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1

Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

Lee, J. H.

1981-01-01

2

Project SAGE: Solar assisted gas energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans are formulated to: improve solar assisted gas energy (SAGE) technical design and performance; reduce SAGE costs; refine SAGE market assessment; and identify policies to encourage the use of SAGE. Two SAGE water heating systems were installed and tested. One system was retrofit onto an existing apartment building; the other was installed in a new apartment building. Each installation required approximately 1000 square feet of collector area tilted to an angle of 37(0) from the horizontal, and each was designed to supply about 70 percent of the energy for heating water for approximately 32 to 40 units of a typical two-story apartment complex, in Southern California. Construction costs were compiled, and both installations were equipped with performance monitoring equipment. The operating and maintenance requirements of each installation was evaluated by gas company maintenance engineers. Market penetration was assessed by developing a computer simulation program using the technical and economic analysis from the installation experience.

1980-03-01

3

Innovative gas energy systems for use with passive solar residences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GRI asked Booz, Allen, and Hamilton to analyze the integration of passive solar with gas-fired energy systems for heating and cooling homes. Direct gain, trombe wall, thermosiphon and thermal roof storage heating systems were studied. Solar load control, evaporative cooling, earth coupling, and night radiation cooling systems were investigated. The drawbacks of conventional gas backup systems are discussed. Innovative

D. Hartman; D. Kosar

1983-01-01

4

Innovative gas energy systems for use with passive solar residences  

SciTech Connect

The GRI asked Booz, Allen, and Hamilton to analyze the integration of passive solar with gas-fired energy systems for heating and cooling homes. Direct gain, trombe wall, thermosiphon and thermal roof storage heating systems were studied. Solar load control, evaporative cooling, earth coupling, and night radiation cooling systems were investigated. The drawbacks of conventional gas backup systems are discussed. Innovative passive/gas combinations are recommended. These include multizone gas furnace, decentralized gas space heater, gas desiccant dehumidifier, and gas dehumidifier for basement drying. The multizone furnace saves $1500, and is recommended for Pilot Version development.

Hartman, D.; Kosar, D.

1983-06-01

5

Assessment of residential passive solar/gas-fired energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was made to provide a comprehensive analysis of the issues involved in integrating passive solar with gas-fired back-up energy systems including: characterize major passive solar technologies; analyze technical and economic requirements of back-up heating and cooling systems; evaluate potential improvements for gas-fired heating equipment that could enhance its fit with passive solar heating; investigate the feasibility of passive solar cooling coupled with gas dehumidification equipment; and identify R&D opportunities for GRI which offer benefits to the gas ratepayer and to the gas industry. Passive solar heating, because of its potential to significantly reduce home heating loads and of the ease with which electric backup systems can be installed could result in a decrease in gas market share, as a primary heating fuel in new housing.

Hartman, D. L.; Hirshberg, A. S.

1982-12-01

6

Steam and gas turbines for small outputs using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of the solar energy into electrical or mechanical energy in turbine power plants requires new design criteria. The choice of the working fluid and the configuration of the cycle are of great importance. Not every variant is suitable for the solar farm and the solar tower concept in the same way. The design of the turbomachinery and the

K. Bammert; H. Poesentrup

1980-01-01

7

A solar simulator-pumped gas laser for the direct conversion of solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most proposed space power systems are comprised of three general stages, including the collection of the solar radiation, the conversion to a useful form, and the transmission to a receiver. The solar-pumped laser, however, effectively eliminates the middle stage and offers direct photon-to-photon conversion. The laser is especially suited for space-to-space power transmission and communication because of minimal beam spread, low power loss over large distances, and extreme energy densities. A description is presented of the first gas laser pumped by a solar simulator that is scalable to high power levels. The lasant is an iodide C3F7I that as a laser-fusion driver has produced terawatt peak power levels.

Weaver, W. R.; Lee, J. H.

1981-01-01

8

Complementary heating technology and its economy analysis of solar energy and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the characteristics of solar energy and natural gas, paper presents a gas engine-driven heat pump (GEHP) system with the solar water heating as low-temperature heat source for heating technology. The economic model of the system is established. The technological and economical calculation of the system is modeled, and the simulation result obtained carries on technical and economic comparison

Ling Xiang; Fengguo Liu; Bo Wang; Youqain Xiang

2011-01-01

9

Solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pumps, solar power stations, air conditioners, fresh-water stills, solar homes, solar cookers, fruit driers, devices for (low temperature) steaming of reinforced concrete members, solar refrigerators, solar hothouses, welding and melting of metals presents a far from complete list of the devices and areas of the possible broad use of solar energy. The first plant of solar equipment is to

G. Y. Umarov; A. A. Yershov

1975-01-01

10

Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model was used to size the system to minimize the annualized cost of hot water. The annualized cost of solar-assisted gas-energy water heating is found to be less expensive than electric water heating but more expensive than gas water heating. The feasibility of a natural gas utility supplying the auxiliary fuel is evaluated. It is estimated that gas-utilizing companies will find it profitable to offer solar water heating as part of a total energy service option or on a lease basis when the price of new base-load supplies of natural gas reaches $2.50-$3.00 per million Btu.

Davis, E. S.

1975-01-01

11

Solar energy  

SciTech Connect

This text on the thermal conversion of solar energy begins with fundamental principles, which are then developed and applied to a variety of solar conversion systems. In addition to system components-such as flat plate, salt gradient, and concentrating collectors, and thermal storage units-the author discusses active and passive space heating, hot water, air conditioning, dehumidification, air drying, distillation, and swimming pool heating systems. The f-chart system performance estimation techniques active systems, and load-collector-ratio technique for passive systems are presented. Contents: Introduction. Solar kinematics. Availability of Solar Energy. Solar Concentrators. Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Solar Systems. Flat Plate Collectors. Thermal Storage of Solar Energy. Solar Space and Hot water Heating Systems. Economics of Solar Energy Systems. Solar Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Dehumidification. Additional Solar Energy Applications and Collectors. Passive Solar Heating. Appendices.

Anderson, E.E.

1983-01-01

12

Solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

Rapp, D.

13

Solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

Rapp, D.

1981-01-01

14

An Application of Solar Energy Storage in the Gas: Solar Heated Biogas Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature is an important factor that may affect the performance of anaerobic digestion. Therefore, biogas plants without heating system work only in warmer regions for the whole year. In regions with extreme temperature variations, for instance in Turkey, the biogas plant should be built with heating system. One of the methods is to use solar energy to increase the reactor

G. Kocar; A. Eryasar

2007-01-01

15

A space-based combined thermophotovoltaic electric generator and gas laser solar energy conversion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a spaceborne energy conversion system consisting of a thermophotovoltaic electric generator and a gas laser. As a power source for the converson, the system utilizes an intermediate blackbody cavity heated to a temperature of 2000-2400 K by concentrated solar radiation. A double-layer solar cell of GaAs and Si forms a cylindrical surface concentric to this blackbody cavity, receiving the blackbody radiation and converting it into electricity with cell conversion efficiency of 50 percent or more. If the blackbody cavity encloses a laser medium, the blackbody radiation can also be used to simultaneously pump a lasing gas. The feasibility of blackbody optical pumping at 4.3 microns in a CO2-He gas mixture was experimentally demonstrated.

Yesil, Oktay

1989-01-01

16

Toward the renewables - A natural gas/solar energy transition strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inevitability of an energy transition from today's non-renewable fossil base toward a renewable energy base is considered from the viewpoint of the need for a national transition strategy. Then, one such strategy is offered. Its technological building blocks are described in terms of both energy use and energy supply. The strategy itself is then sketched at four points in its implementation; (1) initiation, (2) early transition, (3) late transition, and (4) completion. The transition is assumed to evolve from a heavily natural gas-dependent energy economy. It then proceeds through its transition toward a balanced, hybrid energy system consisting of both centralized and dispersed energy supply technologies supplying hydrogen and electricity from solar energy. Related institutional, environmental and economic factors are examined briefly.

Hanson, J. A.; Escher, W. J. D.

1979-01-01

17

Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper is subdivided into three main paragraphs: basic principles of solar radiation, main applications, and a case study\\u000a of a rural electrification in China. The first paragraph will introduce the basic principles of solar energy, highlighting\\u000a the advantages and disadvantages of this kind of renewable energy in comparison with other types of energy supply. The second\\u000a paragraph will introduce

Roberto Barile

18

Solar energy almanac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the topics covered in this book are: the passive solar house; the history of passive solar design; a career in solar energy; solar tax credits; solar energy's growth and potential; the underground house; the solar greenhouse; finding a solar designer or builder; solar access; solar use in the cities; storing solar heat; and solar communities. Also included are: tables

McPhillips

1983-01-01

19

Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model

E. S. Davis

1975-01-01

20

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

1981-01-01

21

Solar Energy in China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the progress, status and goals of the Chinese national solar energy programmes since 1970's. It applies specially to solar water heating, solar drying, passive solar, solar cookers, and solar photovoltaics. In China, an expertiseteam h...

H. Wennerholm

1993-01-01

22

Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 11 of PDF), learners compare the air pressure within a dark and a light bottle both heated by the sun, and discover that solar energy can be collected and stored in many ways. Although this was created as a post-visit activity for a workshop about photosynthesis, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity.

Cosi

2009-01-01

23

Solar Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water pumps, solar power stations, air conditioners, fresh-water stills, solar homes, solar cookers, fruit driers, devices for (low temperature) steaming of reinforced concrete members, solar refrigerators, solar hothouses, welding and melting of metals p...

A. A. Yershov G. Y. Umarov

1975-01-01

24

Alternative Energy: Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of the sun's energy. Topics include the history of solar energy usage and its more recent adaptations. There is also discussion of how the sun produces and radiates energy, what happens when it reaches Earth, types of solar systems, and the most common use of solar energy (heating). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate the effects of color and collection area on the amount of solar energy absorbed by a system. They will use aluminum pie pans of different sizes and colors and compare the relative effect by their ability to heat water placed in them.

Pratte, John

25

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel demand and solar energy conversion efficiency in European bioethanol production for automotive purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop derived biofuels such as (bio)ethanol are increasingly applied for automotive purposes. They have, however, a relatively low efficiency in converting solar energy into automotive power. The outcome of life cycle studies concerning ethanol as to fossil fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions associated with such inputs depend strongly on the assumptions made regarding e.g. allocation, inclusion of upstream processes

L. Reijnders; M. A. J. Huijbregts

2007-01-01

26

Why solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of solar energy over fossil-fuel and nuclear energy are discussed. Attention is given to energy reserves and the rate of use, and the effects of thermal pollution. The following uses and aspects of solar energy are examined: solar heating of buildings, direct conversion of solar radiation to electricity, windpower utilization, solar cooling of buildings, and solar energy for

A. B. Newton

1976-01-01

27

Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

O'Brien, Alexander

28

Solar Energy and You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

29

Minimizing greenhouse gas emissions through the application of solar thermal energy in industrial processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of industrial energy usage indicates that low temperature processes (20?200°C) are used in nearly all industrial sectors. In principle there is the potential to use solar thermal energy in these lower temperature processes thus, reducing the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels. Using the model of an Austrian dairy plant, this research investigated the potential for, and the

Hans Schnitzer; Christoph Brunner; Gernot Gwehenberger

2007-01-01

30

Solar energy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents the progress, status and goals of the Chinese national solar energy programs since 1970's. It applies specially to solar water heating, solar drying, passive solar, solar cookers, and solar photovoltaics. In China, an expert team has been organized, a number of technology development centers for new and renewable sources of energy have been set up and some

H. Wennerholm

1993-01-01

31

Solar energy for healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

With costly and uncertain fuel supplies, the potential of solar energy use in the health care industry is being examined. Solar energy is not considered a cure-all for energy problems in the health field, but health facilities with solar energy systems may avoid severe hardships. At present solar energy can help these institutions with three major problems: emergency power failures;

Downey

1975-01-01

32

The solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothermic decomposition of natural gas into a carbon-rich condensed phase and a hydrogen-rich gas phase, using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat, is considered as a model reaction for conducting a 2nd-law analysis of a solar decarbonization process in which carbon is removed from fossil fuels prior to their use for power generation. The theoretical

D. Hirsch; M. Epstein; A. Steinfeld

2001-01-01

33

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required or advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar ...

1995-01-01

34

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required or advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar ...

1988-01-01

35

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar Thermal Energy Technology announces on a monthly semimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for advancement of solar thermal systems as significant energy source. Solar...

1985-01-01

36

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

1984-01-01

37

A Solar Energy Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 5,000 references to literature through 1976 dealing with various aspects of solar energy. Categories are established according to area of solar research. These categories include: (1) overview; (2) measurement; (3) low-range solar energy collection (below 120 degrees C); (4) intermediate-range solar energy collection (120…

Guthrie, David L.; Riley, Robert A.

38

Solar energy apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy apparatus for gathering and transmitting solar radiation to an energy storage area. Wide-angle lens apparatus is used to focus solar radiation on an end of an optical fiber bundle. The other end of the optical fiber bundle is placed in the energy storage area and has a radiating device attached thereto to more efficiently remove the solar

1977-01-01

39

History of Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Solar Center offers this history of Solar Energy. Written by John Perlin, author of "From Space to Earth - The Story of Solar Electricity," the article summarizes three major solar energy subjects -- photovoltaics, solar thermal, and passive solar architecture. Visitors can get a quick overview of "how we have learned to capture sunlight and use it to make electricity, heat water and heat our homes."

40

Alternatives in solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

Schueler, D. G.

1978-01-01

41

Solar energy in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report presents the progress, status and goals of the Chinese national solar energy programs since 1970's. It applies specially to solar water heating, solar drying, passive solar, solar cookers, and solar photovoltaics. In China, an expert team has been organized, a number of technology development centers for new and renewable sources of energy have been set up and some demonstration projects are under way. Shortage of energy in China can not be expected to be overcome in a short period of time. The only way out is to adopt various kinds of energy conservation measures and increase the utilization of NRSE, while expanding the production of conventional energy.

Wennerholm, H.

42

Incoming Solar Energy Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet plots the incoming solar energy at the top of the atmosphere (no absorption by the atmosphere) for two locations at once. Students will learn how the date, hemisphere, and latitude impact the distribution of solar energy.

Ackerman, Steve; Whittaker, Tom

43

Utilization of Solar Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comments are presented on an international conference concerned with solar energy utilization. The difficulties of harnessing solar energy are outlined in terms of three basic properties: (1) high dilution, (2) intermittent nature, and (3) high entropy. T...

I. Oshida

1974-01-01

44

Solar Thermal Energy Technology  

SciTech Connect

Solar Thermal Energy Technology (PST) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy resource.

Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

1996-02-01

45

Gas-grain energy transfer in solar nebula shock waves: Implications for the origin of chondrules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteoritic chondrules provide evidence for the occurrence of rapid transient heating events in the protoplanetary nebula. Astronomical evidence suggests that gas dynamic shock waves are likely to be excited in protostellar accretion disks by processes such as protosolar mass ejections, nonaxisymmetric structures in an evolving disk, and impact on the nebula surface of infalling 'clumps' of circumstellar gas. Previous detailed calculations of gas-grain energy and momentum transfer have supported the possibility that such shock waves could have melted pre-existing chondrule-sized grains. The main requirement for grains to reach melting temperatures in shock waves with plausibly low Mach numbers is that grains existed in dust-rich zones (optical depth greater than 1) where radiative cooling of a given grain can be nearly balanced by radiation from surrounding grains. Localized dust-rich zones also provide a means of explaining the apparent small spatial scale of heating events. For example, the scale size of at least some optically thick dust-rich zones must have been relatively small (less than 10 kilometers) to be consistent with petrologic evidence for accretion of hot material onto cold chondrules. The implied number density of mm-sized grains for these zones would be greater than 30 m(exp -3). In this paper, we make several improvements of our earlier calculations to include radiation self-consistently in the shock jump conditions, and we include heating of grains due to radiation from the shocked gas. In addition, we estimate the importance of momentum feedback of dust concentrations onto the shocked gas which would tend to reduce the efficiency of gas dynamic heating of grains in the center of the dust cloud.

Hood, L. L.; Horanyi, M.

1993-01-01

46

Gasification of coal with solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focused solar energy can be used to drive the endothermic reactions that gasify coal. The economics are attractive. Coal resources are conserved. Coal reactors are adaptable to solar-energy facilities. Two advantages make solar coal gasification attractive economically. First, synthesis gas (a nitrogen-free product) can be produced without pure oxygen which is expensive. Second, for a given amount of product only

W. R. Aiman; D. W. Gregg

1980-01-01

47

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar window which can alternatively act either as a passive solar heat collector or an active solar heat collector. A substantially transparent pair of panels are mounted in opposed position to each other and define a chamber therebetween. When it is desired to admit solar energy to the structure in which the window is mounted, air is permitted to

Mcclintock

1983-01-01

48

Solar Energy Technician/Installer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

Moore, Pam

2007-01-01

49

Solar energy emplacement developer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

1991-01-01

50

Experimenting with Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

Roman, Harry T.

2004-01-01

51

[Efficiency of oxidant gas generator cells powered by electric or solar energy].  

PubMed

Diseases caused by microbial contaminants in drinking water continue to be a serious problem in countries like Mexico. Chlorination, using chlorine gas or chlorine compounds, is one of the best ways to treat drinking water. However, difficulties in handling chlorine gas and the inefficiency of hypochlorite solution dosing systems--due to sociopolitical, economic, and cultural factors--have reduced the utility of these chlorination procedures, especially in far-flung and inaccessible rural communities. These problems led to the development of appropriate technologies for the disinfection of water by means of the on-site generation of mixed oxidant gases (chlorine and ozone). This system, called MOGGOD, operates through the electrolysis of a common salt solution. Simulated system evaluation using a hydraulic model allowed partial and total costs to be calculated. When powered by electrical energy from the community power grid, the system had an efficiency of 90%, and in 10 hours it was able to generate enough gases to disinfect about 200 m3 of water at a cost of approximately N$8 (US $1.30). When the electrolytic cell was run on energy supplied through a photoelectric cell, the investment costs were higher. A system fed by photovoltaic cells could be justified in isolated communities that lack electricity but have a gravity-fed water distribution system. PMID:9542448

Brust Carmona, H; Benitez, A; Zarco, J; Sánchez, E; Mascher, I

1998-02-01

52

Solar energy modulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

Hale, R. R. (inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

1984-01-01

53

Coal gasification using solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another redirected through the receiver with steam to form CO and H2. Carbonaceous fuels are burned whenever sunlight is not available. Comparisons are made for costs of Lurgi, Bi-gas, Hygas, CO2 Acceptor, and Peat Gas processes and hybrid units for each. Solar thermal systems are projected to become economical with 350 MWt output and production of 1,420,000 cu m of gas per day. The laboratory bench scale unit was tested with Montana rosebud coal to derive a heat balance assessment and analyse the product gas. Successful heat transfer through a carrier gas was demonstrated, with most of the energy being stored in the product gas.

Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.

54

Solar Energy Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Energy Update (SEU) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs from all sources on solar energy. All information announced in SEU, plus additional backup information, is included in the energy information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center. The subject matter covered

1980-01-01

55

Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

Knapp, Henry H., III

56

Luminescent solar concentrators and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells for solar energy harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing energy demand and the parallel increase of greenhouse gas emissions are challenging researchers to find new and cleaner energy sources. Solar energy harvesting is arguably the most promising candidate for replacing fossil-fuel power generation. Photovoltaics are the most direct way of collecting solar energy; cost continues to hinder large-scale implementation of photovoltaics, however. Therefore, alternative technologies that will allow

Veronica Sholin

2008-01-01

57

Solar energy breeders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An energy breeder can be defined as a device which creates capacity to generate useful energy without consuming energy stocks. Any solar conversion device (SCD) that delivers in its life-time more energy than needed to maintain and rebuild itself is a solar energy breeder, since some of the surplus energy can be used to build more such SCDs. A breeding SCD must necessarily produce energy of sufficiently high intrinsic quality (e.g. electricity) or high temperature to provide energy at the various temperatures needed for its fabrication and maintenance. Thus, the amount of energy produced by an SCD breeder at various temperatures must be examined, in addition to the simple energy quantity produced over a solar collector lifetime. Capacity breeding rates are calculated for both SCDs producing electricity intrinsically (e.g. photovoltaics) and for SCDs producing both electricity and a significant amount of thermal energy (e.g. total solar energy systems).

Grimmer, D. P.

58

Solar energy prospects grow for US southwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In connection with the disappearance of oil and gas, the traditional energy sources of the region, there appears to be every incentive to develop solar energy for domestic and industrial use in the U.S. Southwest. The various approaches for the utilization of solar energy are discussed, taking into account its direct application to water and space heating and to air

E. J. Jeffs

1977-01-01

59

Iowa and solar energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are some different ways solar energy is used in our society? This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to five uses for solar energy in the state of Iowa. They include signs by the department of transportation, roof grids, solar cars, thin-film photovoltaics, and tents produced for the U.S. Army. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

60

Investing in solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private industry invested $50 million in 1975 for R and D in solar energy, which is expected to produce 25% of the Nation's energy by 2020. Although high storage costs have slowed programs to convert solar to electric energy, ERDA's short-range plan calls for 80 large solar-powered electric generating stations. Long-range plans call for a project of 4,000 buildings with

1975-01-01

61

A System Utilizing Solar Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibilities of using solar energy as a future energy source are discussed. A system utilizing solar energy is described and discussed. The factors necessary for a solar energy system are listed. (Author)

1974-01-01

62

Aerosols and solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief description is presented of the involvement of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in atmospheric research, including aerosol characterization and modeling. The use of both rigorous and simple models for radiation transport is described. Modeled broadband solar irradiance data are shown to illustrate the important influence that aerosols have on the enrgy available to solar systems and the

R. E. Bird; R. L. Hulstrom

1979-01-01

63

Solar energy collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described comprised of a novel and efficacious arrangement of state-of-the-art materials resulting in substantial advantages in both efficacy and, especially, economy over presently known solar collectors. The invention is characterized by a closed, circuitous, solar energy absorbing pathway of especially designed profile in which water or other suitable fluid media is caused to circulate while absorbing solar

Beaver; E. R. Jr

1977-01-01

64

Cooling with solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advantages of an absorption cooling system based on the use of solar energy are partly related to the fact that no long-term storage facilities are needed because the amount of solar energy supplied on a temporal basis corresponds approximately to the energy required for cooling. Other advantages are connected with decentralized application possibilities, the employment of reliable technologies, and high

K. Schubert; J. Dreyer

1977-01-01

65

Fluid absorption solar energy receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

Bair, Edward J.

1993-01-01

66

Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

Knapp, Henry H., III

67

Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy

Buchanan, Marion; And Others

68

Solar energy receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly efficient, open-ended solar energy receiver is disclosed having a porous element through which air passes and a conventional heat exchanger positioned above and immediately adjacent to the porous element such that when solar energy is focused onto the porous element, a constant controlled temperature hot air stream from the element is conveyed by the temperature controlled convectively rising

Colao

1981-01-01

69

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector is disclosed comprising a collector plate having a solar energy absorbing surface; a first network of intersecting walls disposed on said collector plate and forming a plurality of cavities thereon; and, a second network of three-dimensional members disposed on said first network, said three-dimensional members having reflective surfaces approximately parallel to said collector plate and reflective

Lesk

1978-01-01

70

Solar energy refrigeration device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a refrigeration device using solar energy. This device includes a refrigeration fluid, such as water, which circulates between the solar energy heat exchanger containing zeolite, and an evaporator located in a cooling chamber through a condenser, then return to the exchanger through a three way valve. The device includes a second channel in the exchanger, which

A. Wiart; G. Paeye

1985-01-01

71

Solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1977-01-01

72

Project SAGE Phase I report. Solar Assisted Gas Energy water heating: feasibility for application in new apartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of developing a commercial product for gas-supplemented solar water heating in apartment buildings in Southern California is studied. The baseline design employs flat plate collectors and heat storage in tanks with heat exchangers. System sizing, technical performance, and cost estimates are discussed. An economic feasibility analysis is included. (WHK)

1973-01-01

73

Solar energy for industrial process heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

1979-01-01

74

Swedish Solar Energy Projects 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents 99 separate solar energy projects divided into: 37 projects on buildings with solar heating systems; 9 projects on open air bathes with solar heating systems; 6 projects on solar heating systems with seasonal storage; 7 research proje...

B. Bergqvist J. G. Holmberg

1978-01-01

75

Florida Solar Energy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An institute of the University of Central Florida, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is the largest and most active state-supported renewable energy and energy efficiency research, training, testing and certification institute in the United States. FSEC's mission is to research and develop energy technologies that enhance Florida's economy and environment, and to educate the public, students and practitioners on the results of the research. Their website contains educational resources for children and adults, including workshops and courses about working with solar energy systems, energy gauge rater training, and building science training and certification. Also available are useful guides about home energy ratings, maximizing energy efficiency in the home, energy efficient home-design tips, and information about solar energy.

