Science.gov

Sample records for gas solar energy

  1. Personalized energy: the home as a solar power station and solar gas station.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Point-of-use solar energy would generate the exact amount of energy any one individual needs, at the location where it is needed. Such a means of energy supply would create a revolution in society's approach to energy use, and allow a more level playing field for all. This Viewpoint considers some of the key enablers for this technology. PMID:19408259

  2. Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model was used to size the system to minimize the annualized cost of hot water. The annualized cost of solar-assisted gas-energy water heating is found to be less expensive than electric water heating but more expensive than gas water heating. The feasibility of a natural gas utility supplying the auxiliary fuel is evaluated. It is estimated that gas-utilizing companies will find it profitable to offer solar water heating as part of a total energy service option or on a lease basis when the price of new base-load supplies of natural gas reaches $2.50-$3.00 per million Btu.

  3. Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  4. A space-based combined thermophotovoltaic electric generator and gas laser solar energy conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yesil, Oktay

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a spaceborne energy conversion system consisting of a thermophotovoltaic electric generator and a gas laser. As a power source for the converson, the system utilizes an intermediate blackbody cavity heated to a temperature of 2000-2400 K by concentrated solar radiation. A double-layer solar cell of GaAs and Si forms a cylindrical surface concentric to this blackbody cavity, receiving the blackbody radiation and converting it into electricity with cell conversion efficiency of 50 percent or more. If the blackbody cavity encloses a laser medium, the blackbody radiation can also be used to simultaneously pump a lasing gas. The feasibility of blackbody optical pumping at 4.3 microns in a CO2-He gas mixture was experimentally demonstrated.

  5. Toward the renewables - A natural gas/solar energy transition strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, J. A.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The inevitability of an energy transition from today's non-renewable fossil base toward a renewable energy base is considered from the viewpoint of the need for a national transition strategy. Then, one such strategy is offered. Its technological building blocks are described in terms of both energy use and energy supply. The strategy itself is then sketched at four points in its implementation; (1) initiation, (2) early transition, (3) late transition, and (4) completion. The transition is assumed to evolve from a heavily natural gas-dependent energy economy. It then proceeds through its transition toward a balanced, hybrid energy system consisting of both centralized and dispersed energy supply technologies supplying hydrogen and electricity from solar energy. Related institutional, environmental and economic factors are examined briefly.

  6. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/683/), and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

  7. Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Design and Construction, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

  8. Matter & Energy Solar Energy

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Matter & Energy Solar Energy· Electronics· Materials Science· Earth & Climate Energy at the University of Illinois, the future of solar energy just got brighter. Although silicon is the industry Electronics Over 1.2 Million Electronics Parts, Components and Equipment. www.AlliedElec.com solar energy

  9. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

  10. Project SAGE: solar assisted gas energy. Final report and executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Phase III basic objective was establishment of a technical and economic baseline for proper assessment of the practical potential of solar water heating for apartments. Plans can then be formulated to improve SAGE technical design and performance; reduce SAGE costs; refine SAGE market assessment; and identify policies to encourage the use of SAGE. Two SAGE water heating systems were installed and tested. One system was retrofit onto an existing apartment building; the other was installed in a new apartment building. Each installation required approximately 1000 square feet of collector area tilted to an angle of 37/sup 0/ from the horizontal, and each was designed to supply about 70 percent of the energy for heating water for approximately 32 to 40 units of a typical two-story apartment complex in Southern California. Actual contruction costs were carefully compiled, and both installations were equipped with performance monitoring equipment. In addition, the operating and maintenance requirements of each installation was evaluated by gas company maintenance engineers. Upon completion of the installation analysis, the SAGE installation cost was further refined by obtaining firm SAGE construction bids from two plumbing contractors in Southern California. Market penetration was assessed by developing a computer simulation program using the technical and economic analysis from the installation experience. Also, the project examined the public policies required to encourage SAGE and other solar energy options. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  11. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  12. Solar thermal energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Karl W. (inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  13. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  14. The Feasibility of Wind and Solar Energy Application for Oil and Gas Offshore Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiong, Y. K.; Zahari, M. A.; Wong, S. F.; Dol, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy is an energy which is freely available in nature such as winds and solar energy. It plays a critical role in greening the energy sector as these sources of energy produce little or no pollution to environment. This paper will focus on capability of renewable energy (wind and solar) in generating power for offshore application. Data of wind speeds and solar irradiation that are available around SHELL Sabah Water Platform for every 10 minutes, 24 hours a day, for a period of one year are provided by SHELL Sarawak Sdn. Bhd. The suitable wind turbine and photovoltaic panel that are able to give a high output and higher reliability during operation period are selected by using the tabulated data. The highest power output generated using single wind energy application is equal to 492 kW while for solar energy application is equal to 20 kW. Using the calculated data, the feasibility of renewable energy is then determined based on the platform energy demand.

  15. Solar Energy and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  16. Solar Energy Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Last year the people of Cleveland, Ohio were troubled by natural gas shortages during one of the coldest winters on record. The severe winter generated a great deal of interest in solar energy as an alternative source of heat. Home owners, home builders and civic officials wanted to know just how much solar energy is available in Cleveland. Now they get a daily report through the city's news media, from information supplied as a community service by NASA's Lewis Research Center. Lewis routinely makes daily measurements of solar energy as part of its continuing research in behalf of the Department of Energy. The measuring device is a sun sensor called a pyranometer (upper photo) located atop a building at the NASA Center. To make the information conveniently available to news media, Lewis developed a Voice Output Integrating Insolometer, an automated system that acquires information from the sun sensor and translates it into a recorded telephone message. The Lewis pyranometer collects sun data for 15 hours daily and measures the total solar energy yield. For reporting to the public, the information is electronically converted to a specific reading. A media representative calling in gets a voice-synthesized announcement of a two or three digit number; the number corresponds to the kilowatt-hours of solar energy that would be available to a typical 500-square-foot solar collector system. Response in Cleveland has been favorable and interest is developing in other parts of the country.

  17. Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

  18. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  19. A Solar Energy Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, David L.; Riley, Robert A.

    This document contains 5,000 references to literature through 1976 dealing with various aspects of solar energy. Categories are established according to area of solar research. These categories include: (1) overview; (2) measurement; (3) low-range solar energy collection (below 120 degrees C); (4) intermediate-range solar energy collection (120…

  20. Solar Energy Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar…

  1. Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric-and Nuclear Power: A Life-cycle

    E-print Network

    Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric- and Nuclear, photovoltaic, nuclear, life cycle 1 #12;Introduction The production of energy by burning fossil fuels generates, it is envisioned that expanding generation technologies based on nuclear power and renewable energy sources would

  2. Alternatives in solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  3. Gas-grain energy transfer in solar nebula shock waves: Implications for the origin of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Horanyi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Meteoritic chondrules provide evidence for the occurrence of rapid transient heating events in the protoplanetary nebula. Astronomical evidence suggests that gas dynamic shock waves are likely to be excited in protostellar accretion disks by processes such as protosolar mass ejections, nonaxisymmetric structures in an evolving disk, and impact on the nebula surface of infalling 'clumps' of circumstellar gas. Previous detailed calculations of gas-grain energy and momentum transfer have supported the possibility that such shock waves could have melted pre-existing chondrule-sized grains. The main requirement for grains to reach melting temperatures in shock waves with plausibly low Mach numbers is that grains existed in dust-rich zones (optical depth greater than 1) where radiative cooling of a given grain can be nearly balanced by radiation from surrounding grains. Localized dust-rich zones also provide a means of explaining the apparent small spatial scale of heating events. For example, the scale size of at least some optically thick dust-rich zones must have been relatively small (less than 10 kilometers) to be consistent with petrologic evidence for accretion of hot material onto cold chondrules. The implied number density of mm-sized grains for these zones would be greater than 30 m(exp -3). In this paper, we make several improvements of our earlier calculations to include radiation self-consistently in the shock jump conditions, and we include heating of grains due to radiation from the shocked gas. In addition, we estimate the importance of momentum feedback of dust concentrations onto the shocked gas which would tend to reduce the efficiency of gas dynamic heating of grains in the center of the dust cloud.

  4. A comparison of the solar-gas and solar-electric interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannella, G. G.

    1982-01-01

    The introduction of large-scale solar-derived gas, electricity, and home heat into the national pipeline, electric grid, and fuel supply systems is discussed. Natural gas is shown to be substitutable for most other energy sources, having a lower cost per energy unit than electricity or oil, and able to be augmented by biomass derived methane or solar derived hydrogen. The latter is perceived as an unproven technology, both economically and technically. Solar home heating systems will lower the utilities' rate base and lead to minimum charge rates for solar customers and higher rates for regular customers unless utilities are permitted to enter the solar heating business as an extension of their role as a service institution. Dispersed solar electric systems are seen to be the least economical use of solar systems, while the solar-gas system offers the greatest potential as a bridge for solar technologies into residential, institutional, and commercial markets.

  5. [Efficiency of oxidant gas generator cells powered by electric or solar energy].

    PubMed

    Brust Carmona, H; Benitez, A; Zarco, J; Sánchez, E; Mascher, I

    1998-02-01

    Diseases caused by microbial contaminants in drinking water continue to be a serious problem in countries like Mexico. Chlorination, using chlorine gas or chlorine compounds, is one of the best ways to treat drinking water. However, difficulties in handling chlorine gas and the inefficiency of hypochlorite solution dosing systems--due to sociopolitical, economic, and cultural factors--have reduced the utility of these chlorination procedures, especially in far-flung and inaccessible rural communities. These problems led to the development of appropriate technologies for the disinfection of water by means of the on-site generation of mixed oxidant gases (chlorine and ozone). This system, called MOGGOD, operates through the electrolysis of a common salt solution. Simulated system evaluation using a hydraulic model allowed partial and total costs to be calculated. When powered by electrical energy from the community power grid, the system had an efficiency of 90%, and in 10 hours it was able to generate enough gases to disinfect about 200 m3 of water at a cost of approximately N$8 (US $1.30). When the electrolytic cell was run on energy supplied through a photoelectric cell, the investment costs were higher. A system fed by photovoltaic cells could be justified in isolated communities that lack electricity but have a gravity-fed water distribution system. PMID:9542448

  6. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  7. Solar energy emplacement developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  8. Experimenting with Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

  9. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  10. Solar energy modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, R. R. (inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  11. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  12. Solar Energy: Home Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  13. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  14. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  15. Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  16. The energy impacts of solar heating.

    PubMed

    Whipple, C

    1980-04-18

    The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy it saves under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of implementation projected by the Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy. For the rapid growth case, the cumulative energy invested to the year 2000 is calculated to be (1/2) to 1(1/2) times the amount saved. An impact of rapid solar heating implementation is to shift energy demand from premium heating fuels (natural gas and oil) to coal and nuclear power use in the industries that provide materials for solar equipment. PMID:17820033

  17. Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

    2009-09-01

    The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle pressure is close to atmospheric pressure, then the vacuum pump will evacuate the hydrogen gas from the first bottle to store into the second high pressure bottle. When the first bottle become vacuum then the procedure is repeated again.

  18. Solar Energy Development Progresses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses an engineering conference at which participants agreed that solar energy is a feasible energy source, although costs of such technology are presently very high. Also describes recent developments in solar energy research, and estimates the costs of this technology. (MLH)

  19. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  20. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  1. Baseload Solar Power for California? Ammonia-based Solar Energy Storage Using Trough Concentrators

    E-print Network

    Baseload Solar Power for California? Ammonia-based Solar Energy Storage Using Trough Concentrators to eventually optimise the reactor geometry for ammonia-based solar energy storage with troughs, which.1. Storing Solar Energy with Ammonia H2 / N2 gas liquid NH3 Heat Exchangers Power Generation (Steam Cycle

  2. Solar energy: principles and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities. PMID:20222355

  3. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  4. Brayton cycle solarized advanced gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Described is the development of a Brayton Engine/Generator Set for solar thermal to electrical power conversion, authorized under DOE/NASA Contract DEN3-181. The objective was to design, fabricate, assemble, and test a small, hybrid, 20-kW Brayton-engine-powered generator set. The latter, called a power conversion assembly (PCA), is designed to operate with solar energy obtained from a parobolic dish concentrator, 11 meters in diameter, or with fossil energy supplied by burning fuels in a combustor, or by a combination of both (hybrid model). The CPA consists of the Brayton cycle engine, a solar collector, a belt-driven 20-kW generator, and the necessary control systems for automatic operation in solar-only, fuel-only, and hybrid modes to supply electrical power to a utility grid. The original configuration of the generator set used the GTEC Model GTP36-51 gas turbine engine for the PCA prime mover. However, subsequent development of the GTEC Model AGT101 led to its selection as the powersource for the PCA. Performance characteristics of the latter, thermally coupled to a solar collector for operation in the solar mode, are presented. The PCA was successfully demonstrated in the fuel-only mode at the GTEC Phoenix, Arizona, facilities prior to its shipment to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for installation and testing on a test bed concentractor (parabolic dish). Considerations relative to Brayton-engine development using the all-ceramic AGT101 when it becomes available, which would satisfy the DOE heat engine efficiency goal of 35 to 41 percent, are also discussed in the report.

  5. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  6. Hybrid mode solar power plant with gas and steam cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bammert, K.; Finckh, H. H.

    Thermodynamic improvement of combined gas and steam cycles by the addition of pressure stages is discussed. The terminal temperature difference between the gas turbine exhaust gas and the heated water/steam is reduced and the exhaust gas is cooled accordingly. For solar power plants which feed constant power into the electric grid, supplementary fossil fuel energy input into the cycle in a combustion chamber downstream of the receiver is suggested. The fuel energy, which is input at a higher temperature level than is possible with solar energy, is converted into mechanical and electric power at a higher degree of utilization than in a straight fossil fuelled power plant. The solar energy, which is input at a relatively low temperature, is upgraded if the working fluid is heated in the tailing combustion chamber to a temperature higher than the limit imposed by the receiver.

  7. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  8. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  9. The Solar Energy Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

    This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

  10. Solar Energy Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harvey, Ed.

    Twenty articles addressing different aspects of solar energy are compiled in this book. They represent the views of different governmental and non-governmental organizations, members of congress, and other individuals including, for example, Barry Commoner and Amory Lovins. Topics discussed include the need for federal support, passive solar…

  11. Curriculum Reviews: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Joseph P.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews Solar Energy Education Project (SEEP), a set of 10 curriculum guides emphasizing process skills as well as content for grades K-9. Solar concepts are taught almost exclusively through process activities and, although developed in Australia, the curriculum is easily adaptable to American classrooms. (Author/JN)

  12. Solar Energy Project: Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

  13. Solar Energy Project: Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This document is designed to give both teachers and students the opportunity to review a variety of representative articles on solar energy. Consideration is given to the sun's role in man's past, present, and future. The present state of solar technology is examined theoretically, economically, and comparatively in light of growing need for…

  14. Solar energy computer models directory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-08-01

    This directory describes models developed and available in the US for six solar and renewable energy technologies. These technologies are: biomass; solar heating, cooling, and conservation; ocean energy; photovoltaics; solar thermal; and wind.

  15. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  16. Energy 101: Solar PV

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  17. Energy 101: Solar PV

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  18. Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

    This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)

  19. Solar-pumped gas laser development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of gas properties through detailed kinetic models led to the identification of critical gas parameters for use in choosing appropriate gas combinations for solar pumped lasers. Broadband photoabsorption in the visible or near UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to insure good solar absorption efficiency. The photoexcitation density is independent of the absorption bandwidth. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than 10 A to insure lasing threshold over reasonable gain lengths. The system should show a high degree of chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. Although photoexcitation of electronic vibrational transitions is considered as a possible system if the emission bands sufficiently narrow, it appears that photodissociation into atomic metastables is more likely to result in a successful solar pumped laser system.

  20. Solar Energy Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy furnishes all of the heating and hot water needs, plus 80 percent of the air conditioning, for the two-story Reedy Creek building. A unique feature of this installation is that the 16 semi-cylindrical solar collectors (center photo on opposite page with closeup of a single collector below it) are not mounted atop the roof as is customary, they actually are the roof. This arrangement eliminates the usual trusses, corrugated decking and insulating concrete in roof construction; that, in turn, reduces overall building costs and makes the solar installation more attractive economically. The Reedy Creek collectors were designed and manufactured by AAI Corporation of Baltimore, Maryland.

  1. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  2. Solar energy conversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.

    2008-03-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces an equally rich future, with nanoscience enabling the discovery of the guiding principles of photonic energy conversion and their use in the development of cost-competitive new technologies.

  3. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  4. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  5. Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the possibilities afforded by solar energy as one of the alternative energy sources capable to take the place of the dwindling oil and gas reserves. Solar energy, being a nondepleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. Steps taken toward providing innovative solutions that are economically competitive with other systems are briefly reviewed.

  6. Solar energy legal bibliography update

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliography Update is a compilation of approximately 100 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (covering the period October 1978 to August 1979). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Legislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  7. SOLARES - A new hope for solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W.; Gilbreath, W. P.; Bowen, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    A system of orbiting reflectors, SOLARES, has been studied as a possible means of reducing the diurnal variation and enhancing the average intensity of sunlight with a space system of minimum mass and complexity. The key impact that such a system makes on the economic viability of solar farming and other solar applications is demonstrated. The system is compatible with incremental implementation and continual expansion to meet the world's power needs. Key technology, environmental, and economic issues and payoffs are identified. SOLARES appears to be economically superior to other advanced, and even competitive with conventional, energy systems and could be scaled to completely abate our fossil fuel usage for power generation. Development of the terrestrial solar conversion technique, optimized for this new artificial source of solar radiation, yet remains.

  8. Solar energy research and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

  9. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  10. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  11. Energy payback and CO{sub 2} gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    2002-12-01

    A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

  12. Gas cooled solar power plant for generating electrical energy in the 20MWe operating range (GAST): Preliminary design phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, S.; Wehowsky, P.

    1981-07-01

    R&D work required for the erection of a pilot plant was defined. Since the location of the site is not yet determined, the project work was based on preliminary basic data. Significant results of the preliminary design phase include both the choice of a combined gas/steam thermal energy conversion process for the reference concept and basic concepts for heliostat, heliostat field arrangement, receiver, tower and master control/process computer system.

  13. Central solar energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  14. Solar energy: Technology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that in 1970 the total energy consumed in the U.S. was equal to the energy of sunlight received by only 0.15% of the land area of the continental U.S. The utilization of solar energy might, therefore, provide an approach for solving the energy crisis produced by the consumption of irreplaceable fossil fuels at a steadily increasing rate. Questions regarding the availability of solar energy are discussed along with the design of solar energy collectors and various approaches for heating houses and buildings by utilizing solar radiation. Other subjects considered are related to the heating of water partly or entirely with solar energy, the design of air conditioning systems based on the use of solar energy, electric power generation by a solar thermal and a photovoltaic approach, solar total energy systems, industrial and agricultural applications of solar energy, solar stills, the utilization of ocean thermal power, power systems based on the use of wind, and solar-energy power systems making use of geosynchronous power plants.

  15. Solar-pumped gas laser development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The direct conversion of solar radiation into an inverted population for extraction in an optical cavity holds promise as a relatively simple system design. Broad-band photoabsorption in the visible or near-UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to ensure good solar absorption efficiency. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than approximately 10 A. The system should show chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. A search of electronic-vibrational transitions in diatomic molecules satisfying these conditions is now in progress. A photodissociation-pumped atomic iodine laser is now being tested under solar pumping conditions. Photodissociation studies for thallium spin-flip metastable formation will begin in the near future.

  16. Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy

    E-print Network

    Nocera, Daniel G.

    Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both ...

  17. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

  18. A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer for solar and planetary observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Darrell L.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a prototype spectrometer for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. In this recently developed spectrometer, the energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

  19. Solar energy to biofuels.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R

    2010-01-01

    In a solar economy, sustainably available biomass holds the potential to be an excellent nonfossil source of high energy density transportation fuel. However, if sustainably available biomass cannot supply the liquid fuel need for the entire transport sector, alternatives must be sought. This article reviews biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes that treat biomass primarily as a carbon source and boost liquid fuel production substantially by using supplementary energy that is recovered from solar energy at much higher efficiencies than the biomass itself. The need to develop technologies for an energy-efficient future sustainable transport sector infrastructure that will use different forms of energy, such as electricity, H(2), and heat, in a synergistic interaction with each other is emphasized. An enabling template for such a future transport infrastructure is presented. An advantage of the use of such a template is that it reduces the land area needed to propel an entire transport sector. Also, some solutions for the transition period that synergistically combine biomass with fossil fuels are briefly discussed. PMID:22432585

  20. SERI (Solar Energy Research Institute) solar radiation resource assessment project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulstrom, R. L.; Maxwell, E.; Riordan, C.; Rymes, M.; Stoffel, T.

    1989-10-01

    The earth receives vast amounts of energy from the sun in the form of incident solar radiation. Solar radiation drives the earth's weather and sustains life. As a result of the increasing costs, uncertain availability, and potentially severe environmental impacts of other sources of energy, insolation is being considered as a clean renewable energy source for our needs for heating, cooling, electricity, and fuels. Widespread interest and activities were initiated immediately after the oil embargo of the mid-1970s. For many applications, the insolation must be converted to a different form, such as heat, electricity, or a fuel (liquid, gas, or solid). A technology that can do this is known as a solar energy conversion device or technology. A wide range of candidate technologies is being developed. Some of these technologies include photovoltaics (converting insolation to electricity), solar thermal (converting insolation to heat), solar thermal-electric (converting insolation to heat, then to electricity), and biomass (converting insolation to biomass and then to fuels).

  1. Potential for supplying solar thermal energy to industrial unit operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, E. K.

    1980-04-01

    Adoption of solar thermal technology, considered in terms of the end use of energy delivered to industrial unit operations was studied. The use of low temperature processes, which are more easily integrated with solar thermal technology were studied. The adoption of solar technology is favored by the relative rates of increase of the costs of electricity and natural gas, and by energy conservation measures. High temperature hot water systems are more compatible with solar technology.

  2. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOEpatents

    Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  3. Solar energy for the hospital?

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    You can't scrap your boiler and expect solar panels to provide steam for process and heating, but solar systems are cost-effective now for domestic hot water generation, according to a leading solar energy engineering/design/build firm. PMID:10249853

  4. Solar cooling in Madrid: Available solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, M.; Hernandez, F.; Martin, E. )

    1994-11-01

    This paper analyzes the behaviour of an absorption chiller lithium bromide installation fed by a field of flat-plate solar collectors and condensed by swimming pool water. A method of calculation in a variable regime is developed in terms of the obtained experimental results. Starting from the meteorological variables of a clear summer day and from the project data (collector normalization curve, collector and installation mass), the minimum solar radiation level necessary to initiate the process, I[sub min], and the instantaneous available solar energy, Q[sub u] + W[sub 1] is determined. The solar radiation threshold, I[sub min], necessary to obtain the process temperature, t[sub ave], in each instant, is obtained by adding to the corrected Klein radiation threshold, I[sub k,c], the heat capacity effects of the collector, HCE[sub CO], and of the installation, HCE[sub ins], as well as the losses of heat of the pipes to the surroundings, Q[sub 1]. The instantaneous available solar energy, available useful heat, in addition to the wind collector losses to the surroundings, Q[sub u] + W[sub 1], is the difference, in each instant, between the radiation, I[sub g1T], and the radiation threshold, I[sub min].The integration during the day of the instantaneous available solar energy allows us to calculate the daily available function, H[sub T]. The value of H[sub T], measured in the swimming-pool water condensation installation reached 6.92 MJ/(m[sup 2] day ). The calculated values of H[sub T] for a conventional installation condensed by tower water, or air, have been 6.35 and 0.56 MJ/(m[sup 2] day). respectively.

