destroy environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil; solar process heat--generating industrial quantities of hot water, steam, and hot air from solar energy; and advanced processes--using concentrated solar energy to manufacture high-technology materials and develop new industrial processes.

  15. The solar wind charge-transfer X-ray emission in the 1/4 keV energy range: inferences on Local Bubble hot gas at low Z

    E-print Network

    D. Koutroumpa; R. Lallement; J. C. Raymond; V. Kharchenko

    2008-12-19

    We present calculations of the heliospheric SWCX emission spectra and their contributions in the ROSAT 1/4 keV band. We compare our results with the soft X-ray diffuse background (SXRB) emission detected in front of 378 identified shadowing regions during the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (Snowden et al. 2000). This foreground component is principally attributed to the hot gas of the so-called Local Bubble (LB), an irregularly shaped cavity of ~50-150 pc around the Sun, which is supposed to contain ~10^6 K plasma. Our results suggest that the SWCX emission from the heliosphere is bright enough to account for most of the foreground emission towards the majority of low galactic latitude directions, where the LB is the least extended. In a large part of directions with galactic latitude above 30deg the heliospheric SWCX intensity is significantly smaller than the measured one. However, the SWCX R2/R1 band ratio differs slightly from the data in the galactic center direction, and more significantly in the galactic anti-centre direction where the observed ratio is the smallest. Assuming that both SWCX and hot gas emission are present and their relative contributions vary with direction, we tested a series of thermal plasma spectra for temperatures ranging from 10^5 to 10^6.5 K and searched for a combination of SWCX spectra and thermal emission matching the observed intensities and band ratios, while simultaneously being compatible with O VI emission measurements. In the frame of collisional equilibrium models and for solar abundances, the range we derive for hot gas temperature and emission measure cannot reproduce the Wisconsin C/B band ratio. We emphasize the need for additional atomic data, describing consistently EUV and X-ray photon spectra of the charge-exchange emission of heavier solar wind ions.

  16. A Simple and Inexpensive Solar Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, J. H.; Pedersen, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is presented which utilizes the current solid state technology to demonstrate electrochemical generation of hydrogen gas, direct generation of electricity for pumping water, and energy conversion efficiency. The experimental module costs about $100 and can be used repeatedly. (BB)

  17. Solar Energy Research Institute Validation Test House Site Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Wortman, D.; Judkoff, R.; Hunn, B.

    1985-05-01

    The Validation Test House at the Solar Energy Research Institute in Golden, Colorado, is being used to collect performance data for analysis/design tool validation as part of the DOE Passive Solar Class A Performance Evaluation Program.

  18. Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials

    E-print Network

    Lenert, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

  19. Review of solar thermoelectric energy conversion and analysis of a two cover flat-plate solar collector

    E-print Network

    Hasan, Atiya

    2007-01-01

    The process of solar thermoelectric energy conversion was explored through a review of thermoelectric energy generation and solar collectors. Existing forms of flat plate collectors and solar concentrators were surveyed. ...

  20. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  1. Solar Buildings Research Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Styliano; A. Athienitis

    2006-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: buildings' impact on green house gas emissions;unexploited potential of solar energy; partners and linkages; network governance; strategic planning; technology transfer; solar buildings; and benefits to Canada.

  2. Solar energy market penetration models - Science or number mysticism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, E. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The forecast market potential of a solar technology is an important factor determining its R&D funding. Since solar energy market penetration models are the method used to forecast market potential, they have a pivotal role in a solar technology's development. This paper critiques the applicability of the most common solar energy market penetration models. It is argued that the assumptions underlying the foundations of rigorously developed models, or the absence of a reasonable foundation for the remaining models, restrict their applicability.

  3. Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System 

    E-print Network

    Spates, C. N.

    2010-01-01

    With Climate Change legislation on the horizon, the need to integrate energy reduction initiatives with greenhouse gas reduction efforts is critical to manufactures competitiveness and financial strength going forward. MPC has developed...

  4. Energy resources of the developing countries and some priority markets for the use of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, T. A.; Hein, G. F.

    1977-01-01

    Energy consumption for the developed and non-developed world is expressed as a function of GNP. An almost straight-line graph results when energy consumption statistics are treated in this manner. The richest countries consume the most energy, and the poorest countries the least. It therefore follows that greater energy production in the developing countries (leading to greater energy consumption) will contribute to their economic growth. Energy resources in the developing countries are compared, including: solid fossil fuels, crude oil, natural gas, oil shale, and uranium. Mention is also made of the potential of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, in the underdeveloped world; and it is these resources which offer the greatest possibilities for economic improvement if the money is forthcoming, i.e., from the world bank, to fund the necessary technology.

  5. Big optics for astronomy and solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger

    2014-10-01

    Aden Meinel came from the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory and the Department of Astronomy to found the Optical Sciences Center (OSC). Aden conceived and made at the Center of the optics for the revolutionary Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), which greatly influenced the design of future large research telescopes and the technology needed to make them. The Steward Observatory Mirror Lab was built to make honeycomb mirrors up to 8.4 m diameter, and with much faster focal ratio. In use in the current Large Binocular Telescope and future Giant Magellan Telescope, these mirrors provide powerful astronomical research capabilities with unique sensitivity for exoplanet observations in the infrared. The solar energy field can also benefit from Aden's legacy, by using multiple large solar mirrors configured like the MMT to power very high efficiency photovoltaic cells at each focus.

  6. Energy balance in solar and stellar chromospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avrett, E. H.

    1981-01-01

    Net radiative cooling rates for quiet and active regions of the solar chromosphere and for two stellar chromospheres are calculated from corresponding atmospheric models. Models of chromospheric temperature and microvelocity distributions are derived from observed spectra of a dark point within a cell, the average sun and a very bright network element on the quiet sun, a solar plage and flare, and the stars Alpha Boo and Lambda And. Net radiative cooling rates due to the transitions of various atoms and ions are then calculated from the models as a function of depth. Large values of the net radiative cooling rate are found at the base of the chromosphere-corona transition region which are due primarily to Lyman alpha emission, and a temperature plateau is obtained in the transition region itself. In the chromospheric regions, the calculated cooling rate is equal to the mechanical energy input as a function of height and thus provides a direct constraint on theories of chromospheric heating.

  7. Solar Ovens-Understanding Energy Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers the concept of solar ovens. In this lesson, students will learn how "thermal energy flows from the hot air to the cold water via conduction and will indicate that this would continue to happen until the water sample reaches the same temperature as the oven air. The students will also answer questions about how heat could be lost in the oven through conduction and convection, as well as how to get more solar radiation into the oven." Additionally, this experiment will prompt students to examine the relationships between conduction, convection, and radiation. Teacher and Student guides for parts one and two are included. 

  8. Solar and wind energy utilization in broiler production

    SciTech Connect

    Brinsfield, R.B.; Yaramanoglu, M.; Wheaton, F.

    1984-01-01

    Available solar and wind energy and both the electrical and thermal energy demand of a typical broiler facility were mathematically modeled based on 10 years of weather data for Salisbury, Maryland. The available energy was then compared with the broiler facility demands as a means of sizing solar and wind energy collection equipment to meet the demands.

  9. Meeting the Energy Needs--Solar Technician Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitz, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    Differentiates between solar technicians and energy technicians; points out that, with the energy crisis, there has been much activity in the solar energy field, with the result that it could become saturated. Describes a program to train energy technicians that was developed at Cape Cod Community College. (JOW)

  10. Argonne OutLoud presents: The Solar Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Seth Darling

    2013-06-05

    To better understand the current and future role of solar energy, Argonne's Seth Darling framed the global energy supply and demand outlook over the next 40 years while examining potential energy sources from a feasibility and sustainability perspective. He also discussed the promise and challenges of solar energy while providing a broad overview of related research taking place at Argonne as well as his group's work on organic solar cells.

  11. Off-farm applications of solar energy in agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Food processing applications make up almost all present off-farm studies of solar energy in agriculture. Research, development and demonstration projects on solar food processing have shown significant progress over the past 3 years. Projects have included computer simulation and mathematical models, hardware and process development for removing moisture from horticultural or animal products, integration of energy conservation with solar energy augmentation in conventional processes, and commercial scale demonstrations. The demonstration projects include solar heated air for drying prunes and raisins, soy beans and onions/garlic; and solar generated steam for orange juice pasteurization. Several new and planned projects hold considerable promise for commerical exploitation in future food processes.

  12. A new combined cooling, heating and power system driven by solar energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangfeng Wang; Yiping Dai; Lin Gao; Shaolin Ma

    2009-01-01

    A new combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system is proposed. This system is driven by solar energy, which is different from the current CCHP systems with gas turbine or engine as prime movers. This system combines a Rankine cycle and an ejector refrigeration cycle, which could produce cooling output, heating output and power output simultaneously. The effects of hour

  13. Chemical energy storage system for Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) solar thermal power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Brown; J. L. LaMarche; G. E. Spanner

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated the potential feasibility of using chemical energy storage at the Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) power plants developed by Luz International. Like sensible or latent heat energy storage systems, chemical energy storage can be beneficially applied to solar thermal power plants to dampen the impact of cloud transients, extend the daily operating

  14. Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    By combining picosecond optical experiments and detailed statistical mechanics theory we continue to increase our understanding of the complex interplay of structure and dynamics in important energy transfer situations. A number of different types of problems will be focused on experimentally and theoretically. They are excitation transport among chromophores attached to finite size polymer coils; excitation transport among chromophores in monolayers, bilayers, and finite and infinite stacks of layers; excitation transport in large vesicle systems; and photoinduced electron transfer in glasses and liquids, focusing particularly on the back transfer of the electron from the photogenerated radical anion to the radical cation. 33 refs., 13 figs.

  15. A possible origin of EL6 chondrites from a high temperature-high pressure solar gas

    SciTech Connect

    Blander, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Unger, L. [Purdue Univ., Westiville, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Pelton, A.; Eriksson, G. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    1994-05-01

    Condensates from a gas of ``solar`` composition were calculated to investigate the origins of EL6 chondrites using a free energy minimization program with a data base for the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent molten silicates as well as for other liquids solids, solid solutions and gaseous species. Because of high volatility of silicon and silica, the high silicon content of metal (2.6 mole %) can only be produced at pressures 10{sup {minus}2} atm at temperatures above 1475 K. At 100--500 atm, a liquid silicate phase crystallizes at a temperature where the silicon content of the metal, ferrosilite content of the enstatite and albite concentration in the plagioclase are close to measured values. In pyrometallurgy, liquid silicates are catalysts for reactions in which Si-O-Si bridging bonds are broken or formed. Thus, one attractive mode for freezing in the compositions of these three phases is disappearance of fluxing liquid. If the plagioclase can continue to react with the nebula without a liquid phase, lower pressures of 10{sup {minus}1} to 1 atm might be possible. Even if the nebula is more reducing than a solar gas, the measured properties of EL6 chondrites might be reconciled with only slightly lower pressures (less than 3X lower). The temperatures would be about the same as indicated in our calculations since the product of the silicon content of the metal and the square of the ferrosilite content of the enstatite constitute a cosmothermometer for the mineral assemblage in EL6 chondrites.

  16. A possible origin of EL6 chondrites from a high temperature-high pressure solar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blander, M.; Unger, L.; Pelton, A.; Eriksson, G.

    1994-06-01

    Condensates from a gas of 'solar' composition were calculated to investigate the origins of EL6 chondrites using a free energy minimization program with a data base for the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent molten silicates as well as for other liquid solids, solid solutions and gaseous species. Because of high volatility of silicon and silica, the high silicon content of metal (2.6 mole percent) can only be produced at pressures 10-2 atm at temperatures above 1475 K. At 100-500 atm, a liquid silicate phase crystallizes at a temperature where the silicon content of the metal, ferrosilite content of the enstatite and albite concentration in the plagioclase are close to measured values. In pyrometallurgy, liquid silicates are catalysts for reactions in which Si-O-Si bridging bonds are broken or formed. Thus, one attractive mode for freezing in the compositions of these three phases is disappearance of fluxing liquid. If the plagioclase can continue to react with the nebula without a liquid phase, lower pressures of 10-1 to 1 atm might be possible. Even if the nebula is more reducing than a solar gas, the measured properties of EL6 chondrites might be reconciled with only slightly lower pressures (less than 3 times lower). The temperatures would be about the same as indicated in our calculations since the product of the silicon content of the metal and the square of the ferrosilite content of the enstatite constitute a cosmothermometer for the mineral assemblage in EL6 chondrites.