2002-04-04

76

Solar Server: Forum for Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Germany, this site provides a forum for news and information regarding all aspects of solar energy. The site provides background information on the technical aspects pertaining to solar energy and photovoltaics. A variety of images and descriptions provide useful background information about photovoltaic roof tiles and their role in solar buildings.

2007-08-28

77

SOLAR ENERGY COOLS MILK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot weather days cause often large fresh milk defect in southern developing countries dairy farms as well as in rural areas where there is a scarcity of energy sources that could run cooling equipments. Consequently, the possibility to use solar cooling starts to be considered an attractive solution. The aim of the work presented is to develop an innovative solar

O. Ayadi; J. Doell; M. Aprile; M. Motta; T. Núńez

78

The Solar Energy Notebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

79

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural plastic materials are normally not resistant to elevated temperatures, and accordingly presently have only limited applications in solar energy collection devices despite their decided cost advantages. The present invention enables the widespread use of such plastic materials, in fact enables the essentially complete construction of solar collection devices thereof. An optically dense radiant heat absorbable fluid is passed through

McClintock

1979-01-01

80

Curriculum Reviews: Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews Solar Energy Education Project (SEEP), a set of 10 curriculum guides emphasizing process skills as well as content for grades K-9. Solar concepts are taught almost exclusively through process activities and, although developed in Australia, the curriculum is easily adaptable to American classrooms. (Author/JN)

Riley, Joseph P.

1982-01-01

81

Solar Energy Project: Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to give both teachers and students the opportunity to review a variety of representative articles on solar energy. Consideration is given to the sun's role in man's past, present, and future. The present state of solar technology is examined theoretically, economically, and comparatively in light of growing need for…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

82

Solar energy in Peru  

SciTech Connect

The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

Pierson, H.

1981-12-01

83

Solar energy: Packing heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscopic templates functionalized with light-reactive chromophores could ultimately be used to store solar energy and later release it as heat. Now, it has been shown that packing the chromophores together increases both storage capacity and lifetime.

Neale, Nathan R.

2014-05-01

84

Energy 101: Solar PV  

ScienceCinema

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

None

2013-05-29

85

Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)

Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

86

Using Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how solar energy can be used to heat water. Learners first discuss energy usage in their daily lives and then divide into pairs to conduct an experiment in which they use the sun to heat water. As an optional extension, learners can follow this activity with a project to design their own alternative energy invention.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

87

Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

88

Brayton cycle solarized advanced gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is the development of a Brayton Engine/Generator Set for solar thermal to electrical power conversion, authorized under DOE/NASA Contract DEN3-181. The objective was to design, fabricate, assemble, and test a small, hybrid, 20-kW Brayton-engine-powered generator set. The latter, called a power conversion assembly (PCA), is designed to operate with solar energy obtained from a parobolic dish concentrator, 11 meters in diameter, or with fossil energy supplied by burning fuels in a combustor, or by a combination of both (hybrid model). The CPA consists of the Brayton cycle engine, a solar collector, a belt-driven 20-kW generator, and the necessary control systems for automatic operation in solar-only, fuel-only, and hybrid modes to supply electrical power to a utility grid. The original configuration of the generator set used the GTEC Model GTP36-51 gas turbine engine for the PCA prime mover. However, subsequent development of the GTEC Model AGT101 led to its selection as the powersource for the PCA. Performance characteristics of the latter, thermally coupled to a solar collector for operation in the solar mode, are presented. The PCA was successfully demonstrated in the fuel-only mode at the GTEC Phoenix, Arizona, facilities prior to its shipment to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for installation and testing on a test bed concentractor (parabolic dish). Considerations relative to Brayton-engine development using the all-ceramic AGT101 when it becomes available, which would satisfy the DOE heat engine efficiency goal of 35 to 41 percent, are also discussed in the report.

1986-01-01

89

Electricity Production Using Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a solar-powered development project is used to identify whether it is possible to utilize solar technologies in the electricity production sector. Electricity production from solar energy has been found to be a promising method in the future. Concentrated solar energy can be converted to chemical energy via high-temperature endothermic reactions. Coal and biomass can be pyrolyzed or

M. F. Demirbas

2007-01-01

90

The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

Bockris, J. O'M.

1974-01-01

91

Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the possibilities afforded by solar energy as one of the alternative energy sources capable to take the place of the dwindling oil and gas reserves. Solar energy, being a nondepleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. Steps taken toward providing innovative solutions that are economically competitive with other systems are briefly reviewed.

Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

1973-01-01

92

Solar/Gas Systems Impact Analysis Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities was measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the b...

E. F. Hahn B. Preble C. P. Neill J. C. Loose T. E. Poe

1984-01-01

93

Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

1980-01-01

94

Solar Energy Technical Training Directory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Available solar energy offerings in the technical training area are presented. Institutions are listed alphabetically by state. Each listing includes an institution address and phone number, solar programs or curricula offered, and detailed solar couse in...

G. Corcoleotes K. Kramer K. O'Connor

1979-01-01

95

Solar Energy Demonstrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar energy furnishes all of the heating and hot water needs, plus 80 percent of the air conditioning, for the two-story Reedy Creek building. A unique feature of this installation is that the 16 semi-cylindrical solar collectors (center photo on opposite page with closeup of a single collector below it) are not mounted atop the roof as is customary, they actually are the roof. This arrangement eliminates the usual trusses, corrugated decking and insulating concrete in roof construction; that, in turn, reduces overall building costs and makes the solar installation more attractive economically. The Reedy Creek collectors were designed and manufactured by AAI Corporation of Baltimore, Maryland.

1979-01-01

96

Solar energy and the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems for the conversion of solar energy to heat, electricity, and chemical energy are reviewed, and experimental programs involving solar energy are described. The relative advantages and disadvantages of solar and nuclear energy are discussed, with special emphasis on their complementary roles in meeting future energy needs. It is concluded that although nuclear power will supply the largest share of

M. Perrot; M. Touchais

1975-01-01

97

How hot is solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion), one of six solar energy technology options that constituted the original United States solar energy plan is described. OTEC uses the oceans; an intermediate media; as its direct source of energy. The real advantage of OTEC, which is not shared with the other forms of solar energy, is that it can operate 24 hours a

1977-01-01

98

Solar energy unit  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collection device, the present invention provides a transparent housing formed in the shape of a pyramid, a fluid being directed through the interior of the pyramid for absorption of heat energy concentrated within the interior of said pyramid by the walls thereof.

Jones, J.M.

1980-06-03

99

Solar energy unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collection device, the present invention provides a transparent housing formed in the shape of a pyramid, a fluid being directed through the interior of the pyramid for absorption of heat energy concentrated within the interior of said pyramid by the walls thereof.

1980-01-01

100

Solar energy collector system  

SciTech Connect

Simple flat plate reflectors, preferably compound of a panel with a reflector surface layer laminated thereto, are pivoted to move with the position of the sun and concentrate additional energy on a solar energy collector panel. The array can take a tented or triangular end view shape for closing to protect reflective surfaces from hail or sandstorm, etc. Also the surfaces are provided with a periodically operable surface cleaner to assure long term efficiency even when remotely positioned as on roof top. Low cost present day computers are programmed to track the sun over its seasonal variations by means of simple mechanisms pivoting the reflector plates. The system is self-energizing by means of batteries charged by solar panels accompanying the system. Solar energy is storable in a self-contained water tank for use at night, etc. And efficient energy conversion is attained by means of a stainless steel pipe length extending into the stored water and thermally coupled outside the tank to a solar heated higher than 100* C. Silicon oil circulated through the solar collector. Thus, vaporization is avoided and an effective lowcost simplified thermal energy conversion is effected.

Dumbeck, R.F.

1982-04-13

101

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collecting apparatus is described which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes a solar energy absorptive panel which is adapted to be mounted between the conventional support members in the wall or roof of a building, and which includes an outwardly facing dark collecting surface, and an opposite inner surface having fins integrally formed therein to facilitate transfer of heat to air passed therealong.

Mcarthur, W.H.

1980-01-22

102

Electricity production using solar energy  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a solar-powered development project is used to identify whether it is possible to utilize solar technologies in the electricity production sector. Electricity production from solar energy has been found to be a promising method in the future. Concentrated solar energy can be converted to chemical energy via high-temperature endothermic reactions. Coal and biomass can be pyrolyzed or gasified by using concentrated solar radiation for generating power. Conventional energy will not be enough to meet the continuously increasing need for energy in the future. In this case, renewable energy sources will become important. Solar energy is an increasing need for energy in the future. Solar energy is a very important energy source because of its advantages. Instead of a compressor system, which uses electricity, an absorption cooling system, using renewable energy and kinds of waste heat energy, may be used for cooling.

Demirbas, M.F.

2007-07-01

103

Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

Cherry, W. R.

1974-01-01

104

Solar energy applications in the tropics  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a seminar on the use of solar energy in tropical regions. Topics considered at the seminar included solar decision making, solar radiation measurement, solar air conditioning, solar refrigeration, solar collectors, solar water heaters, photovoltaics, solar architecture, solar heating systems, research programs, solar drying, and performance testing.

Lim, B.B.

1983-01-01

105

Energy payback and CO{sub 2} gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences  

SciTech Connect

A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

Kulcinski, G.L.

2002-12-01

106

Solar Photovoltaic Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

1979-01-01

107

Solar energy use in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more passive solar-heated homes in Northern China than in any other place in the world, since from ancient times Chinese homes have been built and oriented to take advantage of the winter sun. Current solar energy research in China is described including the activities of the Beijing Solar Energy Research Institute and the Gansu Natural Energy Research Institute.

Butti

1982-01-01

108

Solar Energy: The Chicago Connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of solar energy was significantly advanced with the invention of nonimaging solar concentrators. This has enabled practical uses of solar energy for such purposes as heating and cooling of buildings and power generation without the requirement for complicated tracking. What began as a method for efficiently collecting cerenkov light in high energy physics has become the means for producing

2002-01-01

109

SOLARES - A new hope for solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of orbiting reflectors, SOLARES, has been studied as a possible means of reducing the diurnal variation and enhancing the average intensity of sunlight with a space system of minimum mass and complexity. The key impact that such a system makes on the economic viability of solar farming and other solar applications is demonstrated. The system is compatible with incremental implementation and continual expansion to meet the world's power needs. Key technology, environmental, and economic issues and payoffs are identified. SOLARES appears to be economically superior to other advanced, and even competitive with conventional, energy systems and could be scaled to completely abate our fossil fuel usage for power generation. Development of the terrestrial solar conversion technique, optimized for this new artificial source of solar radiation, yet remains.

Billman, K. W.; Gilbreath, W. P.; Bowen, S. W.

1978-01-01

110

Housing structure utilizing solar energy  

SciTech Connect

A solar cell array consisting of individually rotatable elongated segments is flexibly supported beneath a translucent panel in the exterior roof of a building. A thermal solar collector is supported beneath the solar cell array for maximum utilization of the solar energy received through the roof opening.

Whittaker, R.E.

1983-02-15

111

Central solar energy receiver  

DOEpatents

An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

112

Solar-pumped gas laser development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of gas properties through detailed kinetic models led to the identification of critical gas parameters for use in choosing appropriate gas combinations for solar pumped lasers. Broadband photoabsorption in the visible or near UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to insure good solar absorption efficiency. The photoexcitation density is independent of the absorption bandwidth. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than 10 A to insure lasing threshold over reasonable gain lengths. The system should show a high degree of chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. Although photoexcitation of electronic vibrational transitions is considered as a possible system if the emission bands sufficiently narrow, it appears that photodissociation into atomic metastables is more likely to result in a successful solar pumped laser system.

Wilson, J. W.

1980-01-01

113

Solar energy refrigeration device  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to a refrigeration device using solar energy. This device includes a refrigeration fluid, such as water, which circulates between the solar energy heat exchanger containing zeolite, and an evaporator located in a cooling chamber through a condenser, then return to the exchanger through a three way valve. The device includes a second channel in the exchanger, which channel includes a fluid, and a second exchanger consisting of a tube with fins connected to a storage tank containing water at various temperatures. During the day whenever the period of sunshine is not sufficient, additional heat in the form of hot water is provided to the exchanger. Conversely if the night temperature is not low enough, cooling in the exchanger is assisted by a cooling device located in the second channel. Hot water 25/sup 0/ C. is provided by the excess heat produced by the sun at day's end.

Wiart, A.; Paeye, G.

1985-04-09

114

New Mexico Solar Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Mexico Solar Energy Association provides valuable educational resources for teaching students about solar energy. The site has a variety of student projects, resources, and curricula examples. The resources provided on the site cover solar cell demonstrations, DC electricity, photovoltaics, and sustainability.

2008-03-25

115

Solar energy in building renovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of solar energy for existing buildings is in an early phase of development and there is a lack of common understanding about its advantages and disadvantages, including, for example thermal performance and cost. This article gives some general aspects about solar energy in building renovation, together with a summary evaluation of 15 case studies, i.e. existing solar renovation

Jan-Olof Dalenbäck

1996-01-01

116

Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power  

ScienceCinema

From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

117

Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power  

ScienceCinema

From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

None

2013-05-29

118

Solar energy application of natural zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of solar energy for cooling is usually achieved by means of sorption-refrigeration cycles. However, the conventional cycles using ammonia-water or lithium bromide-water solutions are inefficient because of the low solution temperatures obtainable with solar radiation and the high condenser temperatures required by air-cooled condensers. Zeolites provide a unique opportunity for a solid-gas adsorption cooling system because of their

D. I. Tchernev

1978-01-01

119

Solar gas turbine systems: Design, cost and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of high solar shares with high conversion efficiencies is one of the major advantages of solar gas turbine systems compared to other solar-fossil hybrid power plants. Pressurized air receivers are used in solar tower plants to heat the compressed air in the gas turbine to temperatures up to 1000°C. Therefore solar shares in the design case of 40%

Peter Schwarzbözl; Reiner Buck; Chemi Sugarmen; Arik Ring; M Marcos Crespo; Peter Altwegg; Juan Enrile

2006-01-01

120

Terrestrial solar thermionic energy conversion systems concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results obtained from studies of a (1) solar concentrator, (2) solar energy receiver - thermionic converter system, and (3) solar thermionic topping system are described. Peripheral subsystems, which are required for any solar energy conversion system, are also discussed.

Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

1975-01-01

121

Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

1981-01-01

122

Prospects for solar energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

At best solar energy is expected to supply 20 to 30% of the total requirement from any direct solar conversion processes in the forseeable future (30 to 40 years). These include both electric-generation methods such as photovoltaic or thermal electric schemes, the indirect but related ocean thermal and wind efforts, as well as biomass conversion activity and solar heating\\/cooling efforts.

Manasse

1978-01-01

123

Solar energy: the awakening science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book concerns answers to the questions: (1) is solar energy the key to the future of our energy needs; and (2) what are the facts and true potential of this enormous, still largely unexplored source of renewable power. It reviews the knowledge of solar energy from the mirrors that Archimedes used to set a Roman fleet aflame in 215

D. Behrman

1976-01-01

124

Solar Wind control in Gas Giant Ionospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influences that the Solar Wind and Gas Giant magnetospheres have upon the upper atmospheres and ionospheres of these planets is largely controlled by currents closing along magnetic field lines into the polar regions. These currents in turn result in significant currents across the ionosphere that can be observed from ground-based observations. Here, we will present a discussion of the current understanding of how the Solar Wind controls the auroral regions of the Gas Giants, as has been measured in the past. We will also present new ion wind measurements from the past year, with observations from VLT of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus.

Stallard, T.; Melin, H.; Miller, S.; Blake, J.; O'Donoghue, J.

2013-09-01

125

A Solar Energy Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In sixth grade, students understand that Earth gets visible light from the Sun, but studentsmay also believe the Earth gets heat from the Sun. This last part is incorrect because the Sun is too far from the Earth to heat it directly. So, how does the Sun heat the Earth? When light strikes an object, it can be reflected or absorbed. Absorbed light usually increases the energy in an object, which causes the object to heat up. The following solar energy learning cycle (Exploration, Term Introduction, and Concept Application) was developed to help sixth-grade students better understand the concept. This learning cycle also facilitates technology integration and provides students opportunities to construct and generate experiments with scientifically testable questions. The cycle takes six 50-minute periods.

Childs, Gregory

2007-03-01

126

Diffusion and adoption of an efficient, integrated alternative energy system: a producer gas-solar greenhouse for farmstead operation. Final technical report, September 1, 1980-October 1983  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy awarded College of the Siskiyous a grant to provide a demonstration project that coordinated a variety of energy-related technologies: a 100-foot, two-podded solar greenhouse, a producer gas generator fired by wood chips, thermal storage devices (fish tanks, water filled drums, hydroponic reservoirs), and a group of related activities: alcohol fuels production with the carbon dioxide by-product being used in one pod of the greenhouse; growing small meat animals who would eat greens from the facility, would provide manure for the gardens, and would put off some heat for the facility; tank fish farming; an eleven acre appropriate technology homestead which would surround the greenhouse. At the time of this report, the greenhouse has been completed though devices (fans, stoves, louvers, shades)to minimize temperature shifts continue to be developed. The producer gas generator has had problems with tar buildup which gum up engines. Rather than running a motor off the unit to produce electricity for the greenhouse, the unit is being used to demonstrate how wood gasification can be used to run motors which in turn can be used to run generators, automobiles, etc. The facility is being used to experiment with a variety of growing periods, conditions, and materials.

Peterson, G.T.

1983-10-10

127

SOLAR ENERGY FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to determine which existing or emerging pollution control processes are best suited to make use of solar energy input and to determine the potential benefits of such applications. Pollution control processes were matched with compatible solar energy systems,...

128

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

M. F. Smith Associates is a single-family residence in Jamestown, Rhode Island. The home has approximately 1752 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 512 square feet. The array faces 15 degrees

1979-01-01

129

Solar Energy Project: Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of materials supports the teaching of solar energy concepts in the context of secondary school science. Included in this collection are a basic teacher's guide to activities involved in the curriculum; a discussion of multi-disciplinary extensions of solar energy education by subject area; a section on hardware needed for the…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

130

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Stewart-Teele-Mitchell site is a single-family residence in Malta, New York. The home has approximately 1900 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy sy...

J. E. Hughes

1979-01-01

131

Solar Energy: The Chicago Connection  

SciTech Connect

Utilization of solar energy was significantly advanced with the invention of nonimaging solar concentrators. This has enabled practical uses of solar energy for such purposes as heating and cooling of buildings and power generation without the requirement for complicated tracking. What began as a method for efficiently collecting cerenkov light in high energy physics has become the means for producing from solar energy, high temperature for many societal applications as well as ultra-high temperature for research. This talk will describe the optical principles underlying the technology and illustrate with projects and laboratories from around the world. Examples will be drawn from a number of areas: cooling a commercial building in Sacramento, California, advanced collector development in China, NASA's plans for space propulsion by heating hydrogen, and from our own City of Chicago, a commitment to be a global leader in renewable energy production and manufacturing including solar power.

Roland Winston

2009-05-15

132

Solar energy absorbing panel  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy absorbing panel is provided which may be integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building , and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The panel is composed of a plurality of interconnected side-by-side, generally u-shaped sections, with the adjacent sides of adjacent sections forming parallel fins which facilitate transfer of heat to air passed therealong. Also, slot means are provided at one end edge of the panel which is adapted to receive the other end edge of another like panel therein, whereby the panels may be joined in an end-to-end arrangement.

McArthur, W.H.

1981-09-01

133

Inner Heliospheric Gas and Dust from Solar Wind Charge Exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager, launched on the IMAGE spacecraft in March of 2000, detects neutral atoms with energies from 10 eV up to >1 keV. Because LENA has low sensitivity to light and looks directly at the Sun every spin during six months of the year, it has observed a neutral component of the solar wind (NSW) that results when solar wind ions charge exchange with interstellar neutrals, with dust and with the Earth's geocorona [Collier et al., JGR, 106, 24,893, 2001]. We examine long-term variations in the intensity of the counting rate from the solar direction (NSW). Results from year 2001, during which the instrument state remained constant, show a maximum in the count rate between June and July with a long, low count-rate period stretching from mid-November through early March. This annual modulation of solar wind energetic neutral atom flux at the Earth is interpreted as a pronounced variation of the neutral gas column density between the Sun and the Earth with season. This modulation is evidently dominated by interstellar neutral gas and the solar erosion of that gas in the galactic downstream region. It also contains a relatively constant contribution from inner solar system dust and relatively smaller variations produced by solar wind fluctuations and possibly structure in the dust population. The LENA observations place an upper limit on the column density of dust at 1 AU of less than 6x10-19 cm-1. Implications of the LENA data on the interpretation of observations of low frequency electromagnetic waves by Tsurutani et al. [GRL, 21, 633, 1994] will also be considered.

Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Simpson, D.; Fok, M.; Chornay, D.; Keller, J.; Fuselier, S.; Quinn, J.; Wurz, P.; Wuest, M.; Hsieh, J.; Tsurutani, B.

2002-05-01

134

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

DOEpatents

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01

135

High Energy Gas Frac.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A High Energy Gas Frac field test has been conducted at DOE's Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The Gas Frac utilizes a controlled propellant deflagration to initiate and extend multiple fractures in a borehole. Three different propellants were tested in a volcan...

H. C. Walling N. R. Warpinski P. W. Cooper R. A. Schmidt S. J. Finley

1978-01-01

136

Solar energy decision support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy plays a prominent role in human society. As a result of technological and industrial development, the demand for energy is rapidly increasing. Existing power sources that are mainly fossil fuel based are leaving an unacceptable legacy of waste and pollution apart from diminishing stock of fuels. Hence, the focus is now shifted to large-scale propagation of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Solar energy is one such renewable energy. Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Estimation of solar energy potential of a region requires detailed solar radiation climatology, and it is necessary to collect extensive radiation data of high accuracy covering all climatic zones of the region. In this regard, a decision support system (DSS) would help in estimating solar energy potential considering the region's energy requirement. This article explains the design and implementation of DSS for assessment of solar energy. The DSS with executive information systems and reporting tools helps to tap vast data resources and deliver information. The main hypothesis is that this tool can be used to form a core of practical methodology that will result in more resilient in time and can be used by decision-making bodies to assess various scenarios. It also offers means of entering, accessing, and interpreting the information for the purpose of sound decision making.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Vamsee Krishna, S.; Shruthi, B. V.

2005-12-01

137

Solar energy decision support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy plays a prominent role in human society. As a result of technological and industrial developments, the demand for energy is rapidly increasing. Existing power sources that are mainly fossil fuel based are leaving an unacceptable legacy of waste and pollution apart from diminishing stock of fuels. Hence, the focus is now shifted to large-scale propagation of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Solar energy is one such renewable energy. Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Estimation of solar energy potential of a region requires detailed solar radiation climatology, and it is necessary to collect extensive radiation data of high accuracy covering all climatic zones of the region. In this regard, a decision support system (DSS) would help to estimate solar energy potential considering the regions’ energy requirement. This article explains the design and implementation of DSS for assessment of solar energy. The DSS with executive information systems and reporting tools helps to tap vast data resources and deliver information. The main hypothesis is that this tool can be used to form a core of practical methodology that is resilient and can be used by decision-making bodies to assess various scenarios. It also offers means of entering, accessing and interpreting the information for the purpose of sound decision-making.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Rajeev Kumar, J.; Vamsee Krishna, S.; Shruthi, B. V.

2006-03-01

138

Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics; (9)…

LaHart, David E.

139

High flux solar energy transformation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

1991-04-09

140

High flux solar energy transformation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

1991-04-09

141

Solar Energy Projects of the Federal Government.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report identifies 171 Solar Energy projects administered by 14 different Federal agencies between July 1973 and January 1975. Solar categories included are: Heating and cooling of buildings; wind energy conversion; solar thermal conversion; ocean the...