  5. Diffusion and adoption of an efficient, integrated alternative energy system: a producer gas-solar greenhouse for farmstead operation. Final technical report, September 1, 1980-October 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.T.

    1983-10-10

    The Department of Energy awarded College of the Siskiyous a grant to provide a demonstration project that coordinated a variety of energy-related technologies: a 100-foot, two-podded solar greenhouse, a producer gas generator fired by wood chips, thermal storage devices (fish tanks, water filled drums, hydroponic reservoirs), and a group of related activities: alcohol fuels production with the carbon dioxide by-product being used in one pod of the greenhouse; growing small meat animals who would eat greens from the facility, would provide manure for the gardens, and would put off some heat for the facility; tank fish farming; an eleven acre appropriate technology homestead which would surround the greenhouse. At the time of this report, the greenhouse has been completed though devices (fans, stoves, louvers, shades)to minimize temperature shifts continue to be developed. The producer gas generator has had problems with tar buildup which gum up engines. Rather than running a motor off the unit to produce electricity for the greenhouse, the unit is being used to demonstrate how wood gasification can be used to run motors which in turn can be used to run generators, automobiles, etc. The facility is being used to experiment with a variety of growing periods, conditions, and materials.

  6. SOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    SOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Detlev Heinemann Oldenburg daily solar radiation forecasts for one to two days in advance have been produced with the Model Output.girodo@uni-oldenburg.de ABSTRACT Solar energy is expected to contribute major shares of the future global energy supply. Due to its

  7. Biological solar energy.

    PubMed

    Barber, James

    2007-04-15

    Through the process of photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight has been harnessed, not only to create the biomass on our planet today, but also the fossil fuels. The overall efficiency of biomass formation, however, is low and despite being a valuable source of energy, it cannot replace fossil fuels on a global scale and provide the huge amount of power needed to sustain the technological aspirations of the world population now and in the future. However, at the heart of the photosynthetic process is the highly efficient chemical reaction of water splitting, leading to the production of hydrogen equivalents and molecular oxygen. This reaction takes place in an enzyme known as photosystem II, and the recent determination of its structure has given strong hints of how nature uses solar energy to generate hydrogen and oxygen from water. This new information provides a blue print for scientists to seriously consider constructing catalysts that mimic the natural system and thus stimulate new technologies to address the energy/CO2 problem that humankind must solve. After all, there is no shortage of water for this non-polluting reaction and the energy content of sunlight falling on our planet well exceeds our needs. PMID:17272238

  8. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  9. SOLAR ENERGY FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine which existing or emerging pollution control processes are best suited to make use of solar energy input and to determine the potential benefits of such applications. Pollution control processes were matched with compatible solar energy systems,...

  10. Solar Energy Project: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of materials supports the teaching of solar energy concepts in the context of secondary school science. Included in this collection are a basic teacher's guide to activities involved in the curriculum; a discussion of multi-disciplinary extensions of solar energy education by subject area; a section on hardware needed for the…

  11. Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaHart, David E.

    This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics; (9)…

  12. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  13. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  14. The Geography of Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaHart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1984-01-01

    After learning about two promising techniques for generating electricity--photovoltaic cells and wind energy conversion systems--secondary students analyze two maps of the United States showing solar radiation and available wind power to determine which U.S. regions have potential for these solar electric systems. (RM)

  15. The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Chris

    1980-01-01

    The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)

  16. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664677 Invited article

    E-print Network

    Romeo, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664­677 Invited article Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells G. Khrypunova , A. Romeob , F. Kurdesauc , D.L. Ba¨ tznerd , H. Zogge , A Abstract Recent developments in the technology of high vacuum evaporated CdTe solar cells are reviewed

  17. Time to Go Solar with Solarize U Gain energy independence

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    #12;Time to Go Solar with Solarize U · Gain energy independence · Have more disposable income improvements for Smart-E bundle 2.99% #12;Energy Efficiency · Realize greater energy and cost savings through energy efficiency measures · Must complete an energy audit on your home before receiving rebates

  18. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis, the…

  19. Solar energy tracking structure incorporating wind spoilers

    SciTech Connect

    Frohardt, M.W.; Hartz, K.H.; Hardee, P.C.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes a solar energy tracking assembly. The assembly producing reduced torque loading forces due to wind on the rotating portion of the tracking assembly. The solar energy tracking assembly comprised of: a fixed position base having one end securely fixed to the ground and having the second end supporting the remaining tracking assembly components; solar energy collecting means comprising a moving structure frame and at least one solar collecting element attached thereto means for rotating the solar energy collecting means in relation to the sun in order that the solar energy collecting means maintain the proper attitude for collection of incident solar energy; and a wind spoiler assembly.

  20. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  1. Solar energy, its conversion and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farber, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    The work being carried out at the University of Florida Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory in converting solar energy, our only income, into other needed and useful forms of energy is described. A treatment such as this demonstrates, in proper perspective, how solar energy can benefit mankind with its many problems of shortages and pollution. Descriptions were given of the conversion processes, equipment, and performance. The testing of materials, solar water heating, space heating, cooking and baking, solar distillation, refrigeration and air-conditioning, work with the solar furnace, conversion to mechanical power, hot air engines, solar-heated sewage digestion, conversion to electricity, and other devices will be discussed.

  2. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  3. Solar energy research and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The role is described that solar energy will play in the heating and cooling of buildings, the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts on the various energy markets and estimated costs of such systems are discussed along with illustrations of some of the processes to accomplish the goals. The conclusions of the NSF/NASA Solar Energy Panel (1972) are given along with the estimated costs to accomplish the 15 year recommended program and also the recent and near future budget appropriations and recommendations are included.

  4. Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

    1978-01-01

    Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

  5. Solar Energy - Solution or Pipedream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Joyce

    This series of lessons and class activities is designed for presentation in a sequence of nine class days. The collection is intended to provide the student in advanced science classes with awareness of the possibilities and limitations of solar energy as a potential solution to the energy crisis. Included are discussion of the following: (1)…

  6. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 13881391 Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells

    E-print Network

    Romeo, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1388­1391 Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar in the CdTe device. Reproducible solar cells exceeding 10% efficiency on the front side illumination, a promising efficiency of about 9% and proved stability for these solar cells has been developed [11]. Our Cd

  7. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  8. Flatplate Solar Energy Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A small truck body fabricator in Florida became producer of flatplate solar collectors after having an inexpensive literature search performed by the NASA IAC in Research Triangle Park, NC. The center provided him with 314 abstracts of which he requested 15 full length articles. His total cost, $100.00, was sufficient to launch his new venture OEM Products, Inc. Flatplate collector design incorporates new black paint developed by Dow-Corning Corporation but not yet commercially available.

  9. Institutionalizing solar energy education

    SciTech Connect

    Arwood, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    As America entered the final decade of the 20th century, millions of people turned out to celebrate Earth Day`s 20th anniversary. Environmental awareness was on an upswing, and as a result, environmental education became a priority across the country. Environmental education was making significant headway into the public school system, and recycling emerged as the vanguard of this movement. At first the exclusive province of school children, recycling soon became a household habit. As children collected cans for cash, they also taught their parents to recycle. In its movement from classroom to curbside, recycling rode the school bus to Main Street and, within a few short years, became institutionalized. In this paper, the author demonstrates how the Solar Information and Education Program has evolved to the point where it has become an institutionalized, lasting part of the school experience for thousands of Arizona students. It is hoped that the solar experience for the state`s young people will duplicate the recycling experience of a decade ago, this time taking solar technology from chalkboard to rooftop.

  10. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  11. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  12. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  13. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetzberger, Adolf; Hoffmann, Volker U.

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems.

  14. Solar energy and substainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Maria Carmen; Nalin, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, the world population doesn't stop rising. More than ever, energy and environment problems remain at the heart of our society concerns. What will we leave to the future generations ? Therefore, a twenty pupil class of 4e (13 and 14 year old pupils) has made a specific work about this topic, called "solar power and sustainable development". Initially, the pupils participated to the settlement of a meteorological station on the school grounds. This station, which provides readings about temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, sun radiations, wind power and wind heading is fed by photovoltaic cells and thus works independently. The pupils have then come to realize the ecological and practical interests of such a functioning (e.g. : for the latter : neither batteries nor electrical wires are needed). These past few years, in Provence (a highly sunny region), many solar panel installations have been created and many private house roofs have been equipped with photovoltaic cells. Indeed, this energy presents some significant assets : it is free, clean and will never run out. The village of Vinon sur Verdon, where stands our college, is partly fed by a solar panel park, located a few kilometers away. Strongly sensitive to the assets of this energy source, the pupils have made a poster asserting the benefits of solar power. Another side of solar energy has been asserted : the output of hot sanitary water. They have built a miniature on this topic. In order to be thorough, some elements remain in shadow, such as environment impacts done by the making, the transport and the recycling of solar panels that will be brought up in a collaboration with research establishments.

  15. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report addresses the environmental consequences of three kinds of solar energy utilization: photovoltaic, concentrator (steam electric) and flat plate. The application of solar energy toward central power generating stations is emphasized. Discussions of combined modes and o...

  16. Food dehydration by solar energy.

    PubMed

    Bolin, H R; Salunkhe, D K

    1982-01-01

    Solar driers that are currently being investigated for drying of agricultural products can be divided into two major divisions, depending upon how they transfer the incident solar energy to the product to be dried. These two divisions are direct and indirect drying, with some work also being done on combination drying procedures. In direct solar driers, the product to be dried is usually either inside a tent, greenhouse, or a glass-topped box, where the product to be dried is heated by the direct rays from the sun and the moist air is removed by ambient wind movement. These dryers do accelerate moisture loss rate and the product is usually safe from inclement weather. These dryers usually do not require fans for forced air circulation. With indirect drying, the opposite is true, where most require powered fans for forced air circulation. With this type of dryer, both flatplate and inflated tube solar heat absorbers are used, with each offering certain advantages. Also, combination dryers have been built that utilize both direct and indirect principles. Product evaluation of solar dried foods indicate that in most cases the physical properties, flavor, and vitamin A and C retention were as good as, or better than, conventional dried foods. The economics of the solar systems indicate that most drying procedures are economically feasible for use in small-scale operations only, with the exception of grain drying. PMID:7047079

  17. Solar energy education. Renewable energy: A background text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the Sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the Sun's composition and the relationship between the Earth, Sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy.

  18. Warming up to solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Biondo, B.

    1996-07-01

    Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global warming, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.

  19. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  20. Solar Energy: Impacts & Management MeasuresSolar Energy: Impacts & Management Measures Vasilis Fthenakis

    E-print Network

    1 Solar Energy: Impacts & Management MeasuresSolar Energy: Impacts & Management Measures Vasilis Grand Plan beyond 2030 Energy Policy 37 (2009) By 2050 solar power could free the U.S. from foreign oil and slash greenhouse emissions. Renewable energy to supply 69% of U.S. Needs By 2050 solar power could free

  1. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  2. Solar Energy in the Home. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Allen A.; Woodland, James A.

    Recommended for grades 10-12 physical, earth, or general science classes, this 5-7 day unit is designed to give students a general understanding of solar energy and its use as a viable alternative to present energy sources. Along with this technology, students examine several factors of solar energy which influence the choice of solar home site…

  3. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (inventor to nasa)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

  4. Solar/Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting and Wireless

    E-print Network

    Tentzeris, Manos

    INVITED P A P E R Solar/Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting and Wireless Power Transmission This paper reviews numerous existing efforts and solutions in the field of solar and electromagnetic energy of solar/electromagnetic energy harvest- ing and wireless power transmission. More specifically, the paper

  5. Solar Energy. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  6. Solar Energy Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography lists publications and audiovisual materials devoted to renewable energy sources: sun, wind, water and biomass. A few general texts are included that present concepts fundamental to all energy sources. Materials were selected to be adaptable to classroom, workshops, and training sessions. Also, many do-it-yourself…

  7. Maximum collectible solar energy by different solar tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helwa, N.H.; Bahgat, A.B.G.; El Shafee, A.M.R.; El Shenawy, E.T.

    2000-01-01

    The output energy from any solar energy system depends on the solar energy input to that system. Using different ways to track the solar energy system to follow the sun can increase solar energy input according to the type of the tracker. A practical study was carried out on difference solar tract systems. The layout of these systems are a fixed system facing south and tilted 40{degree}, a vertical-axis tracker, a 6{degree} tilted-axis tracker, and a two-axis tracker. All the trackers are microprocessor controlled systems, and all systems have photovoltaic arrays for electric energy production. The evaluation of the different systems is based on a complete year of measurements for solar radiation input to the systems and the electric power output from them. The study also includes the effect of some operating parameters on the tracker operation. These studies showed that the collected solar energy as well as the electrical output energy of the tracking solar system are more than that of the stationary system. These gains are higher in the case of the two-axis tracker and decrease gradually from the vertical-axis tracker to the tilted-axis tracker.

  8. SmartSolarGrid Deciding what to do with Solar Energy production

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Paulo

    SmartSolarGrid Deciding what to do with Solar Energy production Diogo Morgado and Paulo Ferreira. Solar energy has been subject of great development in the past years, which led to the concept of Solar, Solar energy, Solar road, Smart- SolarGrid 1 Introduction Mankind is facing a threat from the effects

  9. Solar Energy Monitor In Space (SEMIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thekaekara, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements made at high altitudes from aircraft have resulted in the establishment of standard values of the solar constant and extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance. These standard values and other solar spectral curves are described. The problem of possible variations of the solar constant and solar spectrum and their influence on the earth-atmosphere system and weather related phenomena is examined. It is shown that the solar energy input parameters should be determined with considerably greater accuracy and precision than has been possible. An instrument package designed as a compact, low weight solar energy monitor in space (SEMIS) is described.

  10. Solar energy for village development.

    PubMed

    Brown, N L; Howe, J W

    1978-02-10

    The National Academy of Sciences held a joint workshop with the Government of Tanzania last August on the potential of solar energy for the villages of that country. Costs of five solar technologies (mini-hydroelectric generators, wind, methane generation from organic wastes, photovoltaic cells, and flat-plate solar collectors) were compared with costs of diesel-generated electricity and with electricity from the national grid. Each of the five technologies is either now competitive with diesel or will be in a few years. Although the figures presented are not conclusive since they are derived from calculations rather than an actual test, the results are encouraging enough to warrant serious testing in Third World villages. PMID:17788101

  11. Central solar-energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  12. Solar energy and the oil refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    May, E.K.

    1980-03-01

    This paper surveys process heat requirements of the major petroleum refinery processes. Previous studies have overestimated requirements for process heat at high temperatures. About 22% of the process heat in a refinery is consumed below 550/sup 0/F; 62.5% is consumed between 550/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/F. A refinery gets about 40% of its total energy supply, and 50% of its process heat, from natural gas and fuel oil. Technological constraints limit the use of alternatives such as coal or solar energy to processes operating below 700/sup 0/F (about 25% of process heat requirements). Curtailments of natural gas supplies and advances in bottom of the barrel oil processing technology will produce strong incentives to develop alternatives to the burning of liquid fuels for low-temperature processes. Energy from coal or solar radiation is most appropriately generated at a central facility to heat a heat transfer fluid, which is then heat exchanged with the process medium. The same process could also produce steam. The cost of installing coal-burning equipment can be up to eight times the cost of the equivalent gas or oil-burning facility. The major obstacle ot the use of coal is environmental. An analysis of a central-receiver solar system, without storage, and sized to deliver a maximum of 25% of process heat needs, indicates that 4.1% of refinery fuel needs could be displaced. For the entire industry, this is equivalent to 57,000 BPD of fuel oil. If long-term cost goals are achieved, capital expenditures to realize these savings would amount to $6.5 billion.

  13. Solar energy conversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.; Materials Science Division; Cal Tech

    2007-03-01

    The Sun provides Earth with a staggering amount of energy - enough to power the great oceanic and atmospheric currents, the cycle of evaporation and condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow, and the typhoons, hurricanes, and tornadoes that so easily destroy the natural and built landscape. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906, with magnitude 7.8, released an estimated 10{sup 17} joules of energy, the amount the Sun delivers to Earth in one second. Earth's ultimate recoverable resource of oil, estimated at 3 trillion barrels, contains 1.7 x 10{sup 22} joules of energy, which the Sun supplies to Earth in 1.5 days. The amount of energy humans use annually, about 4.6 x 10{sup 20} joules, is delivered to Earth by the Sun in one hour. The enormous power that the Sun continuously delivers to Earth, 1.2 x 10{sup 5} terawatts, dwarfs every other energy source, renewable or nonrenewable. It dramatically exceeds the rate at which human civilization produces and uses energy, currently about 13 TW.

  14. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  15. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  16. Solar energy meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An instrument was developed to continually integrate the energy available in incident light on a specifically oriented surface. The unit was designed for outdoor use in remote locations and is capable of operation over a temperature range of -20 to +60 C with good accuracy. The unit is weather resistant, requires low power, has a high input impedance, is inexpensive, and has a visual readout and an analog output for recording.

  17. Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

  18. Solar energy collector/storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  19. Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)

  20. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Lewis Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-02-26

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  1. Nanostructured solar irradiation control materials for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Marshall, Iseley A.; Torrico, Mattew N.; Taylor, Chase R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel; Sauti, Godfrey; Gibbons, Luke J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Park, Cheol; Lowther, Sharon E.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2012-10-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (?s) and thermal emissivity (?T) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The ?s and ?T were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the ?s and ?T by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  2. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  3. Solar total energy project Shenandoah

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-10

    This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

  4. Solar-wind krypton and solid/gas fractionation in the early solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, D. S.; Neugebauer, M.; Pepin, R. O.

    1991-01-01

    The solar-system Kr abundance is calculated from solar-wind noble-gas ratios, determined previously by low-temperature oxidations of lunar ilmenite grains, normalized to Si by spacecraft solar-wind measurements. The estimated Kr-83 abundance of 4.1 + or - 1.5 per million Si atoms is within uncertainty of estimates assuming no fractionation, determined from CI-chondrite abundances of surrounding elements. This is significant because it is the first such constraint on solid/gas fractionation, though the large uncertainty only confines it to somewhat less than a factor of two.

  5. Solar energy recorder. [for converter site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, R. B.; Mandt, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    A serious obstacle to the large-scale terrestrial application of solar energy lies in the scarcity of reliable data on the amount of solar energy at candidate converter sites. This paper describes a system designed to monitor and record, automatically, the values of the direct and total (sun and sky) solar radiation which would be seen by either tracking or fixed-type solar converters. A further pressing need addressed by the system is the means for efficiency testing and evaluation of solar cells, solar collectors and solar concentrator systems, under outdoor exposure to natural sunlight and weather conditions for extended periods. The design was accomplished in support of the Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, where design concepts and materials for large-scale terrestrial solar energy converters are currently being evaluated.

  6. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 15991610 Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials

    E-print Network

    Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1599­1610 Improving solar cell efficiency using efficiency of solar cell devices without using concentrators. r 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved) solar energy conversion systems (or solar cells) are the most widely used power systems. However

  7. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...ENERGY Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy...Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and...

  8. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  9. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  10. End use energy in Brazil and the solar technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, I. C.

    Energy consumption by end-users, the contribution made by each generating sector, and the temperature spectrum of energy used, are estimated in order to assess the possibilities of solar technologies, including thermal conversion and bioconversion. Of the total of 99 MTEP (million metric tons, oil equivalent) energy used in Brazil in 1976, 44% was derived from petroleum or natural gas, 24% was hydroelectric, and about 29% was contributed by bioconversion of solar energy (wood, sugar cane, and bagasse). Energy consumption analysis indicates that even without the need for space heating, there is a significant amount of thermal energy used at low temperatures (below 100 C), e.g. water and air heating, and preheating for higher temperature systems. The use of solar collectors would be the most obvious way to reduce fuel consumption. Another program is the production of coal from planted forests (eucalyptus and pinus) and ethanol production from sugar cane.

  11. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  12. Simple Experiments on the Use of Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, G. J.; Goldsmid, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes 5 solar energy experiments that can be used in secondary school: flat-plate collector, solar thermoelectric generator, simple concentrators, solar cell, and natural storage of solar energy. (MLH)

  13. The Solar Energy Timetable. Worldwatch Paper 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Denis

    This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are…

  14. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  15. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  16. Battle Keeps Solar Energy in Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Hale, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Mirror structure in solar concentrator reduces heat loss by reflection and reradiation. Baffle reflects entering rays back and forth in solar-concentrator receiver until they reach heat exchanger. Similarly, infrared energy reradiated by heat exchanger is prevented from leaving receiver. Surfaces of baffle and inside wall of receiver are polished and highly reflective at solar and infrared wavelengths.

  17. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1979-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  18. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of; cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  19. Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

  20. Reducing fuel usage through applications of conservation and solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    May, E. K.; Hooker, D. W.

    1980-04-01

    Solar thermal technology, coupled with aggressive conservation measures, offers the prospect of greatly reducing the dependence of industry on oil and natural gas. The near-term market for solar technology is largely in industrial processes operating at temperatures below 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F). Such process heat can be supplied by the relatively unsophisticated solar equipment available today. The number and diversity of industrial plants using process heat at this temperature allows favorable matches between solar technologies and industrial processes. The problems involved with the installation and maintenance of conservation and solar equipment are similar. Both compete for scarce investment capital, and each complicates industrial operations and increases maintenance requirements. Technological innovations requiring new types of equipment and reducing the temperature requirements of industrial processes favor the introduction of solar hardware. The industrial case studies program at the Solar Energy Research Institute has examined technical, economic, and other problems facing the near-term application of solar thermal technology to provide industrial process heat. The plant engineer is in the front line of any measure to reduce energy consumption or to supplement existing fuel supplies. The conditions most favorable to the integration of solar technology are presented and illustrated with examples from actual industrial plants.

  1. Summary of solar energy technology characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Dr., Robert R.

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

  2. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  3. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  4. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation, and energy storage

    E-print Network

    MacKay, David J.C.

    Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation, and energy storage By David J C to the following journal article, published July 2013: MacKay DJC. 2013 Solar energy in the context of energy use, converting, and delivering sustainable energy, looking in particular detail at the potential role of solar

  5. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  6. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-print Network

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    that lifecycle emissions from nuclear energy generation cancase of nuclear energy, most greenhouse gas emissions occurNuclear and renewable energy technologies, such as wind and solar, are typically not associated with greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To the extent increases are present for some solar adopters, the analysis seeks to determine whether there is a "solar rebound" effect analogous to the "rebound" or "take-back" effect that has been observed and studied within the energy efficiency literature. Similarly, to the extent that electric users may decrease overall consumption after installation of a solar system, the study seeks to explore the possibility that solar adoption is part of a continued effort towards clean energy practices more generally, such as energy efficiency and conservation. In this way, the study seeks to determine whether there is a synergistic effect between solar and decreased consumption, for solar adopters generally or for some subsets therein. The assembled data allowed testing of various hypotheses that could help explain observed changes in consumption in different households. One variable that was carefully examined was the sizing of the solar system. As part of the study, analysis of 4,355 systems was conducted to determine how each residential solar system was sized with respect to pre-installation energy consumption. Other potentially interesting or explanatory variables for which information was available include total and net costs of the solar system; age of the home; the climate zone (inland or coastal) where the home is located; the home's pre-installation energy consumption; home characteristics such as assessed value and square footage; and the identity of the solar installation contractor. Aside from extending the literature on the rebound effect to the context of home-based energy generation, this study links to the innovation diffusion literature by focusing on solar "innovators" to understand more about the characteristics that may drive behavior, or conditions under which they also adopt clean energy technologies and practices. The results have clear policy relevance with regard to the development and coordination of policies to promote integration of solar and energy efficiency. Currently

  8. Energy portfolio of Iran: A case study of solar desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besharati, Adib

    Energy plays a very important role in the economic development of a country such as Iran where industrial progress and higher living standards increase demand for energy. Iran is one of the countries in the world that simultaneously produces and consumes large amounts of energy. Because of its geographic latitude and weather conditions, Iran has the potential to develop and use of both fossil and renewable energy sources. In South Iran, there are huge oil and gas resources, and at the same time high potential of solar radiation. However, at the present large-scale utilization, solar energy is prohibitively expensive for Iran. Therefore, this study investigates an economical way to utilize solar energy in a meaningful way for Iran. One of the possible uses of solar energy that is both economical and technically feasible is desalination of water using solar energy. People in South Iran live in different areas with relatively low population density. One of the critical problems in those areas is a lack of clean drinking water. As a result, there is an urgent need to investigate ways to produce clean water from the saltwater. Therefore, the present study conducts a case study of solar desalination in south Iran using solar. Different desalination methods, such as humidification dehumidification by using a solar collector, and reverse osmosis, are discussed. In the case study, a prototype desalination plant was considered and both technical and economic aspects of the plant were investigated in details. The results showed higher productivity of drinking water in reverse osmosis method for south Iran.

  9. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  10. Projects in a Solar Energy Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Describes student projects on applications of solar energy optics to home design. Project criterion (requiring sketches and detailed calculations of time rate of energy flow/production) is that half the heat for the heating season be taken from the solar resource; calculations must be based on meteorological data for a specific location. (JM)

  11. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

  12. Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

  13. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.

    PubMed

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-08-13

    Taking the UK as a case study, this paper describes current energy use and a range of sustainable energy options for the future, including solar power and other renewables. I focus on the area involved in collecting, converting and delivering sustainable energy, looking in particular detail at the potential role of solar power. Britain consumes energy at a rate of about 5000 watts per person, and its population density is about 250 people per square kilometre. If we multiply the per capita energy consumption by the population density, then we obtain the average primary energy consumption per unit area, which for the UK is 1.25 watts per square metre. This areal power density is uncomfortably similar to the average power density that could be supplied by many renewables: the gravitational potential energy of rainfall in the Scottish highlands has a raw power per unit area of roughly 0.24 watts per square metre; energy crops in Europe deliver about 0.5 watts per square metre; wind farms deliver roughly 2.5 watts per square metre; solar photovoltaic farms in Bavaria, Germany, and Vermont, USA, deliver 4 watts per square metre; in sunnier locations, solar photovoltaic farms can deliver 10 watts per square metre; concentrating solar power stations in deserts might deliver 20 watts per square metre. In a decarbonized world that is renewable-powered, the land area required to maintain today's British energy consumption would have to be similar to the area of Britain. Several other high-density, high-consuming countries are in the same boat as Britain, and many other countries are rushing to join us. Decarbonizing such countries will only be possible through some combination of the following options: the embracing of country-sized renewable power-generation facilities; large-scale energy imports from country-sized renewable facilities in other countries; population reduction; radical efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes; and the growth of non-renewable low-carbon sources, namely 'clean' coal, 'clean' gas and nuclear power. If solar is to play a large role in the future energy system, then we need new methods for energy storage; very-large-scale solar either would need to be combined with electricity stores or it would need to serve a large flexible demand for energy that effectively stores useful energy in the form of chemicals, heat, or cold. PMID:23816908

  14. Developing a solar energy industry in Egypt

    E-print Network

    AbdelMessih, Sherife (Sherife Mohsen)

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses Egypt's current energy infrastructure and its problems, the available solar energy resource, and the technologies required to harness this resource. After this assessment, an industry based on high ...

  15. Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modisette, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

  16. Nuclear Processes at Solar Energy

    E-print Network

    Carlo Broggini

    2003-08-29

    LUNA, Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at Gran Sasso, is measuring fusion cross sections down to the energy of the nucleosynthesis inside stars. Outstanding results obtained up to now are the cross-section measurements within the Gamow peak of the Sun of $^{3}He(^{3}He,2p)^{4}He$ and the $D(p,\\gamma)^{3}He$. The former plays a big role in the proton-proton chain, largely affecting the calculated solar neutrino luminosity, whereas the latter is the reaction that rules the proto-star life during the pre-main sequence phase. The implications of such measurements will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained last year on the study of $^{14}N(p,\\gamma)^{15}O$, the slowest reaction of the CNO cycle, will also be shown.

  17. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  18. Solar energy-conversion processes in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhihua; Zang, Huidong; Hu, Bin

    2008-09-01

    Organic semiconducting materials have demonstrated attractive light-absorption and photocurrent-generation functions due to their delocalized ? electrons as well as intra-molecular and inter-molecular charge separation processes. On the other hand, organic semiconducting materials have easy property tuning, are mechanically flexible, and have large-area thin film formation properties. As a result, organic materials have become potential candidates in solar energy applications. This article will review critical energy-conversion processes in organic solar cells with the focus on singlet and triplet photovoltaic responses.

  19. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  20. Solar Energy: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses many of the economic and policy questions related to the widespread introduction of solar power, presents recent progress in developing solar technologies and advancing their economic feasibility, and reviews some recommendations that have been made for achieving the early introduction and sustained application of solar…

  1. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    PubMed

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies. PMID:26667056

  2. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  3. Antisoiling Coatings for Solar-Energy Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Willis, P.

    1986-01-01

    Fluorocarbons resist formation of adherent deposits. Promising coating materials reduce soiling of solar photovoltaic modules and possibly solar thermal collectors. Contaminating layers of various degrees of adherence form on surfaces of devices, partially blocking incident solar energy, reducing output power. Loose soil deposits during dry periods but washed off by rain. New coatings help prevent formation of more-adherent, chemically and physically bonded layers rain alone cannot wash away.

  4. Solar gas nitriding of Ti6Al4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Gloria P.; Herranz, Gemma; Romero, Ana

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this work was to study the activating effect of concentrated solar energy (CSE) on the high-temperature nitriding of Ti6Al4V alloy. Solar nitriding was conducted using a low-cost solar installation based on a Fresnel lens with a maximum density power of 250 W/cm2 at its focus. Prior to the solar nitriding study, Ti6Al4V was submitted to high-temperature thermochemical treatments using an electrical furnace in a conventional manner. A comparison between the two processes considering the effect of nitriding time and temperature on the hardness, thickness and composition of the nitrided layer is presented. Characterisation of the treated samples by optical and SEM microscopy, microhardness measurements and XRD analysis reveals an important reduction in the nitriding time when concentrated solar energy is used versus the traditional method. The maximum hardness of the solar nitrided samples (2100 HV) was achieved after treatment at 1200 °C for 15 min. This value is similar to that obtained when samples were heated at the same temperature in the electrical furnace for 8 h.

  5. Solar energy at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-31

    Basic concepts for using the energy of the sun have been known for centuries. The challenge today, the goal of the Department of Energy`s National Solar Energy Program is to create the technology needed to establish solar energy as a practical, economical alternative to energy produced by depletable fuels--and to use that solar-produced energy in a wide variety of applications. To assist the DOE in this national effort, Sandia sponsors industrial and university research and development, manages a series of technical programs, operates solar experimental facilities, and carries out its own scientific and engineering research. This booklet describes their projects, their technical objectives, and explains how their experimental facilities are used to find the answers we`re seeking. Prospective participants from companies involved in solar-energy development or applications should find it especially useful since it outlines broad areas of opportunity. Projects include: central receiver technology; line-focus thermal technology; photovoltaic systems technology; wind turbine development; energy storage technology; and applied research in improved polycrystalline materials for solar cells and photoelectrolysis of water.

  6. Mini-Optics Solar Energy Concentrator

    E-print Network

    Mark Davidson; Mario Rabinowitz

    2003-09-12

    This invention deals with the broad general concept for focussing light. A mini-optics tracking and focussing system is presented for solar power conversion that ranges from an individual's portable system to solar conversion of electrical power that can be used in large scale power plants for environmentally clean energy. It can be rolled up, transported, and attached to existing man-made, or natural structures. It allows the solar energy conversion system to be low in capital cost and inexpensive to install as it can be attached to existing structures since it does not require the construction of a superstructure of its own. This novel system is uniquely distinct and different from other solar tracking and focussing processes allowing it to be more economical and practical. Furthermore, in its capacity as a power producer, it can be utilized with far greater safety, simplicity, economy, and efficiency in the conversion of solar energy.

  7. High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona

    E-print Network

    A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

    2008-04-16

    Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

  8. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  9. Florida Solar Energy Center 1679 Clearlake Road

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Florida Solar Energy Center 1679 Clearlake Road Cocoa, FL 32922 321.638.1000 (Located on the Eastern Florida State College Campus) ANNUAL SECURITY GUIDE 2014-2015 UCF POLICE DEPARTMENT Florida Solar community safe for students, employees, and visitors is a top priority for the University of Central Florida

  10. Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

  11. Heat-Energy Analysis for Solar Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Heat-energy analysis program (HEAP) solves general heat-transfer problems, with some specific features that are "custom made" for analyzing solar receivers. Can be utilized not only to predict receiver performance under varying solar flux, ambient temperature and local heat-transfer rates but also to detect locations of hotspots and metallurgical difficulties and to predict performance sensitivity of neighboring component parameters.

  12. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 34073415 High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells

    E-print Network

    Romeo, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 3407­3415 High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cellsTe/CdS solar cells of 11% efficiency in superstrate and 7.3% efficiency in substrate configurations have been at the beginning and at the end of the cell fabrication process. Solar cells with AM1.5 efficiency of 11

  13. Emerging NOAA Surface Solar Radiation for Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratovich, V.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Solar power has been growing at an annual rate of 40% in recent years. By 2025 it could grow to 10% of U.S. power needs. Sunlight is the fuel for solar power generation technologies, and as such one needs to know the quality and future availability of the fuel for accurate analysis of system performance. Sunlight (solar radiation) at the surface has been routinely estimated in real time from measurements of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) operated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). The GOES solar radiation data have been made available in the GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) suite since January 1996 for the contiguous U.S. every daytime hour at a spatial resolution of ~50 km (GSIP-V1). Since April 2009, solar radiation retrievals have been performed at a higher spatial resolution (~14 km) and cover larger areas (GSIP-V2). The GSIP-V1 data have recently been screened for quality, adjusted for changes in calibration, and parameters useful for the solar energy sector have been derived for the period of 1999-2009. In this presentation, we describe the quality control process and various adjustments applied, and provide examples of selected solar energy parameters (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.) and their evaluation. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), one of the flagship instruments of NOAA's new geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. The ABI algorithm, that is quite different from the one applied in GSIP-V1 and V2, uses atmospheric and surface data retrieved from multiple narrow bands using algorithms dedicated to the retrieval of these data. The algorithm is currently run with proxy data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the EOS satellites Terra and Aqua and the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. The ABI algorithm will be explained as well as examples will be shown.

  14. Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    THE noble-gas elemental and isotopic composition in the Earth is significantly different from that of the present atmosphere, and provides an important clue to the origin and history of the Earth and its atmosphere. Possible candidates for the noble-gas composition of the primordial Earth include a solar-like component, a planetary-like component (as observed in primitive meteorites) and a component similar in composition to the present atmosphere. In an attempt to identify the contributions of such components, we have measured isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea1-3. We find a systematic enrichment in 20Ne and 21Ne relative to 22Ne, compared with atmospheric neon. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in our samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic and nucleogenic components. These data suggest that the noble-gas isotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solar-like component. We infer that this component was acquired during the formation of the Earth.

  15. Coupled Gas Giant Atmospheres: Solar Heating vs. Interior Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Morgan E.; Kaspi, Yohai; Galanti, Eli

    2015-11-01

    The weather layers of Jupiter and Saturn receive both solar radiation and heat from the deep interior. Currently, numerical models fall into two broad categories: deep, convecting interiors that lack an outer, solar-heated troposphere, or thin shells that represent only a troposphere, with parameterized heating from the lower boundary. Here we present results from a new coupled circulation model that allows deep convective plumes and columnar structures to interact with a stable troposphere that is heated by the sun. Equatorial superrotation, observed on Jupiter and Saturn, extends in axially-aligned columns from the deep interior through the troposphere. A tropospheric midlatitude baroclinic zone due to solar heating competes with the outer edges of the deep rotating columns to characterize midlatitude jet and temperature structure. We demonstrate this interplay between solar heating and interior heating in setting the strength and depth of the jets for a range of idealized gas giants. The relative impact of each is modulated by the static stability of the troposphere, which acts as a proxy for water abundance. We also show the impact of axial tilt, with respect to solar radiation, on asymmetries between the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  16. EXTERNAL PHOTOEVAPORATION OF THE SOLAR NEBULA: JUPITER's NOBLE GAS ENRICHMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Monga, Nikhil; Desch, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We present a model explaining the elemental enrichments in Jupiter's atmosphere, particularly the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe. While He, Ne, and O are depleted, seven other elements show similar enrichments (?3 times solar, relative to H). Being volatile, Ar is difficult to fractionate from H{sub 2}. We argue that external photoevaporation by far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby massive stars removed H{sub 2}, He, and Ne from the solar nebula, but Ar and other species were retained because photoevaporation occurred at large heliocentric distances where temperatures were cold enough (? 30 K) to trap them in amorphous water ice. As the solar nebula lost H, it became relatively and uniformly enriched in other species. Our model improves on the similar model of Guillot and Hueso. We recognize that cold temperatures alone do not trap volatiles; continuous water vapor production is also necessary. We demonstrate that FUV fluxes that photoevaporated the disk generated sufficient water vapor in regions ? 30 K to trap gas-phase species in amorphous water ice in solar proportions. We find more efficient chemical fractionation in the outer disk: whereas the model of Guillot and Hueso predicts a factor of three enrichment when only <2% of the disk mass remains, we find the same enrichments when 30% of the disk mass remains. Finally, we predict the presence of ?0.1 M {sub ?} of water vapor in the outer solar nebula and protoplanetary disks in H II regions.

  17. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  18. General solar energy information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  19. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  20. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  1. Polymers in solar energy utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Coulter, D. R.; Dao, C.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    A laser photoacoustic technique (LPAT) has been verified for performing accelerated life testing of outdoor photooxidation of polymeric materials used in solar energy applications. Samples of the material under test are placed in a chamber with a sensitive microphone, then exposed to chopped laser radiation. The sample absorbs the light and converts it to heat by a nonradiative deexcitation process, thereby reducing pressure fluctuations within the cell. The acoustic signal detected by the microphone is directly proportional to the amount of light absorbed by the specimen. Tests were performed with samples of ethylene/methylacrylate copolymer (EMA) reprecipitated from hot cyclohexane, compressed, and molded into thin (25-50 microns) films. The films were exposed outdoors and sampled by LPAT weekly. The linearity of the light absorbed with respect to the acoustic signal was verified.Correlations were established between the photoacoustic behavior of the materials aged outdoors and the same kinds of samples cooled and heated in a controlled environment reactor. The reactor tests were validated for predicting outdoor exosures up to 55 days.

  2. INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, AND PUBLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, and Buildings Systems Integration Center National Renewable Energy Laboratory 8 July 2009 SOLAR SYSTEM POTENTIAL/calculators/PVWATTS/version1/ http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version2/ Estimates the electrical energy

  3. Energy transfer in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelbring, H.

    2013-12-01

    Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

  4. 76 FR 78021 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar Energy Project (RSEP) and California Desert Conservation...blm.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Rice Solar Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of SolarReserve, LLC...

  5. 75 FR 66078 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Staff Assessment for the Solar Reserve LLC Rice Solar Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ...for the Solar Reserve LLC Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA...document for the proposed Rice Solar Energy Project (Project), in Riverside...two new on-site wells. Rice Solar Energy, LLC (RSE) has applied to...

  6. 76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department...construction and startup of the Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP), a 250-megawatt...Impact Statement for the Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County,...

  7. Tower-supported solar-energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple-collector tower system supports three receiver/concentrators that absorb solar energy reflected from surrounding field of heliostats. System overcomes disadvantages of tower-supported collectors. Booms can be lowered during heavy winds to protect arms and collectors.

  8. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  9. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries 

    E-print Network

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    The demand for renewable energy sources has stimulated technological advances in solar cell development. Initially, development and fabrication were extremely costly and no encouragement for use in industrial applications was made. Today, evidence...

  10. Solar energy generation in three dimensions

    E-print Network

    Bernardi, Marco

    We formulate, solve computationally and study experimentally the problem of collecting solar energy in three dimensions. We demonstrate that absorbers and reflectors can be combined in the absence of sun tracking to build ...

  11. THE SOURCE OF SOLAR ENERGY.

    PubMed

    Menzel, D H

    1927-05-01

    While I have wandered from the main subject of the sun, to consider the source of stellar energy, the two topics are so intimately related that their solutions are identical. I consider that I have demonstrated the reasonableness of Jeans's theory by the manner in which it seems to fit the observed facts. There is, as I can see, no important objection to the hypothesis. It is too much to hope that the foregoing analysis is rigidly complete, but I confidently believe that the main points are established and that further modification will consist in the clearing up of details. The application of astrophysics and atomic theory to a new field appears to have met with considerable success. In spite of this success, however, caution is necessary. The present position of the theory advocated in this paper is somewhat analogous to the place once held by the theory of Helmholtz-i.e., it is the only one sufficiently elastic to stretch over the region of known facts. Our knowledge is yet limited and, with our vision thus impaired, we can not predict the future. Some unforeseen event may upset our present hypothesis as completely as that of Helmholtz; we have built as securely as possible upon observation, and it remains for the future to test the accuracy of this or any other theory so established. In an attempt to discover a reasonable explanation of the origin and duration of the solar radiation, all possible sources of energy are examined. The following hypotheses are reviewed and discarded, the arguments against their validity being too well known to necessitate a review at this place; (1) Original Heat; (2) Chemical; (3) Gravitational, (a) Meteoric, (b) Contraction; (4) Radioactive. PMID:17736928

  12. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section...Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  13. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  14. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  15. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  16. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section...Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  17. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section...Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  18. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section...Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  19. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section...Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  20. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  1. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  2. BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY

    E-print Network

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY JEFFREY S. DUKES Department of as a vast store of solar energy from which society meets >80% of its current energy needs. Here, using of ancient solar energy decline, humans are likely to use an increasing share of modern solar resources. I

  3. The Case for the Large Scale Development of Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the history of solar energy development. Discusses global effects (temperature, particle and other pollution) of burning fossil fuels. Provides energy balance equations for solar energy distribution and discusses flat plate collectors, solar cells, photochemical and photobiological conversion of solar energy, heat pumps. (CS)

  4. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

    2011-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  5. EEE 498/EEE591: Solar Energy Instructor: C J Tracy

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    EEE 498/EEE591: Solar Energy Fall 2011 Instructor: C J Tracy Email: clarence.tracy@asu.edu Course solar energy through photovoltaics (PV), starting with the nature and variability of terrestrial solar are details of the solar cell device, cell manufacturing methods, solar modules, batteries, systems

  6. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  7. Shenandoah Solar Total-Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Hunke, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    The design and construction of the world's first solar total-energy plant in the private sector has been completed and checkout is underway. During its operational phase, the solar plant will furnish electrical power, process steam, and other thermal energy to a nearby knitwear factory. The solar system consists of a collector field containing 114 parabolic-dish collectors which supply thermal energy at 400/sup 0/C to drive a 400 kW multi-stage Rankine-cycle turbine generator. Some steam is extracted from the turbine and supplied to the knitwear manufacturing processes. The system will be grid-connected. Presented are: (1) a description of the system and components being installed; (2) a summary of performance testing of the extraction turbine and of four prototype parabolic-dish collectors; and (3) a discussion of design considerations and insights which have general applicability to solar-thermal-system designs.

  8. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  9. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kai, K.

    1986-01-01

    A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

  10. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  11. Passive solar energy information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  12. Solar energy for a community recreation center

    SciTech Connect

    Libman, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 58,000 ft/sup 2/ recreation center in Shenandoah, Georgia is described. Rooftop solar collectors and reflectors serve as a basis for the active solar heating and cooling systems. The recreation center clearly demonstrates the technical feasibility of solar application in a recreation setting; economically, however, results are shown to be mixed. Although effective in the heating mode, solar cooling is considered as questionable in terms of a reasonable payoff period. A computer model predicts a payoff period of 11 years based on 1977 energy prices. The design and construction costs of the solar heating and cooling system ($726,000) was 90% financed by ERDA. A hockey-size ice rink and a gymnasium plus locker rooms and meeting rooms comprised the major part of the floor space. Problems encountered and operation of the facility are described. (MJJ)

  13. Part 1. Energy and Mass Solar Radiation and the Seasons

    E-print Network

    Tang, Youmin

    Part 1. Energy and Mass Chapter 2. Solar Radiation and the Seasons #12;Introduction Solar Radiation radiation = 10 m peak #12;#12;The Solar Constant Energy intensity decreases in proportion to the distance of the Earth's Seasons Orbital alignment to the Sun = seasonal variations in solar energy Revolution

  14. field fabricated solar powered steam turbinesfield fabricated solar powered steam turbines energy and computationenergy and computation

    E-print Network

    field fabricated solar powered steam turbinesfield fabricated solar powered steam turbines energy a turbineconverting solar power to mechanical energy using a turbine #12;a steam planta steam plant #12;focusing solar boiler #12;making steam with a boilermaking steam with a boiler #12;turbines can be pretty

  15. Solar America: A Solar Energy Tour of the United States (CD-ROM)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-12-01

    This CDROM contains nearly 500 photos and captions of solar energy technologies at work throughout the United States. Every state of the union is represented, as well as Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia, and U.S. outposts in Antarctica. The technologies represented are photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar hot water, and concentrating solar power. The CD promotes solar energy as a wise energy choice for America's present and future.

