Science.gov

Sample records for gas solar energy

  1. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  2. A solar simulator-pumped gas laser for the direct conversion of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. R.; Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Most proposed space power systems are comprised of three general stages, including the collection of the solar radiation, the conversion to a useful form, and the transmission to a receiver. The solar-pumped laser, however, effectively eliminates the middle stage and offers direct photon-to-photon conversion. The laser is especially suited for space-to-space power transmission and communication because of minimal beam spread, low power loss over large distances, and extreme energy densities. A description is presented of the first gas laser pumped by a solar simulator that is scalable to high power levels. The lasant is an iodide C3F7I that as a laser-fusion driver has produced terawatt peak power levels.

  3. Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  4. Personalized energy: the home as a solar power station and solar gas station.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Point-of-use solar energy would generate the exact amount of energy any one individual needs, at the location where it is needed. Such a means of energy supply would create a revolution in society's approach to energy use, and allow a more level playing field for all. This Viewpoint considers some of the key enablers for this technology. PMID:19408259

  5. Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model was used to size the system to minimize the annualized cost of hot water. The annualized cost of solar-assisted gas-energy water heating is found to be less expensive than electric water heating but more expensive than gas water heating. The feasibility of a natural gas utility supplying the auxiliary fuel is evaluated. It is estimated that gas-utilizing companies will find it profitable to offer solar water heating as part of a total energy service option or on a lease basis when the price of new base-load supplies of natural gas reaches $2.50-$3.00 per million Btu.

  6. Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  7. A new type of modular dryer combining solar energy and producer gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hirunlabh, J.; Paraboon, T.; Pairintra, R.; Namprakai, P.; Khedari, J.

    1997-03-01

    The main concept of this research is to develop a flexible modular dryer that combines two different sources of non-conventional energy. In this study, solar energy and producer gas generated by an up-flow charcoal gasifier were considered. The drying system was set out by using a 0.6 m{sup 3} modular cabinet supporting a solar collector of 2.5 m{sup 2} surface area. 16 kg of charcoal was used in each batch to feed the gasifier. The experiment was performed for drying beef that required two different stages of drying temperature: the first, which used producer gas requires approximately 60 C for four hours and the second used solar energy at 40 C for six hours. The energy consumed for drying 16 kg of beef was 7.57 MJ/kg H{sub 2}O evaporated which obtained from solar energy, producer gas and blowers in percentages of 8.72%, 31.44% and 59.84%, respectively.

  8. A space-based combined thermophotovoltaic electric generator and gas laser solar energy conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yesil, Oktay

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a spaceborne energy conversion system consisting of a thermophotovoltaic electric generator and a gas laser. As a power source for the converson, the system utilizes an intermediate blackbody cavity heated to a temperature of 2000-2400 K by concentrated solar radiation. A double-layer solar cell of GaAs and Si forms a cylindrical surface concentric to this blackbody cavity, receiving the blackbody radiation and converting it into electricity with cell conversion efficiency of 50 percent or more. If the blackbody cavity encloses a laser medium, the blackbody radiation can also be used to simultaneously pump a lasing gas. The feasibility of blackbody optical pumping at 4.3 microns in a CO2-He gas mixture was experimentally demonstrated.

  9. Toward the renewables - A natural gas/solar energy transition strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, J. A.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The inevitability of an energy transition from today's non-renewable fossil base toward a renewable energy base is considered from the viewpoint of the need for a national transition strategy. Then, one such strategy is offered. Its technological building blocks are described in terms of both energy use and energy supply. The strategy itself is then sketched at four points in its implementation; (1) initiation, (2) early transition, (3) late transition, and (4) completion. The transition is assumed to evolve from a heavily natural gas-dependent energy economy. It then proceeds through its transition toward a balanced, hybrid energy system consisting of both centralized and dispersed energy supply technologies supplying hydrogen and electricity from solar energy. Related institutional, environmental and economic factors are examined briefly.

  10. Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Design and Construction, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

  11. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/683/), and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

  12. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

  13. Solar thermal energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  14. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  15. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  16. The Feasibility of Wind and Solar Energy Application for Oil and Gas Offshore Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiong, Y. K.; Zahari, M. A.; Wong, S. F.; Dol, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy is an energy which is freely available in nature such as winds and solar energy. It plays a critical role in greening the energy sector as these sources of energy produce little or no pollution to environment. This paper will focus on capability of renewable energy (wind and solar) in generating power for offshore application. Data of wind speeds and solar irradiation that are available around SHELL Sabah Water Platform for every 10 minutes, 24 hours a day, for a period of one year are provided by SHELL Sarawak Sdn. Bhd. The suitable wind turbine and photovoltaic panel that are able to give a high output and higher reliability during operation period are selected by using the tabulated data. The highest power output generated using single wind energy application is equal to 492 kW while for solar energy application is equal to 20 kW. Using the calculated data, the feasibility of renewable energy is then determined based on the platform energy demand.

  17. Solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  18. Solar Energy and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  19. Solar Energy Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Last year the people of Cleveland, Ohio were troubled by natural gas shortages during one of the coldest winters on record. The severe winter generated a great deal of interest in solar energy as an alternative source of heat. Home owners, home builders and civic officials wanted to know just how much solar energy is available in Cleveland. Now they get a daily report through the city's news media, from information supplied as a community service by NASA's Lewis Research Center. Lewis routinely makes daily measurements of solar energy as part of its continuing research in behalf of the Department of Energy. The measuring device is a sun sensor called a pyranometer (upper photo) located atop a building at the NASA Center. To make the information conveniently available to news media, Lewis developed a Voice Output Integrating Insolometer, an automated system that acquires information from the sun sensor and translates it into a recorded telephone message. The Lewis pyranometer collects sun data for 15 hours daily and measures the total solar energy yield. For reporting to the public, the information is electronically converted to a specific reading. A media representative calling in gets a voice-synthesized announcement of a two or three digit number; the number corresponds to the kilowatt-hours of solar energy that would be available to a typical 500-square-foot solar collector system. Response in Cleveland has been favorable and interest is developing in other parts of the country.

  20. Conversion of solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, N. N.; Shilov, A. E.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of current theoretical and experimental research related to the conversion and practical utilization of solar energy. Topics discussed include semiconductor photovoltaic cells, orbital solar power stations, chemical and biological methods of solar energy conversion, and solar energy applications. Papers are included on new theoretical models of solar cells and prospects for increasing their efficiency, metrology and optical studies of solar cells, and some problems related to the thermally induced deformations of large space structures.