  17. Solar-energy treatment of ceramic tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. N.; Clayton, M. E.

    1981-12-01

    The 400 kW Advanced Components Test Facility was used to provide a concentrated source of solar energy for firing ceramic wall tile. A domed top cylindrical cavity with a white refractory fiber lining provided diffuse reflection of the concentrated solar beam directly onto the upper surface of the unfired wall tile. The tile were placed directly on the cavity floor in a circular pattern, centered at 450 intervals so that eight tile could be fired at one time. The tile and cavity walls were instrumented with thermocouples, and pyrometric cones were used to determine temperature distribution within the cavity. The glazed and unglazed solar fired titles were tested for flatness, modulus of rupture, water absorption, porosity, bulk density, apparent specific gravity, percent linear thermal expansion and crystalline phases present in the fired bodies. The major problems encountered are: cracking by thermal shock, and uneven shrinkage and glaze maturity across individual tile. The cavity failed to provide even heating at all eight tile positions.

  18. 77 FR 28618 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement...Gas & Electric (SDG&E) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California...comments related to the SDG&E Ocotillo Sol Solar Project by any of the following...

  19. 78 FR 45268 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final Environmental Impact Statement...Gas & Electric (SDG&E) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California...ADDRESSES: Copies of the Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final EIS/Proposed CDCA...

  20. Energy Saving in Ammonia Plant by Using Gas Turbine 

    E-print Network

    Uji, S.; Ikeda, M.

    1981-01-01

    An ammonia plant, in which the IHI-SULZER Type 57 Gas Turbine is integrated in order to achieve energy saving, has started successful operation. Tile exhaust gas of the gas turbine has thermal energy of relatively high temperature, therefore...

  1. Energy Saving in Ammonia Plant by Using Gas Turbine

    E-print Network

    Uji, S.; Ikeda, M.

    1981-01-01

    An ammonia plant, in which the IHI-SULZER Type 57 Gas Turbine is integrated in order to achieve energy saving, has started successful operation. Tile exhaust gas of the gas turbine has thermal energy of relatively high temperature, therefore...

  2. Energy prediction of Amonix solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, Geoffrey S.; Stone, Kenneth; Garboushian, Vahan

    2010-08-01

    Amonix has installed over 300 kW of systems using III-V multijunction cells. The Amonix 7500 Solar Power Generator, rated at 38 kWAC, generated over 90 MW-hr during its first twelve months of operation. A model of system performance using a meteorological database and applying the effects of losses in the optical and power paths predicted field performance to within 1% after twelve months of operation. The energy yield of power plants employing Amonix systems is expected to exceed 2700 kW-hr/kW. Systems installed in 2010 are expected to deliver a 10% increase in performance.

  3. Employment from Solar Energy: A Bright but Partly Cloudy Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeltzer, K. K.; Santini, D. J.

    A comparison of quantitative and qualitative employment effects of solar and conventional systems can prove the increased employment postulated as one of the significant secondary benefits of a shift from conventional to solar energy use. Current quantitative employment estimates show solar technology-induced employment to be generally greater…

  4. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  5. Energy Provisioning in Solar-Powered Wireless Mesh Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghada H. Badawy; Amir A. Sayegh; Terence D. Todd

    2010-01-01

    Solar-powered wireless mesh nodes must be provisioned with a solar panel and battery combination that is sufficient to prevent node outage. This is normally done using historical solar insolation data for the desired deployment location and based on a temporal bandwidth usage profile (BUP) for each deployed node. Unfortunately, conventional methodologies do not take into account the use of energy-aware

  6. Marcellus Shale: Natural Gas Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This webpage from the EFMR Monitoring Group provides information on the extraction of natural gas from Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale formation. Users may read a brief overview of the extraction efforts and the environmental concerns involved. A lesson plan and resource guide is available for download in PDF file format. The document includes a number of in-class activities for elementary, middle and high school grade levels. Academic standards and a list of links are also included.

  7. New highly polar semiconductor ferroelectrics for solar energy conversion devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Rappe; Ilya Grinberg; Joseph W. Bennett

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy is a promising long-term solution for future energy requirements; however, current solar energy conversion devices are plagued by low efficiency. The use of ferroelectric ABO3 perovskite oxides is one approach for boosting conversion efficiency. Ferroelectric oxides possess spontaneous polarization and have been shown to produce a bulk photovoltaic effect, in which charged carriers, specifically electrons and holes, separate

  8. The SERI solar-energy-storage program in FY 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Luft

    1982-01-01

    The SERI solar energy storage program in FY 1982 is summarized against the background of earlier years and the broader program of energy storage technology. The program provides research, system analyses, and assessments of thermal and thermochemical storage and transport, for thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications (TESSTA). Current activities include recommendations for the development of promising storage concepts

  9. Electronic energy transfer in rare gas mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Szoke; Y. Binur; R. Shuker; E. Zamir

    1974-01-01

    In a spectroscopic study carried out in this laboratory a new energy transfer mechanism from a noble gas molecule to an atom was identified. This transfer process is similar to the Penning ionization in the sense that it populates energy levels of a guest atom selectively within a certain range. A mixture of Ar:Xe was studied. This report discusses these

  10. Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cambronero, L.E.G.; Ruiz-Roman, J.M. [Grupo de Materiales Hibridos, ETSIM-UPM, Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Canadas, I.; Martinez, D. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close to 300 W/cm{sup 2} on the mould is high enough to achieve complete foaming after heating for only 200 s. Under these conditions, the density and pore distribution in the foam change depending on the solar heating parameters and mould design. (author)

  11. Overview of Solar Energy Research: 1990 to Present 

    E-print Network

    Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

    2004-01-01

    -1989, Standard for Air-Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment Page 8 July 2004 Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University 2 U.S.D.O.E. Thin Film Solar Test Bench (Riverside) Background. Thin-Film Photovoltaics Partnerships Program (TFPPP..., monitor, and evaluate up to 182 photovoltaic (PV) thin- film modules manufactured by five companies: ? Shell Solar (Glass/CIS/Glass), ? Global Solar (CIS flexible Fiber glass substrate), ? First Solar (Glass/CdTe/Glass), ? United...

  12. Coupled noble gas-hydrocarbon evolution of the early Earth atmosphere upon solar UV irradiation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Coupled noble gas-hydrocarbon evolution of the early Earth atmosphere upon solar UV irradiation E, the relationship between noble gas photoionization and organic photochemistry has been investigated from efficient that other ionized noble gases trapping and (2) results in a significant enrichment of heavy xenon

  13. Solar cathodic protection of coated steel gas distribution piping in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) of a 2200 ft (670 m) section of 2 in. coated steel natural gas distribution main in 156,000 ohm-cm soil, was accomplished through the adaptation of photovoltaic (solar) cells to a battery powered impressed current anode station. This is a cost effective method of applying CP to electrically isolated sections of coated gas distribution mains in extremly

  14. How Solar Energy Can Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iker, Sam

    1978-01-01

    The future of solar heated homes looks bright. The increase in availability of solar hardware and information along with tax credits point to an increase in both solar water and space heating. Solar systems can add to the value of a house. (BB)

  15. Gauss Bonnet dark energy Chaplygin Gas Model

    E-print Network

    Karimkhani, Elahe; Khodam-Mohammadi, Abdolhossein

    2015-01-01

    In this work we incorporate GB dark energy density and its modification, MGB, with Chaplygin gas component. We show that, presence of Chaplygin gas provides us a feature to obtain an exact solution for scalar field and potential of scalar field. Investigation on squared of sound speed provides a lower limit for constant parameters of MGB model. Also, we could find some bounds for free parameters of model.

  16. Comparison of photovoltaic energy systems for the solar village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piercefrench, Eric C.

    1988-08-01

    Three different solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are compared to determine if the electrical needs of a solar village could be supplied more economically by electricity generated by the sun than by existing utility companies. The solar village, a one square mile community of 900 homes and 50 businesses, would be located in a semi-remote area of the Arizona desert. A load survey is conducted and information on the solar PV industry is reviewed for equipment specifications, availability, and cost. Three specific PV designs, designated as Stand-Alone, Stand-Alone with interconnection, and Central Solar Plant, were created and then economically compared through present worth analysis against utility supplied electrical costs. A variety of technical issues, such as array protection, system configuration and operation, and practicability, are discussed for each design. The present worth analysis conclusively shows none of the solar PV designs could supply electricity to the solar village for less cost than utility supplied electricity, all other factors being equal. No construction on a solar village should begin until the cost of solar generated electricity is more competitive with electricity generated by coal, oil, and nuclear energy. However, research on ways to reduce solar PV equipment costs and on ways to complement solar PV energy, such as the use of solar thermal ponds for heating and cooling, should continue.

  17. Optical analysis of solar energy tubular absorbers.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, C; Sokolov, M

    1982-11-15

    The energy absorbed by a solar energy tubular receiver element for a single incident ray is derived. Two types of receiver elements were analyzed: (1) an inner tube with an absorbing coating surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube, and (2) a semitransparent inner tube filled with an absorbing fluid surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube. The formation of ray cascades in the semitransparent tubes is considered. A numerical simulation to investigate the influence of the angle of incidence, sizing, thickness, and coefficient of extinction of the tubes was performed. A comparison was made between receiver elements with and without cover tubes. Ray tracing analyses in which rays were followed within the tubular receiver element as well as throughout the rest of the collector were performed for parabolic and circular trough concentrating collectors. PMID:20401004

  18. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    PubMed

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives. PMID:17272237

  19. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Cathedral Square, Burlington, Vermont, July-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Cathedral Square solar site is a 10-story multiunit apartment building in Vermont. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 51% of the hot water load, and consists of 1798 square feet of flat plate collectors, 2699-gallon water tank in an enclosed mechanical room on the roof, and two auxiliary natural gas boilers to supply hot water to immersed heat exchanger in an auxiliary storage tank. The measured solar fraction was only 28%, not 51%, which, it is concluded, is an unreasonable expectation. Other performance data include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Monthly performance data are given for the solar system overall, and for the collector, storage, and hot water subsystems. Also included are insolation data, typical storage fluid temperatures, domestic hot water consumption, and solar heat exchangers inlet/outlet temperatures, and typical domestic hot water subsystem temperatures. In addition, the system operating sequence and solar energy utilization are given. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques, long-term weather data. (LEW)

  20. Technology for Bayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated 38 000 hr. Tests of improved components show that these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32, a value twice that demonstrated by any alternate concept. Because of this high efficiency, solar Brayton cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants using present technology for silicon solar cells. The technologies for solar mirrors and heat receivers are reviewed and assessed. This Brayton technology for solar powerplants is equally suitable for use with the nuclear reactors. The available long time creep data on the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811C show that such Brayton cycles can evolve to cycle peak temperatures of 1500 K (2240 F). And this same technology can be extended to generate 10 to 100 MW in space by exploiting existing technology for terrestrial gas turbines in the fields of both aircraft propulsion and stationary power generation.

  1. SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Boeing Engineering and Construction. System design final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The system design for a future commercial solar energy brackish water desalination plant is described. Key features of the plant are discussed along with its configuration selection rationale, design objectives, operation, and performance. The water treatment technology used in the plant is ion exchange pretreatment and single stage reverse osmosis desalination utilizing high-flux membranes. Electrical power needed for plant operation is produced by a solar energy system, which is based on the Brayton cycle having air as the working fluid. Primary solar system components are: heliostat field, central cavity-tube receiver, receiver support tower, thermal energy storage, and a commercial gas turbine generator set. The thermal energy storage subsystem is of the sensible heat brick type and provides a capability for continuous day/night power generation during most weather conditions. This system design was selected in a study of various system alternatives and their life cycle product water costs for a representative site in western Texas.

  2. Williamson Home, Ipswich, Mass. solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Nov. 1981 - Apr. 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, M.

    1982-06-01

    Data on solar water and space heating systems are given. The Williamson Home in Massachusetts is a single family residence whose active-solar-energy system is designed to supply 47% of the space heating and 91% of the hot water. The system is equipped with 339 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 240-cubic-foot rock bin for storage, a propane-gas furnace and a 100-gallon propane gas hot water tank for auxiliary heating. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the collector, hot water, and space heating subsystems. Also tabulated are solar coefficients of performance, solar operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions. Also given is a graph of collector array efficiency versus the difference between the inlet water and ambient temperatures divided by insolation. System operation is illustrated by graphs of typical insolation data and outside ambient and indoor temperatures, collector operating periods and inlet/outlet temperatures, and typical storage and distribution temperatures versus time for a typical day. The system operating sequence and solar energy utilization and losses are also graphed.