  16. Solar America: A Solar Energy Tour of the United States (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-06-01

    This CDROM contains nearly 500 photos and captions of solar energy technologies at work throughout the United States. Every state of the union is represented, as well as Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia, and U.S. outposts in Antarctica. The technologies represented are photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar hot water, and concentrating solar power. The CD promotes solar energy as a wise energy choice for America's present and future.

  17. Port of Galveston Solar Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Falcioni, Diane; Cuclis, Alex; Freundlich, Alex

    2014-03-31

    This study on the performance characteristics of existing solar technologies in a maritime environment was funded by an award given to The Port of Galveston (POG) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The study includes research performed by The Center for Advanced Materials at the University of Houston (UH). The UH researchers examined how solar cell efficiencies and life spans can be improved by examining the performance of a variety of antireflective (AR) coatings mounted on the top of one of the POG’s Cruise Terminals. Supplemental supporting research was performed at the UH laboratories. An educational Kiosk was constructed with a 55” display screen providing information about solar energy, the research work UH performed at POG and real time data from the solar panels located on the roof of the Cruise Terminal. The Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) managed the project.

  18. Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Solar energy, being a non-depleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. It can be used to generate electricity, for heating and cooling buildings, and for producing clean renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuel. There is little question of the technical feasibility for utilizing solar energy. The chief problem is rapidly providing innovative solutions that are economically competititive with other systems.

  19. Potential for supplying solar thermal energy to industrial unit operations

    SciTech Connect

    May, E.K.

    1980-04-01

    Previous studies have identified major industries deemed most appropriate for the near-term adoption of solar thermal technology to provide process heat; these studies have been based on surveys that followed standard industrial classifications. This paper presents an alternate, perhaps simpler analysis of this potential, considered in terms of the end-use of energy delivered to industrial unit operations. For example, materials, such as animal feed, can be air dried at much lower temperatures than are currently used. This situation is likely to continue while economic supplies of natural gas are readily available. However, restriction of these supplies could lead to the use of low-temperature processes, which are more easily integrated with solar thermal technology. The adoption of solar technology is also favored by other changes, such as the relative rates of increase of the costs of electricity and natural gas, and by energy conservation measures. Thus, the use of low-pressure steam to provide process heat could be replaced economically with high-temperature hot water systems, which are more compatible with solar technology. On the other hand, for certain operations such as high-temperature catalytic and distillation processes employed in petroleum refining, there is no ready alternative to presently employed fluid fuels.

  20. General solar energy information user study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belew, W. W.; Wood, B. L.; Marle, T. L.; Reinhardt, C. L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy are presented. These results identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed: loan officers, real estate appraisers, tax assessors, insurers, lawyers, utility respresentatives, public interest group representatives, information and agricultural representatives, public interest group representatives, information and agricultural specialists at state cooperative extension service offices, and state energy office representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  1. Siting solar energy development to minimize biological impacts

    E-print Network

    Stoms, DM; Dashiell, SL; Davis, FW

    2013-01-01

    the processing of solar (and wind) energy development right-solar [6e8], wind * Corresponding author. Present address: California Energysolar energy, the framework has similar applicability for wind and geothermal energy.

  2. Thermoelectrics and aerogels for solar energy conversion systems

    E-print Network

    McEnaney, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about climate change, the world's growing energy needs, and energy independence are driving demand for solar energy conversion technologies. Solar thermal electricity generation has the potential to ll this demand. ...

  3. Reliability engineering in solar energy: workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, G.

    1980-03-01

    A workshop to reveal the scope of reliability-related activities in solar energy conversion projects and in nonsolar segments of industry is described. Two reliability programs, one in heating and cooling and one in photovoltaics, are explicated. This document also presents general suggestions for the establishment of a unified program for reliability, durability, maintainability, and safety (RDM and S) in present and future solar projects.

  4. Solar energy system with wind vane

    DOEpatents

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  5. Explore engineering with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.H.

    1995-11-01

    An outreach program was initiated at the University of Minnesota by faculty and student members of the Society of Women Engineers in the spring of 1994 to interest students in 3rd through 9th grade, particularly girls, in careers in engineering. Interaction with elementary and junior high students focuses on hands-on experiences with portable solar devices. This paper reports progress of the program including descriptions of the solar devices, their use in visits to local schools, day visits to the University, and week-long summer camps, and continuing education programs for elementary and secondary school teachers.

  6. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  7. Using Solar Energy to Desalinate Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Harry Z.

    1978-01-01

    Material presented is adapted from Desalination with Solar Energy, a paper presented before the International Symposium on Energy Sources and Development, held in Spain in 1977. Desalination systems energized by the sun, conditions governing their efficiency, and their costs are discussed. (HM)

  8. The Status of Solar Energy as Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, D. O.

    1979-01-01

    Discused is the biological conversion of solar energy via photosynthesis into stored energy in the form of biomass. Detailed are the research and development programs on biomass of the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Brazil, Philippines, Sahel, India, and China. (BT)

  9. Solar-pumped electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Wilson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using solar-pumped lasers as solar energy converters is examined. The absorbing media considered are halogens or halogen compounds, which are dissociated to yield excited atoms, which then hand over energy to a molecular lasing medium. Estimates of the temperature effects for a Br2-CO2-He system with He as the cooling gas are given. High temperatures can cause the lower energy levels of the CO2 laser transition to be filled. The inverted populations are calculated and lasing should be possible. However, the efficiency is less than 0.001. Examination of other halogen-molecular lasant combinations (where the rate coefficients are known) indicate efficiencies in all cases of less than 0.005.

  10. Radiation energy receiver for laser and solar propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, D. F. G.; Hertzberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of remotely heating a rocket propellant with a high intensity radiant energy flux is especially attractive due to its high specific impulse and large payload mass capabilities. In this paper, a radiation receiver-thruster which is especially suited to the particular thermodynamic and spectral characteristics of highly concentrated solar energy is proposed. In this receiver, radiant energy is volumetrically absorbed within a hydrogen gas seeded with alkali metal vapors. The alkali atoms and molecules absorb the radiant flux and, subsequently, transfer their internal excitation to hydrogen molecules through collisional quenching. It is shown that such a radiation receiver would outperform a blackbody cavity type receiver in both efficiency and maximum operating temperatures. A solar rocket equipped with such a receiver-thruster would deliver thrusts of several hundred newtons at a specific impulse of 1000 seconds.

  11. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  12. Mathematics and Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humer, Barbara

    This learning module for use with junior high school students offers some basic career awareness in the energy field while covering some basic principles and aspects of energy use, such as vocabulary, basic electricity, energy efficiency, and home utility meter reading. Math problems are offered in volume and surface area, energy efficiency,…

  13. Solar Energy of the North

    SciTech Connect

    Davis St. Peter Director of Faclities Charles Bonin Vice President of Administration & Finance

    2012-01-12

    The concept of this project was to design a solar array that would not only provide electricity for the major classroom building of the campus but would also utilize that electricity to enhance the learning environment. It was also understood that the project would be a research and data gathering project.

  14. Online National Solar Energy Directory and 2005 Solar Decathlon Product Directory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Julia; Taylor, Mike

    2008-12-31

    The Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), in partnership with the American Solar Energy Society, developed an online National Solar Energy Directory with clear, comprehensive information on suppliers and purchasing options. The site was originally located at FindSolar.com, but has recently been moved to Find-Solar.org. The original FindSolar.com domain name has been taken by the American Solar Energy Society (a partner in this project) and utilized for a similar but different project. This Find-Solar.org directory offers the rapidly growing base of potential solar customers a simple, straightforward destination to learn about their solar options. Members of the public are able to easily locate contractors in their geographic area and verify companiesâ?? qualifications with accurate third-party information. It allows consumers to obtain key information on the economics, incentives, desirability, and workings of a solar energy system, as well as competing quotes from different contractors and reviews from customers they have worked with previously. Find-Solar.org is a means of facilitating the growing public interest in solar power and overcoming a major barrier to widespread development of U.S. solar markets. In addition to the development of Find-Solar.org, SEPA developed a separate online product directory for the 2005 DOE Solar Decathlon to facilitate the communication of information about the energy efficiency and renewable energy products used in each university teamâ??s home.

  15. Stars, Gas, and Dark Matter in the Solar Neighborhood

    E-print Network

    McKee, Christopher F; Hollenbach, David J

    2015-01-01

    The surface density and vertical distribution of stars, stellar remnants, and gas in the solar vicinity form important ingredients for understanding the star formation history of the Galaxy as well as for inferring the local density of dark matter by using stellar kinematics to probe the gravitational potential. In this paper we review the literature for these baryonic components, reanalyze data, and provide tables of the surface densities and exponential scale heights of main sequence stars, giants, brown dwarfs, and stellar remnants. We also review three components of gas (H2, HI, and HII), give their surface densities at the solar circle, and discuss their vertical distribution. We find a local total surface density of M dwarfs of 17.3 pm 2.3 Mo/pc^2. Our result for the total local surface density of visible stars, 27.0 pm 2.7 Mo/pc^2, is close to previous estimates due to a cancellation of opposing effects: more mass in M dwarfs, less mass in the others. The total local surface density in white dwarfs is ...

  16. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. PMID:26092694

  17. Optical waveguide solar energy system for lunar material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.; Senior, C.L.; Shoji, J.M.; Waldron, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    This paper summarizes the study on the optical waveguide (OW) solar energy system for lunar material processing. In the OW solar energy system, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers and related optical components. The OW line transmits the high intensity solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. Based on the results discussed in this paper the authors conclude that the OW solar energy system is a viable concept which can effectively utilize solar energy for lunar material processing.

  18. Thermodynamic and design considerations of organic Rankine cycles in combined application with a solar thermal gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, R.; Kusterer, K.; Sugimoto, T.; Tanimura, K.; Bohn, D.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies are considered to provide a significant contribution for the electric power production in the future. Different kinds of technologies are presently in operation or under development, e.g. parabolic troughs, central receivers, solar dish systems and Fresnel reflectors. This paper takes the focus on central receiver technologies, where the solar radiation is concentrated by a field of heliostats in a receiver on the top of a tall tower. To get this CSP technology ready for the future, the system costs have to reduce significantly. The main cost driver in such kind of CSP technologies are the huge amount of heliostats. To reduce the amount of heliostats, and so the investment costs, the efficiency of the energy conversion cycle becomes an important issue. An increase in the cycle efficiency results in a decrease of the solar heliostat field and thus, in a significant cost reduction. The paper presents the results of a thermodynamic model of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for combined cycle application together with a solar thermal gas turbine. The gas turbine cycle is modeled with an additional intercooler and recuperator and is based on a typical industrial gas turbine in the 2 MW class. The gas turbine has a two stage radial compressor and a three stage axial turbine. The compressed air is preheated within a solar receiver to 950°C before entering the combustor. A hybrid operation of the gas turbine is considered. In order to achieve a further increase of the overall efficiency, the combined operation of the gas turbine and an Organic Rankine Cycle is considered. Therefore an ORC has been set up, which is thermally connected to the gas turbine cycle at two positions. The ORC can be coupled to the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle at the intercooler and after the recuperator. Thus, waste heat from different cycle positions can be transferred to the ORC for additional production of electricity. Within this investigation different working fluids and ORC conditions have been analyzed in order to evaluate the best configuration. The investigations have been performed by application of improved thermodynamic and process analysis tools, which consider the real gas behavior of the analyzed fluids. The results show that by combined operation of the solar thermal gas turbine and the ORC, the combined cycle efficiency is approximately 4%-points higher than in the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle.

  19. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1980-10-01

    Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities; and at LBL projects are in progress which span that range of activities. To assess various solar applications it is important to quantify the solar resource. In one project, LBL is cooperating with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in the implementation and operation of a solar radiation data collection network in northern California. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure the solar and circumsolar (around the sun) radiation. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs which use focusing collectors (mirrors or lenses) to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts are being made to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology. DOE's San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) has been given technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. The installation of a solar hot water and space heating system on an LBL building established model techniques and procedures as part of the DOE Facilities Solar Demonstration Program. Technical support is also provided for SAN in a DOE small scale technology pilot program in which grants are awarded to individuals and organizations to develop and demonstrate solar technologies appropriate to small scale use. In the near future it is expected that research will exert a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. An absorption air conditioner is being developed that is air cooled yet suitable for use with temperatures available from flat plate collectors. With inexpensive but sophisticated micro-electronics to control their operation, the performance of many-component solar heating and cooling systems may be improved, and work is under way to develop such a controller and to evaluate commercially available units. Research is continuing on 'passive' approaches to solar heating and cooling where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed in a collaborative project with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. These models will be incorporated into public domain building energy analysis computer programs to be used in systems studies and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, then provide 'coolness' to the building. The laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the 'shape-memory' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources such as solar heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central receiver system or a parabolic dish. The conversion of the concentrated sunlight to thermal energy would be accomplished by the absorption of the light by a dispersion of very small particles suspended in a gas. Work continued this year on chemical storage processes (such as 2SO

  20. Solar Energy Employment and Requirements, 1978-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Girard W.; Field, Jennifer

    Based on data collected from a mailed survey of 2800 employers engaged in solar energy activities, a study identified the characteristics of establishments engaged in solar work and the number and occupational distribution of persons working in solar energy activities in 1978, and projected solar labor requirements through 1983. The scope of the…

  1. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringel, Robert F.

    Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

  2. Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlinar, Vladan

    2013-02-01

    Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions.

  3. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  4. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  5. Manufacture of silicon carbide using solar energy

    DOEpatents

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using solar energy. The method is efficient and avoids the need for use of electrical energy to heat the reactants. Finely divided silica and carbon are admixed and placed in a solar-heated reaction chamber for a time sufficient to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

  6. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, General Electric - Milwaukee operational test site, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, September 1980 - March 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, R. G.

    The active solar energy system for a recreation hall for senior citizens in Wisconsin, is equipped with 1290 square feet of evacuated tube collectors, 3000 gallons of water in a tank, and a natural gas fired furnace for auxiliary space heating and a natural gas fired domestic water heater. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are given as well as performance data for the collector, storage, domestic hot water, and space heating subsystems, operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions. Predicted performance data are also given for comparison with the measured data.

  7. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  8. SC-RISE LECTURE SERIES BRIGHT HORIZONS IN SOLAR ENERGY

    E-print Network

    SC-RISE LECTURE SERIES BRIGHT HORIZONS IN SOLAR ENERGY Sustainable Energy Opportunities, Options are being developed including biomass, geothermal, hydropower, ocean thermal energy conversion, solar electric, solar thermal, and wind. However, such aspects as low energy density, siting, and temporal

  9. Low energy particle composition. [energy spectra, particle emission - solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The energy spectra and composition of the steady or 'quiet-time' particle flux, whose origin is unknown was studied. Particles and photons which are associated with solar flares or active regions on the sun were also studied. Various detection techniques used to measure the composition and energy spectra of low energy particles are discussed. Graphs of elemental abundance and energy spectra are given.

  10. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR DEVICE FABRICATION LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT The space allocated for this laboratory was �¢����shell space�¢��� that required an upfit in order to accommodate nano-fabrication equipment in a quasi-clean room environment. This construction project (cost $279,736) met the non-federal cost share requirement of $250,000 for this award. The central element of the fabrication laboratory is a new $400,000+ stand-alone system, funded by other sources, for fabricating and characterizing photovoltaic devices, in a state-of-the-art nanofabrication environment. This congressionally directed project also included the purchase of an energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) detector for a pre-existing transmission electron microscope (TEM). This detector allows elemental analysis and elemental mapping of materials used to fabricate solar energy devices which is a key priority for our research center. TASK 2: SOLAR ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT (INSTRUMENTATION) This laboratory provides access to modern spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation for characterizing devices, materials and components on time scales ranging from femtoseconds to seconds and for elucidating mechanisms. The goals of this congressionally directed project included the purchase and installation of spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation that would substantially and meaningfully enhance the capabilities of this laboratory. Some changes were made to the list of equipment proposed in the original budget. These changes did not represent a change in scope, approach or aims of this project. All of the capabilities and experiments represented in the original budget were maintained. The outcome of this Congressionally Directed Project has been the development of world-class fabrication and spectroscopy user facilities for solar fuels research at UNC-CH. This award has provided a significant augmentation of our pre-existing instrumentation capabilities which were funded by earlier UNC SERC projects, including the Energy Frontier

  11. Solar Energy Directory: A Directory of Domestic and International Firms Involved in Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centerline Co., Phoenix, AZ.

    This directory is intended to provide a link between suppliers of solar energy technology and information and potential users of these products. Included are over 1400 national and international entries. These listings include architects, associations, education sources, wind power technology and information sources, solar research organizations,…

  12. Geostellar: Remote Solar Energy Assessments Personalized

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-01

    Geostellar has produced an online tool that generates a unique solar profile for homeowners to learn about the financial benefits to installing rooftop solar panels on their home. The website incorporates the physical building characteristics of the home, including shading, slope, and orientation of the roof, and applies electricity costs and incentives to determine the best solar energy estimated energy production values against actual installed rooftop photovoltaic systems. The validation conducted by NREL concluded that over three-quarters of Geostellar's potential size estimates are at least as large as the actual installed systems, indicating a correct assessment of roof availability. In addition, 87% of Geostellar's 25-year production estimates are within 90% of the actual PV Watts results.

  13. Energy Dissipation Processes in Solar Wind Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Xu, X. J.; Zhang, J.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  14. Energy dissipation processes in solar wind turbulence

    E-print Network

    Wang, Y; Feng, X S; Xu, X J; Zhang, J; Sun, T R; Zuo, P B

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation cannot be ultimately achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind magnetic reconnection region. We find that the magnetic reconnection region shows a unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for the intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a magnetic reconnection site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy...

  15. Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.

    1996-08-01

    The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the four-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis they applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.

  16. Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the 4-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis the authors applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.

  17. Impacts of solar energy utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Various methods of conducting surveys and analyses to determine the attitude of the public toward the energy crisis are discussed. Models to determine the impact of the energy crisis and proposed alternative sources of energy on the social structure are analyzed. The various interest groups which are concerned with energy and the nature of their interest are identified. The government structure for controlling resource production and allocation is defined.

  18. Florida Solar Energy Center: Final report 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-18

    A small research group at the Florida Solar Energy Center has been working for several years to perform research and other work in support of U.S. Department of Energy and State of Florida energy efficiency objectives in the area of windows, skylights, clerestories, and other glazed apertures in buildings, generically called fenestrations. This work includes not only thermal energy transfer through fenestration systems but also the controlled introduction of daylight illumination for the displacement of electric lighting energy. Work in the last few years has focused almost entirely on providing technical support to the National Fenestration Rating Council`s program to introduce energy performance rating and labelling of windows into the United States. This work has included a variety of activities. (1) Annual energy performance simulations aimed at determining the relative performances of a variety of residential window and glazing options for different climates. (2) Evaluation of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory reports and software products in the area of fenestrations. (3) Development of better computational tools for predicting the solar spectral irradiance incident on fenestration systems and contributing to solar radiant heat gain, and the effects of exterior shading. (4) Service on various committees and task groups of the NFRC as well as participation in and technical support for ASHRAE`s technical committee 4.5 on fenestrations. (5) Evaluation of the daylighting potential of commercial buildings in hot humid climates.

  19. Solar Energy Experiment for Beginning Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Clyde E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment illustrating how such chemical concepts as light absorption, thermodynamics, and solid-state photovoltaics can be incorporated into solar energy education. Completed in a three-hour period, the experiment requires about two hours for data collections with the remaining hour devoted to calculations and comparison of results.…

  20. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  1. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  2. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  3. Electron energy flux in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Sugiura, M.

    1971-01-01

    Description of studies of electrons between 10 eV and 9.9 keV in the solar wind. The transport of energy in the rest frame of the plasma is evaluated and shown to be parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The presence of electrons from solar events causes this energy-flux density to exceed the heat flow due to thermal electrons. In one such event, the observations are shown to be consistent with the solar-electron observations made at higher energies. When observations are made at a point connected to the earth's bow shock by an interplanetary-field line, a comparatively large energy flux along the field toward the sun is observed, but the heat flow remains outwardly directed during this time interval. In either situation the heat flow is found to be consistent with measurements made on Vela satellites by a different method. These values, less than .01 ergs/sq cm/sec, are sufficiently low to require modifications to the Spitzer-Harm conductivity formula for use in solar-wind theories.

  4. Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gene C.

    A project was conducted to develop solar energy installers curriculum guides for use in high school vocational centers and community colleges. Project activities included researching job competencies for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning industry and determining through interviews and manufacturers' literature what additional…

  5. An assessment of solar energy as a national energy resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, P.; Woodward, W.; Cherry, W. E.; Morse, F. H.; Herwig, L. O.

    1972-01-01

    The applications are discussed of solar energy for thermal energy for buildings; chemical and biological conversion of organic materials to liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels; and the generation of electricity. It is concluded that if solar development programs are successful, building heating for public use is possible within 5 years, building cooling in 6 to 10 years, synthetic fuels from organic materials in 5 to 8 years, and electricity production in 10 to 15 years.

  6. Energy release in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of energy release in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free energy storage, and the fragmentation of energy release in time and space.

  7. Fluctuations and Energy Balance in Solar and Stellar Dynamos

    E-print Network

    Ossendrijver, Mathieu

    Fluctuations and Energy Balance in Solar and Stellar Dynamos #12;How countless are your works HAAG Ossendrijver, Antonius Joannes Hendrikus Fluctuations and energy balance in solar and stellar-393-1345-8 #12;Fluctuations and Energy Balance in Solar and Stellar Dynamos Fluctuaties en energiebalans in zonne

  8. The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission R. P. fla B. Dennis, G mission is to investigate the physics of particle acceleration and energy release in solar flares, through-ray/gamma-ray spectroscopy 1. INTRODUCTION The primary scientific objective of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar

  9. Short-Term Solar Energy Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Cerpa, Alberto E.

    Short-Term Solar Energy Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Networks Stefan Achleitner, Tao Liu an advantage for output power prediction. Solar Energy Prediction System Our prediction model is based variability of more then 100 kW per minute. For practical usage of solar energy, predicting times of high

  10. Assessment of solar and wind energy resources in Ethiopia. I. Solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, F.; Mulugetta, Y.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes how data from a variety of sources are merged to present new countrywide maps of the solar energy distribution over Ethiopia. The spatial coverage of stations with radiation data was found to be unsatisfactory for the purpose of a countrywide solar energy assessment exercise. Therefore, radiation had to be predicted from sunshine hours by employing empirical models. Using data from seven stations in Ethiopia, linear and quadratic correlation relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and sunshine hours per day have been developed. These regional models show a distinct improvement over previously employed countrywide models. To produce a national solar-energy distribution profile, a spatial extension of the radiation/sunshine relationships had to be carried out. To do this, the intercepts(a) and slopes(b) of each of the seven linear regression equations and another six from previous studies, completed in neighbouring Sudan, Kenya and Yemen, were used to interpolate the corresponding values to areas between them. Subsequent to these procedures, 142 stations providing only sunshine data were assigned their `appropriate` a and b values to estimate the amount of solar radiation received, which was then used to produce annual and monthly solar radiation distribution maps for Ethiopia. The results show that in all regions solar energy is an abundant resource. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Quasi-energy-independent solar neutrino transitions

    E-print Network

    G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Palazzo

    2002-02-06

    Current solar, atmospheric, and reactor neutrino data still allow oscillation scenarios where the squared mass differences are all close to 10^-3 eV^2, rather than being hierarchically separated. For solar neutrinos, this situation (realized in the upper part of the so-called large-mixing angle solution) implies adiabatic transitions which depend weakly on the neutrino energy and on the matter density, as well as on the ``atmospheric'' squared mass difference. In such a regime of ``quasi-energy-independent'' (QEI) transitions, intermediate between the more familiar ``Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein'' (MSW) and energy-independent (EI) regimes, we first perform analytical calculations of the solar nu_e survival probability at first order in the matter density, beyond the usual hierarchical approximations. We then provide accurate, generalized expressions for the solar neutrino mixing angles in matter, which reduce to those valid in the MSW, QEI and EI regimes in appropriate limits. Finally, a representative QEI scenario is discussed in some detail.