  1. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  2. A Solar Energy Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, David L.; Riley, Robert A.

    This document contains 5,000 references to literature through 1976 dealing with various aspects of solar energy. Categories are established according to area of solar research. These categories include: (1) overview; (2) measurement; (3) low-range solar energy collection (below 120 degrees C); (4) intermediate-range solar energy collection (120…

  3. Alternatives in solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  4. National Energy Act statutes and solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.

    1980-02-01

    The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

  5. Gas-grain energy transfer in solar nebula shock waves: Implications for the origin of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Horanyi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Meteoritic chondrules provide evidence for the occurrence of rapid transient heating events in the protoplanetary nebula. Astronomical evidence suggests that gas dynamic shock waves are likely to be excited in protostellar accretion disks by processes such as protosolar mass ejections, nonaxisymmetric structures in an evolving disk, and impact on the nebula surface of infalling 'clumps' of circumstellar gas. Previous detailed calculations of gas-grain energy and momentum transfer have supported the possibility that such shock waves could have melted pre-existing chondrule-sized grains. The main requirement for grains to reach melting temperatures in shock waves with plausibly low Mach numbers is that grains existed in dust-rich zones (optical depth greater than 1) where radiative cooling of a given grain can be nearly balanced by radiation from surrounding grains. Localized dust-rich zones also provide a means of explaining the apparent small spatial scale of heating events. For example, the scale size of at least some optically thick dust-rich zones must have been relatively small (less than 10 kilometers) to be consistent with petrologic evidence for accretion of hot material onto cold chondrules. The implied number density of mm-sized grains for these zones would be greater than 30 m(exp -3). In this paper, we make several improvements of our earlier calculations to include radiation self-consistently in the shock jump conditions, and we include heating of grains due to radiation from the shocked gas. In addition, we estimate the importance of momentum feedback of dust concentrations onto the shocked gas which would tend to reduce the efficiency of gas dynamic heating of grains in the center of the dust cloud.

  6. Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

  7. Solar Energy Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar…

  8. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  9. Solar energy emplacement developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  10. Experimenting with Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

  11. Solar energy modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  12. Solar/gas industrial process heat assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, D. W.

    1982-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of solar/gas industrial process heat systems, including consideration of market applications, the status and cost of applicable solar technologies, potential technical barriers to the efficient interfacing of solar with conventional gas fired equipment, and a detailed evaluation comparing solar/gas systems to competing options.

  13. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  14. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  15. Solar Energy: Home Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  16. Coal gasification using solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.

    1983-01-01

    An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another redirected through the receiver with steam to form CO and H2. Carbonaceous fuels are burned whenever sunlight is not available. Comparisons are made for costs of Lurgi, Bi-gas, Hygas, CO2 Acceptor, and Peat Gas processes and hybrid units for each. Solar thermal systems are projected to become economical with 350 MWt output and production of 1,420,000 cu m of gas per day. The laboratory bench scale unit was tested with Montana rosebud coal to derive a heat balance assessment and analyse the product gas. Successful heat transfer through a carrier gas was demonstrated, with most of the energy being stored in the product gas.

  17. The energy impacts of solar heating.

    PubMed

    Whipple, C

    1980-04-18

    The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy it saves under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of implementation projected by the Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy. For the rapid growth case, the cumulative energy invested to the year 2000 is calculated to be (1/2) to 1(1/2) times the amount saved. An impact of rapid solar heating implementation is to shift energy demand from premium heating fuels (natural gas and oil) to coal and nuclear power use in the industries that provide materials for solar equipment. PMID:17820033

  18. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  19. Solar Energy Development Progresses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses an engineering conference at which participants agreed that solar energy is a feasible energy source, although costs of such technology are presently very high. Also describes recent developments in solar energy research, and estimates the costs of this technology. (MLH)

  20. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  1. A comparison of the solar-gas and solar-electric interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannella, G. G.

    1982-01-01

    The introduction of large-scale solar-derived gas, electricity, and home heat into the national pipeline, electric grid, and fuel supply systems is discussed. Natural gas is shown to be substitutable for most other energy sources, having a lower cost per energy unit than electricity or oil, and able to be augmented by biomass derived methane or solar derived hydrogen. The latter is perceived as an unproven technology, both economically and technically. Solar home heating systems will lower the utilities' rate base and lead to minimum charge rates for solar customers and higher rates for regular customers unless utilities are permitted to enter the solar heating business as an extension of their role as a service institution. Dispersed solar electric systems are seen to be the least economical use of solar systems, while the solar-gas system offers the greatest potential as a bridge for solar technologies into residential, institutional, and commercial markets.

  2. Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  3. Solar energy: principles and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities. PMID:20222355

  4. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  5. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  6. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  7. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  8. Components for solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A requirement for the direct technological utilization of solar energy is a device for capturing and absorbing the available sunlight. These devices are commonly termed collectors. Because of the highly variable nature of sunlight, a facility for storing the collected energy is often essential. A device for direct conversion of light into electricity, which depends for operation on incident sunlight, is the photovoltaic cell. These components for solar energy systems are considered.

  9. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  10. Solar Energy Project: Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

  11. Solar Energy Project: Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This document is designed to give both teachers and students the opportunity to review a variety of representative articles on solar energy. Consideration is given to the sun's role in man's past, present, and future. The present state of solar technology is examined theoretically, economically, and comparatively in light of growing need for…

  12. The Solar Energy Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

    This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

  13. Energy 101: Solar PV

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  14. Energy 101: Solar PV

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  15. Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

    This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)

  16. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  17. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  18. Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the possibilities afforded by solar energy as one of the alternative energy sources capable to take the place of the dwindling oil and gas reserves. Solar energy, being a nondepleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. Steps taken toward providing innovative solutions that are economically competitive with other systems are briefly reviewed.

  19. Solar Energy Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy furnishes all of the heating and hot water needs, plus 80 percent of the air conditioning, for the two-story Reedy Creek building. A unique feature of this installation is that the 16 semi-cylindrical solar collectors (center photo on opposite page with closeup of a single collector below it) are not mounted atop the roof as is customary, they actually are the roof. This arrangement eliminates the usual trusses, corrugated decking and insulating concrete in roof construction; that, in turn, reduces overall building costs and makes the solar installation more attractive economically. The Reedy Creek collectors were designed and manufactured by AAI Corporation of Baltimore, Maryland.