  3. Low-energy solar electron bursts and solar wind stream structure at 1 AU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Gosling; R. M. Skoug; D. J. McComas

    2004-01-01

    The solar wind experiment on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) has detected at least 328 impulsive solar electron bursts at energies below 1.4 keV that exhibited energy and angle dispersion in the interval from 1 January 1998 through 30 September 2003. Some of these bursts could be detected down to energies as low as 73 eV, the lowest energies yet

  4. High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, C.P.

    1993-07-01

    Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

  5. Solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yamaguchi; X. R. Zhang; K. Fujima; M. Enomoto; N. Sawada

    2006-01-01

    A solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO2 for combined production of electricity and thermal energy is proposed. The proposed system consists of evacuated solar collectors, power generating turbine, high-temperature heat recovery system, low-temperature heat recovery system, and feed pump. The system utilizes evacuated solar collectors to convert CO2 into high-temperature supercritical state, used to drive a turbine and

  6. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation. San Anselmo School, San Jose, California, April 1981-March 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakkala, P. A.

    The San Anselmo School is a one story brick elementary school building in San Jose, California. The active solar energy system is designed to supply 70% of the space heating and 72% of the cooling load. It is equipped with 3740 square feet of evacuated tube collectors, a 2175 gallon tank for heat storage, a solar supplied absorption chiller, and four auxiliary gas fired absorption chillers/heaters. The measured solar fraction of 19% is far below the expected values and is attributed to severe system control and HVAC problems. Other performance data given for the year include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Also tabulated are monthly performance data for the overall solar energy system, collector subsystem, space heating and cooling subsystems. Typical hourly operation data for a day are tabulated, including hourly isolation, collector array temperatures (inlet and outlet), and storage fluid temperatures. The solar energy use and percentage of losses are also graphed.

  7. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is described. The reactants are stored as gases in lightweight insulated pressure vessels. The product water is stored as a liquid in saturated equilibrium with the fuel gas. The system functions as a secondary battery and is applicable to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics.

  8. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [Institute for Energy Research, Joanneum Research, Graz, (Austria)

    1994-12-31

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues.

  9. Solar Energy Task Force Report: Technical Training Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin

    This task force report offers guidelines and information for the development of vocational education programs oriented to the commercial application of solar energy in water and space heating. After Section I introduces the Solar Energy Task Force and its activities, Section II outlines the task force's objectives and raises several issues and…

  10. Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Brown; J. L. Lamarche; G. E. Spanner

    1991-01-01

    In October 1988, a symposium was held in Helendale, California, to discuss thermal energy storage (TES) concepts applicable to medium temperature (200 to 400 C) solar thermal electric power plants, in general, and the solar electric generating system (SEGS) plants developed by Luz International, in particular. Chemical reaction energy storage based on the reversible reaction between metal oxides and metal

  11. Simple thermal decomposition reactions for storage of solar thermal energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Wentworth; E. Chen

    1975-01-01

    The paper considers the uncatalyzed decomposition of such classes of salts as ammonium salts and Group IA and IIA hydroxides, carbonates, sulfates, and oxides, for the storage of solar energy. Ten specific criteria are given which can be used to select the most appropriate chemical reaction for storing solar energy, capable of producing high temperature heat sufficient to generate electrical

  12. Solar Energy: The State of the Art, Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Charles D.; Pinelli, Tomas E.

    1976-01-01

    Bioconversion to fuels, ocean thermal-gradient power conversion, and energy systems are discussed in this last article of a three-part series on solar energy. It is noted that solar research has near-term and long-term implications for the housing industry, manufacturers of components designed for homes, and the public in general, and that…

  13. Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

  14. Optimal sizing of solar energy transformers using natural ester fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Trevas; Adam Peterson; Kevin J. Rapp; John Luksich

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the increasing number of nation-states that are adopting aggressive Renewable & Alternative Energy Portfolios, the solar energy market is nearly doubling year over year. With this aggressive growth comes even greater scrutiny when sizing solar farms. There is often great incentive to get the most utilization out of the equipment. An often over looked piece of

  15. Wintering With Solar: One School's Response to Scarce Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Ron

    1978-01-01

    Through a course in energy conservation and domestic solar energy technology, students evaluated the thermal performance of existing campus structures and made suggestions for improvements in thermal efficiency. Besides making some of these improvements, the students also designed, built, and operated a solar greenhouse. (MA)

  16. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. B. T. B. Strik; Hubertus V. M. Hamelers; Cees J. N. Buisman

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cells is the pH membrane gradient which reduces cell voltage and power output. This problem is caused by acid production

  17. An Efficient Solar Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Brunelli; Luca Benini; Clemens Moser; Lothar Thiele

    2008-01-01

    Solar harvesting circuits have been recently proposed to in- crease the autonomy of embedded systems. One key design chal- lenge is how to optimize the efficiency of solar energy collection under non stationary light conditions. This paper proposes a sca- venger that exploits miniaturized photovoltaic modules to perform automatic maximum power point tracking at a minimum energy cost. The system

  18. Solar Power Plants: Dark Horse in the Energy Stable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Richard S.

    1977-01-01

    Twelfth in a series of reports on solar energy, this article provides information relating to the following questions: (1) economic cost of solar-thermal-electric central power plants; (2) cost comparison with nuclear or coal plants; (3) locations of this energy source; and (4) its use and social costs. (CS)

  19. Conversion of laser energy to gas kinetic energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for the gas phase absorption of laser radiation for conversion to gas kinetic energy are discussed. Absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung, in which laser energy is converted at a gas kinetic rate in a spectrally continuous process, is briefly described, and absorption by molecular vibrational rotation bands is discussed at length. High pressure absorption is proposed as a means of minimizing gas bleaching and dissociation, the major disadvantages of the molecular absorption process. A band model is presented for predicting the molecular absorption spectra in the high pressure absorption region and is applied to the CO molecule. Use of a rare gas seeded with Fe(CO)5 for converting vibrational modes to translation modes is described.

  20. Joint Solar Power Industry and Department of Energy Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Steve; Myers, Daryl

    2009-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has embarked on a collaborative effort with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of concentrating solar thermal power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result will be high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  1. Advanced materials manufacturing for solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mierlo, Frank

    2012-02-01

    The US has a robust technical roadmap to get to a 1/W total installed cost with several potential winners in the race. We dominate in the new technology arena and there is a good chance that tomorrow's winning technology will be from the current crop of contenders. One potential breakthrough is Direct Wafer^TM a new manufacturing technique to make silicon wafers at a fraction of the traditional cost. Current wafer manufacturing is a multi-step, energy- and capital-intensive process that wastes half of the valuable silicon feedstock. 1366's Direct Wafer technology forms a standard, 156mm multi-crystalline wafer directly from molten silicon in a semi-continuous, efficient, high-throughput process that eliminates silicon waste. Direct Wafer^TM cuts the amount of consumables by a factor of four and requires only half the capital per GigaWatt production capacity thus enabling solar to compete successfully with coal generated electricity.

  2. National solar energy education directory. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoleotes, G; Cronin, S; Kramer, K; O'Connor, K

    1980-01-01

    The information contained in this directory is derived from responses to a national survey of educational institutions and organizations involved in solar energy educational activities beyond the secondary school level. Phone calls and follow-up mail requests were used to gather additional information when necessary. Every survey instrument was read, coded, and edited before entry into the data base from which this directory was produced. The Directory is organized alphabetically by state. Institutions and organizations within each state are categorized according to type (Colleges and Universities, Junior/Community Colleges, Vocational/Technical Schools, and Other Educational Institutions and Organizations) and listed alphabetically within these categories. Within each institutional listing the amount of information provided will vary according to the completeness of the survey response received from that institution. (MHR)

  3. Theoretical investigation of solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lee-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis are two great scientific and engineering challenges that will play pivotal roles in a future sustainable energy economy. In this work, I apply electronic structure ...

  4. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  5. Regional variation in solar energy economic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Brunton, D.; Kirschner, C.; Ben-David, S.; Roach, F.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos/UNM solar economic performance code (EASE-III) is used to indicate the extent of production function variations as applied to a Trombe wall solar design incorporated in a new home. The economic performance of the solar heated residence is compared to the alternative non-solar home heated by the characteristic conventional fuel of each region. These economic results are used to discuss the impact of subsidy programs.

  6. Application of solar thermal energy to buildings and industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C. F.

    1981-05-01

    Flat plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors are described, as are parabolic troughs, Fresnel lenses, and compound parabolic concentrators. Use of solar energy for domestic hot water and for space heating and cooling are discussed. Some useful references and methods of system design and sizing are given. This includes mention of the importance of economic analysis. The suitability of solar energy for industrial use is discussed, and solar ponds, point-focus receivers and central receivers are briefly described. The use of solar energy for process hot water, drying and dehydration, and process steam are examined, industrial process heat field tests by the Department of Energy are discussed, and a solar total energy system in Shenandoah, GA is briefly described. (LEW)

  7. Breakeven costs of storage in optimized solar energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, R. W.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of an analysis of the breakeven cost, or value, of energy storage to solar energy systems. It is shown that the value of storage depends strongly both on solar fraction of the solar energy system in which the storage is employed, and on the cost of the collectors used in the system. Various strategies for dealing with this ambiguity are presented, and it is shown that for a broad class of technically and economically practical solar energy systems, storage costs need only be low enough to make a system employing very small amounts of storage practical. Reductions in cost of collectors will thereafter produce greater reductions in the total system costs or provide greater fuel displacement at constant total system cost than will reductions in the cost of storage, within limits discussed. The analysis makes use of a simple, accurate representation of solar energy system performance which may prove useful in other contexts.

  8. Powering Your Water Heater Using Solar Energy 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Daniel

    2013-02-13

    This report is a detailed overview of my research on solar water heating. Solar water heaters may be used to either supplement or even replace a standard water heater. In addition to being environmentally friendly, solar heaters can save a homeowner...

  9. Solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-I. Akasofu

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the recent progress in magnetospheric physics has made it possible to understand the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction in terms of a dynamo process. An insight has also been obtained regarding the mechanism by which solar activities cause the power of the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo to vary. New information has also been attained on the processes related

  10. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  11. Atomic energy and the gas industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panos

    1968-01-01

    Project Gasbuggy and Project Ketch are part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) Plowshare Program. Plowshare, established in 1957, has the task of investigating and developing peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. Project Gasbubby is a joint program of the AEC, the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM), Lawrence Radiation Lab., and El Paso Natural Gas Co. The general aim of

  12. Application of chemical engineering to large scale solar energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Chubb; J. J. Nemecek; D. E. Simmons

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the Solchem concept, according to which sunlight is converted to chemical energy in dispersed solar furnaces. The Solchem power station consists of the following components: (1) an energy orchard containing dispersed solar-furnace-heated chemical reactors, (2) an assemblage of demand responsive energy storage-boiler tanks, in which large quantities of energy are stored as latent heat-of-fusion, and (3) a

  13. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  14. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  15. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  16. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  17. Comparison of solar-thermal and fossil total-energy systems for selected industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pine, G. D.

    1980-06-01

    Economic analyses of a conventional system and total energy systems based on phosphoric acid fuel cells, diesel piston engines, and central receiver solar thermal systems were performed for each of four industrial applications; a concrete block plant in Arizona, a fluid milk processing plant in California, a sugar beet processing plant in Colorado, and a meat packing plant in Texas. A series of sensitivity analyses was performed to show the effects of variations in fuel price, system size, cost of capital, and system initial cost. Solar total energy systems (STES) are more capital intensive than the other systems, and significant economies of scale are associated with the STES. If DOE solar system cost goals are met, STES can compete with the other systems for facilities with electrical demands greater than two or three megawatts, but STES are not competitive for smaller facilities. Significant energy resource savings, especially of oil and gas, resulted from STES implementation in the four industries.

  18. Utilization of solar energy for the production of hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeb, H.; Kleinkauf, W.; Mehrmann, A.

    1983-09-01

    The combination of photovoltaic solar generators and electrolyzers for hydrogen production was investigated. Two different small solar-hydrogen systems are described. The coupling of photovoltaics and electrolysis; the mode of operation of a unit for power processing; and practical operation experiences are discussed. The proposed active electronic adaptation unit can improve photovoltaic electrolyse systems. Solar energy can be converted into the energy carrier hydrogen with a total yearly average efficiency of 16%. This corresponds to 23 Ncum hydrogen per sqm active solar cell surface for a yearly radiation of 1000 kWh/sqm.

  19. Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.

  20. Conclusions and recommendations of the United States Solar Energy Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.; Morse, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    The United States Solar Energy Panel was charged with assessing the potential of solar energy as a national energy resource. Three areas evolved where solar energy could supply significant amounts of the U.S. future energy needs: (1) energy for heating and cooling of buildings, (2) the production of fuels, and (3) the generation of electrical power. It was concluded that with adequate R&D support over the next 30 years, solar energy could provide at least 35 percent of the heating and cooling of future buildings, greater than 30 percent of the methane and hydrogen needed in the U.S. for gaseous fuels, and greater than 20 percent of the electrical power needs of the U.S. All of this could be done with a minimal effect on the environment and a substantial savings of nonrenewable fuels.

  1. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Cathedral Square, Burlington, Vermont, July - December 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, K. M.