  12. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Polycrystalline Silicon : From Gas Molecule To Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veenendaal, P. A. T. T.

    2002-10-01

    Although the effort to investigate the use of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, has increased, their contribution to the total energy consumption remains insignificant. The conversion of solar energy into electricity through solar cells is one of the most promising techniques, but the use of these cells is limited by the high cost of electricity. The major contributions to these costs are the material and manufacturing costs. Over the past decades, the development of silicon based thin film solar cells has received much attention, because the fabrication costs are low. A promising material for use in thin film solar cells is polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si:H). A relatively new technique to deposit poly-Si:H is Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hot-Wire CVD), in which the reactant gases are catalytically decomposed at the surface of a hot filament, mainly tungsten and tantalum. The main advantages of Hot-Wire CVD over PE-CVD are absence of ion bombardment, high deposition rate, low equipment cost and high gas utilization. This thesis deals with the full spectrum of deposition, characterization and application of poly-Si:H thin films, i.e. from gas molecule to solar cell. Studies on the decomposition of silane on the filament showed that the process is catalytic of nature and that silane is decomposed into Si and 4H. The dominant gas phase reaction is the reaction of Si and H with silane, resulting in SiH3, Si2H6, Si3H6 and H2SiSiH2. The film growth precursors are Si, SiH3 and Si2H4. Also, XPS results on used tantalum and tungsten filaments are discussed. The position dependent measurements show larger silicon contents at the ends of the tungsten filament, as compared to the middle, due to a lower filament temperature. This effect is insignificant for a tantalum filament. Deposition time dependent measurements show an increase in silicon content of the tungsten filament with time, while the silicon content on the tantalum filament saturates rather quickly. The deposition of poly-Si:H layers using tantalum as filament material has been investigated by ellipsometry. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on a series of films deposited at increasing hydrogen dilution revealed that the crystallinity of the layers increased. The deposition of profiled layers, using a highly crystalline seed layer was studied by both spectroscopic and kinetic ellipsometry. Both studies showed that by using a seed layer, more crystalline layers could be deposited using higher silane flows at which normally amorphous silicon layers are grown. Poly-Si:H thin films deposited using tungsten, tantalum and rhenium as filament material have been characterized. Device-quality poly-Si:H layers have been deposited using tungsten as filament material. The materials deposited using tantalum and rhenium showed properties that are less than device-quality. Finally, some solar cell results are given. The highest efficiency obtained was 4.41% for a n-i-p solar cell with a thickness <1.5 mu-m without the use of a back reflector. An increase in solar cell performance could be achieved by (i) using a lower substrate temperature, (ii) incorporating a textured back reflector to increase the effective pathway of the light and (iii) by using a more stable n-layer, possibly deposited by Hot-Wire CVD.

  13. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  14. Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore : assessment of solar photovoltaic systems

    E-print Network

    Sun, Li

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of solar energy based Electric Vehicle Transportation System in Singapore, the state of the art Photovoltaic Systems have been reviewed in this report with a focus on solar cell technologies. ...

  15. Study of combined /photovoltaic-thermal/ solar energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, R. C.

    A theoretical analysis of a combined photovoltaic-thermal energy system for converting solar energy is presented. Optical concentration is employed to intensify the available solar energy density. The thermal energy extraction works both to cool the solar cells and to provide heat energy. Overall system efficiencies (total output energy, both thermal and electrical, divided by the available insolation) are shown to reach values close to 40%, with predicted capital costs less than 0.1 cent per kWh.

  16. Method and apparatus for collecting solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, T.O.

    1981-11-17

    A method and device for collecting solar energy is the subject of this application. A glass cloth coated with a light absorbing resinous material is utilized as the collector panel. A glass cloth coated with a translucent resinous material is the preferred material for a cover panel that is disposed in spaced relationship to the collector panel. A framework holds the two cloth layers in spaced planar relationship and a heat exchange medium is placed in contact with the collector panel. The device is used by placing it in direct sunlight, preferably at an angle to maximize the effects of the solar radiation. Radiation striking the light absorbing glass cloth is quickly dissipated by the glass fibers thereby heating the transfer medium. The resinous material, preferably black for the collector panel, provides a highly absorptive surface for the solar radiation and also protects the glass fiber of the cloth from deterioration as a result of radiation or corrosion.

  17. Harnessing surface plasmons for solar energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. M.

    1983-01-01

    NASA research on the feasibility of solar-energy conversion using surface plasmons is reviewed, with a focus on inelastic-tunnel-diode techniques for power extraction. The need for more efficient solar converters for planned space missions is indicated, and it is shown that a device with 50-percent efficiency could cost up to 40 times as much per sq cm as current Si cells and still be competitive. The parallel-processing approach using broadband carriers and tunable diodes is explained, and the physics of surface plasmons on metal surfaces is outlined. Technical problems being addressed include phase-matching sunlight to surface plasmons, minimizing ohmic losses and reradiation in energy transport, coupling into the tunnels by mode conversion, and gaining an understanding of the tunnel-diode energy-conversion process. Diagrams illustrating the design concepts are provided.

  18. The role of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in luminescent solar concentrator efficiency and color tunability

    E-print Network

    Balaban, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    and energy conversion efficiency using front-facing photovoltaic cell luminescent solarENERGY TRANSFER IN LUMINESCENT SOLAR CONCENTRATOR EFFICIENCYEnergy Transfer in luminescent solar concentrator efficiency

  19. Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. M. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

  20. Solar energy system performance evaluation - Seasonal Report for Seeco Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The SEECO Lincoln Solar Energy System was designed to provide 60 percent of the space heating for the 50 seat Hyde Memorial Observatory in Lincoln, Nebraska. The system consists of nine SEECO Mod 1 flat plate air collectors (481 square feet), a 347 cubic foot rock storage bin, blowers, controls and air ducting. An auxiliary natural gas furnace provides additional energy when the solar energy is not adequate to meet the space heating demand. The system has five modes of operation. System description, typical system operation, system operating sequence, performance assessment, system performance, subsystem performance (collector array, storage, space heating), operating energy, energy savings and maintenance are discussed.

  1. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  2. The SolarWiki Solar energy is the only inexhaustible energy source abundant enough to satisfy all the energy needs of our planet, but

    E-print Network

    The SolarWiki Solar energy is the only inexhaustible energy source abundant enough to satisfy all the energy needs of our planet, but is only practical if an extensive solar-based infrastructure can of this infrastructure that efficiently harnesses solar energy is one of the greatest scientific, technological, economic

  3. Mars Solar Balloon Landed Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P.; Harpold, D.; Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Gorevan, S.; Israel, G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Jones, J.; Owen, T.; Raulin, F.

    1999-01-01

    A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of atmospheric evolution and past climatic conditions. A Micromission plan is under study where a surface package including a miniaturized GCMS would be delivered to the surface by a solar heated hot air balloon based system. The balloon system would be deployed about 8 km above the surface of Mars, wherein it would rapidly fill with Martian atmosphere and be heated quickly by the sun. The combined buoyancy and parachuting effects of the solar balloon result in a surface package impact of about 5 m/sec. After delivery of the package to the surface, the balloon would ascend to about 4 km altitude, with imaging and magnetometry data being taken for the remainder of the daylight hours as the balloon is blown with the Martian winds. Total atmospheric entry mass of this mission is estimated to be approximately 50 kg, and it can fit as an Ariane 5 piggyback payload. The GCMS would obtain samples directly from the atmosphere at the surface and also from gases evolved from solid phase material collected from well below the surface with a Sample Acquisition and Transport Mechanism (SATM). The experiment envisioned in the Mars Micromission described would obtain samples from a much greater depth of up to one meter below the surface, and would search for organic molecules trapped in ancient stratified layers well below the oxidized surface. Insitu instruments on upcoming NASA missions working in concert with remote sensing measurement techniques have the potential to provide a more detailed investigation of mineralogy and the extent of simple volatiles such as CO2 and H2O in surface and subsurface solid phase materials. Within the context of subsequent mission opportunities such as those provided by the Ariane 5 piggyback payload based Micromissions, it is essential to implement an even broader chemical analysis and to enable a significant extension of previous isotope measurements. Such a development would enhance the presently very active study of questions of atmospheric evolution and loss and past climatic conditions. The method selected to implement this program can be based on well-established mass spectrometry techniques. Sampled gas is chemically and physically processed to separate the gas mixture into components using gas chromatograph and related enrichment techniques. This allows trace species to be identified and reveals isotopic distributions in many cases with improved precision. Samples of interest, such as organic molecules, may lie deep below the highly oxidized surface layer and the suggested program includes enhanced sampling techniques to measure volatiles preserved in solid phase material deep below the surface as well as gas from the well mixed atmosphere.

  4. Review of solar thermoelectric energy conversion and analysis of a two cover flat-plate solar collector

    E-print Network

    Hasan, Atiya

    2007-01-01

    The process of solar thermoelectric energy conversion was explored through a review of thermoelectric energy generation and solar collectors. Existing forms of flat plate collectors and solar concentrators were surveyed. ...

  5. New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method

    SciTech Connect

    Takashima, Takumi; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Doi, Takuya ); Kamoshida, Junji ); Tani, Tatsuo ); Horigome, Takashi )

    1994-03-01

    One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature of solar cell increases up to the prescribed temperature of thermal energy use, although it is lower than the cell temperature when using only solar cell panel. For maintaining cell conversion efficiency at the standard conditions, it is necessary to keep the cell at lower temperature. In this paper, electric and thermal energy obtained form a PV/T panel is evaluated in terms of energy. BAsed on this evaluation, the method of not to decrease cell conversion efficiency with collecting solar thermal energy was proposed.

  6. Stars, Gas, and Dark Matter in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Christopher F.; Parravano, Antonio; Hollenbach, David J.

    2015-11-01

    We reanalyze data on the surface densities and vertical distribution of baryonic matter in the solar neighborhood and tabulate the results. We find a local total surface density of M dwarfs of 17.3+/- 2.3 {M}? {{pc}}-2, whcih is significantly higher than previous values. Our result for the total local surface density of visible stars (main-sequence stars and giants), 27.0+/- 2.7 {M}? {{pc}}-2, is close to previous estimates due to a cancellation of opposing effects: more mass in M dwarfs, less mass in the others. The total local surface density in white dwarfs is 4.9+/- 0.6 {M}? {{pc}}-2; in brown dwarfs, it is ? 1.2 {M}? {{pc}}-2, but with considerable uncertainty. We find that the total local surface density of stars and stellar remnants is 33.4+/- 3 {M}? {{pc}}-2, which is somewhat less than previous estimates but within the errors of many of them. We analyze data on 21 cm emission and absorption and obtain good agreement with recent results on the local amount of neutral atomic hydrogen obtained with the Planck satellite. The local surface density of gas is 13.7+/- 1.6 {M}? {{pc}}-2. The total baryonic mass surface density that we derive for the solar neighborhood is 47.1+/- 3.4 {M}? {{pc}}-2 (43.8 {M}? {{pc}}-2 within 1.1 kpc of the midplane). Combining these results with others’ measurements of the total surface density of matter within 1–1.1 kpc of the plane, we find that the local density of dark matter is {? }{DM}=0.013+/- 0.003 {M}? \\{{pc}}-3=0.49+/- 0.13 GeV cm{}-3. The local density of all matter is 0.097+/- 0.013 {M}? {{pc}}-3. We discuss limitations on the properties of a possible thin disk of dark matter.

  7. Solar energy, conservation, and rental housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, A.; Raab, J.

    1981-03-01

    Renters must pay the majority of energy costs either directly or in their rents. They have limited financial and legal abilities to make improvements necessary to increase substantially the energy efficiency of rental housing. This report discusses the problem of how to increase investments in energy conservation and solar energy devices for rental housing, which constitutes over one-third of US housing. As background, this report characterizes the rental-housing market, including owners' decision-making criteria. Federal, state, and local policies that affect energy-related investments in rental housing are described. Programs are divided into five major categories: (1) programs for tenants, (2) financial incentives for owners, (3) leasing of solar energy equipment, (4) mediation between tenants and landlords, and (5) regulation. The report concludes that energy and conservation programs aimed at the residential sector must disaggregate owner-occupied housing from rental housing for maximum effect. No one program is advocated since local rental-housing markets differ substantially. For improvements greater than no-cost or low-cost items, programs must be directed at rental-housing owners and not only at tenants.

  8. Operational Experience from Solar Thermal Energy Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

  9. Agegraphic Chaplygin gas model of dark energy

    E-print Network

    Ahmad Sheykhi

    2010-02-07

    We establish a connection between the agegraphic models of dark energy and Chaplygin gas energy density in non-flat universe. We reconstruct the potential of the agegraphic scalar field as well as the dynamics of the scalar field according to the evolution of the agegraphic dark energy. We also extend our study to the interacting agegraphic generalized Chaplygin gas dark energy model.

  10. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  11. Simulating the escaping atmospheres of hot gas planets in the solar neighborhood

    E-print Network

    Salz, M; Schneider, P C; Schmitt, J H M M

    2015-01-01

    Absorption of high-energy radiation in planetary thermospheres is believed to lead to the formation of planetary winds. The resulting mass-loss rates can affect the evolution, particularly of small gas planets. We present 1D, spherically symmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the escaping atmospheres of 18 hot gas planets in the solar neighborhood. Our sample only includes strongly irradiated planets, whose expanded atmospheres may be detectable via transit spectroscopy. The simulations were performed with the PLUTO-CLOUDY interface, which couples a detailed photoionization and plasma simulation code with a general MHD code. We study the thermospheric escape and derive improved estimates for the planetary mass-loss rates. Our simulations reproduce the temperature-pressure profile measured via sodium D absorption in HD 189733 b, but show unexplained differences in the case of HD 209458 b. In contrast to general assumptions, we find that the gravitationally more tightly bound thermospheres of massive and compact...

  12. pg. 1 UW Clean Energy Institute Solar Car Derby Activity

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    ? (connect both sides of the motor to different leads from the solar panel.) #12;pg. 3 UW Clean Energy will run the other direction) Where do so solar panels usually go? ( on the roof of buildings or in flatpg. 1 UW Clean Energy Institute Solar Car Derby Activity Overview Raycatcher and SunZoom Lite Model

  13. 77 FR 36532 - Review of Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Solar Energy Industries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket...Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Solar Energy Industries Association; California...rulemaking recently submitted by the Solar Energy Industries Association...

  14. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

  15. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  16. Solar-Heated Gasifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Catalytic coal and biomass gasifer system heated by solar energy. Sunlight from solar concentrator focused through quartz window onto ceramic-honeycomb absorber surface, which raises temperature of reactant steam, fluidizing gas, and reactor walls.

  17. Energy Conservation and Passive Solar Techniques in Campus Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probasco, Jack; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of a building from an energy conservation and passive solar potential has three aspects: building envelope, landscaping, and room utilization. Typical conservation and solar control modifications are listed. (Author/MLF)

  18. Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials

    E-print Network

    Lenert, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

  19. Solar Energy Research Institute Validation Test House Site Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Wortman, D.; Judkoff, R.; Hunn, B.

    1985-05-01

    The Validation Test House at the Solar Energy Research Institute in Golden, Colorado, is being used to collect performance data for analysis/design tool validation as part of the DOE Passive Solar Class A Performance Evaluation Program.

  20. 78 FR 45268 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...the potential compatibility of solar energy facilities on public lands, requires...site as suitable or unsuitable for solar energy development. The Final EIS describes...and decommission a 100-acre solar PV facility on BLM-managed...

  1. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline TiO2

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yanyi

    2002-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261­271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline Ti; received in revised form 18 April 2001; accepted 30 May 2001 Abstract The photoelectric behavior of a black. A sandwich-type solar cell fabricated by this dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 film generated 6:1 mA cmÀ2

  2. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 77 (2003) 319330 Structure and photoelectrochemical properties

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yanyi

    2003-01-01

    , and compared its photoelectrical properties as sensitizer in Gr.atzel-type solar cells with that of N3Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 77 (2003) 319­330 Letters Structure and photoelectrochemical Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Photoelectric conversion; Polypyridyl complex; Sensitization

  3. Residential Solar Design Review: A Manual on Community Architectural Controls and Solar Energy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Martin; Erley, Duncan

    Presented are architectural design issues associated with solar energy use, and procedures for design review committees to consider in examining residential solar installation in light of existing aesthetic goals for their communities. Recommended design review criteria include the type of solar system being used and the ways in which the system…

  4. Schools Going Solar: A Guide to Schools Enjoying the Power of Solar Energy. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, Susan Tyler

    This companion document updates an April 1998 volume on designing schools to use solar energy as a power source. Volume 2 presents numerous case studies of solar installations in new and existing schools across the United States and Europe, updates and presents new examples of solar education programs, and offers an updated resource listing of…

  5. Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural circulation solar energy dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, O.V.; Norton, B.

    1996-02-01

    An experimental solar chimney consisted of a cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber supported by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively is reported. Issues related to the design and construction of solar chimneys for natural circulation solar energy dryers are discussed.

  6. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part I. Energy, Society, and the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which were selected for information on solar energy is presented in this booklet. This booklet is the first of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles provide brief discussions on topics such as the power of the sun, solar energy developments for homes, solar energy versus power plants, solar access laws, and the role of utilities with respect to the sun's energy. (BCS)

  7. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1994 review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This is a report on DOE`s Solar Industrial Program. The topics of the report include an overview of the program, it`s participants and it`s objectives; solar detoxification--using solar energy to destroy environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil; solar process heat--generating industrial quantities of hot water, steam, and hot air from solar energy; and advanced processes--using concentrated solar energy to manufacture high-technology materials and develop new industrial processes.

  8. Thermochemical seasonal energy storage for solar thermal power

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    During the many years that thermochemical energy storage has been under investigation, the concept has been plagued with two persistent problems: high capital cost and poor efficiency. Literally hundreds of chemical reactions have also been carried out. For short-term storage, thermochemical systems suffer in comparison with highly efficient sensible storage media such as molten salts. Long-term storage, on the other hand, is not cost-competitive with systems employing fossil backup power. Thermochemical storage will play a significant role in solar thermal electric conversion only under highly select circumstances. The portion of electric demand served by solar plants must be sufficiently high that the balance of the grid cannot fully supplant seasonal storage. High fossil fuel costs must preclude the use of gas turbines for backup power. Significant breakthroughs in the development of one or more chemical reaction systems must occur. Ingeniously integrated systems must be employed to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of thermochemical storage. A promising integration scheme discussed herein consists of using sensible storage for diurnal cycling in parallel with thermochemical seasonal storage. Under the most favorable circumstances, thermochemical storage can be expected to play a small but perhaps vital role in supplying baseload energy from solar thermal electric conversion plants.

  9. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  10. Hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting wind, solar, and chemical energies

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting wind, solar, and chemical energies Yingchun Wu1 KEYWORDS hybrid energy cell, wind energy, solar energy, triboelectric nanogenerators, electrochemical cells ABSTRACT We report a hybrid energy cell that can simultaneously or individually harvest wind, solar

  11. Meeting the Energy Needs--Solar Technician Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitz, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    Differentiates between solar technicians and energy technicians; points out that, with the energy crisis, there has been much activity in the solar energy field, with the result that it could become saturated. Describes a program to train energy technicians that was developed at Cape Cod Community College. (JOW)

  12. Argonne OutLoud presents: The Solar Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Seth Darling

    2013-06-05

    To better understand the current and future role of solar energy, Argonne's Seth Darling framed the global energy supply and demand outlook over the next 40 years while examining potential energy sources from a feasibility and sustainability perspective. He also discussed the promise and challenges of solar energy while providing a broad overview of related research taking place at Argonne as well as his group's work on organic solar cells.

  13. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  14. Solar gravitational energy and luminosity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazel, Z.; Rozelot, J. P.; Lefebvre, S.; Ajabshirizadeh, A.; Pireaux, S.

    2008-02-01

    Due to non-homogeneous mass distribution and non-uniform velocity rate inside the Sun, the solar outer shape is distorted in latitude. In this paper, we analyze the consequences of a temporal change in this figure on the luminosity. To do so, we use the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) as an indicator of luminosity. Considering that most of the authors have explained the largest part of the TSI modulation with magnetic network (spots and faculae) but not the whole, we could set constraints on radius and effective temperature variations. Our best fit of modelled to observed irradiance gives d T = 1.2 K at d R = 10 mas. However computations show that the amplitude of solar irradiance modulation is very sensitive to photospheric temperature variations. In order to understand discrepancies between our best fit and recent observations of [Livingston, W.C., Gray, D., Wallace, L., White, O.R., 2005. In: Sankarasubramanian, K., Penn, M., Pevtsov, A. (Eds.), Large-scale Structures and their Role in Solar Activity, ASP Conference Series, vol. 346. Astronomical Society of the Pacific, p. 353], showing no effective surface temperature variation during the solar cycle, we investigated small effective temperature variation in irradiance modeling. We emphasized a phase-shift (correlated or anticorrelated radius and irradiance variations) in the (d R, d T)-parameter plane. We further obtained an upper limit on the amplitude of cyclic solar radius variations between 3.87 and 5.83 km, deduced from the gravitational energy variations. Our estimate is consistent with both observations of the helioseismic radius through the analysis of f-mode frequencies and observations of the basal photospheric temperature at Kitt Peak. Finally, we suggest a mechanism to explain weak changes in the solar shape due to variation of magnetic pressure which modifies the granules size. This mechanism is supported by an estimate of the asphericity-luminosity parameter, w = -7.61 × 10 -3, which implies an effectiveness of convective heat transfer only in very outer layers of the Sun.

  15. Off-farm applications of solar energy in agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Food processing applications make up almost all present off-farm studies of solar energy in agriculture. Research, development and demonstration projects on solar food processing have shown significant progress over the past 3 years. Projects have included computer simulation and mathematical models, hardware and process development for removing moisture from horticultural or animal products, integration of energy conservation with solar energy augmentation in conventional processes, and commercial scale demonstrations. The demonstration projects include solar heated air for drying prunes and raisins, soy beans and onions/garlic; and solar generated steam for orange juice pasteurization. Several new and planned projects hold considerable promise for commerical exploitation in future food processes.