H. L. Magnas

1975-01-01

142

The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)

Whipple, Chris

1980-01-01

143

Sun tracking solar energy boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sun tracking solar energy boiler is described comprising, in combination, a solar radiation collector and tracking assembly, a boiler assembly, and an electric power generating assembly, said collector and tracking assembly comprising a lens, a hollow crown plate located approximately at the focal point of the lens, said lens being movable by a diurnal drive means and a declination

1980-01-01

144

The Geography of Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After learning about two promising techniques for generating electricity--photovoltaic cells and wind energy conversion systems--secondary students analyze two maps of the United States showing solar radiation and available wind power to determine which U.S. regions have potential for these solar electric systems. (RM)

LaHart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

1984-01-01

145

Solar energy resources in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the observational data of 40 actinometric stations in China up to 1970 an attempt was made to find an empirical relationship between solar radiation and other related meteorological elements, such as sunshine-hours. The effect of altitudes and humidity was considered. On this basis, a method of climatological evaluation for solar energy resources was proposed. The global radiation values have

B. Wang; F. Zhang; L. Li

2009-01-01

146

Solar energy resources in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the observational data of 40 actinometric stations up to 1970 in our country, we tried to find an empirical relationship between solar radiation and other related meteorological elements, such as sunshine-hours. The effects of altitudes and humidity have been considered. On this basis, a method of climatological evaluation for solar energy resources was proposed. The global radiation values have

B. Wang; F. Zhang; L. Li

1980-01-01

147

Advances in solar energy technology. Volume 2. Industrial applications of solar energy  

SciTech Connect

This volume is concerned with the applications of solar energy and contains the following six chapters; solar heating of buildings (Active Systems), solar energy for industrial process heat, solar furnaces, solar thermomechanical power, solar refrigeration and air conditioning, passive solar house heating.

Garg, H.P.

1987-01-01

148

Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for sola...

A. Z. Henderson C. Park C. R. Taylor G. Sauti I. A. Marshall J. Ely J. Kang J. W. Kim L. J. Gibbons M. N. Torrico P. T. Lillehei R. G. Bryant S. E. Lowther

2012-01-01

149

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stewart-Teele-Mitchell site is a single-family residence in Malta, New York. The home has approximately 1900 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 432 square feet. The array faces south at an

1979-01-01

150

Solar Thermal Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar thermal systems providing medium- and high-temperature heat have a wide range of applications such as agricultural and industrial process heat, electric power generation, cogeneration, repowering of existing power plants, and production of fuels and...

1986-01-01

151

Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy  

PubMed Central

Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both legacy and non-legacy worlds, and minimally contributes to increasing the anthropogenic level of carbon dioxide. Because PE will be possible only if solar energy is available 24 hours a day, 7 day a week, the key enabler for solar PE is an inexpensive storage mechanism. HX (X = halide or OH?) splitting is a fuel-forming reaction of sufficient energy density for large scale solar storage but the reaction relies on chemical transformations that are not understood at the most basic science level. Critical among these are multielectron transfers that are proton-coupled and involve the activation of bonds in energy poor substrates. The chemistry of these three italicized areas is developed, and from this platform, discovery paths leading to new HX and H2O splitting catalysts are delineated. For the case of the water splitting catalyst, it captures many of the functional elements of photosynthesis. In doing so, a highly manufacturable and inexpensive method has been discovered for solar PE storage.

Nocera, Daniel G.

2012-01-01

152

Chemistry of personalized solar energy.  

PubMed

Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet's energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both legacy and nonlegacy worlds and minimally contributes to an increase in the anthropogenic level of carbon dioxide. Because PE will be possible only if solar energy is available 24 h a day, 7 days a week, the key enabler for solar PE is an inexpensive storage mechanism. HY (Y = halide or OH(-)) splitting is a fuel-forming reaction of sufficient energy density for large-scale solar storage, but the reaction relies on chemical transformations that are not understood at the most basic science level. Critical among these are multielectron transfers that are proton-coupled and involve the activation of bonds in energy-poor substrates. The chemistry of these three italicized areas is developed, and from this platform, discovery paths leading to new hydrohalic acid- and water-splitting catalysts are delineated. The latter water-splitting catalyst captures many of the functional elements of photosynthesis. In doing so, a highly manufacturable and inexpensive method for solar PE storage has been discovered. PMID:19775081

Nocera, Daniel G

2009-11-01

153

Solar Energy Technology Programs: Photovoltaic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main page for the U.S. Department of Energy website on photovoltaics. "The U.S. Department of Energy works to provide clean, reliable, affordable solar electricity for the nation through its research programs in photovoltaic (PV) energy systems. The following pages explain the "how's" and "why's" of PV. Whether you are a student, consumer, engineer, or researcher, there is something here for you. The website includes the following pages: -How PV works -Why PV is important -How and why PV is used -How DOE is supporting research of solar energy -How you, the consumer, can use PV and other solar energy technologies -How students, educators, and trainers can learn more about PV.

2012-01-02

154

Think GREEN - Utilizing Renewable Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar energy is radiant energy that is produced by the Sun. Every day the Sun radiates an enormous amount of energy. How much solar energy a place on Earth receives depends on several conditions. In this lesson, students will explore real NASA satellite data for energy from the Sun and cloud cover for their area to determine if they can harness this solar energy, a renewable energy source, by using a solar collector. They will develop skills in graphing and reading graphs.

155

Australia speeds up solar energy research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term projects are concentrared on improving the efficiency and ; reducing the cost of existing types of solar water heaters and solar water-; desalination plants. Larger-term projects include fundamental studies on thermal ; transfer problems energy measurement, heat storage media, and solar-energy ; collectors. An investigation of the distribution of solar energy over the ; continent is being carried out

Scholes

1973-01-01

156

Surface meteorology and Solar Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

157

Integrated solar energy system optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

Young, S. K.

1982-11-01

158

Solar energy, its conversion and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work being carried out at the University of Florida Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory in converting solar energy, our only income, into other needed and useful forms of energy is described. A treatment such as this demonstrates, in proper perspective, how solar energy can benefit mankind with its many problems of shortages and pollution. Descriptions were given of the conversion processes, equipment, and performance. The testing of materials, solar water heating, space heating, cooking and baking, solar distillation, refrigeration and air-conditioning, work with the solar furnace, conversion to mechanical power, hot air engines, solar-heated sewage digestion, conversion to electricity, and other devices will be discussed.

Farber, E. A.

1972-01-01

159

Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics

Muhammad Yahaya; Chi Chin Yap; Muhamad Mat Salleh

2009-01-01

160

Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

1978-01-01

161

Thin film solar energy collector  

DOEpatents

A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-11-22

162

Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role is described that solar energy will play in the heating and cooling of buildings, the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts on the various energy markets and estimated costs of such systems are discussed along with illustrations of some of the processes to accomplish the goals. The conclusions of the NSF/NASA Solar Energy Panel (1972) are given along with the estimated costs to accomplish the 15 year recommended program and also the recent and near future budget appropriations and recommendations are included.

Cherry, W. R.

1974-01-01

163

Photochemical conversion of solar energy.  

PubMed

Energy is the most important issue of the 21st century. About 85% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, a finite resource unevenly distributed beneath the Earth's surface. Reserves of fossil fuels are progressively decreasing, and their continued use produces harmful effects such as pollution that threatens human health and greenhouse gases associated with global warming. Prompt global action to solve the energy crisis is therefore needed. To pursue such an action, we are urged to save energy and to use energy in more efficient ways, but we are also forced to find alternative energy sources, the most convenient of which is solar energy for several reasons. The sun continuously provides the Earth with a huge amount of energy, fairly distributed all over the world. Its enormous potential as a clean, abundant, and economical energy source, however, cannot be exploited unless it is converted into useful forms of energy. This Review starts with a brief description of the mechanism at the basis of the natural photosynthesis and, then, reports the results obtained so far in the field of photochemical conversion of solar energy. The "grand challenge" for chemists is to find a convenient means for artificial conversion of solar energy into fuels. If chemists succeed to create an artificial photosynthetic process, "... life and civilization will continue as long as the sun shines!", as the Italian scientist Giacomo Ciamician forecast almost one hundred years ago. PMID:18605661

Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

2008-01-01

164

Organic Solar Energy and Berries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how a device made with dye from a plant, specifically cherries, blackberries, raspberries and/or black currents, can be used to convert light energy into electrical energy. They do this by building their own organic solar cells and measuring the photovoltaic devices' performance based on power output.

University Of Houston

165

Solar Energy - Solution or Pipedream?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of lessons and class activities is designed for presentation in a sequence of nine class days. The collection is intended to provide the student in advanced science classes with awareness of the possibilities and limitations of solar energy as a potential solution to the energy crisis. Included are discussion of the following: (1)…

Polk, Joyce

166

Research on the Application of Solar Energy to the Food Drying Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Feasibility of substituting solar energy for natural gas in the food dehydration industry is discussed. The drying of vegetables at lower than normal temperatures is investigated. Design of solar collector is described. The following tasks are covered: Li...

T. Lukes

1974-01-01

167

Can industry afford solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Falling oil prices and conservation measures have reduced the economic impetus to develop new energy sources, thus decreasing the urgency for bringing solar conversion technologies to commercial readiness at an early date. However, the capability for solar to deliver thermal energy for industrial uses is proven. A year-round operation would be three times as effective as home heating, which is necessary only part of the year. Flat plate, parabolic trough, and solar tower power plant demonstration projects, though uneconomically operated, have revealed engineering factors necessary for successful use of solar-derived heat for industrial applications. Areas of concern have been categorized as technology comparisons, load temperatures, plant size, location, end-use, backup requirements, and storage costs. Tax incentives have, however, supported home heating and not industrial uses, and government subsidies have historically gone to conventional energy sources. Tax credit programs which could lead to a 20% market penetration by solar energy in the industrial sector by the year 2000 are presented.

Kreith, F.; Bezdek, R.

1983-03-01

168

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation: May-August 1978. Florida Gas Company, Single Family Residence, Winter Springs, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description of the system, which provides thermal energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating for a one story single family dwelling, is given. A performance evaluation of the cooling subsystem is presented for the perio...

T. D. Lee W. H. McCumber L. J. Murphy

1978-01-01

169

Solar energy in Israel: Utilization and research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State of Israel has been a pioneer in solar energy development and utilization since it was founded. In the 50's, solar domestic hot water heaters (DHWS) became commercially available. At the same time, research work was started in different areas of solar energy, which led to more advanced solar systems for additional applications. The presentation includes some details on commercial utilization of solar energy and a brief description of the main R&D projects in industry, universities and research institutes.

Zvirin, Y.; Zamkow, Sophie

1991-05-01

170

Magnetospheric feedback in solar wind energy transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar wind kinetic energy fueling all dynamical processes within the near-Earth space is extracted in a dynamo process at the magnetopause. This direct energy transfer from the solar wind into the magnetosphere depends on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) as well as other solar wind parameters, such as the IMF magnitude and solar wind velocity. Using

M. Palmroth; H. E. J. Koskinen; T. I. Pulkkinen; P. K. Toivanen; P. Janhunen; S. E. Milan; M. Lester

2010-01-01

171

Solar Energy for Health Care Institutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar energy is discussed in a booklet designed to help health care administrators prepare to use solar energy to achieve savings and stabilize rising energy costs. Solar energy is suggested because the sun is the most abundant and inexhaustible source of...

R. D. Cummings

1976-01-01

172

Direct solar energy conversion at sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production and delivery from direct solar energy conversion facilities located at sea is treated, assuming the use of a heat engine\\/electricity generation\\/water electrolysis system. The concept of ocean energy is discussed, noting the distinction between direct and indirect solar energy conversion at sea, and direct solar energy conversion is considered within the framework of the seaward advancement of industrial

W. J. D. Escher; T. Ohta

1979-01-01

173

Kinetic Analysis of Gas Splitting on Oxide Surfaces for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermochemical cycles have the potential to convert solar energy into chemical fuels at high thermodynamic efficiency. This can be done by reducing an oxide at high temperature and oxidizing the reduced oxide at a lower temperature in H2O or CO2 to produce H2 or CO. The gas splitting reaction at low temperature is kinetically limited, possibly from slow kinetics

Heine Hansen; Bryce Meredig; Chris Wolverton

2010-01-01

174

Solar Energy and Reference Skills. Solar Energy Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This language arts learning module offers a structure to teachers for leading junior high school class activities to investigate solar energy, its origin, and effect. The module furnishes a pre-post test, a schedule for library and research work, a basic vocabulary list, and a bibliography. (CP)

Conover, Marie Ann

175

Hydrogen Without Tears: Addressing the Global Energy Crisis via a Solar to Hydrogen Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the dominant scaleable vision is a solar-hydrogen economy, where solar thermal collectors are preferred to solar cells. Also for mobile storage, pure hydrogen (liquid and\\/or gas) is preferred to both electric batteries and hydrogen fuel cells. Placing this form of a solar hydrogen economy as an end vision on our energy policy. Governments profits, as they can

Derek Abbott

2009-01-01

176

Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

Lansing, F. L.

1981-06-01

177

Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

Benedek, L.

1985-01-01

178

Universal solar energy desalination system  

SciTech Connect

The design which has been developed for a solar-powered water desalination plant is a highly flexible one; and thus, suitable for worldwide application. The system is modular in nature, utilizing a combination of solar thermal and wind energy to operate the reverse osmosis desalination unit. The system's flexibility lies in the fact that the configuration of the plant can be altered so that it is suitable for any given site. Plant capacity and the size of the solar thermal and wind energy systems are dependent upon a variety of site-specific characteristics. Furthermore, the design of each of the subsystems is also highly interdependent. Examination of the site characteristics and their interactions will allow a design which is optimal for the site.

Fusco, V.S.

1982-08-01

179

PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report addresses the environmental consequences of three kinds of solar energy utilization: photovoltaic, concentrator (steam electric) and flat plate. The application of solar energy toward central power generating stations is emphasized. Discussions of combined modes and o...

180

Photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy  

SciTech Connect

There are two ways of photochemical conversion of solar energy viz. photochemistry and photoelectrochemistry. Various concepts, developments and uses related to these aspects as well as storage of solar energy have been enumerated.

Bhavani, N.K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Seshan, S.

1986-03-01

181

Solar energy panel  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar panel. It comprises: a main body portion and a pair of caps in a mating arrangement at the opposite ends of the main body portion. The main body portion comprises an integrated sheet formed from a pair of spaced skins separated by a series of uniformly spaced parallel ribs running the full length of the two skins, each pair of spaced ribs defining a channel for the flow of fluid. The body portion is disposed within the caps, and has a series of adjacent channels.

Sherwood, D.A.

1990-02-06

182

Solar energy and substainable development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the dawn of the 21st century, the world population doesn't stop rising. More than ever, energy and environment problems remain at the heart of our society concerns. What will we leave to the future generations ? Therefore, a twenty pupil class of 4e (13 and 14 year old pupils) has made a specific work about this topic, called "solar power and sustainable development". Initially, the pupils participated to the settlement of a meteorological station on the school grounds. This station, which provides readings about temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, sun radiations, wind power and wind heading is fed by photovoltaic cells and thus works independently. The pupils have then come to realize the ecological and practical interests of such a functioning (e.g. : for the latter : neither batteries nor electrical wires are needed). These past few years, in Provence (a highly sunny region), many solar panel installations have been created and many private house roofs have been equipped with photovoltaic cells. Indeed, this energy presents some significant assets : it is free, clean and will never run out. The village of Vinon sur Verdon, where stands our college, is partly fed by a solar panel park, located a few kilometers away. Strongly sensitive to the assets of this energy source, the pupils have made a poster asserting the benefits of solar power. Another side of solar energy has been asserted : the output of hot sanitary water. They have built a miniature on this topic. In order to be thorough, some elements remain in shadow, such as environment impacts done by the making, the transport and the recycling of solar panels that will be brought up in a collaboration with research establishments.

Roux, Maria Carmen; Nalin, Olivier

2010-05-01

183

Food dehydration by solar energy.  

PubMed

Solar driers that are currently being investigated for drying of agricultural products can be divided into two major divisions, depending upon how they transfer the incident solar energy to the product to be dried. These two divisions are direct and indirect drying, with some work also being done on combination drying procedures. In direct solar driers, the product to be dried is usually either inside a tent, greenhouse, or a glass-topped box, where the product to be dried is heated by the direct rays from the sun and the moist air is removed by ambient wind movement. These dryers do accelerate moisture loss rate and the product is usually safe from inclement weather. These dryers usually do not require fans for forced air circulation. With indirect drying, the opposite is true, where most require powered fans for forced air circulation. With this type of dryer, both flatplate and inflated tube solar heat absorbers are used, with each offering certain advantages. Also, combination dryers have been built that utilize both direct and indirect principles. Product evaluation of solar dried foods indicate that in most cases the physical properties, flavor, and vitamin A and C retention were as good as, or better than, conventional dried foods. The economics of the solar systems indicate that most drying procedures are economically feasible for use in small-scale operations only, with the exception of grain drying. PMID:7047079

Bolin, H R; Salunkhe, D K

1982-01-01

184

Solar energy system and solar powered tracking apparatus therefor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar tracking apparatus for a solar energy system comprises at least one chamber containing a volatile fluid, a shading arrangement for controlling the degree to which the at least one chamber is exposed to the sun in dependence on the position of the sun so as to control the extent to which the fluid is vaporized due to solar heating

1981-01-01

185

Warming up to solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global warming, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.

Biondo, B.

1996-07-01

186

Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

187

Relative energy risk: is solar energy riskier than nuclear  

SciTech Connect

The discussion of risk analysis is divided into three parts: (a) a brief discussion of the methodology which can be used, (b) a listing of some of the major assumptions, and (c) the results of a comparison of eleven energy systems. The energy systems considered here can be divided into two groups: conventional, i.e., those in fairly widespread use, like coal or nuclear, and non-conventional, i.e., all others, like solar and wind. In general, although some of these non-conventional systems have been described as risk-free, they are not. In fact, compared to some conventional systems like natural gas and nuclear, technologies like solar and windpower have relatively high risk. The reason is simple. Because of the dilute nature of the energy they handle, solar and wind systems, when compared on the quantity of their energy production, require a considerable amount of apparatus as compared to other systems. In turn, this apparatus requires a large amount of material and construction labor to build and install. Associated with each ton of material and hour of labor is a definite number of accidents, diseases and deaths, according to labor statistics. When the risk is summed up in this way, we find that non-conventional systems generally have high risk. In particular, to answer the question posed in the title of this talk, solar energy seems to have a higher risk than nuclear power, when the methodology outlined below is used.

Inhaber, H.

1981-01-01

188

History and Future of Renewable Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many thousands of years the use of solar energy has shaped human settlements and cities, farming and forestry, architecture and buildings, landscapes and territories, religious beliefs and cultures, and social relations and lifestyles on Earth. Cesare Silvi from the Italian Group for the History of Solar Energy (GSES)1 asks whether renewable solar energy could now power the world in

Cesare Silvi

2008-01-01

189

Financing solar energy: state policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

To encourage the use of solar energy resources, the state must organize existing public and private resources. The political and economic conditions for such an effort already exist: consumer dissatisfaction with utility rate increases, pressure on utilities for less expensive alternatives, the maturation of the solar energy industry, and public acceptance of solar energy as one means of meeting the

Roberti

2009-01-01

190

Solar Energy in the Home. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended for grades 10-12 physical, earth, or general science classes, this 5-7 day unit is designed to give students a general understanding of solar energy and its use as a viable alternative to present energy sources. Along with this technology, students examine several factors of solar energy which influence the choice of solar home site…

Roeder, Allen A.; Woodland, James A.

191

Maximizing solar PV energy penetration using energy storage technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries around the world are considering using solar energy technologies in their future energy planning. The intermittency and unpredictability nature of solar power generation, which can influence the power quality and reliability of the power grid especially at large-scale solar energy systems, constitute a drawback for use of solar technology. Precise research and investigations are needed to overcome this

A. Zahedi

2011-01-01

192

Control of solar energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two approaches to the control of large solar energy systems, i.e., programmed control and control systems relying on the use of orientation transducers and feedback, are briefly reviewed, with particular attention given to problems associated with these control systems. A new control system for large solar power plants is then proposed which is based on a combination of these approaches. The general design of the control system is shown and its principle of operation described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of the approach proposed here are demonstrated.

Sizov, Iu. M.; Zakhidov, R. A.; Baranov, V. G.

193

Solar Energy. Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

194

Solar energy and the oil refining industry  

SciTech Connect

This paper surveys process heat requirements of the major petroleum refinery processes. Previous studies have overestimated requirements for process heat at high temperatures. About 22% of the process heat in a refinery is consumed below 550/sup 0/F; 62.5% is consumed between 550/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/F. A refinery gets about 40% of its total energy supply, and 50% of its process heat, from natural gas and fuel oil. Technological constraints limit the use of alternatives such as coal or solar energy to processes operating below 700/sup 0/F (about 25% of process heat requirements). Curtailments of natural gas supplies and advances in bottom of the barrel oil processing technology will produce strong incentives to develop alternatives to the burning of liquid fuels for low-temperature processes. Energy from coal or solar radiation is most appropriately generated at a central facility to heat a heat transfer fluid, which is then heat exchanged with the process medium. The same process could also produce steam. The cost of installing coal-burning equipment can be up to eight times the cost of the equivalent gas or oil-burning facility. The major obstacle ot the use of coal is environmental. An analysis of a central-receiver solar system, without storage, and sized to deliver a maximum of 25% of process heat needs, indicates that 4.1% of refinery fuel needs could be displaced. For the entire industry, this is equivalent to 57,000 BPD of fuel oil. If long-term cost goals are achieved, capital expenditures to realize these savings would amount to $6.5 billion.

May, E.K.

1980-03-01

195

Thermodynamic analysis of solar energy use for reforming fuels to hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method is proposed for reforming fuels to hydrogen using solar energy at distributed locations (industrial sites, residential and commercial buildings fed with natural gas, remote settlements supplied by propane etc). In order to harness solar energy a solar concentrator is used to generate high temperature heat to reform fuels to hydrogen. A typical fuel such as

W. R. Wagar; C. Zamfirescu; I. Dincer

2011-01-01

196

Optical interfaces in solar energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential approaches for utilizing solar energy are examined. It is concluded that it would be difficult to obtain consumer acceptance for systems providing solar heating and cooling for homes. However, solar electrical power via community or central power stations meets the requirement of minimum perturbation of the current socio-economic system. It is thought that economically feasible solar power systems could

A. B. Meinel

1975-01-01

197

Solar Energy: European Research and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The catalog contains two-page summaries of the results obtained in the contracts on solar energy R&D, i.e.: solar radiation data, solar heating, the solar tower power plant Eurelios, photovoltaic power generation, which were concluded between the Commissi...

W. Palz

1985-01-01

198

Solar energy for village development.  

PubMed

The National Academy of Sciences held a joint workshop with the Government of Tanzania last August on the potential of solar energy for the villages of that country. Costs of five solar technologies (mini-hydroelectric generators, wind, methane generation from organic wastes, photovoltaic cells, and flat-plate solar collectors) were compared with costs of diesel-generated electricity and with electricity from the national grid. Each of the five technologies is either now competitive with diesel or will be in a few years. Although the figures presented are not conclusive since they are derived from calculations rather than an actual test, the results are encouraging enough to warrant serious testing in Third World villages. PMID:17788101

Brown, N L; Howe, J W

1978-02-10

199

Universal solar energy desalination system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

Fusco, V. S.

200

Central solar-energy receiver  

DOEpatents

An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

Not Available

1981-10-27

201

Solar energy education: Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied.

202

Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)

Glaser, Peter E.

1972-01-01

203

Solar Spicules Generate Energy  

NASA Video Gallery

Looking almost like seaweed waving in the water, these giant jets shooting off the sun's surface may hold enough energy to heat the sun's atmosphere, the corona, to well over a million degrees Fahr...

204

Solar Energy Utilisation Potential of three different Swiss Urban Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides providing a more efficient energy use, a large scale application of solar energy technologies in the urban context will be required in the upcoming decades to achieve a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the biosphere. Three different urban sites, representative of three of the largest Swiss cities (Basel, Geneva and Lausanne), were examined in order to assess

M Montavon; J-L Scartezzini; R Compagnon

205

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect

The Sun provides Earth with a staggering amount of energy - enough to power the great oceanic and atmospheric currents, the cycle of evaporation and condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow, and the typhoons, hurricanes, and tornadoes that so easily destroy the natural and built landscape. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906, with magnitude 7.8, released an estimated 10{sup 17} joules of energy, the amount the Sun delivers to Earth in one second. Earth's ultimate recoverable resource of oil, estimated at 3 trillion barrels, contains 1.7 x 10{sup 22} joules of energy, which the Sun supplies to Earth in 1.5 days. The amount of energy humans use annually, about 4.6 x 10{sup 20} joules, is delivered to Earth by the Sun in one hour. The enormous power that the Sun continuously delivers to Earth, 1.2 x 10{sup 5} terawatts, dwarfs every other energy source, renewable or nonrenewable. It dramatically exceeds the rate at which human civilization produces and uses energy, currently about 13 TW.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.; Materials Science Division; Cal Tech

2007-03-01

206

Interfaces in solar energy materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a summary of the importance of various methods for studying the stability of interfaces in solar energy materials and of the interfaces. An overview is given that explains why interfaces are crucially important for developing long-life, cost-effective, multilayer, polycrystalline, thin-film stacks for solar energy conversion systems (SECS). Second, broad categories of characterization methods, approaches, and processes in interface science are reviewed and related to studies required for components in SECS, in which the importance of compositional analysis of interfaces is emphasized. These include surface area, real and clean surfaces, structure and topography, interface composition or purity, surface thermodynamics, diffusion, amount adsorbed, and nature of adsorbate/solid interactions. Third, an overview is given for the solar-related research needs and opportunities in various topical areas in interface science. These topics include thin films; grain, phase, and interface boundaries; oxidation and corrosion; adhesion; chemisorption, catalysis, and surface processes; abrasion and erosion; photon-assisted surface reactions and photoelectrochemistry; and interface characterization methods. A brief review is given concerning the current status of interfacial characterization. Mention is made of typical current problems with reflector, polymer, absorber, and PV cell interfaces, specifically, and of how the interface methods can or are being applied to solar materials research.