    A 10 story multiunit apartment building has an active solar energy system which is designed to supply 51% of the hot water load, and consists of 1798 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 2699 gallon water tank in an enclosed mechanical room on the roof, and two auxiliary natural gas boilers to supply hot water to an immersed heat exchanger in an auxiliary storage tank. The measured solar fraction was only 28%, not 51%, which, it is concluded, is an unreasonable expectation. Other performance data include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Monthly performance data are given for the solar system overall, and for the collector, storage, and hot water subsystems. Insolation data, typical storage fluid temperatures, domestic hot water consumption, and solar heat exchangers inlet-output temperatures, and typical domestic hot water subsystem temperatures are also included. In addition, the system operating sequence, solar energy utilization. A system description, performance evaluation techniques, and long term weather data are given.

  2. Synthesis Gas Production by Rapid Solar Thermal Gasification of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C. M.; Woodruff, B.; Andrews, L.; Lichty, P.; Lancaster, B.; Weimer, A. W.; Bingham, C.

    2008-03-01

    Biomass resources hold great promise as renewable fuel sources for the future, and there exists great interest in thermochemical methods of converting these resources into useful fuels. The novel approach taken by the authors uses concentrated solar energy to efficiently achieve temperatures where conversion and selectivity of gasification are high. Use of solar energy removes the need for a combustion fuel and upgrades the heating value of the biomass products. The syngas product of the gasification can be transformed into a variety of fuels useable with today?s infrastructure. Gasification in an aerosol reactor allows for rapid kinetics, allowing efficient utilization of the incident solar radiation and high solar efficiency.

  3. Noble gas composition of the solar wind as collected by the Genesis mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronika S. Heber; Rainer Wieler; Heinrich Baur; Chad Olinger; Tom A. Friedmann; Donald S. Burnett

    2009-01-01

    We present the elemental and isotopic composition of noble gases in the bulk solar wind collected by the NASA Genesis sample return mission. He, Ne, and Ar were analyzed in diamond-like carbon on a silicon substrate (DOS) and 84,86Kr and 129,132Xe in silicon targets by UV laser ablation noble gas mass spectrometry. Solar wind noble gases are quantitatively retained in

  4. Conversion of magnetic field energy into kinetic energy in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1972-01-01

    The outflow of the solar magnetic field energy (the radial component of the Poynting vector) per steradian is inversely proportional to the solar wind velocity. It is a decreasing function of the heliocentric distance. When the magnetic field effect is included in the one-fluid model of the solar wind, the transformation of magnetic field energy into kinetic energy during the expansion process increases the solar wind velocity at 1 AU by 17 percent.

  5. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lindmayer

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows

  6. Solar energy system performance evaluation. Seasonal report for Fern Lansing, Lansing, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Energy System was designed by Fern Engineering Company, Bourne, Massachusetts to provide space heating and domestic hot water preheating for a 1300 square foot single-family residence located in Lansing, Michigan. The Solar Energy System consists of a 278 square foot flat-plate air collector subsystem, a three 120-gallon tank storage subsystem, a 40 gallon domestic hot water tank subsystem, a liquid/air heat exchanger, an energy transport module, pumps, controls and heat transfer medium lines. Natural gas provides the auxiliary energy for the space heating (100,000 Btu/h) and hot water (70,000 Btu/h) subsystems. The system is shown schematically and has five modes of operation. Typical system operation, system operating sequence, performance assessment, system performance, subsystems performance (collector array, storage, hot water, space heating), operating energy, energy savings, and maintenance are discussed. A brief summary of all pertinent parameters is presented.

  7. Subsurface energy storage and transport for solar-powered geysers on triton.

    PubMed

    Kirk, R L; Brown, R H; Soderblom, L A

    1990-10-19

    The location of active geyser-like eruptions and related features close to the current subsolar latitude on Triton suggests a solar energy source for these phenomena. Solidstate greenhouse calculations have shown that sunlight can generate substantially elevated subsurface temperatures. A variety of models for the storage of solar energy in a sub-greenhouse layer and for the supply of gas and energy to a geyser are examined. "Leaky greenhouse" models with only vertical gas transport are inconsistent with the observed upper limit on geyser radius of approximately 1.5 kilometers. However, lateral transport of energy by gas flow in a porous N(2) layer with a block size on the order of a meter can supply the required amount of gas to a source region approximately 1 kilometer in radius. The decline of gas output to steady state may occur over a period comparable with the inferred active geyser lifetime of five Earth years. The required subsurface permeability may be maintained by thermal fracturing of the residual N2 polar cap. A lower limit on geyser source radius of approximately 50 to 100 meters predicted by a theory of negatively buoyant jets is not readily attained. PMID:17793019

  8. Solar energy related applications, education, and building retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yunhua

    Solar energy technologies have been well development for a wide range of applications. However, research on solar photovoltaics is still being conducted to improve performance and lower installation costs. For example, the power generation potential is not only determined by the intensity or location of solar radiation, but also related to the incident angle of the light. Chapter one explores the effect of angle-dependent characteristic on overall power output for different fixed orientations and configurations by hourly modeling, and the results show substantial improvements are possible. Michigan State University (MSU) has been promoting building retrofits combining renewable energy, and the Students Planning Advanced Retrofit Technology Applications (SPARTA) is a group that helps MSU address energy initiatives on campus. Chapter two summarizes the overall successes of building retrofit projects including solar rooftop, LED lighting, and window film conducted by the SPARTA group. The last chapter describes the development of paintable luminescent solar concentrator modules for renewable energy education. The activity is designed for middle school students to understand how energy is generated from solar energy in an inexpensive alternative, which also generates both excitement in solar energy and motivates students to become creative participants in the energy problems.

  9. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides backup documentation on natural gas. The transformation of the energy in gas into a more useful form is described in this document in terms of major activity areas in the gas cycle; that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are exploration, extraction, purification, power-plants, storage and transportation of natural gas. These activities represent both well-documented and non-documented activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The other activity areas examined are those like exploration and extraction, where reliance on engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning, and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

  10. Radial evolution of the energy density of solar wind fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zank, G. P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Smith, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of transport theories appropriate to a radially expanding solar wind, we describe new results for the radial evolution of the energy density in solar wind fluctuations at MHD scales. These models include the effects of 'mixing' and driving as well as the possibility of non-isotropic MHD turbulence. Implications of these results for solar wind heating, cosmic ray diffusion and interstellar pick-up ions will also be addressed.

  11. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  12. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, General Electric Spokane operational test site, Spokane, Washington, October 1980 - March 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, K. M.

    1981-09-01

    The General Electric-Spokane site is a YWCA building in Washington. The active solar energy system is designed to supply 45% of the heating load, 20% of the hot water load, and 60% of the pool heating load. It is equipped with 5,222 square feet of evacuated tube collectors, 6,700 gallons of water for heat storage, and an auxiliary natural gas-fired boiler. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance is given, as well as performance data for the collector, storage, domestic hot water, space heating and pool heating subsystems, operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions.

  13. An integrated energy storage scheme for a dispatchable solar and wind powered energy system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jared B. Garrison; Michael E. Webber

    2011-01-01

    This research analyzed an integrated energy system that includes a novel configuration of wind and solar coupled with two storage methods to make both wind and solar sources dispatchable during peak demand, thereby enabling their broader use. Named DSWiSS for Dispatchable Solar and Wind Storage System, the proposed system utilizes compressed air energy storage (CAES) that is driven from wind

  14. Handbook on solar energy and energy conservation for Arizona local governments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Osborn; S. Pfister; D. Harper; T. English; W. Biddle; D. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Three Guidebooks comprise the Handbook. Guidebook 1 provides information for local leaders on how to initiate and develop a local energy program. Guidebook 2, Planning and Zoning for Solar Access, provides assistance to people involved in the development and operation of planning and zoning methods to provide local solar access protection. Guidebook 3, Incorporating Solar Energy Conservation into Local Codes,

  15. Solar energy utilization and microcomputer control in the greenhouse builk curing and drying solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, A.N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three agricultural applications in a specially designed greenhouse solar system functioning as a multi-purpose solar air collector for crop production and curing/drying processes are examined. An automated hydroponic crop production system is proposed for the greenhouse solar system. Design criteria of the proposed system and its utilization of solar energy for root-zone warming are presented and discussed. Based upon limited testing of the hydroponic system considered, hydroponic production of greenhouse crops is believed reasonable to complement the year-round use of the greenhouse solar system. The hardware/software design features of a microcomputer-based control system applied in the greenhouse solar barn are presented and discussed. On-line management and utilization of incident solar energy by the microcomputer system are investigated for both the greenhouse and tobacco curing/drying modes of operation. The design approach considered for the microcomputer control system is believed suitable for regulating solar energy collection and utilization for crop production applications in greenhouse systems.

  16. A novel gas adsorption cycle for solar thermal power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Hartman Jr.; J. R. Williams

    1977-01-01

    The present configuration for solar thermal power towers are severly restricted by the low thermal efficiency which results from the temperature and pressure restriction under which they must operate. This paper presents a new thermodynamic cycle which, while operating under the same pressure and temperature restrictions, offer significantly increased performance. It should be noted that this cycle is not restricted

  17. Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

    2007-08-16

    This report presents an overview of research conducted on solar energy technologies and their implementation in the ObjECTS framework. The topics covered include financing assumptions and selected issues related to the integration of concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics PV technologies into the electric grid. A review of methodologies for calculating the levelized energy cost of capital-intensive technologies is presented, along with sensitivity tests illustrating how the cost of a solar plant would vary depending on financing assumptions. An analysis of the integration of a hybrid concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) system into the electric system is conducted. Finally a failure statistics analysis for PV plants illustrates the central role of solar irradiance uncertainty in determining PV grid integration characteristics.

  18. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    SciTech Connect

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J. [Deutsche Aerospace AG, Munich (Germany)]|[Technical Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  19. Measurements of stratospheric NO 2 profiles using a gas correlation radiometer in the solar occultation mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fischer; E. Redemann; F. Fergg; D. Rabus

    1985-01-01

    Compact two-channel IR radiometers for solar occultation experiments have been constructed in order to measure concentration profiles of stratospheric trace gases. The instruments can be used as filter-or gas correlation-type radiometers depending on the trace gas under investigation. Within the LIMS correlative measurement program, balloon flights were performed with a payload of up to four of these two-channel radiometers. From

  20. The Gas Utility View of Industrial Energy Conservation 

    E-print Network

    Loberg, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    The gas industry fostered more efficient energy utilization long before the idea of energy conservation became fashionable. It became apparent in the late '60's that misguided Federal Legislation was discouraging necessary search for new gas...

  1. Using landfill gas for energy: Projects that pay

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Pending Environmental Protection Agency regulations will require 500 to 700 landfills to control gas emissions resulting from decomposing garbage. Conversion of landfill gas to energy not only meets regulations, but also creates energy and revenue for local governments.

  2. Large scale solar energy utilization possibilities and restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsch, J.

    1982-11-01

    The basic problems of producing hydrogen and introducing it into our energy system are described. It is discussed in what time and under which conditions solar hydrogen can make an essential contribution to our energy economy. Solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants for the electrolytic production of hydrogen are described. Typical values for the amount of the financial investment as well as for the raw material requirements are given. It is concluded that sizeable portion (up to 50%) of our energy could be supplied by solar hydrogen in the year 2030.

  3. Solar Energy Task Force Report on Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, J. Kevin

    The Solar Energy Task Force Report summarizes data, information, and discussions focusing on solar space and water heating applications. The report is intended to fill a need for curriculum and course development and direction for technical training programs, especially in vocational/technical schools and community colleges. It addresses…

  4. Energy Aware Provisioning in Solar Powered WLAN Mesh Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghada H. Badawy; Amir A. Sayegh; Terence D. Todd

    2008-01-01

    WLAN mesh networks are often installed to provide wireless coverage for temporary events. In these types of networks, the WLAN mesh nodes can sometimes be operated using an energy sustainable source such as solar power. Resource provisioning consists of pre-assigning each node with a solar panel and battery combination that is sufficient to prevent node outage for the duration of

  5. High energy observations of June 1980 solar flares

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lokanadham; P. K. Subramanian; Allan L. Kiplinger; B. R. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed study of the high energy X-ray observation of the most unusual solar events observed on 4 and 7 June, 1980 with the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) on Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite. The hard X-ray data of the events are also compared with the radio microwave fluxes.

  6. Department of Solar Energy & Environmental Physics Scientific Publications, 2005.

    E-print Network

    Prigozhin, Leonid

    ), Analytical model of electrodiffusion of metals in fullerene thin films. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics and its ramifications for concentrator solar cell design and diagnostics. Applied Physics Letters, 86 of Solar Energy Engineering, 127, 138-145. Tsur Y. and Zemel A. (2005), Scarcity, growth and R&D. Journal

  7. Solar and energy-conserving food technologies: a training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, J.; Goldman, L.