  16. Energy balance in solar and stellar chromospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avrett, E. H.

    1981-01-01

    Net radiative cooling rates for quiet and active regions of the solar chromosphere and for two stellar chromospheres are calculated from corresponding atmospheric models. Models of chromospheric temperature and microvelocity distributions are derived from observed spectra of a dark point within a cell, the average sun and a very bright network element on the quiet sun, a solar plage and flare, and the stars Alpha Boo and Lambda And. Net radiative cooling rates due to the transitions of various atoms and ions are then calculated from the models as a function of depth. Large values of the net radiative cooling rate are found at the base of the chromosphere-corona transition region which are due primarily to Lyman alpha emission, and a temperature plateau is obtained in the transition region itself. In the chromospheric regions, the calculated cooling rate is equal to the mechanical energy input as a function of height and thus provides a direct constraint on theories of chromospheric heating.

  17. Solar energy legal bibliography: second update. [100 references

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, S.

    1981-05-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliograhy Update is a compilation of approximately 100 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (covering the period February 1980 to July 1980). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Leglislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, Institutional Issues, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Small-Scale Hydro, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  18. Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

  19. High Energy Gas Fracturing Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, R.

    2001-02-27

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed two tests of a high-energy gas fracturing system being developed by Western Technologies of Crossville, Tennessee. The tests involved the use of two active wells located at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), thirty-five miles north of Casper, Wyoming (See Figure 1). During the testing process the delivery and operational system was enhanced by RMOTC, Western Technologies, and commercial wireline subcontractors. RMOTC has assisted an industrial client in developing their technology for high energy gas fracturing to a commercial level. The modifications and improvements implemented during the technology testing process are instrumental in all field testing efforts at RMOTC. The importance of well selection can also be critical in demonstrating the success of the technology. To date, significant increases in well productivity have been clearly proven in well 63-TPX-10. Gross fluid production was initially raised by a factor of three. Final production rates increased by a factor of six with the use of a larger submersible pump. Well productivity (bbls of fluid per foot of drawdown) increased by a factor of 15 to 20. The above results assume that no mechanical damage has occurred to the casing or cast iron bridge plug which could allow well production from the Tensleep ''B'' sand. In the case of well 61-A-3, a six-fold increase in total fluid production was seen. Unfortunately, the increase is clouded by the water injection into the well that was necessary to have a positive fluid head on the propellant tool. No significant increase in oil production was seen. The tools which were retrieved from both 63-TPX-10 and 61-A-3 indicated a large amount of energy, similar to high gram perforating, had been expended downhole upon the formation face.

  20. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  1. A Simple and Inexpensive Solar Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, J. H.; Pedersen, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is presented which utilizes the current solid state technology to demonstrate electrochemical generation of hydrogen gas, direct generation of electricity for pumping water, and energy conversion efficiency. The experimental module costs about $100 and can be used repeatedly. (BB)

  2. A possible origin of EL6 chondrites from a high temperature-high pressure solar gas

    SciTech Connect

    Blander, M.; Unger, L.; Pelton, A.; Eriksson, G.

    1994-05-01

    Condensates from a gas of ``solar`` composition were calculated to investigate the origins of EL6 chondrites using a free energy minimization program with a data base for the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent molten silicates as well as for other liquids solids, solid solutions and gaseous species. Because of high volatility of silicon and silica, the high silicon content of metal (2.6 mole %) can only be produced at pressures 10{sup {minus}2} atm at temperatures above 1475 K. At 100--500 atm, a liquid silicate phase crystallizes at a temperature where the silicon content of the metal, ferrosilite content of the enstatite and albite concentration in the plagioclase are close to measured values. In pyrometallurgy, liquid silicates are catalysts for reactions in which Si-O-Si bridging bonds are broken or formed. Thus, one attractive mode for freezing in the compositions of these three phases is disappearance of fluxing liquid. If the plagioclase can continue to react with the nebula without a liquid phase, lower pressures of 10{sup {minus}1} to 1 atm might be possible. Even if the nebula is more reducing than a solar gas, the measured properties of EL6 chondrites might be reconciled with only slightly lower pressures (less than 3X lower). The temperatures would be about the same as indicated in our calculations since the product of the silicon content of the metal and the square of the ferrosilite content of the enstatite constitute a cosmothermometer for the mineral assemblage in EL6 chondrites.

  3. Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-09

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuel’s photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MIT’s technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuels—called Hybrisol—can also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

  4. 78 FR 31997 - Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ...500-1] Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp., Order of Suspension...accurate information concerning the securities of Solar Energy Ltd. because it has not filed any periodic...

  5. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  6. KINETICS OF GAS-GRAIN REACTIONS IN THE SOLAR NEBULA BRUCE FEGLEY, JR.

    E-print Network

    KINETICS OF GAS-GRAIN REACTIONS IN THE SOLAR NEBULA BRUCE FEGLEY, JR. Planetary Chemistry nebula. However, chemical reactions proceed at different rates, which generally decrease exponentially the local en- vironment cooled significantly or before the gaseous solar nebula was dispersed

  7. Use of Renewable Energy in Buildings: Experiences With Solar Thermal Utilization 

    E-print Network

    Wang, R.; Zhai, X.

    2006-01-01

    Solar energy is receiving much more attention in building energy systems in recent years. Solar thermal utilization should be based on the integration of solar collectors into buildings. The facades of buildings can be important solar collectors...

  8. Analysis of PURPA and solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, M.

    1980-03-01

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) is designed to promote energy conservation, the efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates. PURPA specifically directs the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to encourage small power production from renewable resources (and also cogeneration of electric energy as well as heat) by setting standards under which facilities qualify for interconnection, and guidelines for sales between utilities and independent facilities. The way FERC carries out this mandate may critically affect the development of solar alternatives to electric power production from fossil and nuclear resources. This report comments on proposed FERC regulations and suggests ways to encourage small power production within the PURPA mandate. In addition, some internal strains within PURPA are analyzed that seem to limit the effectiveness with which FERC can encourage independent facilities, and possible modifications to PURPA are suggested. 255 references.

  9. Energy Provisioning and Operating Costs in Hybrid Solar Powered Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Karakostas, George

    1 Energy Provisioning and Operating Costs in Hybrid Solar Powered Infrastructure Mohammad Sheikh the operating and capital expenditure costs of solar powered additions to infrastructure that is operated from the power grid. The capital expenditure (CAPEX) costs are those associated with provisioning the solar power

  10. Employment from Solar Energy: A Bright but Partly Cloudy Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeltzer, K. K.; Santini, D. J.

    A comparison of quantitative and qualitative employment effects of solar and conventional systems can prove the increased employment postulated as one of the significant secondary benefits of a shift from conventional to solar energy use. Current quantitative employment estimates show solar technology-induced employment to be generally greater…

  11. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  12. Energy resources of the developing countries and some priority markets for the use of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, T. A.; Hein, G. F.

    1977-01-01

    Energy consumption for the developed and non-developed world is expressed as a function of GNP. An almost straight-line graph results when energy consumption statistics are treated in this manner. The richest countries consume the most energy, and the poorest countries the least. It therefore follows that greater energy production in the developing countries (leading to greater energy consumption) will contribute to their economic growth. Energy resources in the developing countries are compared, including: solid fossil fuels, crude oil, natural gas, oil shale, and uranium. Mention is also made of the potential of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, in the underdeveloped world; and it is these resources which offer the greatest possibilities for economic improvement if the money is forthcoming, i.e., from the world bank, to fund the necessary technology.

  13. SURVEILLANCE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS USING METEOSAT DERIVED IRRADIANCES

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    SURVEILLANCE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS USING METEOSAT DERIVED IRRADIANCES Annette Hammer.Heinemann@uni-oldenburg.de 2Enecolo AG, Lindhof 235, CH-8617 M¨onchaltorf 3Fraunhofer Insitute for Solar Energy Systems Wiemken3, Hans Georg Beyer4, Vincent van Dijk5, Jethro Betcke5 1Dept. of Energy and Semiconductor Research

  14. Thermodynamic Inefficiency of Conversion of Solar Energy to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Arthur W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Considers the thermodynamic limitation to the efficiency with which light energy can be converted into work, indicating that no single chemical system converting solar energy into useful work can be very efficient. Also indicates that if solar energy is absorbed as heat for heating purposes, it is almost completely used. (JN)

  15. Solar Workshop: Terawatt Challenge!!? Sponsored by UD Energy Institute

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Solar Workshop: Terawatt Challenge!!? Sponsored by UD Energy Institute February 28, 2014 Clayton as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion Joshua Zide University of Delaware #12; Hall Conference Center - University of Delaware www.energy.udel.edu Time Title of Presentation Speaker

  16. Schools Going Solar: A Guide to Schools Enjoying the Power of Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Bob; Mayotte, Jenna; Cochran, Jacquie

    Schools today are hosting the solar energy systems that will become commonplace tomorrow in public buildings, homes, and businesses. This publication serves as a guide to how schools are using solar energy, listing scores of schools currently using the sun for lighting, heating, and cooling as well as highlights of innovative programs to expand…

  17. Lightweight, low-cost solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochberg, Eric B. (Inventor); Costen, Michael K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A lightweight solar concentrator of the reflecting parabolic or trough type is realized via a thin reflecting film, an inflatable structural housing and tensioned fibers. The reflector element itself is a thin, flexible, specularly-reflecting sheet or film. The film is maintained in the parabolic trough shape by means of a plurality of identical tensioned fibers arranged to be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the parabola. Fiber ends are terminated in two identical spaced anchorplates, each containing a plurality of holes which lie on the desired parabolic contour. In a preferred embodiment, these fibers are arrayed in pairs with one fiber contacting the front side of the reflecting film and the other contacting the back side of the reflecting film. The reflective surface is thereby slidably captured between arrays of fibers which control the shape and position of the reflective film. Gas pressure in the inflatable housing generates fiber tension to achieve a truer parabolic shape.

  18. Fundamentals and applications of solar energy. Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraq, I. H.; Melsheimer, S. S.

    Applications of techniques of chemical engineering to the development of materials, production methods, and performance optimization and evaluation of solar energy systems are discussed. Solar thermal storage systems using phase change materials, liquid phase Diels-Alder reactions, aquifers, and hydrocarbon oil were examined. Solar electric systems were explored in terms of a chlorophyll solar cell, the nonequilibrium electric field effects developed at photoelectrode/electrolyte interfaces, and designs for commercial scale processing of solar cells using continuous thin-film coating production methods. Solar coal gasification processes were considered, along with multilayer absorber coatings for solar concentrator receivers, solar thermal industrial applications, the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of crop residues to produce methane, and a procedure for developing a computer simulation of a solar cooling system.

  19. Solar energy utilisation and evacuated tubular solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parand, Foroutan

    Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors have been constructed and their performance evaluated. The characteristics of the collectors are then compared and their design strengths assessed. One of the designs, a flat absorber with a single glass cover using glass to metal seals was found to have the best performance among the four designs which included a dewar vessel type collector, a heat pipe collector and a black liquid collector with an optical efficiency of 87.7 pct. and an overall heat loss coefficient of 12.3 Wm(exp -2)/C. The performance of the dewar vessel type and black liquid collectors was found to be comparable to the glass to metal seal collector. A detailed analysis of the optical and thermal processes in evacuated tubular collectors was made. On the basis of this analysis a computer simulation model using a finite difference technique has been developed to predict the performance of evacuated tubular collectors. The computer simulation results are then compared with the test results. For the majority of the tests the discrepancy between the simulation and the test results was within the error band of the test results (maximum 12 pct.). For the published test results the maximum discrepancy for operating temperature below 100 C was found to be 6 pct. The computer simulation model was compared with other published models and its advantages and disadvantages discussed. In some analytical and semi-analytical simulation models the energy absorbed by the glass cover and the heat loss from joints and supports has to be ignored. The present model has none of these deficiencies and more complex designs can be simulated. The developed computer simulation program might be used as an aid in the design of evacuated tubular collectors. Using the computer simulation, a parametric study of the three commmercially available collectors was made. The results are discussed and the areas of improvement are identified.

  20. Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of solar thermal technologies

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaogang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    To build an electric car plus renewable energy system for Singapore, solar thermal technologies were investigated in this report in the hope to find a suitable "green" energy source for this small island country. Among all ...

  1. Role of the Atmospheric Sciences for Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J. P.; Lave, M.; Urquhart, B. G.; Mathiesen, P. J.; Bosch, J. L.; Chow, C. W.; Luoma, J. K.; Jamaly, M.; Nottrott, A. A.; Wegener, J.

    2011-12-01

    Solar energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source. Public interest, practically unlimited solar resources, and dramatic cost reductions have fueled the hopes for grid parity of solar energy production and dramatic growth of the industry. However, the variability of the solar fuel presents perceived and real challenges that can increase grid-integration costs of solar energy. Variability in global irradiance at the surface is dominated by solar geometry and atmospheric transmissivity effects with clouds explaining the majority of the non-geometry variance. Atmospheric scientists can play a major role in quantifying resource variability and improving solar forecasting models. I will start by presenting the state of the solar energy industry. Various studies of scaling of solar variability in space and time will be reviewed. Solar forecasting tools such as satellites, sky imagery, and numerical weather prediction will be introduced and state-of-the-art applications in the solar forecasting industry will be reviewed. Directions for RD&D in the atmospheric sciences will be presented.

  2. Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cambronero, L.E.G.; Ruiz-Roman, J.M.; Canadas, I.; Martinez, D.

    2010-06-15

    Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close to 300 W/cm{sup 2} on the mould is high enough to achieve complete foaming after heating for only 200 s. Under these conditions, the density and pore distribution in the foam change depending on the solar heating parameters and mould design. (author)

  3. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  4. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOEpatents

    Salomon, R.E.

    1987-06-30

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine. 4 figs.

  5. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOEpatents

    Salomon, Robert E. (Philadelphia, PA)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine.

  6. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  7. Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    By combining picosecond optical experiments and detailed statistical mechanics theory we continue to increase our understanding of the complex interplay of structure and dynamics in important energy transfer situations. A number of different types of problems will be focused on experimentally and theoretically. They are excitation transport among chromophores attached to finite size polymer coils; excitation transport among chromophores in monolayers, bilayers, and finite and infinite stacks of layers; excitation transport in large vesicle systems; and photoinduced electron transfer in glasses and liquids, focusing particularly on the back transfer of the electron from the photogenerated radical anion to the radical cation. 33 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Bidirectional control system for energy flow in solar powered flywheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Frank J. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An energy storage system for a spacecraft is provided which employs a solar powered flywheel arrangement including a motor/generator which, in different operating modes, drives the flywheel and is driven thereby. A control circuit, including a threshold comparator, senses the output of a solar energy converter, and when a threshold voltage is exceeded thereby indicating the availability of solar power for the spacecraft loads, activates a speed control loop including the motor/generator so as to accelerate the flywheel to a constant speed and thereby store mechanical energy, while also supplying energy from the solar converter to the loads. Under circumstances where solar energy is not available and thus the threshold voltage is not exceeded, the control circuit deactivates the speed control loop and activates a voltage control loop that provides for operation of the motor as a generator so that mechanical energy from the flywheel is converted into electrical energy for supply to the spacecraft loads.

  9. Solar energy system performance evaluation-seasonal report for Elcam San Diego, San Diego, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system, Elcam San Diego, was designed to supply domestic hot water heating for a single family residence located in Encinitas, California. System description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, maintenance, and conclusions are presented. The system is a 'Sunspot' two tank cascade type, where solar energy is supplied to either a 66 gallon preheat tank (solar storage) or a 40 gallon domestic hot water tank. Water is pumped directly from one of the two tanks, through the 65 square feet collector array and back into the same tank. Freeze protection is provided by automatically circulating hot water from the hot water tank through the collectors and exposed plumbing when freezing conditions exist. Auxiliary energy is supplied by natural gas. Analysis is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for one full season of operation.

  10. Comparison of photovoltaic energy systems for the solar village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piercefrench, Eric C.

    1988-08-01

    Three different solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are compared to determine if the electrical needs of a solar village could be supplied more economically by electricity generated by the sun than by existing utility companies. The solar village, a one square mile community of 900 homes and 50 businesses, would be located in a semi-remote area of the Arizona desert. A load survey is conducted and information on the solar PV industry is reviewed for equipment specifications, availability, and cost. Three specific PV designs, designated as Stand-Alone, Stand-Alone with interconnection, and Central Solar Plant, were created and then economically compared through present worth analysis against utility supplied electrical costs. A variety of technical issues, such as array protection, system configuration and operation, and practicability, are discussed for each design. The present worth analysis conclusively shows none of the solar PV designs could supply electricity to the solar village for less cost than utility supplied electricity, all other factors being equal. No construction on a solar village should begin until the cost of solar generated electricity is more competitive with electricity generated by coal, oil, and nuclear energy. However, research on ways to reduce solar PV equipment costs and on ways to complement solar PV energy, such as the use of solar thermal ponds for heating and cooling, should continue.

  11. Energy Policy 32 (2004) 289297 The potential of solar electric power for meeting future US energy

    E-print Network

    Delaware, University of

    2004-01-01

    Energy Policy 32 (2004) 289­297 The potential of solar electric power for meeting future US energy of solar electric power in the form of photovoltaics to meet future US energy demand with the projected needs: a comparison of projections of solar electric energy generation and Arctic National Wildlife

  12. Solar energy in Italy: A profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, C. A.

    1980-12-01

    The energy profile includes: imported energy sources; solar research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. The country overview includes: Italian Republic geopolitical analysis; economic analysis; and cultural aspects.

  13. High-energy processes in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. J.; Dermer, C. D.; Ramaty, R.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed study of high-energy processes in solar flares is reported, including the production of neutrons and pions, and incorporating isobaric and scaling models and a recent compilation of pion production data (Dermer, 1986). The broad-band gamma-ray spectrum resulting from the decay of neutral pions, the bremsstrahlung of positrons and electrons from the decay of charged pions, and the annihilation in flight of positrons is evaluated. Also evaluated is the 0.511 MeV gamma-ray line resulting from the annihilation of the positrons which survive annihilation in flight. Calculations were based on an isotropic, thick-target model using the best available nuclear data and models. Results are compared with extensive observation of the June 3, 1982 flare (10-120 MeV gamma rays), 0.511 and 2.2 MeV line emission, nuclear line emission, high-energy neutrons, and interplanetary charged particles.

  14. Black metallurgical silicon for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Lee, Jung-Ho; Sprafke, Alexander N.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.

    2016-01-01

    Metal impurities are known to create deep traps in the silicon (Si) bandgap, significantly reducing the minority carrier lifetime and consequently deteriorating the efficiency of a Si-based solar conversion system. Traditional purification methods via ‘Siemens’ and metallurgical routes involve complex and energy-intensive processes. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop novel Si treatment technologies. With the radical evolution of nanotechnology in the past decades, new nano-approaches are offering opportunities to diminish the detrimental impacts of metal impurities or upgrade low quality Si in a cost-effective and energy-saving way. Here we review various recently developed dry and wet chemical etching methods including reactive ion etching, electrochemical etching, stain etching and metal assisted chemical etching. The current progress and the application prospects of those methods in nanostructure creation and Si upgrading are given and discussed in detail.

  15. How Solar Energy Can Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iker, Sam

    1978-01-01

    The future of solar heated homes looks bright. The increase in availability of solar hardware and information along with tax credits point to an increase in both solar water and space heating. Solar systems can add to the value of a house. (BB)

  16. 77 FR 28618 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...County, California. The site for the solar facility would be adjacent to the...recognizing the potential compatibility of solar energy facilities on public lands, requires...site as available or unavailable for solar development. The Draft EIS...

  17. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    PubMed

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives. PMID:17272237

  18. Solar energy grid integration systems "SEGIS"

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-10-01

    The inevitable transformation of the electrical grid to a more distributed generation configuration requires solar system capabilities well beyond simple net-metered, grid-connected approaches. Time-of-use and peak-demand rate structures will require more sophisticated systems designs that integrate energy management and/or energy storage into the system architecture. Controlling power flow into and from the utility grid will be required to ensure grid reliability and power quality. Alternative protection strategies will also be required to accommodate large numbers of distributed energy sources. This document provides an overview of the R&D needs and describes some pathways to promising solutions. The solutions will, in many cases, require R&D of new components, innovative inverter/controllers, energy management systems, innovative energy storage and a suite of advanced control algorithms, technical methodologies, protocols and the associated communications. It is expected that these solutions will help to push the “advanced integrated system” and “smart grid” evolutionary processes forward in a faster but focused manner.

  19. NCTCOG Solar Ready II Project: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency 

    E-print Network

    Clark,L.

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency November 20, 2014 NCTCOG Solar Ready II Project Lori Clark Principal Air Quality Planner ESL-KT-14-11-12 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative Rooftop Solar... the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour. 3 ESL-KT-14-11-12 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative Rooftop Solar Challenge The U.S. Department of Energy...

  20. High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, C.P.

    1993-07-01

    Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

  1. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, General Electric Dallas operational test site, Dallas, Texas, October 1980 - March 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, P. E.

    1981-09-01

    The General Electric-Dallas site is a single family residence in Texas. The active solar energy system is a retrofit designed to supply 60% of the heating load, 75% of the hot water load, and 50% of the cooling load. The system is equipped with 365 square feet of evacuated tube collectors, 400 gallons of solar hot water storage, a three-ton heat pump for auxiliary heating and cooling, and a gas-fired, 40-gallon, domestic hot water heater. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are given, as well as performance data for the collector, storage, domestic hot water, space heating and space cooling subsystems, solar operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions. Predicted performance data are given for comparison with the measured values.

  2. SUPPORTING SOLAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GREEN POWER MARKETS Blair Swezey

    E-print Network

    SUPPORTING SOLAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GREEN POWER MARKETS Blair Swezey Lori Bird Christy systems has been a feature of many green power products offered to consumers. While green power markets in part through green power marketing. This paper describes the use of solar energy in green power

  3. Solar Power Plants: Dark Horse in the Energy Stable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Richard S.

    1977-01-01

    Twelfth in a series of reports on solar energy, this article provides information relating to the following questions: (1) economic cost of solar-thermal-electric central power plants; (2) cost comparison with nuclear or coal plants; (3) locations of this energy source; and (4) its use and social costs. (CS)

  4. OPTIMAi UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN HEATING AND COOLINGOF BUILDINGS

    E-print Network

    Moore, John Barratt

    OPTIMAi UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN HEATING AND COOLINGOF BUILDINGS C. Byron Winn Gearold R Wales, Australia ABSTRACT The Colorado State University Solar House has to minimizing the use of auxiliary energy required been studied with respect for heating and cooling. The approach

  5. Wintering With Solar: One School's Response to Scarce Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Ron

    1978-01-01

    Through a course in energy conservation and domestic solar energy technology, students evaluated the thermal performance of existing campus structures and made suggestions for improvements in thermal efficiency. Besides making some of these improvements, the students also designed, built, and operated a solar greenhouse. (MA)

  6. Solar Energy: The State of the Art, Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Charles D.; Pinelli, Tomas E.

    1976-01-01

    Bioconversion to fuels, ocean thermal-gradient power conversion, and energy systems are discussed in this last article of a three-part series on solar energy. It is noted that solar research has near-term and long-term implications for the housing industry, manufacturers of components designed for homes, and the public in general, and that…

  7. SURVEY OF EPA FACILITIES FOR SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was done to assess the feasibility of applying solar thermal energy systems to EPA facilities. A survey was conducted to determine those EPA facilities where solar energy could best be used. These systems were optimized for each specific application and the system/facilit...