  20. Solar photothermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, L. D.

    A solar photothermophotovoltaic (PTPV) process for solar energy conversion is proposed in which concentrated solar radiation impinges on a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell with a back surface reflector. The above band-gap blackbody radiation is converted into electricity, while the below band-gap radiation is reflected back to the blackbody. Computer modeling has shown the PTPV system to be much less sensitive to parasitic losses than a comparable TPV system, and to operate at a significantly lower blackbody absorber/emitter temperature. PTPV efficiency is also shown to be as much as 50 percent higher than that for a comparable photovoltaic system.

  1. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  2. Solar energy conversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.

    2008-03-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces

  3. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  4. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  5. Brayton cycle solarized advanced gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Described is the development of a Brayton Engine/Generator Set for solar thermal to electrical power conversion, authorized under DOE/NASA Contract DEN3-181. The objective was to design, fabricate, assemble, and test a small, hybrid, 20-kW Brayton-engine-powered generator set. The latter, called a power conversion assembly (PCA), is designed to operate with solar energy obtained from a parobolic dish concentrator, 11 meters in diameter, or with fossil energy supplied by burning fuels in a combustor, or by a combination of both (hybrid model). The CPA consists of the Brayton cycle engine, a solar collector, a belt-driven 20-kW generator, and the necessary control systems for automatic operation in solar-only, fuel-only, and hybrid modes to supply electrical power to a utility grid. The original configuration of the generator set used the GTEC Model GTP36-51 gas turbine engine for the PCA prime mover. However, subsequent development of the GTEC Model AGT101 led to its selection as the powersource for the PCA. Performance characteristics of the latter, thermally coupled to a solar collector for operation in the solar mode, are presented. The PCA was successfully demonstrated in the fuel-only mode at the GTEC Phoenix, Arizona, facilities prior to its shipment to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for installation and testing on a test bed concentractor (parabolic dish). Considerations relative to Brayton-engine development using the all-ceramic AGT101 when it becomes available, which would satisfy the DOE heat engine efficiency goal of 35 to 41 percent, are also discussed in the report.

  6. Electricity production using solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, M.F.

    2007-07-01

    In this study, a solar-powered development project is used to identify whether it is possible to utilize solar technologies in the electricity production sector. Electricity production from solar energy has been found to be a promising method in the future. Concentrated solar energy can be converted to chemical energy via high-temperature endothermic reactions. Coal and biomass can be pyrolyzed or gasified by using concentrated solar radiation for generating power. Conventional energy will not be enough to meet the continuously increasing need for energy in the future. In this case, renewable energy sources will become important. Solar energy is an increasing need for energy in the future. Solar energy is a very important energy source because of its advantages. Instead of a compressor system, which uses electricity, an absorption cooling system, using renewable energy and kinds of waste heat energy, may be used for cooling.

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  8. Solar Energy Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harvey, Ed.

    Twenty articles addressing different aspects of solar energy are compiled in this book. They represent the views of different governmental and non-governmental organizations, members of congress, and other individuals including, for example, Barry Commoner and Amory Lovins. Topics discussed include the need for federal support, passive solar…

  9. Solar energy research and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

  10. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  11. Central solar energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M. Kevin

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  12. An approach for cooling by solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabeih, S. M.; Wahhab, M. A.; Asfour, H. M.

    The present investigation is concerned with the possibility to base the operation of a household refrigerator on solar energy instead of gas fuel. The currently employed heating system is to be replaced by a solar collector with an absorption area of two sq m. Attention is given to the required changes in the generator design, the solar parameters at the location of refrigerator installation, the mathematical approach for the thermal analysis of the solar collector, the development of a computer program for the evaluation of the important parameters, the experimental test rig, and the measurement of the experimental parameters. A description is given of the obtained optimum operating conditions for the considered system.

  13. SOLARES - A new hope for solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W.; Gilbreath, W. P.; Bowen, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    A system of orbiting reflectors, SOLARES, has been studied as a possible means of reducing the diurnal variation and enhancing the average intensity of sunlight with a space system of minimum mass and complexity. The key impact that such a system makes on the economic viability of solar farming and other solar applications is demonstrated. The system is compatible with incremental implementation and continual expansion to meet the world's power needs. Key technology, environmental, and economic issues and payoffs are identified. SOLARES appears to be economically superior to other advanced, and even competitive with conventional, energy systems and could be scaled to completely abate our fossil fuel usage for power generation. Development of the terrestrial solar conversion technique, optimized for this new artificial source of solar radiation, yet remains.

  14. Solar eclipse monitoring for solar energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the interest in using solar energy as a major contributor to renewable energy applications has increased, and the focus to optimize the use of electrical energy based on demand and resources from different locations has strengthened. This article includes a procedure for implementing an algorithm to calculate the Moon's zenith angle with uncertainty of ±0.001° and azimuth angle with uncertainty of ±0.003°. In conjunction with Solar Position Algorithm, the angular distance between the Sun and the Moon is used to develop a method to instantaneously monitor the partial or total solar eclipse occurrence for solar energy applications. This method can be used in many other applications for observers of the Sun and the Moon positions for applications limited to the stated uncertainty.

  15. Solar energy: Technology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that in 1970 the total energy consumed in the U.S. was equal to the energy of sunlight received by only 0.15% of the land area of the continental U.S. The utilization of solar energy might, therefore, provide an approach for solving the energy crisis produced by the consumption of irreplaceable fossil fuels at a steadily increasing rate. Questions regarding the availability of solar energy are discussed along with the design of solar energy collectors and various approaches for heating houses and buildings by utilizing solar radiation. Other subjects considered are related to the heating of water partly or entirely with solar energy, the design of air conditioning systems based on the use of solar energy, electric power generation by a solar thermal and a photovoltaic approach, solar total energy systems, industrial and agricultural applications of solar energy, solar stills, the utilization of ocean thermal power, power systems based on the use of wind, and solar-energy power systems making use of geosynchronous power plants.

  16. New Directions for Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Peter E.; Burke, James C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes new applications being found for solar energy as a result of technical advances and a variety of economic and social forces. Discusses the basic requirements for a solar climate control system and outlines factors that should stimulate greater use of solar energy in the near future. (JR)

  17. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

  18. Solar-pumped gas laser development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of gas properties through detailed kinetic models led to the identification of critical gas parameters for use in choosing appropriate gas combinations for solar pumped lasers. Broadband photoabsorption in the visible or near UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to insure good solar absorption efficiency. The photoexcitation density is independent of the absorption bandwidth. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than 10 A to insure lasing threshold over reasonable gain lengths. The system should show a high degree of chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. Although photoexcitation of electronic vibrational transitions is considered as a possible system if the emission bands sufficiently narrow, it appears that photodissociation into atomic metastables is more likely to result in a successful solar pumped laser system.