    1985-01-01

    The report is designed to help plan and implement in-service trainings in solar and other energy-conserving food technologies. It focuses on design, construction, and use of solar dryers for fruits, vegetables, meat, fish and herbs, along with fireless cookery. It emphasizes integrating technical and nontechnical information.

  8. Hybrid Solar Lighting Provides Energy Savings and Reduces Waste Heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa V. Lapsa; L. Curt Maxey; Duncan D. Earl; Dave L. Beshears; Christina D. Ward; James E. Parks

    2007-01-01

    Artificial lighting is the largest component of electricity use in commercial U.S. buildings. Hybrid solar lighting (HSL) provides an exciting new means of reducing energy consumption while also delivering significant ancillary benefits associated with natural lighting in buildings. As more than half of all federal facilities are in the Sunbelt region (defined as having an average direct solar radiation of

  9. Photochemical aspects of solar energy conversion and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Bolton

    1979-01-01

    The paper defines qualitatively and quantitatively the thermodynamic and kinetic limits on the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy as it is received on the earth's surface. Attention is given to an evaluation of a number of possible reactions, with special emphasis on the generation of solar fuels such as hydrogen from water and the generation of electricity. The

  10. Solar Energy Education Packet for Elementary & Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

    The arrangement of this packet is essentially evolutionary, with a conscious effort to alternate reading assignments, activities and experiments. It begins with solar energy facts and terminology as background to introduce the reader to basic concepts. It progresses into a discussion of passive solar systems. This is followed by several projects…

  11. Assessment of solar energy as an alternative energy source for the Republic of Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Pytlinski, J.T. ( Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez); Soderstrom, K.G.; Bryson, T.; Osorio, A.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different applications of solar energy were selected for an assessment of the potential solar use in the industrial, commercial and agricultural sectors of the Panamanian economy. Various solar technologies are taken into consideration with the solar water heating for industrial, commercial and institutional uses being designated as preferable for a large scale implementation. The anticipated energy saving by using solar energy to provide 50% of the energy contribution for water heating for selected applications is presented. Data showing the cost of materials required for such a solar energy contribution are given. Data for the monthly average of the daily total insolation and the reliability of these data are discussed. Finally, the expected impact of solar energy use in the Republic of Panama is discussed.

  12. Drying of medicinal plants with solar energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, G. [Inst. for Building, Mechanisation and Electrification of Agriculture, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a potential of solar energy for drying of medicinal plants in Polish conditions is estimated and development of solar drying technologies is presented. The results of economic assessment of flat-plate solar collectors applied for drying of medicinal plants on a farm are promising. In some specific conditions, e.g. drying of wild grown medicinal plants in remote areas, even application of photovoltaic modules for driving of a fan of a solar dryer is a profitable option and enables easy control of the drying air temperature.

  13. The Solar Wind Energy Input Rate and Recovery of the Magnetospheric Ring Current during the Last Two Solar Cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Biktash

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the recent results of our calculations of the solar wind energy input rate to the magnetospheric ring current in the main phase of magnetic storms used for simulation of Dst index based on solar wind data. For this purpose we studied the solar wind parameters during the last two solar cycles. We looked for geomagnetic storms and

  14. Bidirectional control system for energy flow in solar powered flywheel

    SciTech Connect

    Nola, F.J.

    1987-03-10

    An energy supply system is described for a spacecraft for supplying energy to at least one spacecraft load, the system comprising: a flywheel; an electric motor connected to the flywheel for selectively supplying electrical power to the spacecraft load; solar energy conversion means for receiving solar energy and for converting the received solar energy into an output voltage for supply to the spacecraft load; and electrical control means for (1) sensing the spacecraft load voltage, and feeding back the sensed voltage to regulate the voltage supplied to the spacecraft load when the spacecraft load voltage changes, and for (2) comparing the output voltage from the solar energy conversion means with a threshold voltage and, when the threshold voltage is exceeded, activating a speed control loop including the motor so as to accelerate the flywheel to a constant speed to thereby convert the electrical energy supplied from the solar energy conversion means into mechanical energy. When the threshold voltage is not exceeded, the speed control loop is deactivated and a voltage control loop is activated for controlling the amount of mechanical energy from the flywheel which is converted into an electrical energy output from the motor for supply to the spacecraft load in according with the sensed load voltage.

  15. Solar wind rare gas analysis: Trapped solar wind helium and neon in Surveyor 3 material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, F.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Schwarzmueller, J.

    1972-01-01

    The He-4 and Ne-20 contents in sections of the Surveyor 3 support strut samples were determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy and are compared to the results of the Apollo solar wind composition (SWC) experiments. The He-4/Ne-20 ratio in the samples from the sunlit side of the strut was approximately 300; the ratios determined in Apollo 12 lunar fines and SWC foil were below 100. The He-4/He-3 ratios were also determined, and the ratio obtained from Surveyor 3 material is higher than those found with Apollo 11 and 12 SWC experiments. The effects of spallation by cosmic rays or solar protons, stripping by cosmic ray or energetic solar alpha particles, recycling of solar wind He and radiogenic Ne, He from terrestrial atmosphere, mass discrimination near the moon, mass dependence of trapping probability, diffusion, and contamination by lunar dust are considered.

  16. Gas dynamic heating of chondrule precursor grains in the solar nebula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Hood; M. Horanyi

    1991-01-01

    In the present investigation of solar nebula gasdynamic processes which may account for the melting of chondrule precursor grains, both drag heating due to grain relative motion and heating due to collisions with gas molecules in thermal motion are considered in conjunction with the effect of thermally emitted radiation on grain heating and cooling. The melting of chondrule-sized grains is

  17. Improving the capability of solar thermal energy storage by using a hybrid energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaeem M. Moosavi; Hassan Zohoor

    2008-01-01

    The intermittent nature of solar energy and the energy requirements of buildings necessitate the storage of thermal energy. In this paper a hybrid system of storing solar energy has been analyzed. The suggested hybrid storage system consists of two tanks: a water tank as a SHS medium; and a paraffin tank as a LHS medium. A computing program was used

  18. Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2013 Solar Innovations, Inc. Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2013 Solar Innovations, Inc. Energy an energy management program in order to reduce the client's energy use. The team had 14 weeks (1 semester) and a $1,500 budget to meet the client's demands. The client, Solar Innovations, Inc., is a glass

  19. SOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    of renewable energy sources into existing energy supply structures. This not only demands substantial efforts on the analysis of satellite data. Forecasts for up to 2 days ahead (section 3) are based on numerical weather forecasts is applied. 2. VERY SHORT-TERM FORECASTING As far as short-term horizons are concerned, satellite

  20. Enhancement of Solar Energy Representation in the GCAM Model

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Volke, April C.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina

    2010-02-01

    The representation of solar technologies in a research version of the GCAM (formerly MiniCAM) integrated assessment model have been enhanced to add technologies, improve the underlying data, and improve the interaction with the rest of the model. We find that the largest potential impact from the inclusion of thermal Concentrating Solar Power plants, which supply a substantial portion of electric generation in sunny regions of the world. Drawing on NREL research, domestic Solar Hot Water technologies have also been added in the United States region where this technology competes with conventional electric and gas technologies. PV technologies are as implemented in the CCTP scenarios, drawing on NREL cost curves for the United States, extrapolated to other world regions using a spatial analysis of population and solar resources.

  1. Distribution of Solar Energy Influx in Time and Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kim Kastens

    In this activity, students will explore how energy is distributed at the surface of the earth in both space and time. Using data sets collected from Black Rock Forest, an instrumented education and research forest near West Point, New York, they will investigate variations in hourly solar energy influx and daily average solar radiation. They will make observations from the data, interpret it, and then make predictions about what the same kind of data would look like at a higher latitude.

  2. Harnessing Solar Energy for the Production of Clean Fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pandit; A. Holzwarth; H. J. M. de Groot

    2008-01-01

    The European Union and its member states are being urged by leading scientists to make a\\u000amajor multi million Euro commitment to solar driven production of environmentally clean\\u000aelectricity, hydrogen and other fuels, as the only sustainable long-term solution for global energy needs. The most promising routes to eventual full-scale commercial solar energy conversion directly into fuels were identified at

  3. Collection and concentration of solar energy using Fresnel type lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency of collecting solar energy using a Fresnel type lens was measured for two different collectors. A flow collector utilizes the temperature difference and heat capacity in water measurements to determine the amount of absorbed energy retained from sun rays passing through the Fresnel lens. A static collector is a hollow copper box filled with vegetable heating oil for absorption of focused solar radiation.

  4. SERI Solar Energy Storage Program: FY 1984 annual report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Luft; M. Bohn; R. J. Copeland; F. Kreith; R. G. Nix

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Energy Storage Program during its sixth year. During FY 1984 a study was conducted to identify the most promising high-temperature containment concepts considering corrosion resistance, material strength at high temperature, reliability of performance, and cost. Of the two generic types of high-temperature thermal storage concepts, the single-tank system

  5. A direct-heating energy-storage receiver for dish-Stirling solar energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, K.O. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Dish-Stirling solar receiver designs are investigated and evaluated for possible use with sensible energy storage in single-phase materials. The designs differ from previous receivers in utilizing axial conduction in the storage material for attenuation of the solar flux transients due to intermittent cloud cover, and in having convective heat removal at the base of the receiver. One-dimensional, time-dependent heat transfer equations are formulated for the storage material temperature field, including losses to the environment, and a general heat exchange effectiveness boundary condition at the base. The solar source flux is represented as the sum of steady and periodic cloud-transient components, with the steady component solved subject to specified receiver thermal efficiency. For the transient cloud-cover component the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm (FFT) is applied, and the complex transfer function of the receiver is obtained as a filter for the input flux spectrum. Inverse transformation results in the amplitudes and mode shapes of the transient temperature component. By adjustment of design parameters, the cloud-cover amplitude variations of the outlet gas temperature can be limited to acceptable magnitudes, thus simplifying control systems.

  6. Potential and Prospects of Solar Energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. RAMACHANDRA; D. K. SUBRAMANIAN

    1997-01-01

    Solar energy can meet a large variety of the small-scale decentralized energy needs of a region. The design of solar devices depends on the global and diffuse solar radiation data. Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa.

  7. Theoretical efficiency of solar thermoelectric energy generators

    E-print Network

    Chen, Gang

    This paper investigates the theoretical efficiency of solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). A model is established including thermal concentration in addition to optical concentration. Based on the model, the maximum ...

  8. Down to Earth Solar Energy Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppegard, Milo

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of a calorimeter to be used in an experiment which consists of measuring the rate at which ground level solar radiation raises the temperature of the metal in the calorimeter. (GS)

  9. High energy component of solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhmutov, Vladimir; Kurt, Victoria; Bazilevskaya, Galina; Kaufmann, Pierre; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Stozhkov, Yuri; Yushkov, Boris; Grechnev, Victor

    We have analysed experimental data from the satellites CORONAS-F, YOHKOH, TRACE, GOES and data recorded by the ground based Solar Submillimeter Telescope (SST) during the solar flares on August 25, 2001 and November 4, 2003. Almost simultaneous changes in the > 10-50 MeV gamma-ray spectra and in the > 200 GHz radio flux time profile were found at the very beginning of the impulsive phase of these events. We discuss possible reasons for these observed effects.

  10. Application of solar energy to agricultural production processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The presentations in this report were a result of research and development projects funded and managed by Interagency Agreements between the Department of Energy and the Department of Agriculture. The performing institutions were selected on the basis of peer reviews of invited and/or unsolicited proposals. During the time period covered, approximately 9 years, hundreds of technical reports and presentations have been made. The audience for these reports has included other researchers, manufacturers, sales people, contractors and end users of the information. As a result, thousands of installations have been made. Some of these have been highly successful, while others have been less successful, and some have failed. Nevertheless, these projects have shown areas where solar energy can be profitably applied to replace non-renewable forms of energy for agricultural production; areas where the use of solar energy is marginal; and areas where the use of solar energy is not profitable with current costs of non-renewable energy.

  11. Solar energy and global heat balance of a city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude-Alain Roulet

    2001-01-01

    The global energy balance of a city involves numerous energy flows and is rather complex. It includes, among others, the absorbed solar radiation and the energy fuels on one hand, and the heat loss to the environment — by radiation, convection and evaporation — on the other hand. This balance generally results in a temperature in the town that is

  12. Existing and potential market for residential solar energy use in California. Summary of findings from CEC solar market surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rains

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the existing and potential solar energy market, the residential sector was split into four subgroups, each of which was interviewed in depth. These subgroups include homeowners who had retrofitted their houses with solar energy systems and a control group of their neighbors, homeowners in seven new solarized subdivisions and seven adjacent nonsolarized subdivisions, and individuals deciding

  13. Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels

    E-print Network

    Tora, Eman

    2012-02-14

    at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

  14. Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, P.; Rennhofer, M.; Baumgartner, D.; Gadermaier, J.; Wagner, J.; Laube, W.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on solar energy gain. The study was done for days with a high contrail persistence and looking at situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish eye camera, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV) modules were performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m a.s.l.) during a period of one year with a time resolution of one minute. Our results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. A statistic of contrail persistence and influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may even be critical under some circumstances for PV system performance.