Czanderna, A.W.

1981-10-01

207

Luminescent solar concentrators and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells for solar energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing energy demand and the parallel increase of greenhouse gas emissions are challenging researchers to find new and cleaner energy sources. Solar energy harvesting is arguably the most promising candidate for replacing fossil-fuel power generation. Photovoltaics are the most direct way of collecting solar energy; cost continues to hinder large-scale implementation of photovoltaics, however. Therefore, alternative technologies that will allow the extraction of solar power, while maintaining the overall costs of fabrication, installation, collection, and distribution low, must be explored. This thesis focuses on the fabrication and testing of two types of devices that step up to this challenge: the luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells. In these devices I make use of novel materials, semiconducting polymers and inorganic nanoparticles, both of which have lower costs than the crystalline materials used in the fabrication of traditional photovoltaics. Furthermore, the cost of manufacturing LSCs and the nanoparticle solar cells is lower than the manufacturing cost of traditional optics-based concentrators and crystalline solar cells. An LSC is essentially a slab of luminescent material that acts as a planar light pipe. The LSC absorbs incoming photons and channels fluoresced photons toward appropriately located solar cells, which perform the photovoltaic conversion. By covering large areas with relatively inexpensive fluorescing organic dyes or semiconducting polymers, the area of solar cell needed is greatly reduced. Because semiconducting polymers and quantum dots may have small absorption/emission band overlaps, tunable absorption, and longer lifetimes, they are good candidates for LSC fabrication, promising improvement with respect to laser dyes traditionally used to fabricate LSCs. Here the efficiency of LSCs consisting of liquid solutions of semiconducting polymers encased in glass was measured and compared to the efficiency of LSCs based on small molecule laser dyes and on quantum dots. Factors affecting the optical efficiency of the system such as the luminescing properties of the fluorophors were examined. The experimental results were compared to Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results suggest that commercially available quantum dots cannot serve as viable LSC dyes because of large absorption/emission band overlap and relatively low quantum yield. Materials such as Red F demonstrate that semi-conducting polymers with high quantum yield and small absorption/emission band overlap are good candidates for LSCs. Recently, a solar cell system based purely on CdSe and Cite nanoparticles as the absorbing materials was proposed ans it was suggested that its operational mechanism was that of polymer donor/acceptor systems. Here we present solar cells consisting of a sintered active bilayer of CdSe and PbSe nanoparticles in the structure ITO/CdSe/interlayer/PbSe/Al, where an interlayer of LiF or Al2O3 was found necessary to prevent low shunt resistance from suppressing the photovoltaic behavior. We fabricated unoptimized solar cells with a short-circuit current of 6 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.18 V, and a fill factor of 41%. External quantum efficiency spectra revealed that photons from the infrared portion of the spectrum were not collected, suggesting that the low bandgap PbSe film did not contribute to the photocurrent of the structure despite exhibiting photoconductivity. Other measurements, however, showed that the PbSe film was indeed necessary to produce a photovoltage and transport electrons. Through sintering, the nanoparticle films acquired bandgaps similar to those of the corresponding bulk materials and became more conductive. Because the PbSe films were found to be considerably more conductive than the CdSe ones, we suggest that the PbSe layer is effectively behaving like a low conductivity electrical contact. Therefore, in contrast to the photovoltaics presented in the seminal research on CdSe/Cite solar cells, the CdSe/PbSe solar cell system presented here d

Sholin, Veronica

208

Solar total energy project Shenandoah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site of utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant, is presented. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes.

1980-01-01

209

Optimal energy management for solar car race  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a solar car simulation and race strategy program developed for the University of Illinois Sunrayce 95 solar car race team. The goal is to complete the ten-day race course in the minimum total running time, using solar energy alone. In cloudy weather, even the most competitive cars can become energy-limited. The strategic choice in that case, is

G. S. Wright

1996-01-01

210

Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers.To

Theocharis Tsoutsos; Niki Frantzeskaki; Vassilis Gekas

2005-01-01

211

Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS  

SciTech Connect

This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

Nathan Lewis Nancy Ryan Gray

2010-02-26

212

Solar Energy For Transportation Fuel  

ScienceCinema

May 12, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Nate Lewis' talk looks at the challenge of capturing solar energy and storing it as an affordable transportation fuel ? all on a scale necessary to reduce global warming. Overcoming this challenge will require developing new materials that can use abundant and inexpensive elements rather than costly and rare materials. He discusses the promise of new materials in the development of carbon-free alternatives to fossil fuel.

Nate Lewis'

2010-01-08

213

Solar Energy For Transportation Fuel  

SciTech Connect

May 12, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Nate Lewis' talk looks at the challenge of capturing solar energy and storing it as an affordable transportation fuel — all on a scale necessary to reduce global warming. Overcoming this challenge will require developing new materials that can use abundant and inexpensive elements rather than costly and rare materials. He discusses the promise of new materials in the development of carbon-free alternatives to fossil fuel.

Nate Lewis'

2008-07-16

214

Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

Munsell, Devon R.

215

Solar energy workshop--Tucson, Arizona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Showplace for solar energy utilization includes complex solar heating and cooling system which supplies 95 percent of space heat requirements. Project utilized superior construction techniques and quality materials, and full time maintenance staff was assigned to keep systems operating.

1981-01-01

216

Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

1977-01-01

217

Some Recent Research on Solar Energy Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico is located in the Earth’s sunbelt, where solar energy is plentiful for potential applications of solar energy conversion\\u000a systems. According to several estimations (Renn? et al. 2000), the average insolation over the country’s surface amounts to 5 kWh\\/day, which puts Mexico in a privileged situation for\\u000a the deployment of solar energy technologies. Other renewable energy sources such as: wind,

Camilo A Arancibia-Bulnes; Antonio Jiménez; Oscar Jaramillo; Claudio Estrada

218

Photovoltaics for solar energy applications II  

SciTech Connect

Various papers on photovoltaics for solar energy applications are presented. The topics considered include: promising thin film solar cells, commercial development of ovonic thin film solar cells, progress in amorphous silicon photovoltaics, improvement in photovoltaic performance of large area glass/TCO/p-i-n/metal a-Si:H solar cell, tandem type solar cells consisting of hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium alloys, and manufacture of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules. Also addressed are: properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon prepared by chemical vapor deposition from higher silanes, correlation between deposition parameters and performance of sputtered amorphous silicon solar cells, cost estimates for amorphous silicon deposition processes, high-efficiency crystalline tandem cells, and thin-film cadmium solar cells. Also discussed are: progress in copper indium diselenide thin-film photovoltaic device research, edge-stabilized ribbon growth, research on polycrystalline silicon solar cells, silicon ingot growth by an oscillating crucible technique, solar reversible energy fluctuation converter, and photovoltaic applications and economics.

Adler, D.

1983-01-01

219

Solar total energy project Shenandoah  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

None

1980-01-10

220

Cocoon drying through solar energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

Kulunk, M.

1983-12-01

221

Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

2012-01-01

222

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science  

SciTech Connect

A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

Not Available

1980-01-01

223

Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 cslash/kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

2009-09-01

224

Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.  

PubMed

Taking the UK as a case study, this paper describes current energy use and a range of sustainable energy options for the future, including solar power and other renewables. I focus on the area involved in collecting, converting and delivering sustainable energy, looking in particular detail at the potential role of solar power. Britain consumes energy at a rate of about 5000 watts per person, and its population density is about 250 people per square kilometre. If we multiply the per capita energy consumption by the population density, then we obtain the average primary energy consumption per unit area, which for the UK is 1.25 watts per square metre. This areal power density is uncomfortably similar to the average power density that could be supplied by many renewables: the gravitational potential energy of rainfall in the Scottish highlands has a raw power per unit area of roughly 0.24 watts per square metre; energy crops in Europe deliver about 0.5 watts per square metre; wind farms deliver roughly 2.5 watts per square metre; solar photovoltaic farms in Bavaria, Germany, and Vermont, USA, deliver 4 watts per square metre; in sunnier locations, solar photovoltaic farms can deliver 10 watts per square metre; concentrating solar power stations in deserts might deliver 20 watts per square metre. In a decarbonized world that is renewable-powered, the land area required to maintain today's British energy consumption would have to be similar to the area of Britain. Several other high-density, high-consuming countries are in the same boat as Britain, and many other countries are rushing to join us. Decarbonizing such countries will only be possible through some combination of the following options: the embracing of country-sized renewable power-generation facilities; large-scale energy imports from country-sized renewable facilities in other countries; population reduction; radical efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes; and the growth of non-renewable low-carbon sources, namely 'clean' coal, 'clean' gas and nuclear power. If solar is to play a large role in the future energy system, then we need new methods for energy storage; very-large-scale solar either would need to be combined with electricity stores or it would need to serve a large flexible demand for energy that effectively stores useful energy in the form of chemicals, heat, or cold. PMID:23816908

MacKay, David J C

2013-08-13

225

Simple Experiments on the Use of Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 5 solar energy experiments that can be used in secondary school: flat-plate collector, solar thermoelectric generator, simple concentrators, solar cell, and natural storage of solar energy. (MLH)

Vella, G. J.; Goldsmid, H. J.

1976-01-01

226

SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program  

SciTech Connect

The SERI Solar Energy Storage Program is summarized. The program provides research, systems analysis, and assessments of thermal energy storage and transport in support of the Thermal Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Technology; emphasis is on thermal energy storage for solar thermal power and process heat applications and on thermal energy transport. Currently, research is in progress on direct-contact thermal energy storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. In addition, SERI is directing the definition of new concepts for thermal energy storage and supporting research on thermal energy transport by sensible and latent heat media. SERI is performing systems analyses of thermal energy storage for solar thermal application and coordinating thermal energy storage activities for solar applications.

Wyman, C.E.

1981-08-01

227

Subsurface energy storage and transport for solar-powered geysers on Triton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location of active geyser-like eruptions and related features close to the current subsolar latitude on Triton suggests a solar energy source for these phenomena. Solid-state greenhouse calculations have shown that sunlight can generate substantially elevated subsurface temperatures. A variety of models for the storage of solar energy in a subgreenhouse layer and for the supply of gas and energy

Randolph L. Kirk; Laurence A. Soderblom; Robert H. Brown

1990-01-01

228

Solar: A Clean Energy Source for Utilities (Fact Sheet).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Utilities across the country are offering solar electricity to their customers as a viable source of clean energy. To continue accelerating the adoption of solar energy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) collabor...

2009-01-01

229

Battle Keeps Solar Energy in Receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mirror structure in solar concentrator reduces heat loss by reflection and reradiation. Baffle reflects entering rays back and forth in solar-concentrator receiver until they reach heat exchanger. Similarly, infrared energy reradiated by heat exchanger is prevented from leaving receiver. Surfaces of baffle and inside wall of receiver are polished and highly reflective at solar and infrared wavelengths.

Mcdougal, A. R.; Hale, R. R.

1982-01-01

230

Keynote address - Solar energy research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy research and utilization in India are discussed. Desired rural sector applications include irrigation pumps, solar convective dryers, solar refrigeration devices, distillation plants, small electric stations, and domestic electric supply. Urban applications could include domestic and large-scale water heating systems, refrigeration facilities, dryers for tea, milk, and paper industries, and desalination plants. Advances in these areas are briefly surveyed,

A. Ramachandran

1977-01-01

231

Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

Reynolds, John S.

232

Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

2011-01-01

233

Testing and Analyzing of Solar Energy Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar energy resource of two typical areas was tested by taking advantage of different instruments from home and abroad in Inner Mongolia. Compared the actually tested data with satellite data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration, energy cost was estimated in different solar energy resource conditions through the use of RETScreen project analysis software form Canada. Analysis results show

Zhao Mingzhi; Liu Zhizhang; Zhang Qingzhu

2010-01-01

234

Multimode solar energy collector and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector is disclosed providing both concentrating-tracking functions and non-concentrating diffuse absorption functions in a single unit. The solar energy collector and process may provide both a higher temperature heat transfer fluid and a lower temperature heat transfer fluid for utilization in various processes, such as air conditioning, which may advantageously utilize thermal energy of two different temperatures.

W. J. D

1979-01-01

235

Compact integrated solar energy generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy generation systems, or any renewable systems, usually include energy storages, local dc loads and grid-tied dc-ac inversion stages. Almost always, these entities have their own power converters for processing the intermediate solar energy transferred through the systems. Having individual converters does have some advantages like more flexible individual control and easier design, but it does not provide opportunities

Poh Chiang Loh; Lei Zhang; Shun He; Feng Gao

2010-01-01

236

Combined solar collector and energy storage system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

Jensen, R. N. (inventor)

1980-01-01

237

Solar energy project: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secondary school project is described which was developed by divisions of the University of the State of New York including the State Education Department, the University at Albany's Atmospheric Sciences Research Center and secondary schools represented by 80 participating science teachers. This cooperative effort of scientist and educator resulted in 43 classroom-tested activities suitable for infusion into five science curriculum areas, including junior high science, earth science, biology, chemistry and physics. These activities are also appropriate for the development of a separate solar energy course of study. National dissemination and pilot testing of this project will begin during the fall of 1978.

1980-01-01

238

Development of solar energy in Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of solar energy technology utilization in Peru is discussed. Peru receives a high degree of solar radiation (except for part of its coastal area) and has almost an ideal climate for the development of solar energy. The development of low temperature applications, including the design of passive solar heated buildings for the high Andes, the design and evaluation of various types of solar water heaters and crop dryers for both household and industrial uses (based on flat plate collectors), and the construction of a desalinization prototype plant are reported. Photovoltaic systems are investigated for suitable applications and have an excellent potential, especially in telecommunications.

Pierson, H. O.; Nahui, A.

1981-06-01

239

Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD&D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines

F. S. Huraib; S. M. Hasnain; S. H. Alawaji

1996-01-01

240

Evaluation of residential and commercial solar/gas heating and cooling technologies. Volume 1: Program overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technologies and economics of solar/gas systems for application in the single-family residential market and in the small (individual building) commerical market were evaluated. The effects of solar industry maturity on system cost and the impact of solar incentives and natural gas price uncertainties on solar/gas system economics were studied. Projected solar/gas systems with advanced conventional gas equipment such as pulse combustion furnaces are discussed.

Hirshberg, A. S.; Haas, S. A.; Jacobsen, A. S.

1980-12-01

241

Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

Luckett, Rickey D.

242

Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To the extent increases are present for some solar adopters, the analysis seeks to determine whether there is a "solar rebound" effect analogous to the "rebound" or "take-back" effect that has been observed and studied within the energy efficiency literature. Similarly, to the extent that electric users may decrease overall consumption after installation of a solar system, the study seeks to explore the possibility that solar adoption is part of a continued effort towards clean energy practices more generally, such as energy efficiency and conservation. In this way, the study seeks to determine whether there is a synergistic effect between solar and decreased consumption, for solar adopters generally or for some subsets therein. The assembled data allowed testing of various hypotheses that could help explain observed changes in consumption in different households. One variable that was carefully examined was the sizing of the solar system. As part of the study, analysis of 4,355 systems was conducted to determine how each residential solar system was sized with respect to pre-installation energy consumption. Other potentially interesting or explanatory variables for which information was available include total and net costs of the solar system; age of the home; the climate zone (inland or coastal) where the home is located; the home's pre-installation energy consumption; home characteristics such as assessed value and square footage; and the identity of the solar installation contractor. Aside from extending the literature on the rebound effect to the context of home-based energy generation, this study links to the innovation diffusion literature by focusing on solar "innovators" to understand more about the characteristics that may drive behavior, or conditions under which they also adopt clean energy technologies and practices. The results have clear policy relevance with regard to the development and coordination of policies to promote integration of solar and energy efficiency. Currently

McAllister, Joseph Andrew

243

Gas-magnetic field interactions in the solar corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is evident from eclipse photographs that gas-magnetic field interactions are important in determining the structure and dynamical properties of the solar corona and interplanetary medium. Close to the Sun in regions of strong field, the coronal gas can be contained within closed loop structures. However, since the field in these regions decreases outward rapidly, the pressure and inertial forces

G. W. Pneuman; Roger A. Kopp

1971-01-01

244

Module 6: Solar Energy for Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eastern Iowa Community College provides this learning module to teach students about solar energy basics, active and passive solar technology, basic components of solar equipment, and a number of other topics related to agricultural energy. Users can download a zip file in which they will find a syllabus, student handouts, a quiz, and 65 slide PowerPoint presentation.

2013-11-19

245

Licking County Community Solar Energy Program  

SciTech Connect

A Community Solar Energy Feasibility Study and Education Program for Central Ohio is described. LEADS Community Action Agency and the Denison University Homestead, with support of federal and university grants, designed and constructed five solar heating systems. Three passive solar greenhouses, one passive trombe wall and one active solar system were retrofitted on local structures between April 1979 and April 1980. Two semesters of community solar education through the Denison Experimental College and one semester through Ohio State University/Newark were coordinated with design, construction and performance of these five solar systems. Community residents received a balanced education including classroom training in solar energy practice. Classes and demonstrations were also conducted for such diverse groups as elementary, junior and senior high schools, senior citizens, mental health organizations, news media, other community action agencies and colleges statewide as well as interested individuals.

Downs, R. (LEADS, Newark, OH); Blynn, R.; Glosser, D.; Homestead, D.

1980-01-01

246

The design and construction of a low power gas turbine for solar energy conversion - An analytical model of operation of the installation in a variable mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic analysis of a Brayton cycle engine used for the conversion of solar thermal energy to electricity is presented and compared with experimental results. The power configuration is a parabolic concentrator with the engine placed at the focus. Its benefits are a minimal visual impact, modular construction, rapid start-up, simple site planning, and flexibility as to end use. Consideration is given to a generator powered by hot air and mounted in series with other modules, and to heating elements mounted in parallel. A numerical model accounts for system losses, and application is demonstrated with a system producing 2.5 kWe at 800 C, i.e., a 45 kWt output. A second model is devised to describe the isentropic efficiencies which can be expected during variable speed operations. Finally costs of the power plant are compared with costs of conventionally fueled facilities.

Leone, J. F.

247

Gas secondary flow: A key factor in the future of coal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased need for finding alternative energy sources other than petroleum and natural gas initiated extensive research work for extraction of energy from wind, water, ocean, solar, nuclear geothermal, hydrogen and coal. This paper is devoted to coal energy. It discusses one of the serious problems encountered in coal-fired gas turbines; namely erosion and how gas secondary flow has a

A. F. Abel Azim El-Sayed; W. T. Ruuleau

1983-01-01

248

Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

1982-01-01

249

Non-tracking solar energy collector system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1978-01-01

250

Saudi Arabia's experience in solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in solar energy research in Saudi Arabia is discussed with emphasis on the efforts of a government research entity - King Adbulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Three programs currently underway at KACST are considered: the continuation of activities initiated under the Solar Energy Research American\\/Saudi (SOLERAS) program, a Saudi\\/German program, and projects developed and conducted completely

Fahad S. Huraib

1990-01-01

251

Solar Total Energy Systems. Technical Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Solar Total Energy System (STES) is characterized by the use of solar energy for on-site generation of electricity, with recovery and reuse of turbine waste heat to meet thermal demands such as process heat, space heating and cooling, and water heating....

L. R. Bush

1977-01-01

252

Projects in a Solar Energy Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes student projects on applications of solar energy optics to home design. Project criterion (requiring sketches and detailed calculations of time rate of energy flow/production) is that half the heat for the heating season be taken from the solar resource; calculations must be based on meteorological data for a specific location. (JM)

Lindsay, Richard H.

1983-01-01

253

New Mexico Solar Energy Association Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NMSEA is an educational nonprofit organization, dedicated to promoting solar energy and related sustainable practices. Membership includes a diverse group of citizens including architects, building contractors, engineers, educators, and planners specializing in renewable energy and sustainability.

2007-08-27

254

Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

Modisette, J. L.

1972-01-01

255

Use of solar energy in buildings in New York state  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief history of solar energy use in given and potential advantages and disadvantages of using solar energy are examined. An overview of solar devices is presented and two common types of solar cells and other parts of a solar electrical system are discussed. The impact increased use of solar heating and cooling and factors that have discouraged use of

C. G. Oakley

1974-01-01

256

Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

257

Solar-thermal conversion to electricity utilizing a central receiver, open-cycle gas turbine design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program to develop a solar\\/electric power plant which utilizes an open cycle gas turbine as the prime mover is discussed. A conceptual design for a commercial-scale plant, with a nominal rating of 60 MWe, was prepared. The characteristics of the design, which employs an elevated central receiver surrounded by a field of heliostats, are presented. Energy storage, both buffer

J. C. Grosskreutz

1978-01-01

258

Solar Thermal Energy: Design a Solar Hot Water Heater System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has students examine a collector and tank for a solar hot water heater and estimate the amount of energy and money saved by replacing the traditional hot water heater. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Bullwinkel, Matt

2013-01-08

259

Space solar power - An energy alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

Johnson, R. W.

1978-01-01

260

Solar energy education: where do we stand  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to examine in detail the contents of the Education Data Base by analyzing the current distributions of solar energy courses, programs, and curricula offered in our nation's post-secondary educational institutions. A summary of the data base indicates that 892 educational institutions in the United States offer 2308 solar-related courses and 367 programs. The interest in these programs is reflected in the fact that in 1979, 760 institutions offered 1740 solar-related courses and 243 programs. The conclusion is that our nation's post-secondary institutions are responding to student demand and interest in solar energy.

O'Connor, J. K.

1981-03-01

261

Antisoiling Coatings for Solar-Energy Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluorocarbons resist formation of adherent deposits. Promising coating materials reduce soiling of solar photovoltaic modules and possibly solar thermal collectors. Contaminating layers of various degrees of adherence form on surfaces of devices, partially blocking incident solar energy, reducing output power. Loose soil deposits during dry periods but washed off by rain. New coatings help prevent formation of more-adherent, chemically and physically bonded layers rain alone cannot wash away.

Cuddihy, E. F.; Willis, P.

1986-01-01

262

Low cost solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended, curved sawtooth contoured surface covered with a metallized polymeric reflecting material, reflected solar energy to a movably supported collector that was kept at the concentrated line focus of the reflector primary. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy was obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that directed off-angle energy to the absorber pipe.

Miller, C. G.; Stephans, J. B. (inventors)

1977-01-01

263

Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

264

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology  

SciTech Connect

An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1982-01-01

265

A total fuel cycle approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Solar generation technologies as greenhouse gas offsets in U.S. utility systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gas emissions in the electric utility sector occur not only at generation facilities, but also during upstream processes that support the construction and operation of energy facilities. A total fuel cycle approach is used to evaluate the potential greenhouse gas savings that could result from the deployment of solar generation technologies in utility systems in the United States. Total

Jennifer A. Martin

1997-01-01

266

Solar energy at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Basic concepts for using the energy of the sun have been known for centuries. The challenge today, the goal of the Department of Energy`s National Solar Energy Program is to create the technology needed to establish solar energy as a practical, economical alternative to energy produced by depletable fuels--and to use that solar-produced energy in a wide variety of applications. To assist the DOE in this national effort, Sandia sponsors industrial and university research and development, manages a series of technical programs, operates solar experimental facilities, and carries out its own scientific and engineering research. This booklet describes their projects, their technical objectives, and explains how their experimental facilities are used to find the answers we`re seeking. Prospective participants from companies involved in solar-energy development or applications should find it especially useful since it outlines broad areas of opportunity. Projects include: central receiver technology; line-focus thermal technology; photovoltaic systems technology; wind turbine development; energy storage technology; and applied research in improved polycrystalline materials for solar cells and photoelectrolysis of water.

NONE

1981-12-31

267

Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

Bloomfield, H. S.

1979-01-01

268

Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of; cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

Bloomfield, H. S.