  19. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  20. Solar/gas Brayton/Rankine cycle heat pump assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, J.; Liu, A. Y.

    1982-05-01

    A 10-ton gas-fired heat pump is currently under development at AiResearch under joint DOE and GRI sponsorship. This heat pump features a highly efficient, recuperated, subatmospheric Brayton-cycle engine which drives the centrifugal compressor of a reversible vapor compression heat pump. The investigations under this program were concerned initially with the integration of this machine with a parabolic dish-type solar collector. Computer models were developed to accurately describe the performance of the heat pump packaged in this fashion. The study determined that (1) only a small portion (20 to 50 percent) of the available solar energy could be used because of a fundamental mismatch between the heating and cooling demand and the availability of solar energy, and (2) the simple pay back period, by comparison to the baseline non-solar gas-fired heat pump, was unacceptable (15 to 36 years).

  1. A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer for solar and planetary observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Darrell L.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a prototype spectrometer for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. In this recently developed spectrometer, the energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

  2. Solar energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  3. Solar energy for the hospital?

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    You can't scrap your boiler and expect solar panels to provide steam for process and heating, but solar systems are cost-effective now for domestic hot water generation, according to a leading solar energy engineering/design/build firm. PMID:10249853

  4. Terrestrial solar thermionic energy conversion systems concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

    1975-01-01

    Results obtained from studies of a (1) solar concentrator, (2) solar energy receiver - thermionic converter system, and (3) solar thermionic topping system are described. Peripheral subsystems, which are required for any solar energy conversion system, are also discussed.

  5. Biological solar energy.

    PubMed

    Barber, James

    2007-04-15

    Through the process of photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight has been harnessed, not only to create the biomass on our planet today, but also the fossil fuels. The overall efficiency of biomass formation, however, is low and despite being a valuable source of energy, it cannot replace fossil fuels on a global scale and provide the huge amount of power needed to sustain the technological aspirations of the world population now and in the future. However, at the heart of the photosynthetic process is the highly efficient chemical reaction of water splitting, leading to the production of hydrogen equivalents and molecular oxygen. This reaction takes place in an enzyme known as photosystem II, and the recent determination of its structure has given strong hints of how nature uses solar energy to generate hydrogen and oxygen from water. This new information provides a blue print for scientists to seriously consider constructing catalysts that mimic the natural system and thus stimulate new technologies to address the energy/CO2 problem that humankind must solve. After all, there is no shortage of water for this non-polluting reaction and the energy content of sunlight falling on our planet well exceeds our needs. PMID:17272238

  6. Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

  7. Storing solar energy in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-06-01

    This article describes the world`s largest power tower incorporating one of the newest commercial solar energy systems and being build in California`s Mojave Desert. The project -- sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and a consortium of western utilities, municipalities, and associations -- is called Solar Two, and it will use molten salt to absorb solar energy and store that energy until it is needed to generate electricity. Construction will be completed on Solar Two in September. Solar thermal systems convert the sun`s rays into electricity by using a thousand or more dual-axis, sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, to focus optimum sunlight on the solar receiver of a power tower containing a working fluid. The fluid is heated to a desired temperature and sent to a storage facility. During periods of peak demand, the fluid is circulating through heat exchangers to generate steam used to drive a turbine.

  8. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  9. Diffusion and adoption of an efficient, integrated alternative energy system: a producer gas-solar greenhouse for farmstead operation. Final technical report, September 1, 1980-October 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.T.

    1983-10-10

    The Department of Energy awarded College of the Siskiyous a grant to provide a demonstration project that coordinated a variety of energy-related technologies: a 100-foot, two-podded solar greenhouse, a producer gas generator fired by wood chips, thermal storage devices (fish tanks, water filled drums, hydroponic reservoirs), and a group of related activities: alcohol fuels production with the carbon dioxide by-product being used in one pod of the greenhouse; growing small meat animals who would eat greens from the facility, would provide manure for the gardens, and would put off some heat for the facility; tank fish farming; an eleven acre appropriate technology homestead which would surround the greenhouse. At the time of this report, the greenhouse has been completed though devices (fans, stoves, louvers, shades)to minimize temperature shifts continue to be developed. The producer gas generator has had problems with tar buildup which gum up engines. Rather than running a motor off the unit to produce electricity for the greenhouse, the unit is being used to demonstrate how wood gasification can be used to run motors which in turn can be used to run generators, automobiles, etc. The facility is being used to experiment with a variety of growing periods, conditions, and materials.

  10. Solar Energy Project: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of materials supports the teaching of solar energy concepts in the context of secondary school science. Included in this collection are a basic teacher's guide to activities involved in the curriculum; a discussion of multi-disciplinary extensions of solar energy education by subject area; a section on hardware needed for the…

  11. Solar cooling in Madrid: Available solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, M.; Hernandez, F.; Martin, E. )

    1994-11-01

    This paper analyzes the behaviour of an absorption chiller lithium bromide installation fed by a field of flat-plate solar collectors and condensed by swimming pool water. A method of calculation in a variable regime is developed in terms of the obtained experimental results. Starting from the meteorological variables of a clear summer day and from the project data (collector normalization curve, collector and installation mass), the minimum solar radiation level necessary to initiate the process, I[sub min], and the instantaneous available solar energy, Q[sub u] + W[sub 1] is determined. The solar radiation threshold, I[sub min], necessary to obtain the process temperature, t[sub ave], in each instant, is obtained by adding to the corrected Klein radiation threshold, I[sub k,c], the heat capacity effects of the collector, HCE[sub CO], and of the installation, HCE[sub ins], as well as the losses of heat of the pipes to the surroundings, Q[sub 1]. The instantaneous available solar energy, available useful heat, in addition to the wind collector losses to the surroundings, Q[sub u] + W[sub 1], is the difference, in each instant, between the radiation, I[sub g1T], and the radiation threshold, I[sub min].The integration during the day of the instantaneous available solar energy allows us to calculate the daily available function, H[sub T]. The value of H[sub T], measured in the swimming-pool water condensation installation reached 6.92 MJ/(m[sup 2] day ). The calculated values of H[sub T] for a conventional installation condensed by tower water, or air, have been 6.35 and 0.56 MJ/(m[sup 2] day). respectively.