  15. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  16. Solar energy concentrating and collecting arrangement with sun-follower and solar energy sensing power control and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barr

    1977-01-01

    A solar energy concentrating and collecting arrangement and method in which a semi-cylindrical oblong concave reflector\\/concentrator forms the roof of a house, school or other building, particularly a heat utilization building. A collector is movably supported in spaced relation above and along the length of the oblong roof\\/reflector concentrator, for pivotal movement, by a solar reflection energy sensing and seeking

  17. NCTCOG Solar Ready II Project: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency 

    E-print Network

    Clark,L.

    2014-01-01

    Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency November 20, 2014 NCTCOG Solar Ready II Project Lori Clark Principal Air Quality Planner ESL-KT-14-11-12 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 U.S. Department of Energy Sun...Shot Initiative Rooftop Solar Challenge 2 ESL-KT-14-11-12 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national...

  18. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida solar energy center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. The system was designed to supply approximately 70 percent of the annual cooling and 100 percent of the heating load. The project provides unique high temperature, nonimaging, nontracking, evacuated tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection. Information is provided on the system's acceptance test results operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings.

  19. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Energy analysis of a solar-ground source heat pump system with vertical closed-loop for heating applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kadir Bakirci; Omer Ozyurt; Kemal Comakli; Omer Comakli

    2011-01-01

    A heat pump system is the ideal way to extend the heat supply of existing oil or gas fired heating system. Consumption costs are lowered through the use of free energy from the environment, and the dependence on fossils fuels simultaneously reduces. In order to investigate the performance of the solar-ground source heat pump system in the province of Erzurum

  1. Solar energy facility at North Hampton Recreation Center, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The solar energy system is installed in a single story (two heights), 16,000 sq ft building enclosing a gymnasium, locker area, and health care clinic surrounded by a recreational area and athletic field. The solar energy system is designed to provide 80 percent of the annual space heating, 48 percent of the annual space cooling, and 90 percent of the domestic hot water requirements. The solar energy system includes a 238 single glazed flat plate, 3650 sq ft area collector subsystem, a 6000 gallon hot water storage subsystem, a domestic hot water preheat subsystem, an absorption chiller subsystem with a 2000 gallon tank chilled water storage subsystem. The auxiliary back up system is a gas-fired boiler and a conventional 100 gallon natural gas water heater provides any additional energy to satisfy hot water load requirements. A summary of project information, project chronology, project costs, the five modes of system operation, description of the Site Data Acquisition System, system performance summary, experience recommendations, system operational verification, drawings and major component manufacturers information are provided.

  2. Energy coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of the path leading to the first approximation expression for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function (epsilon), which correlates well with the total energy consumption rate (U sub T) of the magnetosphere. It is shown that epsilon is the primary factor controlling the time development of magnetospheric substorms and storms. The finding of this particular expression epsilon indicates how the solar wind couples its energy to the magnetosphere; the solar wind and the magnetosphere make up a dynamo. In fact, the power generated by the dynamo can be identified as epsilon through the use of a dimensional analysis. In addition, the finding of epsilon suggests that the magnetosphere is closer to a directly driven system than to an unloading system which stores the generated energy before converting it to substorm and storm energies. The finding of epsilon and its implications is considered to have significantly advanced and improved the understanding of magnetospheric processes.

  3. Photochemical conversion of solar energy in the environment. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Zepp, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Past research on photochemistry in the environment has focused on gas phase reactions in the atmosphere. Recently, however, environmentally significant photoreactions have been discovered in natural waters (i.e., the sea, lakes, and rivers), on soil surfaces, and in atmospheric condensed phases. These new investigations have been stimulated in part by interest in developing a scientific understanding of the role of photochemical processes in the biogeochemical cycles of various elements. In addition, other studies have explored the role of natural photochemical processes in cleansing the environemnt of various waste materials or, in some cases, in converting the wastes to more toxic substances. In the paper, current research results on the photochemical conversion of solar energy in aquatic environments and on soil and metal oxide surfaces are presented. Rate equations and products for selected homogeneous and heterogeneous photoreactions that occur in these systems are described. Data are presented for direct and sensitized photoreactions and for sunlight-initiated free radical reactions. (Copyright (c) 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  4. Efficient Solar Energy Conversion Systems for Hydrogen Production from Water using Semiconductor Photoelectrodes and Photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayama, K.; Arai, T.

    2008-02-01

    Efficient solar energy conversion system for hydrogen production from water, solar-hydrogen system, is one of most important technologies for genuinely sustainable development of the society in the world wide scale. However, there are many problems to breakthrough such as low solar-to-H2 efficiency (STH), high cost, low stability, etc in order to realize the system practically and economically. The solar-hydrogen systems using semiconductors are mainly classified as follows; solar cell-electrolysis system, semiconductor photoelectrode system, and photocatalyst system. There are various merits and demerits in each system. The solar cell-electrolysis system is very efficient but is very high cost. The photocatalyst system is very simple and relatively low cost, but the efficiency is still very low. On the other hand, various semiconductor systems with high efficiency have been investigated. A high STH more than 10% was reported using non-oxide semiconductor photoelectrodes such as InGaP, while the preparation methods were costly. In a European project, some simple oxide semiconductor photoelectrodes such as Fe2O3 and WO3 are mainly studied. Here, we investigated various photoelectrodes using mixed metal oxide especially on BiVO4 semiconductor, and a high throughput screening system of new visible light responsible semiconductors for photoelectrode and photocatalyst. Moreover, photocatalysis-electrolysis hybrid system for economical H2 production is studied to overcome the demerit of photocatalyst system on the gas separation and low efficiency.

  5. Energy Recovery By Direct Contact Gas-Liquid Heat Exchange 

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Bravo, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Energy from hot gas discharge streams can be recovered by transfer directly to a coolant liquid in one of several available gas-liquid contacting devices. The design of the device is central to the theme of this paper, ...

  6. a Study on the Solar Wind Energy Input at Mercury and Earth Magnetospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezequiel Echer

    2008-01-01

    The solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling at Mercury and Earth magnetospheres is studied in this work. Using typical solar wind parameters at Mercury and Earth orbits, and assuming the magnetic reconnection mechanism, the energy input into these two planetary magnetospheres is calculated using the Akasofu's epsilon parameter. The energy input is calculated for varied solar wind conditions- solar wind speed, interplanetary

  7. Electron energy transport in the solar wind: Ulysses observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scime, Earl; Gary, S. Peter; Phillips, J. L.; Corniileau-Wehrlin, N.; Solomon, J.

    1995-01-01

    The electron heat flux in the solar wind has been measured by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment in the ecliptic from 1 to 5 AU and out of the ecliptic during the recently completed pass over the solar south pole and the ongoing pass over the solar north pole. Although the electron heat flux contains only a fraction of the kinetic energy of the solar wind. the available energy is sufficient to account for the non-adiabatic expansion of the solar wind electrons. The Ulysses measurements indicate that the electron heat flux is actively dissipated in the solar wind. The exact mechanism or mechanisms is unknown. but a model based on the whistler heat flux instability predicts radial gradients for the electron heat flux in good agreement with the data. We will present measurements of the correlation between wave activity measured by the unified radio and plasma experiment (URAP) and the electron heat flux throughout the Ulysses mission. The goal is to determine if whistler waves are a good candidate for the observed electron heat flux dissipation. The latitudinal gradients of the electron heat flux. wave activity. and electron pressure will be discussed in light of the changes in the magnetic field geometry from equator to poles.

  8. The solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling and magnetospheric disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1980-01-01

    Energy coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere is examined and the influence of this coupling on magnetospheric disturbances is discussed. Following a review of the components of the total energy production rate of the magnetosphere and progress in the study of solar wind-magnetosphere correlations, the derivation of the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function, which has been found to correlate well with the total magnetospheric energy production rate, is presented. Examination of the relations between the energy coupling function and the type of magnetic disturbance with which it is associated indicates that magnetic storms with a large sudden storm commencement and a weak main phase are associated with small energy coupling, while values of the coupling function greater than 5 x 10 to the 18th to 10 to the 19th erg/sec are required for the development of a major geomagnetic storm. The magnetospheric substorm is shown to be a direct result of increased solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling rather than the sudden conversion of stored magnetic energy. Finally, it is indicated that at energy couplings greater than 10 to the 19th erg/sec, the positive feedback process responsible for substorms breaks down, resulting in the abnormal growth of the ring current.

  9. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Contemporary Newman, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    An economic evaluation of performance of the solar energy system (based on life cycle costs versus energy savings) for five cities considered to be representative of a broad range of environmental and economic conditions in the United States is discussed. The considered life cycle costs are: hardware, installation, maintenance, and operating costs for the solar unique components of the total system. The total system takes into consideration long term average environmental conditions, loads, fuel costs, and other economic factors applicable in each of five cities. Selection criteria are based on availability of long term weather data, heating degree days, cold water supply temperature, solar insolation, utility rates, market potential, and type of solar system.

  10. DAPHNE: Energy Generation and storage, using Solar Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argelagós Palau, Ana Maria; Savio Bradford, Brandon

    Space travel is still in it's adolescent stages. Having embarked beyond the limit of our atmosphere for a mere 50 years, it is easy to imagine how much is yet to be discovered, in other solar systems and our own. One of the main factors that slow us down is the need for Energy. Long distance space travel requires a lot of energy, both for propulsion and operations alike. The principle of solar sails shows that the momentum of solar energy can be used beneficially, as can be seen in NASA's Sun-Jammer project. So, why not generate energy from this system? The DAPHNE system will utilize the simple principle of wind mills that is used here on Earth; using the force created by Solar wind to rotate an axle that in turn, generates energy. And this mill can be used to recharge spacecraft that need to fly further than it's own initial energy system will allow. Another benefit to developing this system is the fact that it is an alternative to nuclear energy generation for space, that a lot of modern research is being done on. The DAPHNE system can be considered a solution to long term propellant storage in space for interplanetary and interstellar travel. This paper proposes the design of an energy recharge technology, we called DAPHNE, which will utilize Nanotechnology, using solar sails to generate and store energy for future long-distance space craft to dock with, recharge and continue on their journey/mission. Examples of spacecraft in development that might benefit from a recharging station are the LISA Pathfinder, terrestrial exploration missions and eventually, the long interstellar missions that will be launched in the distant future. Thereby, allowing mankind to push the boundaries of our solar system and accelerate our ability to know what's out there. This technology would help the future generations of Space researchers move further than we can.

  11. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

  12. BUNCOMBE COUNTY WASTEWATER PRETREATMENT AND LANDFILL GAS TO ENERGY PROJECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Creighton

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project was to construct a landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE) facility that generates a renewable energy source utilizing landfill gas to power a 1.4MW generator, while at the same time reducing the amount of leachate hauled offsite for treatment. The project included an enhanced gas collection and control system, gas conditioning equipment, and a 1.4 MW generator set.

  13. High-energy gas fracturing succeeds in central Lake Erie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Druet; S. J. OConnor

    1991-01-01

    High-energy gas fracturing proved effective for stimulation of two wells producing gas from sandstone reservoirs in central Lake Erie. This paper reports on a controlled propellant deflagration that is used in the high-energy gas fracturing (HEGF) technique. The two test wells had perforated gas pay with permeabilities in the range of 4-27 md. Past stimulation programs in the area generally

  14. Analysis of dynamic effects in solar thermal energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines a study the purpose of which is to assess the performance of solar thermal power systems insofar as it depends on the dynamic character of system components and the solar radiation which drives them. Using a dynamic model, the daily operation of two conceptual solar conversion systems was simulated under varying operating strategies and several different time-dependent radiation intensity functions. These curves ranged from smoothly varying input of several magnitudes to input of constant total energy whose intensity oscillated with periods from 1/4 hour to 6 hours.

  15. Trace gas profiles from SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements with an optimal estimation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramstedt, Klaus; Azam, Faiza; Noël, Stefan; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John P.