  8. Solar Energy Task Force Report: Technical Training Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin

    This task force report offers guidelines and information for the development of vocational education programs oriented to the commercial application of solar energy in water and space heating. After Section I introduces the Solar Energy Task Force and its activities, Section II outlines the task force's objectives and raises several issues and…

  9. Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.H.; Hohl, F.

    1981-05-01

    A method for solar electric power generation in space is described. A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled. NASA

  10. Synthesis Gas Production by Rapid Solar Thermal Gasification of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C. M.; Woodruff, B.; Andrews, L.; Lichty, P.; Lancaster, B.; Weimer, A. W.; Bingham, C.

    2008-03-01

    Biomass resources hold great promise as renewable fuel sources for the future, and there exists great interest in thermochemical methods of converting these resources into useful fuels. The novel approach taken by the authors uses concentrated solar energy to efficiently achieve temperatures where conversion and selectivity of gasification are high. Use of solar energy removes the need for a combustion fuel and upgrades the heating value of the biomass products. The syngas product of the gasification can be transformed into a variety of fuels useable with today?s infrastructure. Gasification in an aerosol reactor allows for rapid kinetics, allowing efficient utilization of the incident solar radiation and high solar efficiency.

  11. Summary report of technical discussion, NASA-ERDA solar energy proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the reduced energy requirements and cooling loads of solar collectors is assessed. Energy conservation measures to reduce the energy consumption have been implemented. It is indicated that solar chemical dehumidification was more efficient than solar absorption.

  12. 78 FR 54669 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ...the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center, Clark County, Nevada...the proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center on the Moapa River Indian...action is the BIA approval of a solar energy ground lease and agreements...

  13. 75 FR 78980 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern...Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern...commenting. Mail: Addressed to: Solar Energy Draft Programmatic EIS,...

  14. 78 FR 28841 - Quartzsite Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0440)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...Power Administration Quartzsite Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE...received a request from Quartzsite Solar Energy, LLC (QSE) to interconnect its proposed Quartzsite Solar Energy Project (Project) to...

  15. 75 FR 72836 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of...Impact Statement (EIS) for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, Nevada, and by this...

  16. 75 FR 54177 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of...Impact Statement (EIS) for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, Nevada, and by this...

  17. 78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated...obligated airports to construct solar energy systems on airport property. FAA...measuring ocular impact of proposed solar energy systems which are effective...

  18. 77 FR 44267 - Notice of Availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern...Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern...additional information regarding solar energy development are available at...

  19. 76 FR 78916 - Rice Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0439)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...Area Power Administration Rice Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE...received a request from Rice Solar Energy, LLC (RSE) to interconnect its proposed Rice Solar Energy Project (Project) to...

  20. Techniques for Maximizing Efficiency of Solar Energy Harvesting Systems (Invited Paper)

    E-print Network

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Techniques for Maximizing Efficiency of Solar Energy Harvesting Systems (Invited Paper) Pai H requiring battery replacement. This paper ex- amines technical issues with solar energy harvesting. First power point tracking, energy harvest- ing, solar panel, photovoltaic cell, supercapacitor, ultracapac

  1. 77 FR 13121 - Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice of Petition for Rulemaking Take notice that on February 16, 2012, Solar Energy Industries Association, pursuant to sections 205 and 206... procedures \\1\\ for solar electric generation. \\1\\ Standardization of Small Generator...

  2. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-09-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  3. Solar energy and conservation at St. Mark’s School

    E-print Network

    Jones, William J.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a result of a request to investigate the possibility of employing solar energy at a residential secondary school to reduce energy costs. Our approach was to explore this possibility in the context of a more ...

  4. Theoretical investigation of solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lee-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis are two great scientific and engineering challenges that will play pivotal roles in a future sustainable energy economy. In this work, I apply electronic structure ...

  5. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  6. Singlet exciton fission : applications to solar energy harvesting

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Nicholas John

    2014-01-01

    Singlet exciton fission transforms a single molecular excited state into two excited states of half the energy. When used in solar cells it can double the photocurrent from high energy photons increasing the maximum ...

  7. Solar economics: fact and fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Lornell, R.; Williams, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the economics of solar energy is presented, and a method of calculating the comparative economics of solar, natural gas, oil, electricity, etc. is suggested. The author points out that solar energy systems should be compared with other systems on a life cycle costing basis rather than on an initial capital cost basis. Factors effecting the economic analysis of solar energy are also discussed, and possible future solar technologies are reviewed.

  8. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  9. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  10. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  11. Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs Solar Photovoltaic and Demand Response 

    E-print Network

    Tyra, K.; Hanel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency Programs Solar Photovoltaic and Demand Response October 10, 2012 ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS OVERVIEW ?Program rules and guidelines established by Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) ?All Texas investor-owned utilities must meet a...-distribution utilities ?Programs are implemented by Energy Efficiency Services Providers and Retail Electric Providers 1 WHY DOES ONCOR DO SOLAR PV? ?Helps meet our energy efficiency goals ?Helps customers reduce their energy demand ?Increase the awareness...

  12. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  13. Game-theory approach to consumer incentives for solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.

    1981-11-01

    Solar energy is currently not competitive with fossil fuels. Fossil fuel price increases may eventually allow solar to compete, but incentives can change the relative price between fossil fuel and solar energy, and make solar compete sooner. Examples are developed of a new type of competitive game using solar energy incentives. Competitive games must have players with individual controls and conflicting objectives, but recent work also includes incentives offered by one of the players to the others. In the incentive game presented here, the Government acts as the leader and offers incentives to consumers, who act as followers. The Government incentives offered in this leader-follower (Stackelberg) game reduce the cost of solar energy to the consumer. Both the Government and consumers define their own objectives with the Government determining an incentive (either in the form of a subsidy or tax) that satisfies its objective. The two hypothetical examples developed show how the Government can achieve a stated solar utilization rate with the proper incentives. In the first example the consumer's utility function guarantees some purchases of solar energy. In the second example, the consumer's utility function allows for no solar purchases because utility is derived only from the amount of energy used and not from the source of the energy. The two examples discuss both subsidy and tax incentives, with the best control over control use coming from fossil fuel taxes dependent upon the amount of solar energy used. Future work will expand this static analysis to develop time varying incentives along a time and quantity dependent learning curve for the solar industry.

  14. Technology for Bayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated 38 000 hr. Tests of improved components show that these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32, a value twice that demonstrated by any alternate concept. Because of this high efficiency, solar Brayton cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants using present technology for silicon solar cells. The technologies for solar mirrors and heat receivers are reviewed and assessed. This Brayton technology for solar powerplants is equally suitable for use with the nuclear reactors. The available long time creep data on the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811C show that such Brayton cycles can evolve to cycle peak temperatures of 1500 K (2240 F). And this same technology can be extended to generate 10 to 100 MW in space by exploiting existing technology for terrestrial gas turbines in the fields of both aircraft propulsion and stationary power generation.

  15. Solar Energy Technologies Program - Growing Solar Power Industry Brightens Job Market (Green Jobs)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    U.S. solar power capacity is expanding rapidly as part of the national initiative to double renewable energy resources in three years. This growth is helping to generate many new, well-paid jobs in solar power for American workers.

  16. Exotic Solutions to the Solar Neutrino Problem and Some Implications for Low Energy Solar Neutrino Experiments

    E-print Network

    H. Nunokawa

    2001-05-03

    In this talk, I review, from the phenomenological point of view, solutions to the solar neutrino problem, which are not provided by the conventional neutrino oscillation induced by mass and flavor mixing, and show that they can provide a good fit to the observed data. I also consider some simple implications for low energy solar neutrino experiments.

  17. Noble gas composition of the solar wind as collected by the Genesis mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, Veronika S.; Wieler, Rainer; Baur, Heinrich; Olinger, Chad; Friedmann, Tom A.; Burnett, Donald S.

    2009-12-01

    We present the elemental and isotopic composition of noble gases in the bulk solar wind collected by the NASA Genesis sample return mission. He, Ne, and Ar were analyzed in diamond-like carbon on a silicon substrate (DOS) and 84,86Kr and 129,132Xe in silicon targets by UV laser ablation noble gas mass spectrometry. Solar wind noble gases are quantitatively retained in DOS and with exception of He also in Si as shown by a stepwise heating experiment on a flown DOS target and analyses on other bulk solar wind collector materials. Solar wind data presented here are absolutely calibrated and the error of the standard gas composition is included in stated uncertainties. The isotopic composition of the light noble gases in the bulk solar wind is as follows: 3He/ 4He: (4.64 ± 0.09) × 10 -4, 20Ne/ 22Ne: 13.78 ± 0.03, 21Ne/ 22Ne: 0.0329 ± 0.0001, 36Ar/ 38Ar 5.47 ± 0.01. The elemental composition is: 4He/ 20Ne: 656 ± 5, and 20Ne/ 36Ar 42.1 ± 0.3. Genesis provided the first Kr and Xe data on the contemporary bulk solar wind. The preliminary isotope and elemental composition is: 86Kr/ 84Kr: 0.302 ± 0.003, 129Xe/ 132Xe: 1.05 ± 0.02, 36Ar/ 84Kr 2390 ± 150, and 84Kr/ 132Xe 9.5 ± 1.0. The 3He/ 4He and the 4He/ 20Ne ratios in the Genesis DOS target are the highest solar wind values measured in exposed natural and artificial targets. The isotopic composition of the other noble gases and the Kr/Xe ratio obtained in this work agree with data from lunar samples containing "young" (˜100 Ma) solar wind, indicating that solar wind composition has not changed within at least the last 100 Ma. Genesis could provide in many cases more precise data on solar wind composition than any previous experiment. Because of the controlled exposure conditions, Genesis data are also less prone to unrecognized systematic errors than, e.g., lunar sample analyses. The solar wind is the most authentic sample of the solar composition of noble gases, however, the derivation of solar noble gas abundances and isotopic composition using solar wind data requires a better understanding of fractionation processes acting upon solar wind formation.

  18. National solar energy education directory. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoleotes, G; Cronin, S; Kramer, K; O'Connor, K

    1980-01-01

    The information contained in this directory is derived from responses to a national survey of educational institutions and organizations involved in solar energy educational activities beyond the secondary school level. Phone calls and follow-up mail requests were used to gather additional information when necessary. Every survey instrument was read, coded, and edited before entry into the data base from which this directory was produced. The Directory is organized alphabetically by state. Institutions and organizations within each state are categorized according to type (Colleges and Universities, Junior/Community Colleges, Vocational/Technical Schools, and Other Educational Institutions and Organizations) and listed alphabetically within these categories. Within each institutional listing the amount of information provided will vary according to the completeness of the survey response received from that institution. (MHR)

  19. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, Nevada (75 FR 70917, November... covered by the DOE loan guarantee, and DOE adopted the FEIS (76 FR 7844; February 11, 2011). ADDRESSES... Register (74 FR 225). Both the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and BLM published Notices...

  20. Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.

  1. Conclusions and recommendations of the United States Solar Energy Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.; Morse, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    The United States Solar Energy Panel was charged with assessing the potential of solar energy as a national energy resource. Three areas evolved where solar energy could supply significant amounts of the U.S. future energy needs: (1) energy for heating and cooling of buildings, (2) the production of fuels, and (3) the generation of electrical power. It was concluded that with adequate R&D support over the next 30 years, solar energy could provide at least 35 percent of the heating and cooling of future buildings, greater than 30 percent of the methane and hydrogen needed in the U.S. for gaseous fuels, and greater than 20 percent of the electrical power needs of the U.S. All of this could be done with a minimal effect on the environment and a substantial savings of nonrenewable fuels.

  2. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is described. The reactants are stored as gases in lightweight insulated pressure vessels. The product water is stored as a liquid in saturated equilibrium with the fuel gas. The system functions as a secondary battery and is applicable to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics.

  3. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 5: Conclusions and recomendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Air pollution resulting from the use of fossil fuels is discussed. Phenomena relating to the emission of CO2 such as the greenhouse effect and multiplier effect are explored. Particulate release is also discussed. The following recommendations are made for the elimination of fossil fuel combustion products in the United States: development of nuclear breeder reactors, use of solar energy systems, exploration of energy alternatives such as geothermal and fusion, and the substitution of coal for gas and oil use.

  4. Energy Saving and GHG Emission Reduction in a Micro-CCHP System by Use of Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Ion V.; Ciocea, Gheorghe; Popescu, Florin

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and the energy saving by integrating solar collectors and photovoltaic panels in a Stirling engine based microcombined cooling, heating and power (mCCHP) system are studied. The mCCHP system consists of a natural gas Stirling CHP and an adsorber chiller. When the thermal outputs of the Stirling CHP and solar collectors are not sufficient to cover the heat demand for domestic hot water (DHW), heating/cooling, an auxiliary heating boiler starts to operate. The energy saving by using solar energy varies from 13.35% in December to 59.62% in April, in the case of solar collectors usage and from 7.47% in December to 28.27% in July, in the case of photovoltaic panels usage. By using solar energy the annual GHG emission decreases by 31.98% and the fuel cost reduction varies from 12.73% in December to 49.78% in June.

  5. Sensitized energy transfer for organic solar cells, optical solar concentrators, and solar pumped lasers

    E-print Network

    Reusswig, Philip David

    2014-01-01

    The separation of chromophore absorption and excitonic processes, such as singlet exciton fission and photoluminescence, offers several advantages to the design of organic solar cells and luminescent solar concentrators ...

  6. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - July 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  7. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - September 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  8. Powering Your Water Heater Using Solar Energy 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Daniel

    2013-02-13

    This report is a detailed overview of my research on solar water heating. Solar water heaters may be used to either supplement or even replace a standard water heater. In addition to being environmentally friendly, solar heaters can save a homeowner...

  9. Department of Energy solar process heat program: FY 1991 solar process heat prefeasibility studies activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc., for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY-91, six projects were selected for funding. As of 31 Aug. 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  10. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announces its decision to issue a Federal loan guarantee under Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 05), as amended by Section 406 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and start-up of the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project (the Project). The Project is a......

  11. Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy`s Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.

  12. Spearfish High School, Sparfish, South Dakota solar energy system performance evaluation, September 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Spearfish High School in South Dakota contains 43,000 square feet of conditioned space. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 57% of the space heating and 50% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 8034 square feet of flat plate collectors, 4017 cubic feet of rock bin sensible heat storage, and auxiliary equipment including 8 heat pumps, 6 of which are solar supplied and instrumented, air conditioning units, and natural-gas-fired boilers. Performance data are given for the system including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor and solar system coefficient of performance. Insolation, solar energy utilization and operation data are also given. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems, the operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also evaluated. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, site history, long-term weather data, sensor technology, and typical monthly data. (LEW)

  13. Solar energy related applications, education, and building retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yunhua

    Solar energy technologies have been well development for a wide range of applications. However, research on solar photovoltaics is still being conducted to improve performance and lower installation costs. For example, the power generation potential is not only determined by the intensity or location of solar radiation, but also related to the incident angle of the light. Chapter one explores the effect of angle-dependent characteristic on overall power output for different fixed orientations and configurations by hourly modeling, and the results show substantial improvements are possible. Michigan State University (MSU) has been promoting building retrofits combining renewable energy, and the Students Planning Advanced Retrofit Technology Applications (SPARTA) is a group that helps MSU address energy initiatives on campus. Chapter two summarizes the overall successes of building retrofit projects including solar rooftop, LED lighting, and window film conducted by the SPARTA group. The last chapter describes the development of paintable luminescent solar concentrator modules for renewable energy education. The activity is designed for middle school students to understand how energy is generated from solar energy in an inexpensive alternative, which also generates both excitement in solar energy and motivates students to become creative participants in the energy problems.

  14. Solar models with enhanced energy transport in the core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    1992-01-01

    The discrepancy between the observed and computed flux of solar neutrinos can be eliminated if the temperature gradient in the core of the model, and hence its central temperature, is reduced. This could in principle be accomplished by reducing the core opacity; alternatively, it has been proposed that a fraction of the energy transport in the solar core results from the motion of hypothetical particles (the so-called WIMPs). The resulting changes in solar structure have measurable effects on the frequencies of the solar 5-minute oscillations. Here, models are considered where the opacity in the solar core has been decreased in a manner which roughly simulates the effects of the WIMPs. The analysis of the models and their frequencies provides insight into the consequences of modifications to the physics of solar models. In particular, it is found that models with the observed neutrino flux are inconsistent with observations of low-degree solar oscillations.

  15. Solar energy utilization and microcomputer control in the greenhouse builk curing and drying solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, A.N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three agricultural applications in a specially designed greenhouse solar system functioning as a multi-purpose solar air collector for crop production and curing/drying processes are examined. An automated hydroponic crop production system is proposed for the greenhouse solar system. Design criteria of the proposed system and its utilization of solar energy for root-zone warming are presented and discussed. Based upon limited testing of the hydroponic system considered, hydroponic production of greenhouse crops is believed reasonable to complement the year-round use of the greenhouse solar system. The hardware/software design features of a microcomputer-based control system applied in the greenhouse solar barn are presented and discussed. On-line management and utilization of incident solar energy by the microcomputer system are investigated for both the greenhouse and tobacco curing/drying modes of operation. The design approach considered for the microcomputer control system is believed suitable for regulating solar energy collection and utilization for crop production applications in greenhouse systems.

  16. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.

    SciTech Connect

    Ropp, Michael; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan; Katz, Stanley; Perkinson, Jim; Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark; Casey, Leo; Moaveni, Houtan; Click, David; Davis, Kristopher; Reedy, Robert; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

  17. Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

    2007-08-16

    This report presents an overview of research conducted on solar energy technologies and their implementation in the ObjECTS framework. The topics covered include financing assumptions and selected issues related to the integration of concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics PV technologies into the electric grid. A review of methodologies for calculating the levelized energy cost of capital-intensive technologies is presented, along with sensitivity tests illustrating how the cost of a solar plant would vary depending on financing assumptions. An analysis of the integration of a hybrid concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) system into the electric system is conducted. Finally a failure statistics analysis for PV plants illustrates the central role of solar irradiance uncertainty in determining PV grid integration characteristics.

  18. Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System 

    E-print Network

    Spates, C. N.

    2010-01-01

    Management Strategies- a winning approach to meet the challenge; Turn a potential cost of compliance into a new cash flow source; Leveraging Energy Management Systems to optimize savings; Navigating through the new Greenhouse Gas reporting requirements...

  19. Comparison of solar-thermal and fossil total-energy systems for selected industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pine, G. D.

    1980-06-01

    Economic analyses of a conventional system and total energy systems based on phosphoric acid fuel cells, diesel piston engines, and central receiver solar thermal systems were performed for each of four industrial applications; a concrete block plant in Arizona, a fluid milk processing plant in California, a sugar beet processing plant in Colorado, and a meat packing plant in Texas. A series of sensitivity analyses was performed to show the effects of variations in fuel price, system size, cost of capital, and system initial cost. Solar total energy systems (STES) are more capital intensive than the other systems, and significant economies of scale are associated with the STES. If DOE solar system cost goals are met, STES can compete with the other systems for facilities with electrical demands greater than two or three megawatts, but STES are not competitive for smaller facilities. Significant energy resource savings, especially of oil and gas, resulted from STES implementation in the four industries.

  20. Integrating Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Systems in Whole Building Energy Simulation 

    E-print Network

    Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

    2010-01-01

    implementing the solar systems, on top of energy savings achieved by energy efficiency measures are presented. APPLICATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS Thermal energy generated by the solar thermal systems in commercial buildings can provide heat in two... methodologies on how the renewable energy generated by the solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on site can be integrated in the whole building simulation analyses, which then can be available to analyze the energy impact of solar...

  1. ENERGY-SPECIFIC SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM MSG: CURRENT STATUS OF THE HELIOSAT-3 PROJECT

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    ENERGY-SPECIFIC SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM MSG: CURRENT STATUS OF THE HELIOSAT-3 PROJECT Marion Solar energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, passive solar heating and operating of solar energy systems and as basis data set for electricity load forecasting. Both long term

  2. Conversion of magnetic field energy into kinetic energy in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1972-01-01

    The outflow of the solar magnetic field energy (the radial component of the Poynting vector) per steradian is inversely proportional to the solar wind velocity. It is a decreasing function of the heliocentric distance. When the magnetic field effect is included in the one-fluid model of the solar wind, the transformation of magnetic field energy into kinetic energy during the expansion process increases the solar wind velocity at 1 AU by 17 percent.

  3. Solar energy system performance evaluation. Seasonal report for Fern Lansing, Lansing, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Energy System was designed by Fern Engineering Company, Bourne, Massachusetts to provide space heating and domestic hot water preheating for a 1300 square foot single-family residence located in Lansing, Michigan. The Solar Energy System consists of a 278 square foot flat-plate air collector subsystem, a three 120-gallon tank storage subsystem, a 40 gallon domestic hot water tank subsystem, a liquid/air heat exchanger, an energy transport module, pumps, controls and heat transfer medium lines. Natural gas provides the auxiliary energy for the space heating (100,000 Btu/h) and hot water (70,000 Btu/h) subsystems. The system is shown schematically and has five modes of operation. Typical system operation, system operating sequence, performance assessment, system performance, subsystems performance (collector array, storage, hot water, space heating), operating energy, energy savings, and maintenance are discussed. A brief summary of all pertinent parameters is presented.

  4. Radial evolution of the energy density of solar wind fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zank, G. P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Smith, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of transport theories appropriate to a radially expanding solar wind, we describe new results for the radial evolution of the energy density in solar wind fluctuations at MHD scales. These models include the effects of 'mixing' and driving as well as the possibility of non-isotropic MHD turbulence. Implications of these results for solar wind heating, cosmic ray diffusion and interstellar pick-up ions will also be addressed.

  5. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  6. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  7. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Wormser Columbia, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at the sites considered. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  8. The energy spectra of solar flare electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evenson, P. A.; Hovestadt, D.; Meyer, P.; Moses, D.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of 50 electron energy spectra from .1 to 100 MeV originating from solar flares was made by the combination of data from two spectrometers onboard the International Sun Earth Explorer-3 spacecraft. The observed spectral shapes of flare events can be divided into two classes through the criteria of fit to an acceleration model. This standard two step acceleration model, which fits the spectral shape of the first class of flares, involves an impulsive step that accelerates particles up to 100 keV and a second step that further accelerates these particles up to 100 MeV by a single shock. This fit fails for the second class of flares that can be characterized as having excessively hard spectra above 1 MeV relative to the predictions of the model. Correlations with soft X-ray and meter radio observations imply that the acceleration of the high energy particles in the second class of flares is dominated by the impulsive phase of the flares.