  12. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Gleckman, Philip L.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  13. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  14. The Geography of Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaHart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1984-01-01

    After learning about two promising techniques for generating electricity--photovoltaic cells and wind energy conversion systems--secondary students analyze two maps of the United States showing solar radiation and available wind power to determine which U.S. regions have potential for these solar electric systems. (RM)

  15. Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaHart, David E.

    This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics; (9)…

  16. The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Chris

    1980-01-01

    The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)

  17. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOEpatents

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  18. Firing ceramic tiles in solar energy equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pasichnyi, V.V.; Berezhetskaya, V.Ya.; Chop, Yu.I.; Kashket, G.I.

    1987-03-01

    In the interest of satisfying the growing demand for glazed ceramic tiles and conserving the natural gas ordinarily used to fire them, the authors assess the feasibility of using a solar kiln for the process. Their design incorporates a parabolic reflector and a tracking system to continuously focus radiant solar energy on the tile. Their energy analysis includes such factors as solar thermal input, radiant heat transfer, and heat flow, the relationship between the firing time and the heat flow density, and the surface quality of the glaze and colorizer. Their results indicate that when the heat flow density rises above a level at which the specific expenditure of heat is no longer dependent on the color of the pigment, this expenditure or input comes to a quarter of what is currently needed using existing technologies and fuels.

  19. Solar energy parking canopy demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Cylwik, Joe; David, Lawrence

    2015-09-24

    The goal of this pilot/demonstration program is to measure the viability of using solar photovoltaic (PV) technology at three locations in a mountain community environment given the harsh weather conditions. An additional goal is to reduce long-term operational costs, minimize green house gas emissions, lower the dependency on energy produced from fossil fuels, and improve the working environment and health of city employees and residents.

  20. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  1. Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy

    PubMed Central

    Nocera, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both legacy and non-legacy worlds, and minimally contributes to increasing the anthropogenic level of carbon dioxide. Because PE will be possible only if solar energy is available 24 hours a day, 7 day a week, the key enabler for solar PE is an inexpensive storage mechanism. HX (X = halide or OH−) splitting is a fuel-forming reaction of sufficient energy density for large scale solar storage but the reaction relies on chemical transformations that are not understood at the most basic science level. Critical among these are multielectron transfers that are proton-coupled and involve the activation of bonds in energy poor substrates. The chemistry of these three italicized areas is developed, and from this platform, discovery paths leading to new HX and H2O splitting catalysts are delineated. For the case of the water splitting catalyst, it captures many of the functional elements of photosynthesis. In doing so, a highly manufacturable and inexpensive method has been discovered for solar PE storage. PMID:19775081

  2. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  3. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  4. 77 FR 28618 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... alternatives. The CDCA plan, while recognizing the potential compatibility of solar energy facilities on public... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar... San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California, and...

  5. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  6. Solar energy research and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The role is described that solar energy will play in the heating and cooling of buildings, the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts on the various energy markets and estimated costs of such systems are discussed along with illustrations of some of the processes to accomplish the goals. The conclusions of the NSF/NASA Solar Energy Panel (1972) are given along with the estimated costs to accomplish the 15 year recommended program and also the recent and near future budget appropriations and recommendations are included.

  7. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  8. Solar Energy - Solution or Pipedream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Joyce

    This series of lessons and class activities is designed for presentation in a sequence of nine class days. The collection is intended to provide the student in advanced science classes with awareness of the possibilities and limitations of solar energy as a potential solution to the energy crisis. Included are discussion of the following: (1)…

  9. Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

    1978-01-01

    Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

  10. Solar energy, its conversion and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farber, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    The work being carried out at the University of Florida Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory in converting solar energy, our only income, into other needed and useful forms of energy is described. A treatment such as this demonstrates, in proper perspective, how solar energy can benefit mankind with its many problems of shortages and pollution. Descriptions were given of the conversion processes, equipment, and performance. The testing of materials, solar water heating, space heating, cooking and baking, solar distillation, refrigeration and air-conditioning, work with the solar furnace, conversion to mechanical power, hot air engines, solar-heated sewage digestion, conversion to electricity, and other devices will be discussed.

  11. Can industry afford solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreith, F.; Bezdek, R.

    1983-03-01

    Falling oil prices and conservation measures have reduced the economic impetus to develop new energy sources, thus decreasing the urgency for bringing solar conversion technologies to commercial readiness at an early date. However, the capability for solar to deliver thermal energy for industrial uses is proven. A year-round operation would be three times as effective as home heating, which is necessary only part of the year. Flat plate, parabolic trough, and solar tower power plant demonstration projects, though uneconomically operated, have revealed engineering factors necessary for successful use of solar-derived heat for industrial applications. Areas of concern have been categorized as technology comparisons, load temperatures, plant size, location, end-use, backup requirements, and storage costs. Tax incentives have, however, supported home heating and not industrial uses, and government subsidies have historically gone to conventional energy sources. Tax credit programs which could lead to a 20% market penetration by solar energy in the industrial sector by the year 2000 are presented.

  12. Institutionalizing solar energy education

    SciTech Connect

    Arwood, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    As America entered the final decade of the 20th century, millions of people turned out to celebrate Earth Day`s 20th anniversary. Environmental awareness was on an upswing, and as a result, environmental education became a priority across the country. Environmental education was making significant headway into the public school system, and recycling emerged as the vanguard of this movement. At first the exclusive province of school children, recycling soon became a household habit. As children collected cans for cash, they also taught their parents to recycle. In its movement from classroom to curbside, recycling rode the school bus to Main Street and, within a few short years, became institutionalized. In this paper, the author demonstrates how the Solar Information and Education Program has evolved to the point where it has become an institutionalized, lasting part of the school experience for thousands of Arizona students. It is hoped that the solar experience for the state`s young people will duplicate the recycling experience of a decade ago, this time taking solar technology from chalkboard to rooftop.

  13. Short review on solar energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herez, Amal; Ramadan, Mohamad; Abdulhay, Bakri; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Solar energy can be utilized mainly in heat generation and electricity production. International energy agency (IEA) shows, in a comparative study on the world energy consumption that in 2050 solar arrays installation will provide about 45% of world energy demand. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy source which plays a great role in providing energy solutions. As known there is wide variety of types of collectors and applications of solar energy. This paper aimed to make a short review on solar energy systems, according to types of collectors and applications used.