    The spectrometer SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) on-board the European Space Agency's ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT) is measuring solar irradiances and Earthshine radiances from the UV to the NIR spectral region in nadir and limb as well as in lunar and solar occultation geometry. Due to the sun-synchronous orbit of the platform and the viewing direction of the instrument, the solar occultation events occur once per orbit at northern latitudes between 49° N to 69° N, depending on season. The solar occultation measurement are performed in scanning mode: While the overall viewing direction follows the rising sun, the instrument scans frequently over the solar disk. The scans above the atmosphere are used to determine the center of the solar disk. Utilizing the orbit information of the platform, precise tangent height information is derived from this measurement. Vertical trace gas profiles, such as ozone, NO2 and water vapor, are derived using the radiative transfer and retrieval code SCIATRAN 3.0. The retrieval scheme is an optimal estimation approach with Twomey-Tikhonov regularization. Here we present a dataset of stratospheric profiles with very good altitude information from August 2002 onwards.

  16. Evaluation of solar photovoltaic energy storage for aids to navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Allen; J. S. Ryba; S. E. Trenchard

    1980-01-01

    A detailed discussion of the U.S. Coast Guard aids to navigation application of solar photovoltaics with an emphasis on energy storage by lead-acid batteries is presented. A methodology is developed for the prediction of performance of a lead-acid battery in low-rate photovoltaic charging. Experimental results from five years of solar photovoltaic charging of lead-antimony grid batteries at various levels of

  17. High energy observations of June 1980 solar flares

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lokanadham; P. K. Subramanian; A. L. Kiplinger; B. R. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed study of the high energy X-ray observations of the most unusual solar events observed on 4 and 7 June, 1980 with the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) on Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite. The hard X-ray data of the events are also compared with the radio microwave fluxes. The X-ray time profiles of these flares

  18. A study of water electrolysis with photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpetis, C.

    The performance of the hydrogen production system consisting of the photovoltaic array and the water electrolysis unit is studied. The results of the calculation are compared with available experimental data and the performance of a hydrogen production plant by means of photovoltaic solar energy conversion is determined for two typical locations. A method for the estimation of the power matching conditions of the system solar array electrolysis unit is formulated to allow conclusions of general validity.

  19. Solar energy conversion: Solid-state physics aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O. Seraphin

    1979-01-01

    Solid-state aspects of solar energy conversion systems are discussed, with attention given to spectrally selective surfaces, carrier lifetimes in silicon, solar photoelectrolysis with semiconductor electrodes, heterojunction phenomena and interfacial defects in photovoltaic converters, and the Cu2S\\/CdS cell. The reviews include discussions of chemical vapor deposition of silicon, black-chrome electroplated coatings and semiconductor cermet films for photothermal converters, highly doped, highly

  20. Proposed reference irradiance spectra for solar energy systems testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Gueymard; D. Myers; K. Emery

    2002-01-01

    In 1982, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) adopted consensus standard solar terrestrial spectra (ASTM E891-82, E892-82) to provide standard spectra for photovoltaic (PV) performance applications. These spectra have been also used for other applications such as solar energy systems, fenestration, and materials degradation. These reference spectra were recomputed and the standards revised in 1987. The International Standards

  1. Solar energy management systems to improve health building conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio Cumbreno, J.; Taboada, J. A.; Arias Rodriguez, J. E.; Flores, Julian

    2004-08-01

    To obtain an acceptable comfort degree is a common practice to use a conventional air conditioning systems as radiators and coolers. However, they suppose high energy costs and are directly associated with some occupational diseases. We propose an alternative method to get comfort using a window galleria to take advantage of solar radiation. We have made a complete study of solar radiation in order to characterize the building. Results show us that we can achieve comfort levels without resorts to conventional systems.

  2. Northeast Solar Energy Research Center (NSERC)

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    to enable disconnecting from the BNL system for test purposes Research Instrumentation · Meteorological base Environmental Research Lab · Environmental, health and safety aspects of photovoltaic systems · Life Solar PV Array Size and Type · ~1.0 MW total ­ Area 1 sized for testing utility-scale inverters · System

  3. Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Book I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gene C.

    This first volume of a comprehensive curriculum guide for the heating-ventilation-air conditioning-refrigeration-solar student is designed to assist high school area vocational centers or community college instructors in the implementation and operation of comfort training programs. Following an introductory section, the guide provides job…

  4. Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Book II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gene C.

    This second volume of a comprehensive curriculum guide for the heating-ventilation-air conditioning-refrigeration-solar student is designed to assist high school area vocational centers or community college instructors in the implementation and operation of comfort training programs. The guide is comprised of ten units of instruction within three…

  5. Solar energy source book. [Book: includes glossary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martz

    1978-01-01

    There are two major sections in this book: a products section and a service section. Each one is divided into subsections. The products section is divided into two sections: one containing forms submitted by persons and companies involved in solar, and one listing companies according to the type of products they produce. The forms submitted by companies are divided into

  6. The energy balance of the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of modifying some of the 'classical' assumptions underlying many of the solar wind models constructed over the past 20 years are examined in an effort to obtain both a better fit with the observations and a deeper understanding of the relevant physical processes.

  7. Heat for film processing from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes solar water heating system for laboratory in Mill Valley, California. System furnishes 59 percent of hot water requirements for photographic film processing. Text of report discusses system problems and modifications, analyzes performance and economics, and supplies drawings and operation/maintenance manual.

  8. Solar Energy Program, FY 1982 annual report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Cairns; M. A. Wahlig

    1983-01-01

    In FY 1982, LBL's work in passive solar included heat transfer research, systems analysis, and materials studies. In the heat transfer area, two projects were pursued. In the first, experimental and analytic studies of natural convection processes that take place within buildings and between the interior of a building and the environment were performed. In the second project, data from

  9. Solar Energy: Fun in the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppler, Mary Lee

    2012-01-01

    Summer brings to mind the joys of vacation and spending time outdoors. The author looks forward to the summer months, particularly June--that's when they hold Junior Naturalist Camp at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden in Coral Gables, Florida. While she enjoys each day of camp, one in particular really brings out her inner student--Solar…

  10. Solar energy conversions in the greenhouses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Ghany

    2011-01-01

    For the greenhouse thermal analysis, it is essential to know the amount of solar radiation that was utilized by the greenhouse and consequently converted into sensible and latent heat via convection and evapo-transpiration. Parameters are frequently used for this purpose are: utilization efficiency factor (?), and sensible and latent heat factors (? and ?). Previous studies considered these factors as

  11. A feasibility study on solar utility total energy system /SUTES/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgen, E.

    1980-11-01

    A fully dedicated central receiver solar utility (CRSU) designed to meet domestic energy requirements for space heating and hot water has been synthesized and assessed at the conceptual level. The solar utility total energy system (SUTES) integrates (1) a central receiver solar utility (CRSU), (2) an electrical power generating system (EPGS), (3) a hydrogen production plant (HPP), (4) a water chilling system for cooling, heat pump system (HPS), (5) necessary thermal energy storage systems (TES), (6) a district heating and cooling system (DH&CS). All subsystems are close-coupled. Using consistent costing bases, it has been found that the SUTES concept provides energy costs which are lower than those provided by a CRSU. Representative costs are $3.14/GJ versus $8.56/GJ for 10 percent recovery factor and $12.55/GJ versus $13.47/GJ for 17.5 percent recovery factor.

  12. Solar energy facility at North Hampton Recreation Center, Dallas, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-05-01

    The solar energy facility located at the North Hampton Park Recreation and Health Center, Dallas, Texas is presented. The solar energy system is installed in a single story (two heights), 16,000 sq ft building enclosing a gymnasium, locker area, and health care clinic surrounded by a recreational area and athletic field. The solar energy system is designed to provide 80 percent of the annual space heating, 48 percent of the annual space cooling, and 90 percent of the domestic hot water requirements. The system's operation modes and performance data acquisition system are described. The system's performance during the months of June, July, August, September, and October of 1979 are presented and show a negative savings of energy. Experience to date indicates however that the system concept has promise of acceptable performance. It is concluded that if proper control and sequencing components was maintained, then the system performance would improve to an acceptable level.

  13. Search for sub-eV mass solar axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3He buffer gas.

    PubMed

    Arik, M; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Ezer, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Gruber, E; Guthörl, T; Hartmann, R; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakov?i?, K; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Kr?mar, M; Kuster, M; Laki?, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubi?i?, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Rashba, T; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomás, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2011-12-23

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has extended its search for solar axions by using (3)He as a buffer gas. At T=1.8 K this allows for larger pressure settings and hence sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with (4)He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV?m(a)?0.64 eV. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g(a?)?2.3×10(-10) GeV(-1) at 95% C.L., the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov axions are excluded at the upper end of our mass range, the first time ever for any solar axion search. In the future we will extend our search to m(a)?1.15 eV, comfortably overlapping with cosmological hot dark matter bounds. PMID:22243149

  14. Geothermal, Energy Efficiency, and Solar PV Opportunities at Nissan USE

    E-print Network

    Ford, R.; Ong, J.; Reeder, J.; Sridar, V.; Zhang, R.

    2014-01-01

    Geothermal, Energy Efficiency, and Solar PV Opportunities at Nissan USA May 21st, 2014 Robinson Ford Justin Ong Jake Reeder Vikram Sridar Rica Zhang ESL-IE-14-05-04 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New... Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Carbon Goal is Driving Innovation ESL-IE-14-05-04 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Research Areas Geothermal Solar Photovoltaics EE Verification ESL...

  15. Geothermal, Energy Efficiency, and Solar PV Opportunities at Nissan USE 

    E-print Network

    Ford, R.; Ong, J.; Reeder, J.; Sridar, V.; Zhang, R.

    2014-01-01

    Geothermal, Energy Efficiency, and Solar PV Opportunities at Nissan USA May 21st, 2014 Robinson Ford Justin Ong Jake Reeder Vikram Sridar Rica Zhang ESL-IE-14-05-04 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New... Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Carbon Goal is Driving Innovation ESL-IE-14-05-04 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Research Areas Geothermal Solar Photovoltaics EE Verification ESL...

  16. Application of chemical engineering to large scale solar energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Chubb; J. J. Nemecek; D. E. Simmons

    1978-01-01

    The Solchem power station concept is described. The components include an energy collection field containing dispersed solar-furnace-heated chemical reactors, an assemblage of demand-responsive energy storage-boiler tanks in which large quantities of energy are stored as latent heat-of-fusion, and a conventional dry-steam turboelectric generating facility. A eutectic salt is used for energy storage, and heat pipe boilers provide on-demand power plant

  17. Could Building Energy Codes Mandate Rooftop Solar in the Future?

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williams, Jeremiah

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores existing requirements and compliance options for both commercial and residential code structures. Common alternative compliance options are discussed including Renewable Energy Credits (RECs), green-power purchasing programs, shared solar programs and other community-based renewable energy investments. Compliance options are analyzed to consider building lifespan, cost-effectiveness, energy trade-offs, enforcement concerns and future code development. Existing onsite renewable energy codes are highlighted as case studies for the code development process.

  18. Modulation of dayside on and neutral distributions at Venus Evidence of direct and indirect solar energy inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Mayr, H. G.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Niemann, H. B.; Hartle, R. E.; Cloutier, P. A.; Barnes, A.; Daniell, R. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The details of solar variability and its coupled effects on the Venusian dayside are examined for evidence of short-term perturbations and associated energy inputs. Ion and neutral measurements obtained from the Orbiter Ion Mass Spectrometer and Orbital Neutral mass Spectrometer are used to show that the dayside concentrations of CO2(+) and the neutral gas temperature are smoothly modulated with a 28-day cycle reasonably matching that of the solar F(10.7) and EUV fluxes. Earlier measurements show less pronounced and more irregular modulations and more conspicuous short-term day-to-day fluctuations in the ions and neutrals, as well as relatively large enhancements in the solar wind, which appear consistent with differences in solar coronal behavior during the two periods. It is suggested that the solar wind variations cause fluctuations in joule heating, producing the observed short-term ion and neutral variations.

  19. Aqueous Lithium-Iodine Solar Flow Battery for the Simultaneous Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D; Beauchamp, Damian R; Huang, Zhongjie; Ren, Xiaodi; Wu, Yiying

    2015-07-01

    Integrating both photoelectric-conversion and energy-storage functions into one device allows for the more efficient solar energy usage. Here we demonstrate the concept of an aqueous lithium-iodine (Li-I) solar flow battery (SFB) by incorporation of a built-in dye-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrode in a Li-I redox flow battery via linkage of an I3(-)/I(-) based catholyte, for the simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. During the photoassisted charging process, I(-) ions are photoelectrochemically oxidized to I3(-), harvesting solar energy and storing it as chemical energy. The Li-I SFB can be charged at a voltage of 2.90 V under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination, which is lower than its discharging voltage of 3.30 V. The charging voltage reduction translates to energy savings of close to 20% compared to conventional Li-I batteries. This concept also serves as a guiding design that can be extended to other metal-redox flow battery systems. PMID:26102317

  20. Assessment of Solar Thermal Energy Technologies in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Adeyanju; K. Manohar

    2011-01-01

    The solar thermal energy resource situation in Nigeria including the estimated potential and available amount of the resource, are presented in this paper. The status of the database is discussed, indicating its degree of adequacy and an identification of the gaps. The National Energy Policy Document states that \\

  1. Low energy production processes in manufacturing of silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Ion implantation and pulsed energy techniques are being combined for fabrication of silicon solar cells totally under vacuum and at room temperature. Simplified sequences allow very short processing times with small process energy consumption. Economic projections for fully automated production are excellent.