1978-01-01

269

Solar energy storage researchers information user study  

SciTech Connect

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1981-03-01

270

Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

1982-01-01

271

Thermoplastic joining using solar energy concentrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harnessing of solar energy for processing thermoplastics using a solar concentrator is detailed. The application of this relatively new method is driven by manufacturing industry demands for simpler production methods and increased productivity when processing plastics and the need to achieve these goals in an enviromentally friendly way. This work investigates the feasibility of effectively joining thermoplastics such as

E. Siores

1997-01-01

272

Dark gas in the solar neighborhood from extinction data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. When modeling infrared or ?-ray data as a linear combination of observed gas tracers, excess emission has been detected compared to expectations from known neutral and molecular gas traced by HI and CO measurements, respectively. This excess might correspond to additional gas component. This so-called “dark gas” (DG) has been observed in our Galaxy, as well as the Magellanic Clouds. Aims: For the first time, we investigate the correlation between visible extinction (AV) data and gas tracers on large scales in the solar neighborhood, to detect DG and to verify our compatibility with previous studies. Methods: Our work focuses on both the solar neighborhood (|b| > 10°), and the inner and outer Galaxy, as well as on four individual regions: Taurus, Orion, Cepheus-Polaris, and Aquila-Ophiuchus. Thanks to the recent production of an all-sky AV map, we first perform the correlation between AV and both HI and CO emission over the most diffuse regions (with low-to-intermediate gas column densities), to derive the optimal (AV/NH)ref ratio. We then iterate the analysis over the entire regions (including low and high gas column densities) to estimate the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, as well as the DG mass fraction. Results: The average extinction to gas column-density ratio in the solar neighborhood is found to be (AV/NH)ref = 6.53 × 10-22 mag cm2, with significant differences between the inner and outer Galaxy, of about 60%. We derive an average value of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor of XCO = 1.67 × 1020 H2 cm-2/(K km s-1), with significant variations between nearby clouds. In the solar neighborhood, the gas mass in the dark component is found to be 19% relative to that in the atomic component and 164% relative to the one traced by CO. These results are compatible with a recent analysis of Planck data within the uncertainties of our measurements. We estimate the ratio of dark gas to total molecular gas to be 0.62 in the solar neighborhood. The HI-to-H2 and H2-to-CO transitions appear for AV ? 0.2 mag and AV ? 1.5 mag, respectively, in agreement with theoretical models of dark-H2 gas.

Paradis, D.; Dobashi, K.; Shimoikura, T.; Kawamura, A.; Onishi, T.; Fukui, Y.; Bernard, J.-P.

2012-07-01

273

Kinetics of gas-Grain Reactions in the Solar Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochemical equilibrium calculations predict gas phase, gas-grain, and solid phase reactions as a function of pressure\\u000a and temperature in the solar nebula. However, chemical reactions proceed at different rates, which generally decrease exponentially\\u000a with decreasing temperature. At sufficiently low temperatures (which vary depending on the specific reaction) there may not\\u000a have been enough time for the predicted equilibrium chemistry to

Bruce Fegley Jr.

2000-01-01

274

Focusing on the future: Solar thermal energy systems emerge as competitive technologies with major economic potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens are now receiving a portion of their daily demand for electricity from large-scale solar thermal electric generating stations-power plants that use concentrated solar energy to drive electric power generators. Just as with coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and nuclear energy, concentrated solar energy can create working temperatures of around 600C and much higher. Also, solar power plants contribute almost nothing to the atmospheric greenhouse effect and pose few, if any, of the other environmental problems associated with conventional energy sources. As a result of research and development within the national Solar Thermal Technology Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), solar thermal energy is on the threshold of competing economically with conventional power plants and is now viable for international markets. Its potential for spurring American economic growth and exports is significant.

1989-03-01

275

General solar energy information user study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1981-03-01

276

On the free energy of solar cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total power of the solar electromagnetic radiation varies during the solar cycle with a relative amplitude of an order of 10-3 . The physical nature of these variations is not known. The free energy involved could be of different kinds: nuclear, gravity, mechanical motions (differential rotation, convection), radiative transports, heat, magnetic fields. The corresponding energy reservoirs and powers are estimated. The possible free energy recuperation and transformation processes are discussed. It is often assumed in the current literature that the solar activity processes related to the magnetic energy dissipation are sufficient to explain the observed variations of the total solar irradiance with its excess at solar maxima. Based on the energy estimates, we suggest the arguments favoring the opposite cause-sequence chain: the given luminosity variations are considered as the free energy drivers for the solar activity manifestations and cycles. The main open question is formulated as follows: what are the energy, momentum and mass distributions and their fluxes in space and time on the Sun during the cycles?

Veselovsky, I.

277

Polymers in solar energy utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser photoacoustic technique (LPAT) has been verified for performing accelerated life testing of outdoor photooxidation of polymeric materials used in solar energy applications. Samples of the material under test are placed in a chamber with a sensitive microphone, then exposed to chopped laser radiation. The sample absorbs the light and converts it to heat by a nonradiative deexcitation process, thereby reducing pressure fluctuations within the cell. The acoustic signal detected by the microphone is directly proportional to the amount of light absorbed by the specimen. Tests were performed with samples of ethylene/methylacrylate copolymer (EMA) reprecipitated from hot cyclohexane, compressed, and molded into thin (25-50 microns) films. The films were exposed outdoors and sampled by LPAT weekly. The linearity of the light absorbed with respect to the acoustic signal was verified.Correlations were established between the photoacoustic behavior of the materials aged outdoors and the same kinds of samples cooled and heated in a controlled environment reactor. The reactor tests were validated for predicting outdoor exosures up to 55 days.

Liang, R. H.; Coulter, D. R.; Dao, C.; Gupta, A.

1983-01-01

278

Solar Energy Systems - Standards for Rubber Seals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was performed to develop standards for rubber seals used in solar energy systems. Thirty preformed and liquid applied seals were evaluated in the laboratory using modified ASTM standard test methods to obtain data needed to prepare the standards. ...

R. D. Stiehler A. Hockman E. J. Embree L. W. Masters

1978-01-01

279

Electric Utility Solar Energy Activities. 1976 Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a survey to determine the scope and extent of solar energy projects sponsored by electric utilities. Brief descriptions of the active operations along with information contacts are listed for each participating utility. ...

L. D. Cleary

1977-01-01

280

Foreign Technology Alert Bibliography: Solar Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides a systematically organised collection of abstracts from the NTIS bibliographic data base relating to solar energy research and describing work originating outside the USA. A tailored search of the data base was performed and the out...

G. Wilkinson

1982-01-01

281

Residential Hot Water Solar Energy Storage Subsystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-cost, efficient, and practical hot water solar energy storage subsystems for heating and cooling of residences are discussed. Both new and innovative vessel materials and configurations are investigated, together with insulation materials. Storage sub...

E. E. Pickering

1976-01-01

282

The Case for the Large Scale Development of Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of solar energy development. Discusses global effects (temperature, particle and other pollution) of burning fossil fuels. Provides energy balance equations for solar energy distribution and discusses flat plate collectors, solar cells, photochemical and photobiological conversion of solar energy, heat pumps. (CS)

O'Reilly, S. A.

1977-01-01

283

Prospects and proposals for solar energy education programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists have established a bright future for solar energy utilization through their Research, Development and Demonstration (R,D&D) activities, but they paid less attention to solar energy education, necessary for effective dissemination of solar energy technologies. Therefore, in this paper, prospects and proposals on the development of proper education programmes for every stage of education and the initiation of solar energy

S. M. Hasnain; U. A. Elani; S. H. Al-Awaji; H. A. Aba-Oud; M. S. Smiai

1995-01-01

284

Research on solar energy technologies for the ecological architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The using of solar energy is very vital for ecological architecture. At present, the rich solar energy in China has not been brought into fully application in most cities. The investigation indicates that the application of solar energy technology in construction is a very efficient method, and we can make full use of solar energy technology by initiative means and

Wu Zhao; Yan Ma

2011-01-01

285

A solar energy analysis of solar radiation in Warsaw  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of 10-year data from the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, the authors analyzed solar radiation in Warsaw from the standpoint of the amount and time distribution of the energy it supplies. The authors calculated the probability characteristics of the diurnal variations of atmospheric transparency coefficients for total and scattered radiation. The authors found approximate linear formulas for

D. Bzowska; E. Kossecka

1993-01-01

286

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

Not Available

1980-11-01

287

Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques  

SciTech Connect

A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.

Balcomb, J.D.

1980-01-01

288

New View of Gas and Dust in the Solar Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognizable components in meteorites differ in their relative abundances of the three oxygen isotopes (16O, 17O, and 18O). In particular, the amount of 16O varies from being like that of the Earth to substantially enriched compared to the other two isotopes. The current explanation for this interesting range in isotopic composition is that dust and gas in the solar

G. J. Taylor

2010-01-01

289

Emerging NOAA Surface Solar Radiation for Solar Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar power has been growing at an annual rate of 40% in recent years. By 2025 it could grow to 10% of U.S. power needs. Sunlight is the fuel for solar power generation technologies, and as such one needs to know the quality and future availability of the fuel for accurate analysis of system performance. Sunlight (solar radiation) at the surface has been routinely estimated in real time from measurements of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) operated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). The GOES solar radiation data have been made available in the GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) suite since January 1996 for the contiguous U.S. every daytime hour at a spatial resolution of ~50 km (GSIP-V1). Since April 2009, solar radiation retrievals have been performed at a higher spatial resolution (~14 km) and cover larger areas (GSIP-V2). The GSIP-V1 data have recently been screened for quality, adjusted for changes in calibration, and parameters useful for the solar energy sector have been derived for the period of 1999-2009. In this presentation, we describe the quality control process and various adjustments applied, and provide examples of selected solar energy parameters (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.) and their evaluation. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), one of the flagship instruments of NOAA's new geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. The ABI algorithm, that is quite different from the one applied in GSIP-V1 and V2, uses atmospheric and surface data retrieved from multiple narrow bands using algorithms dedicated to the retrieval of these data. The algorithm is currently run with proxy data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the EOS satellites Terra and Aqua and the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. The ABI algorithm will be explained as well as examples will be shown.

Kondratovich, V.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.

2012-12-01

290

Solar energy thermalization and storage device  

DOEpatents

A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

1981-09-01

291

Solar energy receiver for a Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy receiver includes a separable endless wall formed of a ceramic material in which a cavity of substantially cylindrical configuration is defined for entrapping solar flux. An acceptance aperture is adapted to admit to the cavity a concentrated beam of solar energy. The wall is characterized by at least one pair of contiguously related segments separated by lines of cleavage intercepting the aperture. At least one of the segments is supported for pivotal displacement. A thermal-responsive actuator is adapted to respond to excessive temperatures within the cavity for initiating pivoted displacement of one segment, whereby thermal flux is permitted to escape from the cavity.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1980-01-01

292

Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

Currie, J. R. (inventor)

1981-01-01

293

Solar energy utilization in the USSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

Shpilrain, E. E.

1991-05-01

294

Solar energy satellites and satellites for energy transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using large geosynchronous satellite platforms for the collection of solar energy to be transmitted in the form of microwaves to earth antennas is examined in terms of available and predictable advances in technology, and in terms of cost. Three basic design concepts are presented: thermoelectric, whereby a large parabolic reflector concentrates solar energy onto an absorber for

H. Hartbaum

1978-01-01

295

Solar energy storage within the absorption cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy storage may be achieved within the absorption cycle using the considerable energy required to separate a refrigerant from an absorbent solution. The stored energy can be recovered by the highly exothermic absorption of the refrigerant in a weak absorbent solution. Storage of the refrigerant, weak absorbent solution, and the strong absorbent solution is required. While this is more

J. Baughn; A. Jackman

1974-01-01

296

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

297

INTERACTION OF THE SOLAR WIND WITH THE NEUTRAL COMPONENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is constructed to represent the interaction between the solar wind and the neutral component of the interstellar gas. It is found that the neutral gas has several important effects on the solar-wind expansion beyond the orbit of the earth and that it should be possible to infer the presence of the neutral gas from observations of the solar

Thomas E. Holzer

1972-01-01

298

Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition  

SciTech Connect

A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-03-01

299

Shenandoah Solar Total-Energy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and construction of the world's first solar total energy plant in the private sector was completed and checkout is underway. During its operational phase, the solar plant will furnish electrical power, process steam, and other thermal energy to a nearby knitwear factory. The solar system consists of a collector field containing 114 parabolic dish collectors which supply thermal energy at 4000 C to drive a 400 kW multistage Rankine cycle turbine generator. Some steam is extracted from the turbine and supplied to the knitwear manufacturing processes. The system will be grid connected. Presented are a description of the system and components being installed; a summary of performance testing of the extraction turbine and of four prototype parabolic dish collectors; and a discussion of design considerations and insights which have general applicability to solar thermal system designs.

Leonard, J. A.; Hunke, R. W.

1982-12-01

300

Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar energy, being a non-depleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. It can be used to generate electricity, for heating and cooling buildings, and for producing clean renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuel. There is little question of the technical feasibility for utilizing solar energy. The chief problem is rapidly providing innovative solutions that are economically competititive with other systems.

Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

1973-01-01

301

Bio-Inspired Solar Energy Conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The areas of solar-powered catalysts for energy rich fuels formation and bio-inspired molecular assemblies for integrating photon-to-fuels pathways have been identified by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. S. Department of Energy as challenges for the next generation of sustainable, high-efficiency solar energy conversion systems [1]. The light-harvesting, energy-transducing and carbon compound-synthesizing (carbon dioxide-fixing) reactions that are encompassed by natural photosynthesis offer molecular paradigms for efficient free energy capture and storage. We seek to emulate these features in cell-free, protein-based systems. Our goal is to transform the robust (alpha,beta)8-barrel fold of an enzyme that naturally catalyzes radical reactions into a catalytic module for the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate, by using the cobalt-containing cobalamins and other organocobalt centers. The activation of the catalytic center will be driven by photo-reduction, by using soluble and attached organic or semiconductor architectures. Progress on the biochemical, chemical, physical, and molecular biological (including rational design of high binding affinity and reactivity towards carbon dioxide) approaches to the development of the photocatalytic system will be presented.[4pt] [1] Lewis, N.; Crabtree, G. In: Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science: 2005.

Warncke, Kurt

2009-11-01

302

Energy Storage for Solar Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the roles of storage for several major solar conversion modes, including low-temperature thermal conversion (for water heating and space conditioning), intermediate- and high-temperature thermal conversion (for electricity generation ...

1981-01-01

303

Solar/gas systems impact analysis study. Final report, September 1982-July 1984  

SciTech Connect

The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities was measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the benefits or penalties of solar/gas systems on a combined basis for consumers and distribution companies. The authors analysis shows that the combined benefits associated with solar/gas systems are generally greatest when the systems are purchased by customers who would have otherwise chosen high-efficiency electric systems (were solar/gas systems not available in the market place). The role of gas utilities in encouraging consumer acceptance of solar/gas systems was also examined in a qualitative fashion. The authors then developed a decision framework for analyzing the type and level of utility involvement in solar/gas technologies.

Hahn, E.F.; Preble, B.; Neill, C.P.; Loose, J.C.; Poe, T.E.

1984-07-01

304

Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

2011-10-01

305

Solar coal-gasification reactor with pyrolysis-gas recycle. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a product gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor, and solar energy is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front and a pyrolysis front. A gasification zone is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam, injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone, reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases flow from the gasification zone to the pyrolysis zone to generate hot char. Gases are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone. This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone and the pyrolysis zone. The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, W.R.; Gregg, D.W.

1981-04-06

306

Solar technology: Solar energy in practical application \\/3rd revised and enlarged edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book provides an overview of the vast range of applications to which solar energy has been put throughout the world. The solar programs of different countries are reviewed, and the basic design and operation of a number of actual engineering realizations are described, including solar stills for desalinization, room heating, sun houses, solar-driven air conditioning with heat pumps, solar

H. Rau

1976-01-01

307

Kinetic Analysis of Gas Splitting on Oxide Surfaces for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar thermochemical cycles have the potential to convert solar energy into chemical fuels at high thermodynamic efficiency. This can be done by reducing an oxide at high temperature and oxidizing the reduced oxide at a lower temperature in H2O or CO2 to produce H2 or CO. The gas splitting reaction at low temperature is kinetically limited, possibly from slow kinetics of the surface processes. For example, the rate of H2O splitting over CeO2 is increased by the addition of a rhodium catalyst. Little is known about the gas splitting reactions at the atomic level. In this work we use density functional theory to investigate the mechanism for the gas splitting reactions on oxide surfaces such as CeO2 (111) or on precious metal catalyst particles such as Rh or Pt.

Hansen, Heine; Meredig, Bryce; Wolverton, Chris

2010-03-01

308

Solar-pumped electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of using solar-pumped lasers as solar energy converters is examined. The absorbing media considered are halogens or halogen compounds, which are dissociated to yield excited atoms, which then hand over energy to a molecular lasing medium. Estimates of the temperature effects for a Br2-CO2-He system with He as the cooling gas are given. High temperatures can cause the lower energy levels of the CO2 laser transition to be filled. The inverted populations are calculated and lasing should be possible. However, the efficiency is less than 0.001. Examination of other halogen-molecular lasant combinations (where the rate coefficients are known) indicate efficiencies in all cases of less than 0.005.

Harries, W. L.; Wilson, J. W.

1981-01-01

309

The Prospects of Solar Energy for Developing Nations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the potential application of solar energy and its possible benefits to developing countries. Various energy needs, including domestic, agricultural, and household, that could be met by using solar energy are discussed. (BT)

Ramachandran, A.; Gururaja, J.

1979-01-01

310

SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

SciTech Connect

Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities; and at LBL projects are in progress which span that range of activities. To assess various solar applications it is important to quantify the solar resource. In one project, LBL is cooperating with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in the implementation and operation of a solar radiation data collection network in northern California. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure the solar and circumsolar (around the sun) radiation. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs which use focusing collectors (mirrors or lenses) to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts are being made to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology. DOE's San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) has been given technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. The installation of a solar hot water and space heating system on an LBL building established model techniques and procedures as part of the DOE Facilities Solar Demonstration Program. Technical support is also provided for SAN in a DOE small scale technology pilot program in which grants are awarded to individuals and organizations to develop and demonstrate solar technologies appropriate to small scale use. In the near future it is expected that research will exert a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. An absorption air conditioner is being developed that is air cooled yet suitable for use with temperatures available from flat plate collectors. With inexpensive but sophisticated micro-electronics to control their operation, the performance of many-component solar heating and cooling systems may be improved, and work is under way to develop such a controller and to evaluate commercially available units. Research is continuing on 'passive' approaches to solar heating and cooling where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed in a collaborative project with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. These models will be incorporated into public domain building energy analysis computer programs to be used in systems studies and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, then provide 'coolness' to the building. The laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the 'shape-memory' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources such as solar heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central receiver system or a parabolic dish. The conversion of the concentrated sunlight to thermal energy would be accomplished by the absorption of the light by a dispersion of very small particles suspended in a gas. Work continued this year on chemical storage processes (such as 2SO

Authors, Various

1980-10-01

311

Solid absorbtion cycle solar energy: Refrigeratores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been recent worldwide interest in the development of solar thermal powered refrigerators utilizing a solid absorber system. Three proposed absorber-working fluid combinations are examined: zeolite/water; calcium chloride/ammonia; and activated charcoal/alcohol. Experiments with the zeolite/water system are also discussed. It is concluded that the proper activation of the solid absorbent, heat transfer in the solar collector, and the circuit design have the greatest influence on the maximum energy conversion efficiency obtainable.

Anhalt, Jorgdieter; Gill, Walter

1987-02-01

312

Green Antenna for Solar Energy Collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, the idea of using a light-reflecting metallic antenna for design of a solar-cell system is proposed. The antenna for this new concept is named Green Antenna for its association with renewable energy. Both the Green Antenna and its ground plane simultaneously act as light-reflecting surfaces for the solar-cell system. To demonstrate the idea, a suspended plate

E. H. Lim; K. W. Leung; C. C. Su; H. Y. Wong

2010-01-01

313

Department of Energy Solar Decathlon, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every two years, the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon competition illuminates the National Mall with a working display of energy innovation in action. One of the most ambitious and inspiring events in the country, it challenges 20 collegiate team...

2010-01-01

314

Solar energy research and development in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas of utilization of solar energy and wind power in India can be divided into the following different categories: rural sector, urban sector, and special applications such as salt production, metallurgical furnaces. and milk and paper industries, desalinated process water supply to coastal industries, etc. For this purpose a national energy research committee was constituted and a national integrated program

A. Ramachandran

1977-01-01

315

The Status of Solar Energy as Fuel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discused is the biological conversion of solar energy via photosynthesis into stored energy in the form of biomass. Detailed are the research and development programs on biomass of the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Brazil, Philippines, Sahel, India, and China. (BT)

Hall, D. O.

1979-01-01

316

Using Solar Energy to Desalinate Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Material presented is adapted from Desalination with Solar Energy, a paper presented before the International Symposium on Energy Sources and Development, held in Spain in 1977. Desalination systems energized by the sun, conditions governing their efficiency, and their costs are discussed. (HM)

Tabor, Harry Z.

1978-01-01

317

UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY FOR WASTE RECLAMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic rational formulations for the design of a process for growing ; algae in liquid animal, industrial, and home food processing wastes are presented. ; The derivations utiize the law of conservation of energy, data on available solar ; energy, light transmitting characteristics of algal cultures, and experimental ; data resulting from laboratory and pilot plant investigations of algal culture

H. B. Getaas; W. J. Oswald

1955-01-01

318

Energy analysis of the solar power satellite.  

PubMed

The energy requirements to build and operate the proposed Solar Power Satellite are evaluated and compared with the energy it produces. Because the technology is so speculative, uncertainty is explicitly accounted for. For a proposed 10-gigawatt satellite system, the energy ratio, defined as the electrical energy produced divided by the primary nonrenewable energy required over the lifetime of the system, is of order 2, where a ratio of 1 indicates the energy breakeven point. This is significantly below the energy ratio of today's electricity technologies such as light-water nuclear or coal-fired electric plants. PMID:17758765

Herendeen, R A; Kary, T; Rebitzer, J

1979-08-01

319

Solar America: A Solar Energy Tour of the United States (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This CDROM contains nearly 500 photos and captions of solar energy technologies at work throughout the United States. Every state of the union is represented, as well as Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia, and U.S. outposts in Antarctica. The technologies represented are photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar hot water, and concentrating solar power. The CD promotes solar energy as a wise energy choice for America's present and future.

Not Available

2003-06-01

320

Solar America: A Solar Energy Tour of the United States (CD-ROM)  

SciTech Connect

This CDROM contains nearly 500 photos and captions of solar energy technologies at work throughout the United States. Every state of the union is represented, as well as Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia, and U.S. outposts in Antarctica. The technologies represented are photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar hot water, and concentrating solar power. The CD promotes solar energy as a wise energy choice for America's present and future.

Not Available

2001-12-01

321

Education: the key to the future of solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Industry-approved educational programs in solar technology (especially domestic hot water) can ensure the growth of the solar industry. Effective solar training should include a variety of training aids such as a student manual, solar trainer, actual equipment, overhead transparencies and 35 mm slides. Without such educational programs, misconceptions and misunderstandings may doom solar to be permanently branded as an alternate energy source.

Hamos, R.E.

1982-01-01

322

Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emphasis was placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ utilizing a unique solar cell array roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5 percent efficiency at 28 C and 100 mW/sq cm insolation are used to generate 10 kW (peak). An all electric home is considered with lead acid battery storage, DC AC inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

Krupka, M. C.

1980-09-01

323

Universal solar energy desalination system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar\\/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover

V. S. Fusco

1982-01-01

324

Zero energy homes: Combining energy efficiency and solar energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

In a typical Florida house, air-conditioning accounts for about 35% of all the electricity the home uses. As the largest single source of energy consumption in Florida, a home's air-conditioning load represents the biggest energy challenge facing Florida residents. The Florida Solar Energy Center designed a project to meet this challenge. Two homes were built with the same floor plan on near-by lots. The difference was that one (the control home) conformed to local residential building practices, and the other (the Zero Energy home) was designed with energy efficiency in mind and a solar technology system on the roof. The homes were then monitored carefully for energy use. The projects designers were looked to answer two questions: (1) could a home in a climate such as central Florida be engineered and built so efficiently that a relatively small PV system would serve the majority of its cooling needs--and even some of its daytime electrical needs; and (2) would that home be as comfortable and appealing as the conventional model built alongside it? The answer was yes, even though it was conducted in the summer of 1998--one of the hottest summers on record in Florida.