  14. Advanced solar energy research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozik, A. J.

    1981-10-01

    Photobiology, photochemical conversion and storage, photoelectrochemistry, and materials research are reported. Three areas of photobiological research under investigation are discussed: in vitro energy conversion, microbiological hydrogen production, and algal hydrocarbon production. Sensitizers for solar photochemistry, redox catalysis, coupled systems, and inorganic photochemistry are reviewed. Theory and modeling of the energetics of semiconductor/electrolyte junctions and the effects of inversion are reported as well as new semiconductor electrode materials and work on photoelectrodialysis. The mechanisms affecting materials performance in solar energy conversion systems and development of new materials that improve system efficiency, reliability and economics are reported.

  15. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  16. Solar energy and substainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Maria Carmen; Nalin, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, the world population doesn't stop rising. More than ever, energy and environment problems remain at the heart of our society concerns. What will we leave to the future generations ? Therefore, a twenty pupil class of 4e (13 and 14 year old pupils) has made a specific work about this topic, called "solar power and sustainable development". Initially, the pupils participated to the settlement of a meteorological station on the school grounds. This station, which provides readings about temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, sun radiations, wind power and wind heading is fed by photovoltaic cells and thus works independently. The pupils have then come to realize the ecological and practical interests of such a functioning (e.g. : for the latter : neither batteries nor electrical wires are needed). These past few years, in Provence (a highly sunny region), many solar panel installations have been created and many private house roofs have been equipped with photovoltaic cells. Indeed, this energy presents some significant assets : it is free, clean and will never run out. The village of Vinon sur Verdon, where stands our college, is partly fed by a solar panel park, located a few kilometers away. Strongly sensitive to the assets of this energy source, the pupils have made a poster asserting the benefits of solar power. Another side of solar energy has been asserted : the output of hot sanitary water. They have built a miniature on this topic. In order to be thorough, some elements remain in shadow, such as environment impacts done by the making, the transport and the recycling of solar panels that will be brought up in a collaboration with research establishments.

  17. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  18. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  19. Warming up to solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Biondo, B.

    1996-07-01

    Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global warming, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.

  20. Solar Energy Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography lists publications and audiovisual materials devoted to renewable energy sources: sun, wind, water and biomass. A few general texts are included that present concepts fundamental to all energy sources. Materials were selected to be adaptable to classroom, workshops, and training sessions. Also, many do-it-yourself…

  1. Solar Energy. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  2. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report addresses the environmental consequences of three kinds of solar energy utilization: photovoltaic, concentrator (steam electric) and flat plate. The application of solar energy toward central power generating stations is emphasized. Discussions of combined modes and o...

  3. Solar Spicules Generate Energy

    NASA Video Gallery

    Looking almost like seaweed waving in the water, these giant jets shooting off the sun's surface may hold enough energy to heat the sun's atmosphere, the corona, to well over a million degrees Fahr...

  4. Solar energy conversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.; Materials Science Division; Cal Tech

    2007-03-01

    The Sun provides Earth with a staggering amount of energy - enough to power the great oceanic and atmospheric currents, the cycle of evaporation and condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow, and the typhoons, hurricanes, and tornadoes that so easily destroy the natural and built landscape. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906, with magnitude 7.8, released an estimated 10{sup 17} joules of energy, the amount the Sun delivers to Earth in one second. Earth's ultimate recoverable resource of oil, estimated at 3 trillion barrels, contains 1.7 x 10{sup 22} joules of energy, which the Sun supplies to Earth in 1.5 days. The amount of energy humans use annually, about 4.6 x 10{sup 20} joules, is delivered to Earth by the Sun in one hour. The enormous power that the Sun continuously delivers to Earth, 1.2 x 10{sup 5} terawatts, dwarfs every other energy source, renewable or nonrenewable. It dramatically exceeds the rate at which human civilization produces and uses energy, currently about 13 TW.

  5. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

  6. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  7. Central solar-energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  8. Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)

  9. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  10. Fort Hood solar energy project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-30

    During the period April 1975 to March 1978, the American Technological University (ATU) of Killeen, Texas, was awarded several follow-on contracts by the Division of Solar Energy (DSE), Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), which subsequently became the Division of Solar Technology (DST), Department of Energy (DOE). The contracts were to design a solar total energy system for use at Fort Hood, Texas. A review encompassing the period of the project from January 1975 to March 1978, was conducted by the Office of Inspector General (IG), DOE. The review examined both the management of the project by ATU and ERDA personnel and the award and administration by ERDA of the contracts to ATU for support of the project. The IG review found that: (1) there was a lack of continuity in the management of the project by both ATU and ERDA; (2) ERDA failed to maintain control of the project and failed to issue specific project direction to ATU; (3) ERDA failed to follow existing procurement regulations for the review and acceptance of unsolicited proposals from ATU; (4) the ERDA Headquarters program Manager and the Contract Administrator for the conceptual design phase of the project had failed to ensure that all the tasks which had been funded were performed by ATU; and (5) the decision by the Director, ERDA/DSE, to award successive contracts to ATU was questionable in view of ATU's performance on the project.

  11. Solar energy collector/storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  12. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Lewis Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-02-26

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources

  13. Solar energy applications in telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J.

    The results of a half-decade of a coupled wind-photovoltaic powered, remotely sited telecommunications installation called 'Aerosolec' are reported. A station is examined which was situated at 500 m altitude between Nice and Monaco and comprised a 4 module solar cell plant generating 180 W, a 300 W windpowered generator, and a battery bank. The batteries were linked by a diode, charged by the photovoltaics only when load was met, and provided voltage when the wind/solar cell configuration failed to produce enough power to meet demand. Output of the generators and meteorological parameters were recorded for two years. The station drew a nominal 180W, which was met by the power systems, and involved an actual extra discharge of excess energy. Other, similar stations are outlined, and the use of coupled wind/solar systems for telephone service in remote sites, for optic fiber repeaters, and for telephone relay station are recommended. Cost advantages are seen with the solar/wind systems over liquid hydrocarbon fueled generator systems for low power demand installations.

  14. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  15. Solar energy workshop--Tucson, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Showplace for solar energy utilization includes complex solar heating and cooling system which supplies 95 percent of space heat requirements. Project utilized superior construction techniques and quality materials, and full time maintenance staff was assigned to keep systems operating.

  16. Solar: A Clean Energy Source for Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts with utilities to remove the technical, regulatory, and market challenges they face in deploying solar technologies.