  2. Energy coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-I. Akasofu

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes in detail how we are led to the first approximation expression for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function ?, which correlates well with the total energy consumption rate UTof the magnetosphere. It is shown that ? is the primary factor which controls the time development of magnetospheric substorms and storms. The finding of this particular expression ?

  3. Energy Management Method for solar race car design and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Ustun; M. Yilmaz; C. Gokce; U. Karakaya; R. N. Tuncay

    2009-01-01

    The energy management method for designing a solar-cell supplied electrical vehicle is described and its implementation on Istanbul Technical University (ITU) race cars is discussed. The effectiveness of the method has been tested and proved during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 races organized by the Scientific and Technical Council of Turkey. The ldquoenergy management model (EMS)rdquo, which computes the energy

  4. Ocean based solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion macro system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. D. Escher; J. A. Hanson

    1975-01-01

    Mechanized ocean thermal power production of hydrogen fuel is investigated. Hydrogen's natural advantages of transportability and storability are the basis for the choice of this energy carrier over electricity. World production of fossil fuels is expected to peak between 2030 and 2080, at which time reliable and economic nonfossil-based energy supplies will be available. Ocean basing of large-scale 'central' solar

  5. SOLAR THERMAL ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Eng Cong; Sanjayan Velautham; Amer Nordin Darus

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to study the feasibility of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) driven by solar thermal energy as a renewable energy option for small and medium sized commercial usage, power generation of less than 10MW. ORC is principally a conventional Rankine Cycle that uses organic compound as the working fluid instead of water and it is

  6. Cost of solar energy generated using PV panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shafiqur Rehman; Maher A. Bader; Said A. Al-Moallem

    2007-01-01

    This paper utilizes monthly average daily global solar radiation and sunshine duration data to study the distribution of radiation and sunshine duration over Saudi Arabia. The analysis also includes the renewable energy production and economical evaluation of a 5MW installed capacity photovoltaic based grid connected power plant for electricity generation. The study utilizes RetScreen software for energy production and economical

  7. OTEC to hydrogen fuel cells - A solar energy breakthrough

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Roney

    1981-01-01

    Recent advances in fuel cell technology and development are discussed, which will enhance the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)-hydrogen-fuel cell mode of energy utilization. Hydrogen obtained from the ocean solar thermal resources can either be liquified or converted to ammonia, thus providing a convenient mode of transport, similar to that of liquid petroleum. The hydrogen fuel cell can convert hydrogen

  8. Thermal energy storage considerations for solar-thermal power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Lior; P. S. Ayyaswamy; J. Oleary; K. W. Kauffman; H. Yeh; H. G. Lorsch

    1976-01-01

    The problem of thermal energy storage for solar-thermal power generation is examined. Major conceptual systems for thermal storage are proposed and described. Storage modes through sensible heat, latent heat (phase change), and thermochemical energy are reviewed and proposed. A survey of applicable materials for thermal storage, which includes available thermophysical properties, compatibility with containing and heat transfer interfaces, and economics,

  9. Modular High-Energy Systems for Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Carrington, Connie K.; Marzwell, Neville I.; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Modular High-Energy Systems are Stepping Stones to provide capabilities for energy-rich infrastructure located in space to support a variety of exploration scenarios as well as provide a supplemental source of energy during peak demands to ground grid systems. Abundant renewable energy at lunar or other locations could support propellant production and storage in refueling scenarios that enable affordable exploration. Renewable energy platforms in geosynchronous Earth orbits can collect and transmit power to satellites, or to Earth-surface locations. Energy-rich space technologies also enable the use of electric-powered propulsion systems that could efficiently deliver cargo and exploration facilities to remote locations. A first step to an energy-rich space infrastructure is a 100-kWe class solar-powered platform in Earth orbit. The platform would utilize advanced technologies in solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, thermal management, electric propulsion, wireless avionics, autonomous in space rendezvous and docking, servicing, and robotic assembly. It would also provide an energy-rich free-flying platform to demonstrate in space a portfolio of technology flight experiments. This paper summary a preliminary design concept for a 100-kWe solar-powered satellite system to demonstrate in-flight a variety of advanced technologies, each as a separate payload. These technologies include, but are not limited to state-of-the-art solar concentrators, highly efficient multi-junction solar cells, integrated thermal management on the arrays, and innovative deployable structure design and packaging to enable the 100-kW satellite feasible to launch on one existing launch vehicle. Higher voltage arrays and power distribution systems (PDS) reduce or eliminate the need for massive power converters, and could enable direct-drive of high-voltage solar electric thrusters.

  10. Gas hydrates: Unlocking the energy from icy cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Carolyn A.; Sum, Amadeu K.; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2009-09-01

    Technological advancements to control gas hydrates in energy transportation, recovery, and storage require detailed knowledge of the structural properties of these materials, and the thermodynamic and kinetic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation and decomposition. Paradigm shifts are moving the energy industry from thermodynamic to kinetic control strategies of gas hydrates in gas and oil deepwater pipelines, and from exploration to production from hydrated arctic deposits. This review examines the recent research progress in molecular structural kinetic studies of gas hydrates, and the development of new strategies for detecting and producing energy from arctic and oceanic hydrated deposits, and producing new materials for hydrogen storage.

  11. Solar-energy landmark Building-Columbia, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report includes design, cost, installation, maintenance, and performance details for attractive solar installation which supplies space heating for four-story Visitors Center. 176 hydronic flat-plate collectors, water-to-water heat exchanger, and 5,000-gallon storage tank comprise system which provides 71 percent of building's heat. Natural-gas-fired boiler supplies auxiliary hot water to heating system when necessary.

  12. The Solar Energy Institute: A long-term investment in America's youth

    SciTech Connect

    Arwood, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Unlike students of a generation ago, today's high school students have had limited personal experience with the energy issues that influence their everyday lives. They have no personal knowledge of the Arab Oil Embargo or the long lines at gas pumps that students in the 1970s encountered. Unlike their counterparts of the 1980s, who demonstrated against nuclear power plant construction projects, today's students have had very little exposure to energy debates of any national or international consequence. What's more, they have only vague memories of the Persian Gulf War and the fight over energy supplies. Fearing that the absence of crucial, real-life experiences has negatively impacted the energy literacy of today's students, numerous entities have implemented programs designed to introduce young people to a cornucopia of diverse energy issues that affect every aspect of daily life. As part of this educational movement, the Arizona Department of Commerce Energy Office recognized the fact that young people face an increasingly uncertain energy picture and, as such, one must provide them an education that will allow them to make informed energy decisions in the future. To this end, the Energy Office founded the Solar Energy Institute. What the author has gathered from his two years of experience operating the Solar Energy Institute is that the energy IQ of America's youth, specifically their solar energy IQ, is deficient. The other conclusion he has been able to draw from the program of study is that this summer camp is having a positive impact on students' energy literacy as measured by test scores and a follow-up survey of participants.

  13. Generation of residual energy in the turbulent solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gogoberidze, G. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Ilia State University, 3/5 Cholokashvili Ave., 0162 Tbilisi (Georgia); Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    In situ observations of the fluctuating solar wind flow show that the energy of magnetic field fluctuations always exceeds that of the kinetic energy, and therefore the difference between the kinetic and magnetic energies, known as the residual energy, is always negative. The same behaviour is found in numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We study the dynamics of the residual energy for strong, anisotropic, critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence using the eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian approximation. Our analysis shows that for stationary critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, negative residual energy will always be generated by nonlinear interacting Alfven waves. This offers a general explanation for the observation of negative residual energy in solar wind turbulence and in the numerical simulations.

  14. Alfvénic waves with sufficient energy to power the quiet solar corona and fast solar wind.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott W; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Boerner, Paul; Goossens, Marcel

    2011-07-28

    Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field lines into the corona. Previous observations of Alfvénic waves in the corona revealed amplitudes far too small (0.5?km?s(-1)) to supply the energy flux (100-200?W?m(-2)) required to drive the fast solar wind or balance the radiative losses of the quiet corona. Here we report observations of the transition region (between the chromosphere and the corona) and of the corona that reveal how Alfvénic motions permeate the dynamic and finely structured outer solar atmosphere. The ubiquitous outward-propagating Alfvénic motions observed have amplitudes of the order of 20?km?s(-1) and periods of the order of 100-500?s throughout the quiescent atmosphere (compatible with recent investigations), and are energetic enough to accelerate the fast solar wind and heat the quiet corona. PMID:21796206

  15. Systems Analysis and Recommendations for R&D and Accelerated Deployment of Solar Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin DeGroat; Joseph Morabito; Terry Peterson; Greg P. Smestad

    A Systems Analysis for the solar energy industry and solar R&D is presented to identify key positive reinforcements that can accelerate the adoption of solar technologies through a process of solar value creation. Such an analysis can also identify constraints that can decelerate solar technology adoption, as well as points of leverage where investment and R&D can have the most

  16. Existing and potential market for residential solar energy use in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rains

    1980-01-01

    Research findings are reported on a four-part solar market survey program which identified barriers for residential solar energy use in California. The approach and the framework for analysis are described for the survey program. Summaries and discussions are presented on survey data from solar retrofitters; new construction solar home market and buyers; focus groups of non-solar homeowners; and a statewide

  17. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  18. Assessing the impact of peak-load electricity pricing and the solar tax credits on the adoption of solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Procter, R.J.; Tyner, W.E.

    1984-02-01

    An assessment of the impact of state and federal legislation on the development of residential solar energy considers the Energy Tax Act of 1978 and the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 in particular. A model estimates life-cycle cost for resistance electric heat, heat-pump, and active solar energy systems and assesses the impact of these costs of the federal solar tax credit, peak-load electricity pricing policies, and state property tax exemptions for solar systems. The study concludes that the peak pricing policy conserves capital resources but consumes nonrenewable energy, and would overwhelm the solar tax credit designed to promote use of renewable energy. If lawmakers intended to provide a major stimulus to solar energy in lieu of other options, the policy set needs to be reconsidered. 6 references, 5 tables.

  19. Enabling Technologies for High Penetration of Wind and Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.

    2011-01-01

    High penetration of variable wind and solar electricity generation will require modifications to the electric power system. This work examines the impacts of variable generation, including uncertainty, ramp rate, ramp range, and potentially excess generation. Time-series simulations were performed in the Texas (ERCOT) grid where different mixes of wind, solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power provide up to 80% of the electric demand. Different enabling technologies were examined, including conventional generator flexibility, demand response, load shifting, and energy storage. A variety of combinations of these technologies enabled low levels of surplus or curtailed wind and solar generation depending on the desired penetration of renewable sources. At lower levels of penetration (up to about 30% on an energy basis) increasing flexible generation, combined with demand response may be sufficient to accommodate variability and uncertainty. Introduction of load-shifting through real-time pricing or other market mechanisms further increases the penetration of variable generation. The limited time coincidence of wind and solar generation presents increasing challenges as these sources provide greater than 50% of total demand. System flexibility must be increased to the point of virtually eliminating must-run baseload generators during periods of high wind and solar generation. Energy storage also becomes increasingly important as lower cost flexibility options are exhausted. The study examines three classes of energy storage - electricity storage, including batteries and pumped hydro, hybrid storage (compressed-air energy storage), and thermal energy storage. Ignoring long-distance transmission options, a combination of load shifting and storage equal to about 12 hours of average demand may keep renewable energy curtailment below 10% in the simulated system.

  20. Powering the planet: Chemical challenges in solar energy utilization

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nathan S.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    Global energy consumption is projected to increase, even in the face of substantial declines in energy intensity, at least 2-fold by midcentury relative to the present because of population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere demands that holding atmospheric CO2 levels to even twice their preanthropogenic values by midcentury will require invention, development, and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable energy resources, solar energy is by far the largest exploitable resource, providing more energy in 1 hour to the earth than all of the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. In view of the intermittency of insolation, if solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, it must be stored and dispatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar-converted energy in the form of chemical bonds, i.e., in a photosynthetic process at a year-round average efficiency significantly higher than current plants or algae, to reduce land-area requirements. Scientific challenges involved with this process include schemes to capture and convert solar energy and then store the energy in the form of chemical bonds, producing oxygen from water and a reduced fuel such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, or other hydrocarbon species. PMID:17043226