NREL

2000-03-09

325

Solar gas nitriding of Ti6Al4V alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this work was to study the activating effect of concentrated solar energy (CSE) on the high-temperature nitriding of Ti6Al4V alloy. Solar nitriding was conducted using a low-cost solar installation based on a Fresnel lens with a maximum density power of 250 W/cm2 at its focus. Prior to the solar nitriding study, Ti6Al4V was submitted to high-temperature thermochemical treatments using an electrical furnace in a conventional manner. A comparison between the two processes considering the effect of nitriding time and temperature on the hardness, thickness and composition of the nitrided layer is presented. Characterisation of the treated samples by optical and SEM microscopy, microhardness measurements and XRD analysis reveals an important reduction in the nitriding time when concentrated solar energy is used versus the traditional method. The maximum hardness of the solar nitrided samples (2100 HV) was achieved after treatment at 1200 °C for 15 min. This value is similar to that obtained when samples were heated at the same temperature in the electrical furnace for 8 h.

Rodriguez, Gloria P.; Herranz, Gemma; Romero, Ana

2013-10-01

326

Applied Energy Division annual report, FY 1984: Solar Energy Program  

SciTech Connect

In FY 1984, LBL's research on solar energy included: passive approaches to heating, cooling, and lighting of commercial buildings; thermal storage materials; and advanced aperture materials. Thermodynamic cycles that can potentially increase the efficiency of solar-driven absorption air conditioners are being studied. Microstructural properties of materials are researched for conversion, control, and collection of sunlight.

Not Available

1985-08-01

327

Solar energy is growing up fast  

SciTech Connect

Few investors were willing - until recently - to put big money into large-scale solar investments, in part because they were not sure if they could find a willing buyer for the generated electricity. Several things have changed the equation in favor of solar energy - in fact, in favor of all sorts of non-traditional energy technologies. First, the cost of traditional fossil-fueled technologies has been steadily rising as fuel prices and construction costs escalate. Second, renewables-friendly policies have created a relatively low-risk market for renewables and/or low-carbon generation. Third, as investors scale up and innovate, the cost of alternative technologies has been rapidly falling. Combined, these trends have had a remarkable impact on solar energy technologies over the past couple of years, with stunning results. In particular, German policymakers are trying to create a new industrial base on par with car manufacturing and precision machine tools.

NONE

2008-06-15

328

Review of solar and low energy cooling technologies for buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to examine solar cooling and low energy cooling technologies. A brief review of various cooling systems is presented, including solar sorption cooling, solar-mechanical systems, solar related air conditioning, and other low energy cooling technologies. The relative efficiencies and applications of the various technologies are presented. These technologies can be utilized to reduce both the

G. A. Florides; S. A. Tassou; S. A. Kalogirou; L. C. Wrobel

2002-01-01

329

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.

330

Florida Solar Energy Center: K-12 Curricula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains sets of curricular materials on energy use and renewable energy sources, organized into units of instruction for Grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Topics covered include solar energy, hydrogen, and other alternative fuels. Printable lesson plans are supplemented with interactive games and activities for use in the science classroom. Each instructional unit is aligned with science education standards and include learning goals and suggestions for teachers.

2007-11-27

331

Integrated solar energy harvesting and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT To explore integrated solar energy harvesting as a power,source for low power systems such as wireless sensor nodes, an array of energy,scavenging ,photodiodes ,based ,on a ,passive-pixel architecture for imagers and have been fabricated together with storage capacitors implemented ,using on-chip interconnect in a 0.35 ?m CMOS ,logic process. Integrated vertical plate capacitors enable dense energy storage without limiting

Nathaniel J. Guilar; Albert Chen; Travis Kleeburg; Rajeevan Amirtharajah

2006-01-01

332

Solar energy for electric vehicles: systems analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses a new tank for carrying solar energy-the zinc-air battery, which can deliver propulsion energy from sunlight with greater efficiency and less value-added expense. This battery generates electric energy by combining zinc from its anode with oxygen from air to form zincate. At the recharging station the zincate is replaced with zinc, and the zincate is sent to a electro-winnowing

H. Oman

1998-01-01

333

Web-Based Mapping Applications for Solar Energy Project Planning, Solar 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Determining economically viable locations for solar energy projects depends on many factors, including the level of the solar energy resource, land ownership and use, potential environmental impacts, and grid connectivity. This forum session will highligh...

D. Koehler D. P. Ames J. Kuiper R. Lee T. Quinby

2013-01-01

334

Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

335

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-01-01

336

Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.  

PubMed

Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions. PMID:23298882

Mlinar, Vladan

2013-02-01

337

Manufacture of silicon carbide using solar energy  

DOEpatents

A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using solar energy. The method is efficient and avoids the need for use of electrical energy to heat the reactants. Finely divided silica and carbon are admixed and placed in a solar-heated reaction chamber for a time sufficient to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

1992-01-01

338

Solar energy education - a viable pathway for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing consumption of limited reserves of fossil fuels and their impact to the environment have raised global interest in harnessing solar energy. Proper knowledge of solar energy is lacking in many levels of society. Recently, the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) have conducted a survey on the availability of solar energy

S. M. Hasnain; S. H. Alawaji; U. A. Elani

1998-01-01

339

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

340

Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in

R. H. Barbieri; D. S. Pivirotto

1978-01-01

341

A solar energy system with annual aquifer storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

By utilizing a sufficiently large thermal energy storage system, solar energy can be collected the year round and utilized during relatively short periods. Solar energy collected in the summer can be used in the winter. In some cases, over four times as much solar energy can be collected per month in the summer versus collection per month in the winter.

W. J. Schaetzle; C. E. Brett; L. R. Fang; D. M. Grubbs

1979-01-01

342

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

343

Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

Loferski, J. J.

1976-01-01

344

Solar energy research and applications in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar collectors and silicon solar cells are being used by a dozen or so provinces and municipalities in China, in barbershops, hotels, restaurants and public bath houses, and solar radiation is being used for distillation and power generation. Vacuum-glass tube solar collectors, solar air driers, solar cookers, solar houses, solar welding devices and solar thermal power installations are some of

L. Wei de

1980-01-01

345

An assessment of solar energy as a national energy resource  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applications are discussed of solar energy for thermal energy for buildings; chemical and biological conversion of organic materials to liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels; and the generation of electricity. It is concluded that if solar development programs are successful, building heating for public use is possible within 5 years, building cooling in 6 to 10 years, synthetic fuels from organic materials in 5 to 8 years, and electricity production in 10 to 15 years.

Donovan, P.; Woodward, W.; Cherry, W. E.; Morse, F. H.; Herwig, L. O.

1972-01-01

346

Solar Energy Program, FY 1982 annual report  

SciTech Connect

In FY 1982, LBL's work in passive solar included heat transfer research, systems analysis, and materials studies. In the heat transfer area, two projects were pursued. In the first, experimental and analytic studies of natural convection processes that take place within buildings and between the interior of a building and the environment were performed. In the second project, data from spectral infrared sky measurements were analyzed in order to develop correlations between sky temperature and other environmental parameters. In the area of systems analysis, computer models of convective and other basic heat transfer processes were developed, verified, and incorporated into building energy analysis computer programs. Finally, a new passive research project was initiated near the end of FY 1982. Innovative materials that can replace or supplement conventional glazing materials and provide large reductions in building energy use are being identified. Thermodynamic cycles that have the potential for increasing the efficiency of solar-fired absorption air conditioners by at least a factor of two, compared to the current state-of-the-art, are being studied. An air conditioner based on one of these advanced cycles, the double-effect regenerative absorption cycle, has been designed, fabricated, and installed in a new laboratory test facility. A new materials-oriented research program to explore advanced processes for solar energy utilization was established this year. The three primary elements of this research program are: solar heating and chemistry of small particle suspensions, porous optical materials for insulating glazings, and solar collection and control using diffractive optics.

Cairns, E.J.; Wahlig, M.A.

1983-03-01

347

A management strategy for solar panel — battery — super capacitor hybrid energy system in solar car  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of solar energy - battery - super-capacitor hybrid energy storage system in solar electric vehicles. The key point is the proposed energy management control algorithm. The entire system consists of a solar panel, a boost converter, a battery, a super capacitor, a bi-directional DC\\/DC converter, and a brushless DC motor. This paper gives the details

Bin Wu; Fang Zhuo; Fei Long; Weiwei Gu; Yang Qing; YanQin Liu

2011-01-01

348

Solar energy climatology of North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy climatology for North Carolina was developed using radiation data from the six SOLMET stations in the state. The climatology provides information needed to design solar powered space and water heating systems, and evaluate their performance. It specifies the distribution of montly average daily total radiatrion on a horizontal surface, relationships between radiation and temperature for an average heating season, and the variability of radiation within a season. The main features of the solar energy climatology can be explained by the synoptic climatology of the area. The absolute values of the SOLMET radiation data are questionable, although they are acceptable for system design purposes. Results are presented graphically, allowing the climatology to be easily related to system performance. Examples of the relationship are given for a typical active space and water heating system, using the F-chart method to calculate performance.

Robinson, P.J.; Easterling, W.E.

1982-11-01

349

Is Solar Energy the Fuel of the Future?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the present distribution of solar energy, traces its use through history, explores its potential utilization in the future, and presents the effects of the use of solar energy on pollution. (GS)

Cetincelik, Mauammer

1974-01-01

350

Solar Energy in the Arab World: Policies and Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The situation of solar energy research, development, and applications in the Arab World is studied, based on a field survey made in the Arab countries. The method of surveying used is described, indicating the difficulties encountered. The solar energy pr...

M. A. Kettani M. A. S. Malik

1979-01-01

351

Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI) Solar Trend Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents trend analyses of various financial terms for solar photovoltaic (PV) projects and concentrated solar power (CSP) projects as reported in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (...

K. Cory M. Mendelsohn R. Hubbell T. Lowder

2012-01-01

352

Photochemical Solar Energy Conversion. An Assessment of Scientific Accomplishments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on photochemical solar energy conversion has grown exponentially. Basic sciences have benefited most from this research. The tenet of the present Feature Article is that solar energy research has appreciably contributed to the ongoing renaissance...

J. H. Fendler

1985-01-01

353

Solar energy decision support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy plays a prominent role in human society. As a result of technological and industrial developments, the demand for energy is rapidly increasing. Existing power sources that are mainly fossil fuel based are leaving an unacceptable legacy of waste and pollution apart from diminishing stock of fuels. Hence, the focus is now shifted to large-scale propagation of renewable energy. Renewable

T. V. Ramachandra; J. Rajeev Kumar; S. Vamsee Krishna; B. V. Shruthi

2006-01-01

354

Solar energy decision support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy plays a prominent role in human society. As a result of technological and industrial development, the demand for energy is rapidly increasing. Existing power sources that are mainly fossil fuel based are leaving an unacceptable legacy of waste and pollution apart from diminishing stock of fuels. Hence, the focus is now shifted to large-scale propagation of renewable energy. Renewable

T. V. Ramachandra; Rajeev Kumar Jha; S. Vamsee Krishna; B. V. Shruthi

2005-01-01

355

Method and apparatus for collecting solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and device for collecting solar energy is the subject of this application. A glass cloth coated with a light absorbing resinous material is utilized as the collector panel. A glass cloth coated with a translucent resinous material is the preferred material for a cover panel that is disposed in spaced relationship to the collector panel. A framework holds

1981-01-01

356

Energy Requirements for Opening the Solar Corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eruptive solar events like flares and coronal mass ejections are thought to involve the release of energy stored in nonpotential magnetic fields. If this is the case, then the magnetic field configuration must change as the eruptive event occurs. One possible change is the opening of field lines that were originally closed a change that is observed in many coronagraph

Richard Wolfson

1993-01-01

357

Recirculating natural convection solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recirculating natural convection solar energy collectors are disclosed. In one species of the invention, the collector comprises an insulated housing, a cover of glass or other suitable transparent material, a transparent plate of glass or other suitable material mounted inside said housing and spaced apart from the cover, a heat absorber mounted inside the housing and spaced apart from the

Soleau; B. S. Jr

1979-01-01

358

Solar energy systems: Standards for rubber hose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of commercial rubber hose was made to develop standards for hoses used in solar energy systems. Twelve hoses were evaluated by cycling between temperatures of about 100 C and temperatures as low as -40 C during a period of about seven months. Laboratory tests for bursting strength, compatibility with metals, compression set, ozone resistance, and water vapor transmission

R. D. Stiehler; J. L. Michalak

1979-01-01

359

Evaluation of focusing solar energy collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introductory presentation is made concerning means of evaluating the performance of focusing solar energy collectors, with emphasis on common features among different focusing collectors. Term definitions, the advantages of focusing collectors, over flat-plate collectors methods of concentration, an illustrative example, and an economic evaluation criterion are discussed. It is concluded that the key information necessary to evaluate a collector

F. Kreith

1975-01-01

360

Solar energy potential in mountainous terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountainous terrain provides a special radiation climate that can be of advantage for solar energy conversion. Parameters influencing the general radiative climate are determined by the meso-scale of the locations. The major parameters are discussed and their respective influence on the radiative climate demonstrated using data recorded at various Alpine areas. Grid size for radiation networks has to be reduced

I. Dirmhirn

1977-01-01

361

Self-supporting active solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses a self-supporting active solar energy system with attention to heat collection, power generation, forced circulation subsystems, and distribution. The system is described in terms of four possible states: (1) sun available and heated fluid in demand, (2) sun available and heated fluid not in demand, (3) sun not available and heated fluid not in demand, and (4)

R. Zakhariya

1977-01-01

362

Solar energy storage and distributing device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy storage and distributing device having a heat storage chamber arranged for retaining heat which can be received from a solar collector arrangement or from a furnace or furnaces disposed within the chamber itself is described. Mounted on the chamber is a plenum arrangement disposed for directing warm fluid to a space to be heated, such as a room

Gottier

1979-01-01

363

Electric Utility Solar Energy Activities, 1978 Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a survey to determine the scope of solar energy projects sponsored by electric utilities in the United States are presented. Brief descriptions of 600 projects being conducted by 165 utility companies are given. Also included are a list of ...

W. L. York

1979-01-01

364

Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

365

Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

366

Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

367

Biomimetic Approach to Solar Energy Conversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A biomimetic process is carried out in vitro by an inanimate system or apparatus and is based on methods used by living organisms. Specifically, the prospects for using the methods of plant photosynthesis for solar energy conversion are considered. The di...

J. J. Katz T. R. Janson M. R. Wasielewski

1977-01-01

368

Prototype residential solar-energy system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complete solar-energy domestic-hot-water system for single-family residences is described in brochure. It contains data on procurement, installation, operation, and maintainance of system in residential or light commercial buildings. Appendix includes vendor brochures for major system components. Drawings, tables, and graphs complement text.

1978-01-01

369

Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was conducted to develop solar energy installers curriculum guides for use in high school vocational centers and community colleges. Project activities included researching job competencies for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning industry and determining through interviews and manufacturers' literature what additional…

Walker, Gene C.

370

Solar Thermal Energy: BTU or Bust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will allow students the opportunity to design, build, test and evaluate a solar energy heating device that will raise the temperature of a pound of water sealed in a PVC pipe to the highest BTU level without damaging the cylinder. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2013-01-08

371

79 FR 14733 - Notice Seeking Public Interest for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the Dry Lake Solar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice Seeking Public Interest for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the Dry Lake Solar Energy Zone in Clark County, NV AGENCY...proposing projects for utility- scale solar energy development on approximately...

2014-03-17

372

Assessment of methods for hydrogen production using concentrated solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to assess methods for hydrogen production using concentrated solar energy. The results of this work can be used to guide future work in the application of concentrated solar energy to hydrogen production. Specifically, the objectives were to: (1) determine the cost of hydrogen produced from methods that use concentrated solar thermal energy, (2) compare

G. Glatzmaier; D. Blake; S. Showalter

1998-01-01

373

Financing Solar Energy in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Summary The financing of solar energy, representing one of the final phases of the process of commercializing solar energy technologies, needs to be addressed as carefully as the previous stages of research, development, demonstration, and commercial utilization. The degree to which solar energy is financeable represents a key measure of its commercialization. Ultimately, the \\

Michael T. Eckhart

1999-01-01

374

Solar PV-diesel hybrid energy system for rural applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describe sizing of solar PV, DG set and battery bank for different configurations for share of solar power. Different configurations for integration of solar with diesel energy systems are explained in detail. The energy availability and reliability of the integrated energy system are highlighted The economics for implementation of different configurations are dealt with detailed discussion in this

Rajashekar P. Mandi; Udaykumar R. Yaragatti

2010-01-01

375

Situation and outlook of solar energy utilization in Tibet, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The near-exponential rise in tourist numbers and accelerating economic growth have challenged Tibetan energy supply and threaten its peculiar environment and valuable ecosystem. Exploitation of pollution free solar power may medicate this demand for energy. Here we shall provide a review of solar power development in Tibet. This region has a near inexhaustible source of solar energy due to its

Qiang Wang; Huan-Ning Qiu

2009-01-01

376

Weather modification by carbon dust absorption of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility was investigated of beneficial weather modification through artificial solar energy absorption. A variety of physical ideas related to artificial heat sources on different scales of motion are considered. Interest is concentrated on the feasibility of mesoscale weather modification through solar energy absorption by carbon aerosol particles of .1 ..mu..m or less. Particles of this size maximize solar energy

William M. Gray; William M. Frank; Myron L. Corrin; Charles A. Stokes

1976-01-01

377

Solar energy utilization by physical methods.  

PubMed

On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will not cause a greater impact than other new energy sources, based on the reasoning that a self-consistent set of conditions will have to be fulfilled in order to achieve such large-scale use. Without cost competitiveness, other energy resources would fill the requirements, or, if their resource and cost structure also would create severe problems, the economic forecasts simply cannot be fulfilled. We also should not think of a "solar-only" energy future. First, there is still enough coal to last for several hundred years. Second, there should be enough fissionable fuel available to operate breeder reactors for a similar time span, and geothermal energy could satisfy some requirements for a long time. And finally, there may be fusion. It would be unlikely that any one of the available options should play a really dominant role. Rather, we should expect to be using an energy mix, just as we do now, with each energy source supplying the requirements which it can satisfy in the most suitable way, and solar energy should play an important role in this long-range future. PMID:17792569

Wolf, M

1974-04-19

378

Design and Analysis of Hybrid Solar Lighting and Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a systems-level design and analysis of a new approach for improving the energy efficiency and affordability of solar energy in buildings, namely, hybrid solar lighting and full-spectrum solar energy systems. By using different portions of the solar spectrum simultaneously for multiple end-use applications in buildings, the proposed system offers unique advantages over other alternatives for using sunlight

Muhs

2001-01-01

379

Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

Several essential and common aspects of photovoltaics, photoelectrochemistry, and photogalvanics are considered in an interdisciplinary situation limited to systems which have not or have hardly reached the stage of practical development. The topics covered are the fundamentals of recombination in solar cells, theoretical and experimental aspects of hetrojunctions and semiconductor/metal Schottky barriers, photoelectrochemical cells, photogalvanic cells, and surfactant assemblies. The eight chapters form the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Photovoltaic and Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion held August 25-September 5, 1980, at Gent, Belgium.

Cardon, F.; Dekeyser, W.; Gomes, W.P.

1981-01-01

380

Thermodynamic and design considerations of organic Rankine cycles in combined application with a solar thermal gas turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies are considered to provide a significant contribution for the electric power production in the future. Different kinds of technologies are presently in operation or under development, e.g. parabolic troughs, central receivers, solar dish systems and Fresnel reflectors. This paper takes the focus on central receiver technologies, where the solar radiation is concentrated by a field of heliostats in a receiver on the top of a tall tower. To get this CSP technology ready for the future, the system costs have to reduce significantly. The main cost driver in such kind of CSP technologies are the huge amount of heliostats. To reduce the amount of heliostats, and so the investment costs, the efficiency of the energy conversion cycle becomes an important issue. An increase in the cycle efficiency results in a decrease of the solar heliostat field and thus, in a significant cost reduction. The paper presents the results of a thermodynamic model of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for combined cycle application together with a solar thermal gas turbine. The gas turbine cycle is modeled with an additional intercooler and recuperator and is based on a typical industrial gas turbine in the 2 MW class. The gas turbine has a two stage radial compressor and a three stage axial turbine. The compressed air is preheated within a solar receiver to 950°C before entering the combustor. A hybrid operation of the gas turbine is considered. In order to achieve a further increase of the overall efficiency, the combined operation of the gas turbine and an Organic Rankine Cycle is considered. Therefore an ORC has been set up, which is thermally connected to the gas turbine cycle at two positions. The ORC can be coupled to the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle at the intercooler and after the recuperator. Thus, waste heat from different cycle positions can be transferred to the ORC for additional production of electricity. Within this investigation different working fluids and ORC conditions have been analyzed in order to evaluate the best configuration. The investigations have been performed by application of improved thermodynamic and process analysis tools, which consider the real gas behavior of the analyzed fluids. The results show that by combined operation of the solar thermal gas turbine and the ORC, the combined cycle efficiency is approximately 4%-points higher than in the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle.

Braun, R.; Kusterer, K.; Sugimoto, T.; Tanimura, K.; Bohn, D.

2013-12-01

381

Proceedings of a solar energy seminar for southern utility executives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the seminar was to inform utility executives concerning the present status of solar energy technology and the solar industry, and to provide an opportunity for general information exchange. Nine presentations are included in the proceedings which deal with solar applications for utilities and the applications and current status of solar technologies. The presentations covered: Residential Conservation Service;

1981-01-01

382

Engineered biomimicry for harvesting solar energy: a bird's eye view  

Microsoft Academic Search

All three methodologies of engineered biomimicry – bioinspiration, biomimetics, and bioreplication – are represented in current research on harvesting solar energy. Both processes and porous surfaces inspired by plants and certain marine animals, respectively, are being investigated for solar cells. Whereas dye-sensitized solar cells deploy artificial photosynthesis, bioinspired nanostructuring of materials in solar cells improves performance. Biomimetically textured coatings for

Raúl J. Martín-Palma; Akhlesh Lakhtakia

2012-01-01

383

Investigation of solar energy for photovoltaic application in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the availability of solar energy resources for photovoltaic applications in Singapore, a typical tropical country. The paper analyzes the two years solar radiation data in Singapore, studies on the impact of unique tropical weather conditions on solar radiation and performs a case study of grid-tied PV system. The solar radiation data in 2002 and 2003 are collected

Fan Jiang

2007-01-01

384

Harnessing surface plasmons for solar energy conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA research on the feasibility of solar-energy conversion using surface plasmons is reviewed, with a focus on inelastic-tunnel-diode techniques for power extraction. The need for more efficient solar converters for planned space missions is indicated, and it is shown that a device with 50-percent efficiency could cost up to 40 times as much per sq cm as current Si cells and still be competitive. The parallel-processing approach using broadband carriers and tunable diodes is explained, and the physics of surface plasmons on metal surfaces is outlined. Technical problems being addressed include phase-matching sunlight to surface plasmons, minimizing ohmic losses and reradiation in energy transport, coupling into the tunnels by mode conversion, and gaining an understanding of the tunnel-diode energy-conversion process. Diagrams illustrating the design concepts are provided.

Anderson, L. M.

1983-01-01

385

Solar energy conversion using surface plasmons for broadband energy transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new strategy for efficient solar energy conversion based on parallel processing with surface plasmons is introduced. The approach is unique in identifying: (1) a broadband carrier with suitable range for energy transport, and (2) a technique to extract more energy from the more energetic photons, without sequential losses or unique materials for each frequency band. The aim is to overcome the fundamental losses associated with the broad solar spectrum and to achieve a higher level of spectrum splitting than has been possible in semiconductor systems.

Anderson, L. M.