  17. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  18. Solar total energy project Shenandoah

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-10

    This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

  19. Cocoon drying through solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kulunk, M.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

  20. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  1. Solar Flares and the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are the biggest explosions in the solar system. They are important both for understanding explosive events in the Universe and for their impact on human technology and communications. The satellite-based HESSI is designed to study the explosive release of energy and the acceleration of electrons, protons, and other charged particles to high energies in solar flares. HESSI produces "color" movies of the Sun in high-energy X rays and gamma rays radiated by these energetic particles. HESSI's X-ray and gamma-ray images of flares are obtained using techniques similar to those used in radio interferometry. Ground-based radio observations of the Sun provide an important complement to the HESSI observations of solar flares. I will describe the HESSI Project and the high-energy aspects of solar flares, and how these relate to radio astronomy techniques and observations.

  2. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.

    PubMed

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-08-13

    -carbon sources, namely 'clean' coal, 'clean' gas and nuclear power. If solar is to play a large role in the future energy system, then we need new methods for energy storage; very-large-scale solar either would need to be combined with electricity stores or it would need to serve a large flexible demand for energy that effectively stores useful energy in the form of chemicals, heat, or cold. PMID:23816908

  3. Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2009-09-01

    Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

  4. Relative energy risk: Is solar energy riskier than nuclear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inhaber, H.

    The discussion of risk analysis is divided into three parts: (1) a discussion of the methodology which can be used; (2) a listing of some of the major assumptions; and (3) the results of a comparison of eleven energy systems. The energy systems considered are divided into two groups: conventional, i.e., those in fairly widespread use, like coal or nuclear, and nonconventional, i.e., all others, like solar and wind. Compared to some conventional systems like natural gas and nuclear, technologies like solar and windpower have relatively high risk. Because of the dilute nature of the energy they handle, solar and wind systems, when compared on the quality of their energy production, require a considerable amount of apparatus as compared to other systems. In turn, this apparatus requires a large amount of material and construction labor to build and install. Associated with each ton of material and hour of labor is a definite number of accidents, diseases and deaths, according to labor statistics.

  5. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  6. Solar energy recorder. [for converter site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, R. B.; Mandt, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    A serious obstacle to the large-scale terrestrial application of solar energy lies in the scarcity of reliable data on the amount of solar energy at candidate converter sites. This paper describes a system designed to monitor and record, automatically, the values of the direct and total (sun and sky) solar radiation which would be seen by either tracking or fixed-type solar converters. A further pressing need addressed by the system is the means for efficiency testing and evaluation of solar cells, solar collectors and solar concentrator systems, under outdoor exposure to natural sunlight and weather conditions for extended periods. The design was accomplished in support of the Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, where design concepts and materials for large-scale terrestrial solar energy converters are currently being evaluated.

  7. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  8. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  9. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Byard Wood, Lance Seefeldt, Ronald Sims, Bradley Wahlen, and Dan Dye

    2012-06-29

    The solar energy available within the visible portion of the solar spectrum is about 300 W/m2 (43%) and that available in the UV and IR portion is about 400 W/m2 (57%). This provides opportunities for developing integrated energy systems that capture and use specific wavelengths of the solar spectrum for different purposes. For example: biofuels from photosynthetic microbes use only the visible light; solar cells use a narrow band of the solar spectrum that could be either mostly in the visible or in the IR regions of the solar spectrum, depending on the photovoltaic materials, e.g., gallium antimonide (GaSb) cells utilize predominately IR radiation; and finally, solar panels that heat water utilize a broad range of wavelengths (visible plus IR). The basic idea of this research is that sunlight has many possible end-use applications including both direct use and energy conversion schemes; it is technically feasible to develop multifunctional solar energy systems capable of addressing several end-use needs while increasing the overall solar energy utilization efficiency when compared to single-purpose solar technologies. Such a combination of technologies could lead to more cost-competitive ?multifunctional? systems that add value and broaden opportunities for integrated energy systems. The goal of this research is to increase the overall energy efficacy and cost competitiveness of solar systems. The specific objectives of this research were: 1) Evaluate the efficacy of a combined photobioreactor and electric power system; 2) Improve the reliability and cost effectiveness of hybrid solar lighting systems ? a technology in which sunlight is collected and distributed via optical fibers into the interior of a building; 3) Evaluate the efficacy of using filtered light to increase the production of biomass in photobioreactors and provide more solar energy for other uses; 4) Evaluates several concepts for wavelength shifting such that a greater percentage of the solar

  10. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  11. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  12. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  13. Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

  14. Battle Keeps Solar Energy in Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Hale, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Mirror structure in solar concentrator reduces heat loss by reflection and reradiation. Baffle reflects entering rays back and forth in solar-concentrator receiver until they reach heat exchanger. Similarly, infrared energy reradiated by heat exchanger is prevented from leaving receiver. Surfaces of baffle and inside wall of receiver are polished and highly reflective at solar and infrared wavelengths.

  15. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  16. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  17. The Solar Energy Timetable. Worldwatch Paper 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Denis

    This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are…

  18. Compact, high energy gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Stapleton, Robert E.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1976-08-03

    An electrically pumped gas laser amplifier unit having a disc-like configuration in which light propagation is radially outward from the axis rather than along the axis. The input optical energy is distributed over a much smaller area than the output optical energy, i.e., the amplified beam, while still preserving the simplicity of parallel electrodes for pumping the laser medium. The system may thus be driven by a comparatively low optical energy input, while at the same time, owing to the large output area, large energies may be extracted while maintaining the energy per unit area below the threshold of gas breakdown.

  19. Simple Experiments on the Use of Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, G. J.; Goldsmid, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes 5 solar energy experiments that can be used in secondary school: flat-plate collector, solar thermoelectric generator, simple concentrators, solar cell, and natural storage of solar energy. (MLH)

  20. Environmental Co-Benefit Opportunities of Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Armstrong, A.; Burney, J. A.; Easter, S. B.; Hoffacker, M. K.; Moore, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Solar energy reduces greenhouse gas emissions by an order of magnitude when substituted for fossil fuels. Nonetheless, the strategic deployment of solar energy—from single, rooftop modules to utility-scale solar energy power plants—can confer additional environmental co-benefits beyond its immediate use as a low carbon energy source. In this study, we identify a diverse portfolio of environmental co-benefit opportunities of solar energy technologies resulting from synergistic innovations in land, food, energy, and water systems. For each opportunity, we provide a demonstrative, quantitative framework for environmental co-benefit valuation—including, equations, models, or case studies for estimating carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) and cost savings ($US) averted by environmental co-benefit opportunities of solar energy—and imminent research questions to improve certainty of valuations. As land-energy-food-water nexus issues are increasingly exigent in 21st century, we show that environmental co-benefit opportunities of solar energy are feasible in numerous environments and at a wide range of spatial scales thereby able to contribute to local and regional environmental goals and for the mitigation of climate change.