  9. Physical Limits of Solar Energy Conversion in the Earth System.

    PubMed

    Kleidon, Axel; Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides by far the greatest potential for energy generation among all forms of renewable energy. Yet, just as for any form of energy conversion, it is subject to physical limits. Here we review the physical limits that determine how much energy can potentially be generated out of sunlight using a combination of thermodynamics and observed climatic variables. We first explain how the first and second law of thermodynamics constrain energy conversions and thereby the generation of renewable energy, and how this applies to the conversions of solar radiation within the Earth system. These limits are applied to the conversion of direct and diffuse solar radiation - which relates to concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as biomass production or any other photochemical conversion - as well as solar radiative heating, which generates atmospheric motion and thus relates to wind power technologies. When these conversion limits are applied to observed data sets of solar radiation at the land surface, it is estimated that direct concentrated solar power has a potential on land of up to 11.6 PW (1 PW?=?10(15) W), whereas photovoltaic power has a potential of up to 16.3 PW. Both biomass and wind power operate at much lower efficiencies, so their potentials of about 0.3 and 0.1 PW are much lower. These estimates are considerably lower than the incoming flux of solar radiation of 175 PW. When compared to a 2012 primary energy demand of 17 TW, the most direct uses of solar radiation, e.g., by CSP or PV, have thus by far the greatest potential to yield renewable energy requiring the least space to satisfy the human energy demand. Further conversions into solar-based fuels would be reduced by further losses which would lower these potentials. The substantially greater potential of solar-based renewable energy compared to other forms of renewable energy simply reflects much fewer and lower unavoidable conversion losses when solar radiation is directly converted into renewable energy. PMID:26003563

  10. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  11. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    SciTech Connect

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J. |

    1994-12-31

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  12. Solar Energy Education Packet for Elementary & Secondary Students. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

    The arrangement of this packet is essentially evolutionary, with a conscious effort to alternate reading assignments, activities and experiments. It begins with solar energy facts and terminology as background to introduce the reader to basic concepts. It progresses into a discussion of passive solar systems. This is followed by several projects…

  13. Solar Energy Education Packet for Elementary & Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

    The arrangement of this packet is essentially evolutionary, with a conscious effort to alternate reading assignments, activities and experiments. It begins with solar energy facts and terminology as background to introduce the reader to basic concepts. It progresses into a discussion of passive solar systems. This is followed by several projects…

  14. Solar and energy-conserving food technologies: a training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, J.; Goldman, L.

    1985-01-01

    The report is designed to help plan and implement in-service trainings in solar and other energy-conserving food technologies. It focuses on design, construction, and use of solar dryers for fruits, vegetables, meat, fish and herbs, along with fireless cookery. It emphasizes integrating technical and nontechnical information.

  15. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth

    E-print Network

    Pan, Feifei

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons #12;© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives · Distinguish between galaxies, stars, and planets. · Locate Earth in the Solar System and Galaxy. · Reconstruct Earth's annual orbit about the Sun. · Describe the Sun

  16. SOLAR THERMAL HEATING SYSTEM FOR A ZERO ENERGY HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical Challenge to Sustainability: The inter-disciplinary team, Pittsburgh Synergy, plans to design and build an 800sf home powered by site-based solar energy systems for the 2005 Solar Decathlon. The house employs a home-based business and related transportation needs,...

  17. Small integrated solar energy systems for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreitmueller, K. R.

    1982-11-01

    Solar enegy applications in developing countries cover processing of food and other agricultural products, fresh water production, operation of cooling and freezing equipment, of water pumps and processing machinery. Evacuated tubular collectors turn out to be best suited for process heat generation; photovoltaic generators for electricity production. The Mexican fisher village of Las Barrancas gives a good example of an integrated solar energy system.

  18. Evolution of electron energy spectrum during solar flares

    E-print Network

    Chen, P. F.

    : magnetic fields PACS: 96.60.qe, 96.50.Pw, 96.60.Hv 1 Introduction Particle acceleration in solar flares center approximation, Wood and Neukirch (2005) found 2.6 for electrons. Full orbit test-particle evolution of the electron energy spectrum in solar flares. In this paper test particle simulations

  19. Solar Energy Task Force Report on Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, J. Kevin

    The Solar Energy Task Force Report summarizes data, information, and discussions focusing on solar space and water heating applications. The report is intended to fill a need for curriculum and course development and direction for technical training programs, especially in vocational/technical schools and community colleges. It addresses…

  20. PASTEURIZATION USING A LENS AND SOLAR ENERGY (PULSE) METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water pasteurization using Fresnel lenses and preexisting solar disinfection methods will be evaluated. Preliminary tests were conducted using two types of Fresnel lenses: spot and linear, which concentrate solar energy onto a point and a line respectively on a water contai...

  1. Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems with two-dimensional tantalum photonic crystal absorbers and emitters

    E-print Network

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems with two-dimensional tantalum photonic crystal) systems convert solar energy into electricity via thermally radiated photons at tailored wavelengths Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) systems use

  2. Organic Solar Cells with Graded Exciton-dissociation Interfaces.................................................................................................................EN.1 Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-harvesting in Displays ........

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    Energy Organic Solar Cells with Graded Exciton-dissociation Interfaces.................................................................................................................EN.1 Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-harvesting in Displays ...................................................................................EN.3 Nano-engineered Organic Solar-energy-harvesting System

  3. Radiolytic Gas-Driven Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Cooper, Paul D.; Sittler, Edward C.; Sturner, Steven J.; Rymer, Abigail M.; Hill, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    Water ices in surface crusts of Europa, Enceladus, Saturn's main rings, and Kuiper Belt Objects can become heavily oxidized from radiolytic chemical alteration of near-surface water ice by space environment irradiation. Oxidant accumulations and gas production are manifested in part through observed H2O2 on Europa. tentatively also on Enceladus, and found elsewhere in gaseous or condensed phases at moons and rings of Jupiter and Saturn. On subsequent chemical contact in sub-surface environments with significant concentrations of primordially abundant reductants such as NH3 and CH4, oxidants of radiolytic origin can react exothermically to power gas-driven cryovolcanism. The gas-piston effect enormously amplifies the mass flow output in the case of gas formation at basal thermal margins of incompressible fluid reservoirs. Surface irradiation, H2O2 production, NH3 oxidation, and resultant heat, gas, and gas-driven mass flow rates are computed in the fluid reservoir case for selected bodies. At Enceladus the oxidant power inputs are comparable to limits on nonthermal kinetic power for the south polar plumes. Total heat output and plume gas abundance may be accounted for at Enceladus if plume activity is cyclic in high and low "Old Faithful" phases, so that oxidants can accumulate during low activity phases. Interior upwelling of primordially abundant NH3 and CH4 hydrates is assumed to resupply the reductant fuels. Much lower irradiation fluxes on Kuiper Belt Objects require correspondingly larger times for accumulation of oxidants to produce comparable resurfacing, but brightness and surface composition of some objects suggest that such activity may be ongoing.

  4. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, General Electric Spokane operational test site, Spokane, Washington, October 1980 - March 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, K. M.

    1981-09-01

    The General Electric-Spokane site is a YWCA building in Washington. The active solar energy system is designed to supply 45% of the heating load, 20% of the hot water load, and 60% of the pool heating load. It is equipped with 5,222 square feet of evacuated tube collectors, 6,700 gallons of water for heat storage, and an auxiliary natural gas-fired boiler. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance is given, as well as performance data for the collector, storage, domestic hot water, space heating and pool heating subsystems, operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions.

  5. Solar energy grid integration systems - Energy storage (SEGIS-ES)

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, Dan; Peek, Georgianne H.; Hanley, Charles; Boyes, John

    2008-05-01

    In late 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a series of studies to address issues related to potential high penetration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation systems on our nation’s electric grid. This Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) initiative resulted in the publication of 14 reports and an Executive Summary that defined needs in areas related to utility planning tools and business models, new grid architectures and PV systems configurations, and models to assess market penetration and the effects of high-penetration PV systems. As a result of this effort, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program was initiated in early 2008. SEGIS is an industry-led effort to develop new PV inverters, controllers, and energy management systems that will greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems.

  6. Subsurface energy storage and transport for solar-powered geysers on triton.

    PubMed

    Kirk, R L; Brown, R H; Soderblom, L A

    1990-10-19

    The location of active geyser-like eruptions and related features close to the current subsolar latitude on Triton suggests a solar energy source for these phenomena. Solidstate greenhouse calculations have shown that sunlight can generate substantially elevated subsurface temperatures. A variety of models for the storage of solar energy in a sub-greenhouse layer and for the supply of gas and energy to a geyser are examined. "Leaky greenhouse" models with only vertical gas transport are inconsistent with the observed upper limit on geyser radius of approximately 1.5 kilometers. However, lateral transport of energy by gas flow in a porous N(2) layer with a block size on the order of a meter can supply the required amount of gas to a source region approximately 1 kilometer in radius. The decline of gas output to steady state may occur over a period comparable with the inferred active geyser lifetime of five Earth years. The required subsurface permeability may be maintained by thermal fracturing of the residual N2 polar cap. A lower limit on geyser source radius of approximately 50 to 100 meters predicted by a theory of negatively buoyant jets is not readily attained. PMID:17793019

  7. Subsurface energy storage and transport for solar-powered geysers on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Randolph L.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Brown, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    The location of active geyser-like eruptions and related features close to the current subsolar latitude on Triton suggests a solar energy source for these phenomena. Solid-state greenhouse calculations have shown that sunlight can generate substantially elevated subsurface temperatures. A variety of models for the storage of solar energy in a subgreenhouse layer and for the supply of gas and energy to a geyser are examined. 'Leaky greenhouse' models with only vertical gas transport are inconsistent with the observed upper limit on geyser radius of about 1.5 km. However, lateral transport of energy by gas flow in a porous N2 layer with a block size on the order of a meter can supply the required amount of gas to a source region about 1 km in radius. The decline of gas output to steady state may occur over a period comparable with the inferred active geyser lifetime of 5 earth years. The required subsurface permeability may be maintained by thermal fracturing of the residual N2 polar cap. A lower limit on geyser source radius of about 50 to 100 m predicted by a theory of negatively buoyant jets is not readily attained.

  8. 76 FR 80961 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Sonoran Solar Energy Project, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...Record of Decision for the Sonoran Solar Energy Project, Arizona AGENCY: Bureau...Decision (ROD) for the Sonoran Solar Energy Project (SSEP). The Secretary...blm.gov/az/st/en/prog/energy/solar/sonoran_solar.html....

  9. High-energy particles associated with solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.; Klimas, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    High-energy particles, the so-called solar cosmic rays, are often generated in association with solar flares, and then emitted into interplanetary space. These particles, consisting of electrons, protons, and other heavier nuclei, including the iron-group, are accelerated in the vicinity of the flare. By studying the temporal and spatial varation of these particles near the earth's orbit, their storage and release mechanisms in the solar corona and their propagation mechanism can be understood. The details of the nuclear composition and the rigidity spectrum for each nuclear component of the solar cosmic rays are important for investigating the acceleration mechanism in solar flares. The timing and efficiency of the acceleration process can also be investigated by using this information. These problems are described in some detail by using observational results on solar cosmic rays and associated phenomena.

  10. Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

  11. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  12. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - First Quarter 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-22

    The first quarter 2010 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  13. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  14. Is it Time for a New Look at Solar Energy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinel, Aden Baker; Meinel, Marjorie Pettit

    1971-01-01

    Suggests a system for collecting and storing solar energy to be used as the heat source for conventional thermal powerstations. Considers the environmental and demographic impact of such systems in the desert areas of the southwest U. S. (AL)

  15. Renewable energy: Better luminescent solar panels in prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debije, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Devices known as luminescent solar concentrators could find use as renewable-energy generators, but have so far been plagued by a major light-reabsorption effect. A new study offers a promising route to tackling this problem.

  16. Semiconductor Grade, Solar Silicon Purification Project. [photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingle, W. M.; Rosler, R. S.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost by-product, SiF4, is reacted with mg silicon to form SiF2 gas which is polymerized. The (SiF2)x polymer is heated forming volatile SixFy homologues which disproportionate on a silicon particle bed forming silicon and SiF4. The silicon analysis procedure relied heavily on mass spectroscopic and emission spectroscopic analysis. These analyses demonstrated that major purification had occured and some samples were indistinguishable from semiconductor grade silicon (except possibly for phosphorus). However, electrical analysis via crystal growth reveal that the product contains compensated phosphorus and boron.

  17. Utility Grid-Connected Distributed Power Systems National Solar Energy Conference

    E-print Network

    the customer-owners of SMUD with substantial long-term energy and community benefits. The SMUD Solar ProgramUtility Grid-Connected Distributed Power Systems National Solar Energy Conference ASES Solar 96 at least half of its energy obtained from energy efficiency and renewable resources by the year 2000. Solar

  18. ECE 461 FUNDAMENTALS OF SOLAR ENERGY Time/Day: TBA Room: TBA

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    1 ECE 461 FUNDAMENTALS OF SOLAR ENERGY Time/Day: TBA Room: TBA Instructor: Rajendra Singh Topics Covered Topic Hours Course Overview 1 Solar Energy: Introduction 2 Importance of Solar Energy as Clean & Sustainable Energy 3 Fundamentals & Technology of Solar Thermal Systems 3 Fundamentals

  19. Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana solar energy system performance evaluation, February 1981 - June 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, K. M.

    1981-09-01

    The Loyola University site is a student dormitory in New Orleans, Louisiana whose active solar energy system is designed to supply 52% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 4590 square feet of flat-plate collectors, a 5000-gallon water tank, auxiliary water supplied at high temperature and pressure from a central heating plant with a gas-fired boiler, and a differential controller that selects from 5 operating modes. System performance data are given, including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and system coefficient of performance. The solar fraction is well below the design goal; this is attributed to great fluctuations in demand. Insolation, temperature, operation and solar energy utilization data are also presented. The performance of the collector, storage, and domestic hot water subsystems, the system operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also evaluated. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, site history, sensor technology, and typical monthly data.

  20. Collection and concentration of solar energy using Fresnel type lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency of collecting solar energy using a Fresnel type lens was measured for two different collectors. A flow collector utilizes the temperature difference and heat capacity in water measurements to determine the amount of absorbed energy retained from sun rays passing through the Fresnel lens. A static collector is a hollow copper box filled with vegetable heating oil for absorption of focused solar radiation.

  1. Operational tests of a solar-energy system in Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Seventy three page report describes one year performance of commercial solar-energy hot-water system. Silicone oil is heat-exchange fluid in tested system, designed to meet needs of family of four. Roll-bend heat exchanger is wrapped around hot-water storage tank. Oil circulates through exchanger and flat-plat solar collectors. Auxiliary energy, to maintain temperature in storage tank, is supplied by 4,500-watt resistance-heating element.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of solar energy utilization combined with the exploitation of the LNG physical energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bisio, G.; Pisoni, C.

    1995-11-01

    The consumption of LNG (liquid natural gas) is growing and will probably increase rapidly in the near future. Consequently, (in addition to the use of the chemical exergy) the exploitation of the physical energy of LNG, due to its state in liquid phase at a temperature under that of the environment, is becoming more important. Nowadays most of LNG is regassified using the thermal energy of sea water or of warm sea water effluent from a power plant, destroying in this way its physical exergy. Several processes have been considered to utilize the physical exergy of fluids in liquid phase by vaporizing these fluids at atmospheric pressure and cryogenic temperatures. Two general alternatives may be envisaged: (a) direct utilization in cryogenic facilities (cold storage or other process uses); (b) indirect utilization in the generation of electric power. Griepentrog and Weber and others proposed a closed-cycle gas turbine with several kinds of heat sources and with liquid natural gas or hydrogen as the heat sink. In this paper a combined system utilizing a gas turbine with solar heating and LNG refrigerating is examined.

  3. Exascale for Energy: The Role of Exascale Computing in Energy Security

    E-print Network

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    photovoltaic solar energy, and wind turbines. Nuclear,photovoltaic solar energy conversion, and wind energy.solar, wind, and biomass resources, fossil fuels (such as natural gas and coal), and nuclear energy.

  4. Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels 

    E-print Network

    Tora, Eman

    2012-02-14

    at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

  5. 77 FR 13121 - Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM12-10-000] Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice...notice that on February 16, 2012, Solar Energy Industries Association,...

  6. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...EL14-14-000] California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent...2013), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar, Inc....

  7. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  8. Energy yield determination of concentrator solar cells using laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisz, John F.; García, Iván; McMahon, William E.; Steiner, Myles A.; Ochoa, Mario; France, Ryan M.; Habte, Aron; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated for a four junction inverted metamorphic solar cell that has been completely characterized in the laboratory at room temperature using measurements fit to a comprehensive optoelectronic model of the multijunction solar cells. A simple model of the temperature dependence is used predict the performance of the solar cell under varying temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted.

  9. Is the solar neutrino deficit energy-dependent?

    E-print Network

    G. Conforto; A. Marchionni; F. Martelli; F. Vetrano

    1997-08-11

    All existing measurements of the solar neutrino flux are compared with the predictions of the most recent solar model by Bahcall and Pinsonneault, modified by introducing the hypothesis of neutrino oscillations with mass differences large enough to render energy-independent any quantity observable on earth. It is concluded that the data are consistent with this hypothesis and that, at least for the time being, any energy-dependence of the solar neutrino deficit must be regarded as just an attractive theoretical possibility, but not as a compelling reality.

  10. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida solar energy center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. The system was designed to supply approximately 70 percent of the annual cooling and 100 percent of the heating load. The project provides unique high temperature, nonimaging, nontracking, evacuated tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection. Information is provided on the system's acceptance test results operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings.

  11. Hydro, Solar, Wind The Future of Renewable Energy

    E-print Network

    Lavaei, Javad

    Hydro, Solar, Wind The Future of Renewable Energy Joseph Flocco David Lath Department of Electrical advances have led to a tremendous increase in energy demand all around the world. Countries that previously. Hydropower Water has grown in previous years to become the most widely used form of renewable energy across

  12. Solar Energy in America's Future, A Preliminary Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. The report documents a Stanford Research Institute study of the potential roles that solar energy technologies could have for meeting U.S. energy needs over the next 45 years. Computer simulations of different energy supply projections were developed by…

  13. Feasibility study of solar energy in residential electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Divyangsinh G.

    With the increasing demand for energy and the concerns about the global environment, along with the steady progress in the field of renewable energy technologies, new opportunities and possibilities are opening up for an efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. Solar energy is undoubtedly the most clean, inexhaustible and abundant source of renewable energy. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is one of the most efficient mean to utilize solar power. The focus of this study was to establish economics of a residential photovoltaic system for a typical home in south Texas. The PV system serves the needs of a typical mid-size home inhibited by a typical family. Assumptions are made for the typical daily energy consumption, and the necessary equipments like solar arrays, batteries, inverter, etc. are sized and evaluated optimally so as to reduce the life cycle cost (LCC) of the system. Calculations are done taking into consideration the economic parameters concerned with the system.

  14. Solar energy system performance evaluation: seasonal report for Decade 80 House, Tuscon, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The solar energy system was designed to provide domestic hot water and a 3200 square foot floor area with space heating and space cooling to a one-story, single family residence located in Tuscon, Arizona. The solar energy system consists of a 1923 square foot flat plate collector array subsystem, a 3000 gallon tank storage subsystem, pumps, controls and heat transfer medium lines. A propylene glycol (30 percent) and water (70 percent) solution is used as the energy collection and heat transfer medium. The collector-to-storage loop also contains a heat exchanger used to heat a swimming pool. The domestic hot water subsystem consists of a 66 gallon conventional electric storage tank to which solar energy is supplied by a pump circulating water through a heat exchanger immersed in the 3000 gallon storage tank. Auxiliary energy for heating is provided by a gas-fired 150,000 Btu/hour boiler. Space cooling is provided by two absorption cycle water chillers operating in parallel. The solar energy system has four modes of operation. The analysis used is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for at least one full season of operation. The objective of the analysis is to report the long-term field performance of the installed system.

  15. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

  16. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1995 review

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    During 1995, the Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial (SI) Program worked to bring the benefits of solar energy to America`s industrial sector. Scientists and engineers within the program continued the basic research, applied engineering, and economic analyses that have been at the heart of the Program`s success since its inception in 1989. In 1995, all three of the SI Program`s primary areas of research and development--solar detoxification, advanced solar processes, and solar process heat--succeeded in increasing the contribution made by renewable and energy-efficient technologies to American industry`s sustainable energy future. The Solar Detoxification Program develops solar-based pollution control technologies for destroying hazardous environmental contaminants. The Advanced Solar Processes Program investigates industrial uses of highly concentrated solar energy. The Solar Process Heat Program conducts the investigations and analyses that help energy planners determine when solar heating technologies--like those that produce industrial-scale quantities of hot water, hot air, and steam--can be applied cost effectively. The remainder of this report highlights the research and development conducted within in each of these subprograms during 1995.

  17. Solar energy utilization in composting toilets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kroschel, M.L.

    1981-02-01

    The goal of the study was to utilize solar energy in lieu of electricity to help alleviate the basic problems with compost toilets. Solar devices were first used to improve the performance of existing facilities and additional systems were designed from inception with solar heating and venting systems. Four independent studies were initiated and executed over the two years of the grant period: the design and construction of a solar pasteurization unit for treatment of 55-gal drum waste collection units; retrofit of an existing Clivus Multrum toilet for direct passive solar heat gain; design and construction of an owner-built flow-through compost toilet with a solar hot air heating system for hill side installation; and design and construction of an integrated bathroom facility that included a solar heated flow-through compost toilet with a solar chimney venting system. In general, the use of high temperature solar devices to enhance the biological process of composting within a privy vault was not successful. The compost toilets in the study demonstrated their vulnerability to shock over loading characteristic of public facilities and therefore demonstrated their unsuitability for such applications. However, their performance under more controlled use rates (at or below design maximum) merits further study.

  18. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  19. Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, P.; Rennhofer, M.; Baumgartner, D.; Gadermaier, J.; Wagner, J.; Laube, W.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on solar energy gain. The study was done for days with a high contrail persistence and looking at situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish eye camera, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV) modules were performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m a.s.l.) during a period of one year with a time resolution of one minute. Our results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. A statistic of contrail persistence and influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may even be critical under some circumstances for PV system performance.

  20. Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, P.; Rennhofer, M.; Baumgartner, D. J.; Gadermaier, J.; Wagner, J. E.; Gehring, J. E.; Laube, W.

    2015-03-01

    The effect of contrails on global short-wave radiation (sum of direct and downward diffuse solar radiation) and on solar energy gain was investigated. The study was performed during days with high contrail persistence and focused on situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish-eye camera, diffuse and direct short-wave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV) modules were performed at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (1540 m a.s.l.) with a time resolution of 1 min over a period of 1 year. The results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. An analysis of contrail persistence and the influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may be critical under specific circumstances.