1982-01-01

386

Comparison of the solar energy utilisation potential of different urban environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides a more efficient energy use, large scale application of solar energy technologies in the urban context will be necessary in the upcoming decades to achieve a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the biosphere. Two different urban sites, representative of two of the largest Swiss cities (Basel and Geneva), were examined under this aspect in order to assess

M Montavon; J-L Scartezzini; R Compagnon

387

Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts & Education Center  

SciTech Connect

The Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts and Education Center is an 8,000 sq.ft. demonstration project that will be constructed to Platinum LEED certification and will be the first carbon-neutral, net-zero energy use public building in New York City, giving it local and national appeal. Employing â��greenâ� building features and holistic engineering practices throughout its international award-winning design, Solar 2 will be powered by a 90kW photovoltaic (PV) array in conjunction with a geothermal heating and cooling system and a high efficient design that seeks to reduce the overall energy load of the building. Solar 2 will replace our current 500 sq.ft. prototype facility - known as Solar 1 - as the educational and cultural centerpiece of a five-block public greenway on the East River in Stuyvesant Cove Park, located along two acres of public riverfront on a newly reclaimed, former brownfield in lower Manhattan. Designed as a public-use complex for year-round environmental education exhibits and onsite activities for all ages and backgrounds, Solar 2 will demonstrate energy-efficiency technologies and sustainable environmental practices available now to all urban residents, eco-tourists, teachers, and students alike. Showcasing one of Solar 2â��s most striking design elements is the PV roof array with a caf�© and river vistas for miles of New York Cityâ��s skylines. Capping the building as a solar-powered landmark, and visible from the FDR Drive, the PV array is also designed to provide visitors below a view of the solar roof when standing outside, as well as directly underneath it. Recognized by an international jury of architects, civil engineers and urban designers by the Swiss-based Holcim Foundation, the Solar 2 design was awarded the prestigious Holcim North American 2008 Gold Award for Sustainable Construction for â��innovative, future-oriented and tangible sustainable construction projects,â� selected from more than 1900 entries. Funding from the Department of Energy was provided to assist with the ongoing design work of Solar 2, including architecture, engineering and the development of construction specifications. The work performed during the project period brought this process as far along as it could go pending the raising of funds to begin construction of the building. Once those funds are secured, we will finalize any additional details needed before beginning the bidding process and then moving into construction. DOEâ��s funding was extremely valuable in helping Solar One determine the feasibility of a net-zero construction on the site and allowed for the design to project to meet the high standards necessary for LEED Platinum status.

Paquette, Jamie C.; Collins, Christopher J.

2011-07-18

388

Crisis - Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module offers a five-hour class schedule for discussion and study of the overall U.S. energy system including resources, consumption rates, governmental plans and regulations, energy/conservation problems and techniques, and energy/conservation programs. The module includes a pre-post test, suggested class activities, a basic…

O'Brien, Alexander

389

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Investigating Renewable Energy Data from Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Panels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using renewable sources of energy benefits the environment and contributes to more sustainable energy use. The burning of fossil fuels generates air pollution and increased CO2 in the atmosphere. CO2 is the major greenhouse gas warming our planet. Using more renewable sources of energy not only reduces pollution, but also conserves the current limited supply of fossil fuels. This chapter looks at how much solar energy is generated using photovoltaic panels on rooftops or exposed ground locations at installations around the U.S. The focus is on three different websites that monitor and report solar energy production from panels at a few hundred locations.

390

Solar energy system performance evaluation - Seasonal Report for Seeco Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska  

SciTech Connect

The SEECO Lincoln Solar Energy System was designed to provide 60 percent of the space heating for the 50 seat Hyde Memorial Observatory in Lincoln, Nebraska. The system consists of nine SEECO Mod 1 flat plate air collectors (481 square feet), a 347 cubic foot rock storage bin, blowers, controls and air ducting. An auxiliary natural gas furnace provides additional energy when the solar energy is not adequate to meet the space heating demand. The system has five modes of operation. System description, typical system operation, system operating sequence, performance assessment, system performance, subsystem performance (collector array, storage, space heating), operating energy, energy savings and maintenance are discussed.

None

1980-06-01

391

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science  

SciTech Connect

Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

392

Solar Thermal Energy: An Overview of One-Sun Solar Thermal Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides an introduction to solar thermal energy. The presentation includes descriptions of solar basics, technology and future solar technology systems. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Burch, Jay

2013-01-03

393

Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

Anderson, L. M. (inventor)

1984-01-01

394

Interfaces in solar-energy materials  

SciTech Connect

The importance is summarized of various methods for studying the stability of interfaces in solar energy materials and of the interfaces. An overview is given that explains why interfaces are crucially important for developing long-life, cost-effective, multilayer, polycrystalline, thin-film stacks for solar energy conversion systems (SECS). Second, broad categories of characterization methods, approaches, and processes in interface science are reviewed ad related to studies required for components in SECS, in which the importance of compositional analysis of interfaces is emphasized. These include surface area, real and clean surfaces, structure and topography, interface composition or purity, surface thermodynamics, diffusion, amount adsorbed, and nature of adsorbate/solid interactions. Third, an overview is given for the solar-related research needs and opportunities in various topical areas in interface science. These topics include thin films; grain, phase, and interface boundaries; oxidation and corrosion; andhesion; chemisorption, catalysis, and surface processes; abrasion and erosion; photon-assisted surface reactions and photoelectrochemistry; and interface characterization methods. A brief review is given concerning the current status of interfacial characterization. Mention is made of typical current problems with reflector, polymer, absorber, and PV cell interfaces, specifically, and of how the interface methods can or are being applied to solar materials research.

Czanderna, A.W.

1982-02-01

395

Solar-energy-system performance-evaluation update: El Toro Library, El Toro, California, December 1981-August 1982  

SciTech Connect

The El Toro Library is a one-story facility that contains 10,000 square feet of floor area. The solar energy system was designed to provide 97% of the space heating load and 60% of the space cooling load. The solar energy system incorporates 82 panels with a gross area of 1427 square feet of evacuated tubular glass collectors (TC-100) manufactured by General Electric. The storage tank is a 1500-gallon insulated steel tank which is located outside, above ground level. The space heating subsystem uses solar energy from storage and/or thermal energy from the natural-gas-fired boiler. The space cooling subsystem uses an absorption chiller to provide chilled water to the air-handling unit. As compared to the previous year, performance over the nine-month monitoring period was improved, based on overall solar contribution to the load. When compared to design values, the overall performance was poor. Overall solar fraction was an estimated 22% of the 220 million Btu system load. A total of 122 million Btu of solar energy was used by the space conditioning system. Auxiliary fossil fuel consumption was 608 million Btu, or 595,800 cubic feet of natural gas. Auxiliary thermal energy was a measured 68% of the auxiliary fossil fuel consumed. The solar savings ratio, a measure of the solar contribution to the load discounted by solar operating energy, averaged 19% during the analysis period. The previous year, the solar savings ratio was 16%.

Kendall, P.W.

1982-01-01

396

High Energy Gas Fracturing Test  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed two tests of a high-energy gas fracturing system being developed by Western Technologies of Crossville, Tennessee. The tests involved the use of two active wells located at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), thirty-five miles north of Casper, Wyoming (See Figure 1). During the testing process the delivery and operational system was enhanced by RMOTC, Western Technologies, and commercial wireline subcontractors. RMOTC has assisted an industrial client in developing their technology for high energy gas fracturing to a commercial level. The modifications and improvements implemented during the technology testing process are instrumental in all field testing efforts at RMOTC. The importance of well selection can also be critical in demonstrating the success of the technology. To date, significant increases in well productivity have been clearly proven in well 63-TPX-10. Gross fluid production was initially raised by a factor of three. Final production rates increased by a factor of six with the use of a larger submersible pump. Well productivity (bbls of fluid per foot of drawdown) increased by a factor of 15 to 20. The above results assume that no mechanical damage has occurred to the casing or cast iron bridge plug which could allow well production from the Tensleep ''B'' sand. In the case of well 61-A-3, a six-fold increase in total fluid production was seen. Unfortunately, the increase is clouded by the water injection into the well that was necessary to have a positive fluid head on the propellant tool. No significant increase in oil production was seen. The tools which were retrieved from both 63-TPX-10 and 61-A-3 indicated a large amount of energy, similar to high gram perforating, had been expended downhole upon the formation face.

Schulte, R.

2001-02-27

397

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part I. Energy, Society, and the Sun  

SciTech Connect

A collection of magazine articles which were selected for information on solar energy is presented in this booklet. This booklet is the first of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles provide brief discussions on topics such as the power of the sun, solar energy developments for homes, solar energy versus power plants, solar access laws, and the role of utilities with respect to the sun's energy. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

398

Relaxation and Transport of ENAs produced in Interaction between the Interstellar Gas and Solar Wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate parameters of the momentum-energy relaxation and transport of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) in the local interstellar medium have been determined. To evaluate the rates of collision energy losses and to describe the ENA propagation in the interstellar gas, the angular and energy dependent cross sections have been computed using ab initio interaction potentials and quantum mechanical treatment of collision processes. Detailed analysis has been carried out for nascent keV hydrogen and helium ENAs, originating from the stellar/solar wind charge exchange processes, as they interact with the thermal interstellar gas and plasma. With the computed collision parameters, the momentum-energy transfer and energy relaxation rates of fast neutral H, He, and O atoms have been calculated for the local interstellar medium, consisting of both warm dense interstellar clouds and hot dilute plasma. Key parameters of He and H ENAs in the interstellar medium, such as energy and spatial distributions of the steady state ENA fluxes, averaged thermalization times and characteristic thermalization lengths, the reflection and transmission coefficients for ENAs interacting with the interstellar gas, have been determined through Monte Carlo simulations with accurate angular and energy dependent collision cross sections.

Kharchenko, V. A.; Lewkow, N.

2013-12-01

399

Solar energy, conservation, and rental housing  

SciTech Connect

Renters must pay the majority of energy costs either directly or in their rents. They have limited financial and legal abilities to make improvements necessary to increase substantially the energy efficiency of rental housing. This report discusses the problem of how to increase investments in energy conservation and solar energy devices for rental housing, which constitutes over one-third of US housing. As background, this report characterizes the rental-housing market, including owners' decision-making criteria. Federal, state, and local policies that affect energy-related investments in rental housing are described. Programs are divided into five major categories: (1) programs for tenants, (2) financial incentives for owners, (3) leasing of solar energy equipment, (4) mediation between tenants and landlords, and (5) regulation. The report concludes that energy and conservation programs aimed at the residential sector must disaggregate owner-occupied housing from rental housing for maximum effect. No one program is advocated since local rental-housing markets differ substantially. For improvements greater than no-cost or low-cost items, programs must be directed at rental-housing owners and not only at tenants.

Levine, A.; Raab, J.

1981-03-01

400

Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context  

SciTech Connect

The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

Shea, C.A.

1980-12-01

401

Operational experience from solar thermal energy projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

Cameron, C. P.

1984-03-01

402

Design of Photovoltaic automatic Tracking System for solar energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gave a particular description of a tracking and concentration system for solar energy utilization. A multi-glasses concentration and tracking photovoltaic system is designed. A research on the racking and concentration system for solar energy utilization was made. A tracking system based on the theory that solar can be gathered depending on plane mirror reflecting was set up. And

Zhou Haifeng; Huang Yuanqing; Ling Gang; Wang Rongjie; Lin Zhonghua; Zheng Tianyi

2009-01-01

403

Application of Energy Storage to Solar Electric Propulsion Orbital Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar electric propulsion uses solar panels to generate power for electric thrusters. Using stored energy makes it possible to thrust through eclipses, but requires that some of the solar power collected during the sunlit portion of the trajectory be used to recharge the storage system. Previous researchers have reported that the required energy storage mass can be prohibitive. However, the

Mark W. Marasch; Christopher D. Hall

2000-01-01

404

Application of Energy Storage to Solar Electric Propulsion Orbital Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar electric propulsion uses solar panels to generate power for electric thrusters. Using stored energy makes it possible to thrust through eclipses, but requires that some of the solar power collected during the sunlit portion of the trajectory be used to recharge the storage system. Previous researchers have reported that the required energy storage mass can be prohibitive. However, the

Mark W. Marasch; Christopher D. Hall

1999-01-01

405

Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas\\/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical

J. H. Lee; F. Hohl

1983-01-01

406

Solar-energy potential in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000?2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, K?r?ehir, Akhisar, Bingöl,

Adnan Sözen; Erol Arcaklio?lu; Mehmet Özalp; E. Galip Kanit

2005-01-01

407

Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

2010-01-01

408

Energy Sources for Trapped Solar Energetic Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During magnetic storms, solar energetic particles (SEPs) can reach the inner magnetosphere and become trapped. We will evaluate the extent to which SEPs trapped in the magnetosphere gain energy after they enter the magnetosphere. We will examine the energy dependence of entry processes, acceleration as the particles move through the magnetosphere and processes affecting the SEPs after they are trapped. The particles might simply retain the energy they possessed before entering the magnetosphere, or they might gain most of their energy after entering the magnetosphere. The entry and trapping process may favor particles in certain energy ranges such that the energy spectrum of the trapped distribution is substantially different from the upstream particles. To examine these energization processes, we apply physics based models of SEPs entry into and motion through the magnetosphere during magnetic storms. We use MHD simulations driven by the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) upstream of the magnetosphere and particle tracing calculations in the time dependent electric and magnetic fields from the MHD simulations. Results suggest that different storms have contrasting energization processes. In particular, storms on November 24, 2001 and November 20, 2003 will be examined.

Richard, R. L.; El-Alaoui, M.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Walker, R. J.

2013-12-01

409

Solar energy system with relay satellite  

SciTech Connect

A system is described for beaming solar energy from space to an earth location and putting it to useful work either as heat or light energy, or by converting it into some other form of energy such as steam or electrical power. In the system illustrated, a receiver satellite is in polar orbit and a relay satellite is in equatorial orbit, rotating with the earth and therefore stationary with respect to earth location. Solar energy is collected by the receiver satellite through an array of parabolic collectors and focused by a series of mirrors onto a coherent radiation energy generator, preferably a laser beam generator. The laser beam is directed by a mirror to another mirror on the relay satellite which redirects it to a selected earth location. Alternatively, the relay satellite may convert the laser beam to a maser beam to better penetrate clouds, smoke and haze at the earth location. The mirrors on the two satellites are mounted on gimbals and are power-operated under continuous automatic telemetry control between the satellites and the ground to direct the laser or maser beam to the eath location. Provision is made on one of the satellites for modifying the beam through a constructive interference filter or a diffuser/expander lens, or both, to regulate the kind of energy and the area covered at the earth location.

Davis, C.E.

1981-12-15

410

Selective Coating Heat Pipe Collector Adaptation to Solar Energy Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selective coated heat pipe collectors for solar energy plants are examined. An anodic coating process was developed in laboratory and transferred to a manufacturing process. A 1750 sqm absorber area, 224 sqm plate surface collector, and 44 sqm solar pump ...

T. Flesch

1984-01-01

411

Thermochemical seasonal energy storage for solar thermal power  

SciTech Connect

During the many years that thermochemical energy storage has been under investigation, the concept has been plagued with two persistent problems: high capital cost and poor efficiency. Literally hundreds of chemical reactions have also been carried out. For short-term storage, thermochemical systems suffer in comparison with highly efficient sensible storage media such as molten salts. Long-term storage, on the other hand, is not cost-competitive with systems employing fossil backup power. Thermochemical storage will play a significant role in solar thermal electric conversion only under highly select circumstances. The portion of electric demand served by solar plants must be sufficiently high that the balance of the grid cannot fully supplant seasonal storage. High fossil fuel costs must preclude the use of gas turbines for backup power. Significant breakthroughs in the development of one or more chemical reaction systems must occur. Ingeniously integrated systems must be employed to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of thermochemical storage. A promising integration scheme discussed herein consists of using sensible storage for diurnal cycling in parallel with thermochemical seasonal storage. Under the most favorable circumstances, thermochemical storage can be expected to play a small but perhaps vital role in supplying baseload energy from solar thermal electric conversion plants.

Barnhart, J.S.

1984-01-01

412

Solar pool heaters: The simplest use of active solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Solar pool heating is the most attractive solar water heating market today, because most pool heaters pay back their purchase price in lower utility bills in two to three years. This article describes why solar pool heaters are popular and their design, operation, and return on investment. 1 fig.

Sheinkopf, K. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

1997-11-01

413

Argonne OutLoud presents: The Solar Energy Challenge  

ScienceCinema

To better understand the current and future role of solar energy, Argonne's Seth Darling framed the global energy supply and demand outlook over the next 40 years while examining potential energy sources from a feasibility and sustainability perspective. He also discussed the promise and challenges of solar energy while providing a broad overview of related research taking place at Argonne as well as his group's work on organic solar cells.

Seth Darling

2013-06-05

414

Argonne OutLoud presents: The Solar Energy Challenge  

SciTech Connect

To better understand the current and future role of solar energy, Argonne's Seth Darling framed the global energy supply and demand outlook over the next 40 years while examining potential energy sources from a feasibility and sustainability perspective. He also discussed the promise and challenges of solar energy while providing a broad overview of related research taking place at Argonne as well as his group's work on organic solar cells.

Seth Darling

2012-07-13

415

Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion 9  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers related to optical materials and solar energy conversion. It is organized under the following sessions. Transparent infrared reflectors, Solar cell materials, Chromogenics, Solar collector materials, Transparent materials.

Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

1990-01-01

416

Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

Collett, T. S.

2002-01-01

417

Effectiveness of using chemically reacting working media in a solar gas-turbine installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermodynamic method for analyzing the cycles of solar gas-turbine installations is developed on the basis of the fundamental laws of thermodynamics of systems of variable composition. The thermodynamic analysis shows that the cycle efficiency of solar gas-turbine installations employing a chemically reacting working fluid is appreciably higher than that of the classical Brayton cycle, particularly at low permissible temperatures

V. V. Chikovani; M. S. Dzitoev; G. I. Krylov

1975-01-01

418

Energy resources of the developing countries and some priority markets for the use of solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy consumption for the developed and non-developed world is expressed as a function of GNP. An almost straight-line graph results when energy consumption statistics are treated in this manner. The richest countries consume the most energy, and the poorest countries the least. It therefore follows that greater energy production in the developing countries (leading to greater energy consumption) will contribute to their economic growth. Energy resources in the developing countries are compared, including: solid fossil fuels, crude oil, natural gas, oil shale, and uranium. Mention is also made of the potential of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, in the underdeveloped world; and it is these resources which offer the greatest possibilities for economic improvement if the money is forthcoming, i.e., from the world bank, to fund the necessary technology.

Siddiqi, T. A.; Hein, G. F.

1977-01-01

419

Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

1978-01-01

420

Applied Science Division annual report, Solar Energy Program FY 1983  

SciTech Connect

In FY 1983, LBL's research on solar energy included: passive solar, optical materials, active solar cooling, the photoelectrical activity of bacteriorhodopsin, and solar energy conversion using microstructured materials. Research in the passive systems development was directed at convection heat transfer, daylighting and passive cooling. Materials that can replace or supplement conventional glazing materials and provide large reductions in building energy use are identified. Thermodynamic cycles that can potentially increase the efficiency solar-driven absorption air conditioners are being studied. The microstructured materials research mainly involved the direct radiant heating of small particle suspensions, but included the development of transparent insulating windows and holographic optical elements as window coatings.

Not Available

1984-09-01

421

Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

1997-01-01

422

Cutoff Energy Behavior for an Ideal Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy distribution for an ideal gas is important to dynamical astronomy because it is used as the statistical basis for modeling relaxed dynamical systems. This presentation deals with some fundamental aspects of this distribution. The microcanonical distribution for a monatomic ideal gas gives the probability that a particle's energy is in a specified range simply as $ dpsi =c1(

M. Cahill

2003-01-01

423

Nanowires for solar energy and hydrogen production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here two approaches that we have developed recently to help solve the problem of energy crisis and global warming facing us today. One approach is to use nanoparticles attached to the end of single-walled carbon nanotubes to catalytically convert CO2 and CH4 into hydrogen and carbon fibers, which can then be used in hydrogen fuel cells and as the building material in transportation vehicles and many other structures. The second approach is to use silica nanowires as templates to make nanoscale electrodes to be used in solar cells. The main advantage of this type of solar cells is that it would be easy to incorporate them directly into glass windows on all the buildings.

Qu, Yongquan; Sutherland, Alexander M.; Guo, Ting

2007-10-01

424

A Simple and Inexpensive Solar Energy Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is presented which utilizes the current solid state technology to demonstrate electrochemical generation of hydrogen gas, direct generation of electricity for pumping water, and energy conversion efficiency. The experimental module costs about $100 and can be used repeatedly. (BB)

Evans, J. H.; Pedersen, L. G.

1979-01-01

425

Schools Going Solar: A Guide to Schools Enjoying the Power of Solar Energy. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This companion document updates an April 1998 volume on designing schools to use solar energy as a power source. Volume 2 presents numerous case studies of solar installations in new and existing schools across the United States and Europe, updates and presents new examples of solar education programs, and offers an updated resource listing of…

Hitchcock, Susan Tyler

426

The DOE office of solar energy technologies’ vision for advancing solar technologies in the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an introduction to the new DOE Office of Solar Energy Technologies (OSET). The OSET combines the Phovoltaics (PV), Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), and Solar Buildings programs into a single office. This new organization creates opportunities for efficiencies and joint efforts that benefit all three research programs. Most important, it creates a single focus within DOE for the

James Rannels

2000-01-01

427

Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea have been measured in an attempt to identify the contributions of such components. A systematic enrichment in Ne-20 and Ne-21 relative to Ne-22 compared to atmospheric neon has been found. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in the samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic, and nucleogenic components. The data suggest that the noble-gas iosotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solarlike component. It is inferred that this component was acquired during the formation of the earth.

Honda, Masahiko; McDougall, Ian; Patterson, Desmond B.; Doulgeris, Anthony; Clague, David A.

1991-01-01

428

Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

1983-01-01

429

Solar-Heated Gasifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catalytic coal and biomass gasifer system heated by solar energy. Sunlight from solar concentrator focused through quartz window onto ceramic-honeycomb absorber surface, which raises temperature of reactant steam, fluidizing gas, and reactor walls.

Qader, S. A.

1985-01-01

430

RESIDUAL ENERGY SPECTRUM OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 yr of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of {sigma}{sub r} = -0.19 and mean Alfven ratio of r{sub A} = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cross helicity were also investigated, showing that globally balanced intervals with small residual energy contain local patches of larger imbalance and larger residual energy at all scales, as expected for nonlinear turbulent interactions.

Chen, C. H. K.; Bale, S. D.; Salem, C. S.; Maruca, B. A., E-mail: chen@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-06-20

431

Investigating Renewable Energy Data from Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Panels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students look at how much solar energy is generated by photovoltaic panels on rooftops or exposed ground locations at installations around the United States. They explore three different websites that monitor and report solar energy production from panels at many different locations. Next, they examine data from a single location, as well as compare data from two different locations. Lastly, they consider how much of a school's or home's energy needs could be supplied by solar power.

Mcauliffe, Carla; Freuder, Rita; Terc

432

Analysis of PURPA and solar energy  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) is designed to promote energy conservation, the efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates. PURPA specifically directs the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to encourage small power production from renewable resources (and also cogeneration of electric energy as well as heat) by setting standards under which facilities qualify for interconnection, and guidelines for sales between utilities and independent facilities. The way FERC carries out this mandate may critically affect the development of solar alternatives to electric power production from fossil and nuclear resources. This report comments on proposed FERC regulations and suggests ways to encourage small power production within the PURPA mandate. In addition, some internal strains within PURPA are analyzed that seem to limit the effectiveness with which FERC can encourage independent facilities, and possible modifications to PURPA are suggested. 255 references.

Rice, M.

1980-03-01

433

Use of local tax incentives for solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to incentives such as tax credits and low interest loans which are provided on the state and federal levels to promote the use of solar energy systems, there are numerous locally available incentives which can provide a further inducement for the use of solar. These include loans, demonstration projects, utility-financed solar installations and local property tax abatements and

M. ONeill; M. G. Wade

1982-01-01

434

Indoor solar energy harvesting for sensor network router nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique method has been developed to scavenge solar energy from monocrystalline solar cells to power wireless router nodes that are used in indoor applications. This method eliminates the need to use alkaline batteries that require frequent replacement from time to time. The system consists of two key components viz. an energy harvesting unit and an energy storage module. The

Abhiman Hande; Todd Polk; William Walker; Dinesh Bhatia

2007-01-01

435

Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated the potential feasibility of using chemical energy storage at the Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) power plants developed by Luz International. Like sensible or latent heat energy storage systems, chemical energy storage can be beneficially applied to solar thermal power plants to dampen the impact of cloud transients, extend the daily operating period, and\\/or allow

D. R. Brown; J. L. Lamarche; G. E. Spanner

1992-01-01

436

New highly polar semiconductor ferroelectrics for solar energy conversion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is a promising long-term solution for future energy requirements; however, current solar energy conversion devices are plagued by low efficiency. The use of ferroelectric ABO3 perovskite oxides is one approach for boosting conversion efficiency. Ferroelectric oxides possess spontaneous polarization and have been shown to produce a bulk photovoltaic effect, in which charged carriers, specifically electrons and holes, separate

Andrew M. Rappe; Ilya Grinberg; Joseph W. Bennett

2009-01-01

437

The Wind Program at the Northeast Solar Energy Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northeast Solar Energy Center, established in 1977, is one of four regional centers created by the Department of Energy to encourage the use of solar technologies to help meet the nation's energy needs. To this end, the Center's staff works closely with state and local governments, community groups, industry, utilities, contractors, architects, engineers, educators and the legal, financial and

R. L. Bisplinghoff

1981-01-01

438

Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

Glaser, P. E.

1974-01-01

439

High energy phenomena during solar flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose is to analyze the characteristics of peculiar solar events that could be produced by ultrarelativistic electrons and try to define the new boundary conditions for the primary energy release during impulsive phase. It seems that submillimeter emission in solar flares is not a rare phenomenon, there is not much evidence, due to the lack of observations in this range of the spectrum. During May 1984 the Sun was observed at 90 GHz with high time resolution and high sensitivity, and evidence was obtained. The May 21, 1984 event, at 1326 UT is the best example of the high energy manifestation during the spectrum and gave us new boundary conditions for the physical phenomena in the Sun. The May 21 event required a detailed analysis of the current interpretation models and suggested the presence of relativistic electrons during the impulsive phase. In this case Syncrotron/inverse compton mechanism was suggested to explain submillimeter/x ray emission and short pulse duration. The new boundary conditions for primary energy release favored Tajima and Sakai's model, based in magnetic island coalescence theory.

Correia, Emilia

1989-11-01

440

Lightweight, low-cost solar energy collector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight solar concentrator of the reflecting parabolic or trough type is realized via a thin reflecting film, an inflatable structural housing and tensioned fibers. The reflector element itself is a thin, flexible, specularly-reflecting sheet or film. The film is maintained in the parabolic trough shape by means of a plurality of identical tensioned fibers arranged to be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the parabola. Fiber ends are terminated in two identical spaced anchorplates, each containing a plurality of holes which lie on the desired parabolic contour. In a preferred embodiment, these fibers are arrayed in pairs with one fiber contacting the front side of the reflecting film and the other contacting the back side of the reflecting film. The reflective surface is thereby slidably captured between arrays of fibers which control the shape and position of the reflective film. Gas pressure in the inflatable housing generates fiber tension to achieve a truer parabolic shape.

Hochberg, Eric B. (Inventor); Costen, Michael K. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

441

Solar PV energy conversion and the 21st century’s civilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given on some important roles of the solar PV technology to contribute to the sustainable developments of the 21st century civilization. Firstly, motivations of the industrial developments by energy revolutions since James Watt on steam engine in the 18th century are discussed. The transitions of natural resources from solid (coal) and liquid (oil) to gas (Liquified Natural

Yoshihiro Hamakawa

2002-01-01

442

A novel hybrid oxy-fuel power cycle utilizing solar thermal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced oxy-fuel hybrid power system (AHPS) is proposed in this paper. Solar thermal energy is used in the AHPS to produce saturated steam as the working fluid, and natural gas is internally combusted with pure oxygen. It is in configuration close to the zero emission Graz cycle. The thermodynamic characteristics at design conditions of the AHPS are analyzed using

Chenhua Gou; Ruixian Cai; Hui Hong

2007-01-01

443

A new combined cooling, heating and power system driven by solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system is proposed. This system is driven by solar energy, which is different from the current CCHP systems with gas turbine or engine as prime movers. This system combines a Rankine cycle and an ejector refrigeration cycle, which could produce cooling output, heating output and power output simultaneously. The effects of hour

Jiangfeng Wang; Yiping Dai; Lin Gao; Shaolin Ma

2009-01-01

444

Origin of High Energy Solar Energetic Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the major challenges in understanding solar energetic particles (SEPs) include 1) identifying the origin and the governing acceleration process for the highest energy SEPs that occasionally result in ground level enhancements (GLEs), and 2) relating GLEs to their lower energy counterparts both in terms of the composition and the overall morphology of the energy spectra. To address these questions, we utilize measurements from the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), a Russian-Italian mission. PAMELA not only spans the energy range between the ground-based neutron monitor data and the in-situ observations of SEPs, but also directly measures the composition for the highest energy SEP events. We employ several techniques to identify the origin of SEPs, including particle onset times, composition, and spectral variations. In addition, we compare the SEP population derived from PAMELA at 1 AU with population of precipitating ions at the Sun, responsible for the high-energy gamma-ray emission. We will discuss results of a study of a handful of SEP events during cycle 24 that were observed by PAMELA, using a variety of techniques to identify the origins of the highest energy SEPs.

Thakur, N.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, U.; Carbone, R.; Christian, E. R.; Martucci, M.; Mergč, M.; Mocchiutti, E.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Ryan, J. M.; Stochaj, S.; Stockton, J.

2013-12-01

445

Role of the Atmospheric Sciences for Solar Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source. Public interest, practically unlimited solar resources, and dramatic cost reductions have fueled the hopes for grid parity of solar energy production and dramatic growth of the industry. However, the variability of the solar fuel presents perceived and real challenges that can increase grid-integration costs of solar energy. Variability in global irradiance at the surface is dominated by solar geometry and atmospheric transmissivity effects with clouds explaining the majority of the non-geometry variance. Atmospheric scientists can play a major role in quantifying resource variability and improving solar forecasting models. I will start by presenting the state of the solar energy industry. Various studies of scaling of solar variability in space and time will be reviewed. Solar forecasting tools such as satellites, sky imagery, and numerical weather prediction will be introduced and state-of-the-art applications in the solar forecasting industry will be reviewed. Directions for RD&D in the atmospheric sciences will be presented.

Kleissl, J. P.; Lave, M.; Urquhart, B. G.; Mathiesen, P. J.; Bosch, J. L.; Chow, C. W.; Luoma, J. K.; Jamaly, M.; Nottrott, A. A.; Wegener, J.

2011-12-01

446

Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for solar electric power generation in space is described. A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas\\/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected

J. H. Lee; F. Hohl

1981-01-01

447

Solar energy system performance evaluation: final report for Honeywell OTS 41, Shenandoah (Newnan), Georgia  

SciTech Connect

The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 41) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of data collected between January and August 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 41 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 702 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 1000-gallon thermal storage tank; a 3-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted air conditioner; a water-to-air heat exchanger for solar space heating; a finned-tube coil immersed in the storage tank to preheat water for a gas-fired hot water heater; and associated piping, pumps, valves, and controls. The solar system has six basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 7 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 53 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 219 MMBtu and provided 11.4 MMBtu for cooling, 8.6 MMBtu for heating, and 8.1 MMBtu for domestic hot water. The projected net annual energy savings due to the solar system were approximately 50 MMBtu of fossil energy (49,300 cubic feet of natural gas) and a loss of 280 kWh(e) of electrical energy.

Mathur, A K; Pederson, S

1982-08-01

448

Procedures for acceptance testing of solar energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes research on the use of simple, low-cost meters for measuring the performance of solar energy systems in Army buildings and for comparing the measured performance with the design specification requirements. The requirements of meters for measuring the performance of solar energy systems were defined. A BTU-Meter for measuring heat transfer was designed, and commercial meters for taking other measurements were obtained. The meters were installed in a solar system in the laboratory and a pilot test of the acceptance test was done. Suggested draft revisions to Corps of Engineers design documents were prepared; designers could use these revisions to include acceptance testing provisions in solar energy system design. It was found that in a short-duration test, simple, low-cost meters can be used to determine whether a newly installed solar energy system is operating as specified. The simplicity of the metering approach allows designers to routinely include metering in the solar system design. The contractor can easily install the meters with the other solar components. Since the meters are so versatile, they can be used continuously for long-term performance monitoring. This gives the designer performance data and allows maintenance personnel to detect and diagnose solar equipment malfunctions. Thus, solar energy system metering can provide a unified, low-cost approach for meeting the wide range of measurement needs of Army solar energy systems.

Johnson, D. L.; Joncich, D. M.

1984-04-01

449

Schools Going Solar: A Guide to Schools Enjoying the Power of Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools today are hosting the solar energy systems that will become commonplace tomorrow in public buildings, homes, and businesses. This publication serves as a guide to how schools are using solar energy, listing scores of schools currently using the sun for lighting, heating, and cooling as well as highlights of innovative programs to expand…

Gibson, Bob; Mayotte, Jenna; Cochran, Jacquie

450

Optical analysis of solar energy tubular absorbers.  

PubMed

The energy absorbed by a solar energy tubular receiver element for a single incident ray is derived. Two types of receiver elements were analyzed: (1) an inner tube with an absorbing coating surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube, and (2) a semitransparent inner tube filled with an absorbing fluid surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube. The formation of ray cascades in the semitransparent tubes is considered. A numerical simulation to investigate the influence of the angle of incidence, sizing, thickness, and coefficient of extinction of the tubes was performed. A comparison was made between receiver elements with and without cover tubes. Ray tracing analyses in which rays were followed within the tubular receiver element as well as throughout the rest of the collector were performed for parabolic and circular trough concentrating collectors. PMID:20401004

Saltiel, C; Sokolov, M

1982-11-15

451

High-energy processes in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed study of high-energy processes in solar flares is reported, including the production of neutrons and pions, and incorporating isobaric and scaling models and a recent compilation of pion production data (Dermer, 1986). The broad-band gamma-ray spectrum resulting from the decay of neutral pions, the bremsstrahlung of positrons and electrons from the decay of charged pions, and the annihilation in flight of positrons is evaluated. Also evaluated is the 0.511 MeV gamma-ray line resulting from the annihilation of the positrons which survive annihilation in flight. Calculations were based on an isotropic, thick-target model using the best available nuclear data and models. Results are compared with extensive observation of the June 3, 1982 flare (10-120 MeV gamma rays), 0.511 and 2.2 MeV line emission, nuclear line emission, high-energy neutrons, and interplanetary charged particles.

Murphy, R. J.; Dermer, C. D.; Ramaty, R.

1987-01-01

452

Solar energy for a community recreation center  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 58,000 ft² recreation center in Shenandoah, Georgia is described. Rooftop solar collectors and reflectors serve as a basis for the active solar heating and cooling systems. The recreation center clearly demonstrates the technical feasibility of solar application in a recreation setting; economically, however, results are shown to be mixed. Although effective in the heating mode, solar cooling is considered

Libman

1980-01-01

453

Analysis on Correlation Relationship Between Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emission and Life Cycle Cost of Electricity Generation System for Energy Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this work, we analysed correlations between life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and life cycle cost of energy resources.\\u000a Energy resources studied in this paper include coal, natural gas, nuclear power, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind power,\\u000a solar thermal energy, and solar photovoltaic energy, and all of them are used to generate electricity. We calculated the mean\\u000a values, ranges of

Heetae Kim; Tae Kyu Ahn

454

Mars Solar Balloon Landed Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of atmospheric evolution and past climatic conditions. A Micromission plan is under study where a surface package including a miniaturized GCMS would be delivered to the surface by a solar heated hot air balloon based system. The balloon system would be deployed about 8 km above the surface of Mars, wherein it would rapidly fill with Martian atmosphere and be heated quickly by the sun. The combined buoyancy and parachuting effects of the solar balloon result in a surface package impact of about 5 m/sec. After delivery of the package to the surface, the balloon would ascend to about 4 km altitude, with imaging and magnetometry data being taken for the remainder of the daylight hours as the balloon is blown with the Martian winds. Total atmospheric entry mass of this mission is estimated to be approximately 50 kg, and it can fit as an Ariane 5 piggyback payload. The GCMS would obtain samples directly from the atmosphere at the surface and also from gases evolved from solid phase material collected from well below the surface with a Sample Acquisition and Transport Mechanism (SATM). The experiment envisioned in the Mars Micromission described would obtain samples from a much greater depth of up to one meter below the surface, and would search for organic molecules trapped in ancient stratified layers well below the oxidized surface. Insitu instruments on upcoming NASA missions working in concert with remote sensing measurement techniques have the potential to provide a more detailed investigation of mineralogy and the extent of simple volatiles such as CO2 and H2O in surface and subsurface solid phase materials. Within the context of subsequent mission opportunities such as those provided by the Ariane 5 piggyback payload based Micromissions, it is essential to implement an even broader chemical analysis and to enable a significant extension of previous isotope measurements. Such a development would enhance the presently very active study of questions of atmospheric evolution and loss and past climatic conditions. The method selected to implement this program can be based on well-established mass spectrometry techniques. Sampled gas is chemically and physically processed to separate the gas mixture into components using gas chromatograph and related enrichment techniques. This allows trace species to be identified and reveals isotopic distributions in many cases with improved precision. Samples of interest, such as organic molecules, may lie deep below the highly oxidized surface layer and the suggested program includes enhanced sampling techniques to measure volatiles preserved in solid phase material deep below the surface as well as gas from the well mixed atmosphere.

Mahaffy, P.; Harpold, D.; Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Gorevan, S.; Israel, G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Jones, J.; Owen, T.; Raulin, F.

1999-01-01

455

The Development of Wind-Solar Energy Systems in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is the largest developing country in the world. At present, more and more energy demand gives immense pressure to Chinese government. The inappropriate energy structure must be improved by Chinese government in order to achieve the sustainable development of economy and society. Development and application of renewable energy, such as wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy, etc., have been

Lan Ou-Yang; Yu Ren

2009-01-01

456

Solar energy utilisation and evacuated tubular solar collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors have been constructed and their performance evaluated. The characteristics of the collectors are then compared and their design strengths assessed. One of the designs, a flat absorber with a single glass cover using glass to metal seals was found to have the best performance among the four designs which included a dewar vessel type collector, a heat pipe collector and a black liquid collector with an optical efficiency of 87.7 pct. and an overall heat loss coefficient of 12.3 Wm(exp -2)/C. The performance of the dewar vessel type and black liquid collectors was found to be comparable to the glass to metal seal collector. A detailed analysis of the optical and thermal processes in evacuated tubular collectors was made. On the basis of this analysis a computer simulation model using a finite difference technique has been developed to predict the performance of evacuated tubular collectors. The computer simulation results are then compared with the test results. For the majority of the tests the discrepancy between the simulation and the test results was within the error band of the test results (maximum 12 pct.). For the published test results the maximum discrepancy for operating temperature below 100 C was found to be 6 pct. The computer simulation model was compared with other published models and its advantages and disadvantages discussed. In some analytical and semi-analytical simulation models the energy absorbed by the glass cover and the heat loss from joints and supports has to be ignored. The present model has none of these deficiencies and more complex designs can be simulated. The developed computer simulation program might be used as an aid in the design of evacuated tubular collectors. Using the computer simulation, a parametric study of the three commmercially available collectors was made. The results are discussed and the areas of improvement are identified.

Parand, Foroutan

457

Solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO2 for combined production of electricity and thermal energy is proposed. The proposed system consists of evacuated solar collectors, power generating turbine, high-temperature heat recovery system, low-temperature heat recovery system, and feed pump. The system utilizes evacuated solar collectors to convert CO2 into high-temperature supercritical state, used to drive a turbine and

H. Yamaguchi; X. R. Zhang; K. Fujima; M. Enomoto; N. Sawada

2006-01-01

458

High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

Cameron, C.P.

1993-07-01

459

Improving Polymer Solar Cell Through Efficient Solar Energy Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the last few years, several effective approaches have been developed to improve polymer solar cell performance. In this\\u000a chapter, we summarized several of the efforts conducted in UCLA on polymer solar cells, of which each is associated to efficient\\u000a light harvesting. We first discussed effective approaches to improve morphology and nanoscale structure control on the polymer\\u000a active layer through

Hsiang-Yu Chen; Zheng Xu; Gang Li; Yang Yang

2010-01-01

460

Energy-Efficiency Directory of Gas Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this directory is to inform consumers about the energy costs of operating natural gas or propane furnaces. Information contained in this directory includes the type of furnace, the output capacity, and the annual fuel utilization efficiency...

T. G. Statt J. L. Coggins

1981-01-01

461

Optimal sizing of solar energy transformers using natural ester fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the increasing number of nation-states that are adopting aggressive Renewable & Alternative Energy Portfolios, the solar energy market is nearly doubling year over year. With this aggressive growth comes even greater scrutiny when sizing solar farms. There is often great incentive to get the most utilization out of the equipment. An often over looked piece of

David A. Trevas; Adam Peterson; Kevin J. Rapp; John Luksich

2012-01-01

462

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up to 20 percent if such an increase is necessary to account for the increased cost of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

2010-04-01

463

A Non-Tracking Solar Energy Collector System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solar energy collector system is characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flat-plate receiver. A plurality of individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetric...

M. K. Selcuk

1977-01-01

464

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up to 20 percent if such an increase is necessary to account for the increased cost of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

2009-04-01

465

SURVEY OF EPA FACILITIES FOR SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was done to assess the feasibility of applying solar thermal energy systems to EPA facilities. A survey was conducted to determine those EPA facilities where solar energy could best be used. These systems were optimized for each specific application and the system/facilit...

466

Preliminary estimate of the availability of solar energy in Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Values for this estimate are based on measurements of the transmission of clear air made at the University of Iowa Observatory, ten miles south of Iowa City, and the fraction of available solar energy made with an instrument on the roof of the Physics Research Center in Iowa City. Daily variations in the amount of solar energy are tabulated for

J. S. Neff; J. K. Davidson

1975-01-01

467

An Efficient Solar Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar harvesting circuits have been recently proposed to in- crease the autonomy of embedded systems. One key design chal- lenge is how to optimize the efficiency of solar energy collection under non stationary light conditions. This paper proposes a sca- venger that exploits miniaturized photovoltaic modules to perform automatic maximum power point tracking at a minimum energy cost. The system

Davide Brunelli; Luca Benini; Clemens Moser; Lothar Thiele

2008-01-01

468

Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1988, a symposium was held in Helendale, California, to discuss thermal energy storage (TES) concepts applicable to medium temperature (200 to 400 C) solar thermal electric power plants, in general, and the solar electric generating system (SEGS) plants developed by Luz International, in particular. Chemical reaction energy storage based on the reversible reaction between metal oxides and metal

D. R. Brown; J. L. Lamarche; G. E. Spanner

1991-01-01

469

Receiver\\/reactor concepts for thermochemical transport of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochemical transport of solar energy based on reversible chemical reactions may be a way to take advantage of the high-temperature capabilities of parabolic dishes, while minimizing pipe network heat loss, since energy is transported at ambient temperatures in chemical form. Receiver\\/Reactor design is a key to making thermochemical transport a reality. In this paper the important parameters for solar receiver

Diver

1986-01-01

470

Receiver\\/reactor concepts for thermochemical transport of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochemical transport of solar energy based on reversible chemical reactions may be a way to take advantage of the high-temperature capabilities of parabolic dishes, while minimizing pipe network heat loss, since energy is transported at ambient temperatures in chemical form. Receiver\\/Reactor design is a key to making thermochemical transport a reality. In this paper the important parameters for solar receiver

Diver

1987-01-01

471

A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION MODEL FOR THE SOLAR ENERGY INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research proposes an evaluate model to measure solar energy industry operation performance in Taiwan. This model utilizes the Balance Scorecard (BSC) concept, which considers customer, financial, internal business process, learning and growth and risk in developing a framework for evaluating the solar energy industry in Taiwan. With BSC concept to define criteria and sub-criteria, then obtains relative weights and

Che-Wei Chang; William Yu; Chung Wang

472

Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy concentration technology using Fresnel lens is an effective way to make full use of sunlight. This paper makes a review about the recent development of the concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses. The ongoing research and development involves imaging systems and non-imaging systems. Compared with imaging systems, non-imaging systems have the merits of larger accept angles, higher

W. T. Xie; Y. J. Dai; R. Z. Wang; K. Sumathy

2011-01-01

473

Development and evaluation of the Texas Instruments Solar Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texas Instruments Solar Energy System (TISES) is a unique solar energy conversion and storage system with many potential cost advantages over other approaches now being considered. The individual photovoltaic elements are tiny silicon spheres which are packed into thin glass sheets and then immersed in an HBr electrolyte where they perform an electrolysis function. The system provides for storage

W. R. McKee; K. R. Carson; J. D. Levine

1982-01-01

474

Solar Power Plants: Dark Horse in the Energy Stable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelfth in a series of reports on solar energy, this article provides information relating to the following questions: (1) economic cost of solar-thermal-electric central power plants; (2) cost comparison with nuclear or coal plants; (3) locations of this energy source; and (4) its use and social costs. (CS)

Caputo, Richard S.

1977-01-01

475

Solar Energy Task Force Report: Technical Training Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task force report offers guidelines and information for the development of vocational education programs oriented to the commercial application of solar energy in water and space heating. After Section I introduces the Solar Energy Task Force and its activities, Section II outlines the task force's objectives and raises several issues and…

O'Connor, Kevin

476

Selective blacks for enhanced photothermal solar energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical and physical requirements of selective surfaces for maximum absorption of solar thermal energy are reviewed, along with processes to fabricate the selective coatings. Noting that the solar energy which reaches the ground is usually in wavelengths of 0.3-2 microns, the desired qualities of coatings are listed as stability of performance, good adherence to the substructure, ease of application,

R. C. Agarwal; P. K. C. Pillai

1981-01-01

477

Advanced Solar Low-Energy Buildings IEA SCH TASK XIII.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the work to be done under Task XIII of the International Energy Agency's Solar Heating and Cooling Program entitled Advanced Solar Low Energy Buildings. It also briefly describes some of the building concepts to be investigated in the ...

A. G. Hestnes

1989-01-01

478

A low cost high temperature sun tracking solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and economic evaluation of a low cost high temperature two axis sun tracking solar energy collector are described. The collector design is specifically intended for solar energy use with the freedom of motion about its two control axes being limited only to the amplitude required to track the sun. An examination of the performance criteria required in order

G. S. Perkins

1977-01-01

479

The metal abundance and specific energy of intracluster gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot gas in the cores of rich galaxy clusters is metal-rich with nearly solar abundances of metals. It is not clear whether the metals were shed from galaxies via protogalactic winds or via ram-pressure stripping. It has been suggested that if metals were injected via centrally concentrated stripping, the overall abundances could be much less than those observed in cluster cores, diminishing the degree of stellar processing required. The observed energetics of intracluster gas can be used to deduce the metal injection mechanism, which in turn may allow the global metal abundance uncertainty to be resolved in the absence of spatially resolved X-ray spectra. Existing X-ray spectral and surface brightness data for galaxy clusters indicate that the gas in cool clusters has substantially greater specific energy than could have been gained through cluster collapse. Supernovae-driven protogalactic winds can provide this extra energy, while ram-pressure stripping cannot. Such protogalactic winds will distribute metals fairly homogeneously. Much processing of gas through stars is then required, with protogalaxies losing perhaps one-half of their initial luminous mass in metal-rich winds. Furthermore, the oxygen-to-iron ratio observed in two clusters indicates that the bulk of the iron in cluster gas was produced by Type II supernovae, not Type I supernovae, as is usually supposed.

White, Raymond E., III

1991-01-01

480

79 FR 8986 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center, Clark County, Nevada...the proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center on the Moapa River Indian...consists of: BIA approval of a solar energy ground lease and agreements...

2014-02-14

481

59 FR- Golden Field Office; Notice of Cooperative Agreement Award to the Florida Solar Energy Center  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agreement Award to the Florida Solar Energy Center agency: Department...agreement to the Florida Solar Energy Center, University of...wide commercialization of solar water heating systems...technologies will reduce energy use in buildings...

1994-07-11

482

69 FR 5528 - Golden Field Office; Development and Maintenance of Testing Standards for Solar Energy Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Maintenance of Testing Standards for Solar Energy Systems AGENCY: Department of...maintenance of standards for testing solar thermal energy systems. Through a single financial...the widespread application of solar energy technologies. Applications...

2004-02-05

483

Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

Carter, Luther J.

1974-01-01

484

Management Problems Impede Success of DOE's Solar Energy Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses problems being experienced by the Department of Energy's solar energy research and development projects in meeting their cost, schedule, and scope objectives. The report identifies the need for better controls over project selection ...

1980-01-01

485

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation. San Anselmo School, San Jose, California, April 1981-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

The San Anselmo School is a one-story brick elementary school building in San Jose, California. The active solar energy system is designed to supply 70% of the space heating and 72% of the cooling load. It is equipped with 3740 square feet of evacuated tube collectors, a 2175-gallon tank for heat storage, a solar-supplied absorption chiller, and four auxiliary gas-fired absorption chillers/heaters. The measured solar fraction of 19% is far below the expected values and is attributed to severe system control and HVAC problems. Other performance data given for the year include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Also tabulated are monthly performance data for the overall solar energy system, collector subsystem, space heating and cooling subsystems. Typical hourly operation data for a day are tabulated, including hourly isolation, collector array temperatures (inlet and outlet), and storage fluid temperatures. The solar energy use and percentage of losses are also graphed. (LEW)

Pakkala, P.A.

1982-01-01

486

Principles of photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoelectrochemical devices for conversion of solar energy into both electrical energy and chemical energy are discussed with emphasis on ho