  1. Summary of solar energy technology characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Dr., Robert R.

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

  2. Biomimetic utilization of solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, Aleksandr E.

    2012-12-01

    The most interesting recent publications dealing with so-called artificial photosynthesis, i.e., the development of photocatalytic converters of solar energy to the chemical bond energy using the fundamental principles of natural oxygenic photosynthesis, are discussed. The key stages of photosynthesis that should be reproduced in the artificial converters include light harvesting and transport of the light quantum to reaction centres where photoinduced charge separation occurs to give elementary reducing agents and oxidants (electrons and holes). The dark catalytic reactions involving the elementary reducing agents and oxidants give stable end products, namely, dioxygen and carbohydrates in the natural photosynthesis or dioxygen and hydrogen in the artificial photosynthesis. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  3. Environmental aspects of solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Strojan, C.L.

    1980-09-01

    Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technologies differ is that no unresolvable technological problems (e.g., CO/sub 2/ emissions) or sociopolitical barriers (e.g., waste disposal, catastrophic accidents) have been identified. This report reviews some of the environmental aspects of solar energy technologies and ongoing research designed to identify and resolve potential environmental concerns. It is important to continue research and assessment of environmental aspects of solar energy to ensure that unanticipated problems do not arise. It is also important that the knowledge gained through such environmental research be incorporated into technology development programs and policy initiatives.

  4. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  5. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  6. 78 FR 45268 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... compatibility of solar energy facilities on public lands, requires that all sites associated with power... suitable or unsuitable for solar energy development. The Final EIS describes the following three... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol...

  7. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  8. Energy portfolio of Iran: A case study of solar desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besharati, Adib

    Energy plays a very important role in the economic development of a country such as Iran where industrial progress and higher living standards increase demand for energy. Iran is one of the countries in the world that simultaneously produces and consumes large amounts of energy. Because of its geographic latitude and weather conditions, Iran has the potential to develop and use of both fossil and renewable energy sources. In South Iran, there are huge oil and gas resources, and at the same time high potential of solar radiation. However, at the present large-scale utilization, solar energy is prohibitively expensive for Iran. Therefore, this study investigates an economical way to utilize solar energy in a meaningful way for Iran. One of the possible uses of solar energy that is both economical and technically feasible is desalination of water using solar energy. People in South Iran live in different areas with relatively low population density. One of the critical problems in those areas is a lack of clean drinking water. As a result, there is an urgent need to investigate ways to produce clean water from the saltwater. Therefore, the present study conducts a case study of solar desalination in south Iran using solar. Different desalination methods, such as humidification dehumidification by using a solar collector, and reverse osmosis, are discussed. In the case study, a prototype desalination plant was considered and both technical and economic aspects of the plant were investigated in details. The results showed higher productivity of drinking water in reverse osmosis method for south Iran.

  9. Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

  10. Projects in a Solar Energy Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Describes student projects on applications of solar energy optics to home design. Project criterion (requiring sketches and detailed calculations of time rate of energy flow/production) is that half the heat for the heating season be taken from the solar resource; calculations must be based on meteorological data for a specific location. (JM)

  11. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  12. Material for conversion of solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Taoda, H.; Asahina, T.; Hayakawa, K.; Kawase, K.; Kosaka, M.; Yumoto, T.

    1984-09-25

    A material comprising an organic compound capable of inducing its own photo-isomerization, a photosensitizer, and a side-reaction inhibitor exhibits an ability to convert solar energy into another form of energy and store it in such form.

  13. Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modisette, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

  14. Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

  15. Solar energy food dehydration system: Concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    The research activities to be carried out to form the body of this work were planned, first, to increase the general knowledge in the areas of solar energy application and, secondly, to provide sufficient data for the development of a new solar energy powered food dehydrating system. The research work does not aim merely at pursuing the study and development of a new component or a new type of material to be used in the solar industry. But the final and main part of this research is devoted to the development and design of a solar energy system uncharted before the purpose of dehydrating various agricultural products. This proposed solar powered system development is thereby a contribution of technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. It is one of the viable and effective solutions to solving the world's food and energy shortage problem, especially in the less developed regions of the world. The body of this work, thus is divided into three major parts as follows: (1) The search for a thorough understanding of the origin and fundamental characteristics of solar energy. (2) Past and present applications of solar energy. (3) The development and design of a new solar energy powered system for the dehydration of food crops.

  16. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  17. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    PubMed

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies. PMID:26667056

  18. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  19. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Auh, P. C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  20. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  1. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

  2. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  3. Low cost solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephans, J. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended, curved sawtooth contoured surface covered with a metallized polymeric reflecting material, reflected solar energy to a movably supported collector that was kept at the concentrated line focus of the reflector primary. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy was obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that directed off-angle energy to the absorber pipe.

  4. Antisoiling Coatings for Solar-Energy Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Willis, P.

    1986-01-01

    Fluorocarbons resist formation of adherent deposits. Promising coating materials reduce soiling of solar photovoltaic modules and possibly solar thermal collectors. Contaminating layers of various degrees of adherence form on surfaces of devices, partially blocking incident solar energy, reducing output power. Loose soil deposits during dry periods but washed off by rain. New coatings help prevent formation of more-adherent, chemically and physically bonded layers rain alone cannot wash away.

  5. Solar energy at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-31

    Basic concepts for using the energy of the sun have been known for centuries. The challenge today, the goal of the Department of Energy`s National Solar Energy Program is to create the technology needed to establish solar energy as a practical, economical alternative to energy produced by depletable fuels--and to use that solar-produced energy in a wide variety of applications. To assist the DOE in this national effort, Sandia sponsors industrial and university research and development, manages a series of technical programs, operates solar experimental facilities, and carries out its own scientific and engineering research. This booklet describes their projects, their technical objectives, and explains how their experimental facilities are used to find the answers we`re seeking. Prospective participants from companies involved in solar-energy development or applications should find it especially useful since it outlines broad areas of opportunity. Projects include: central receiver technology; line-focus thermal technology; photovoltaic systems technology; wind turbine development; energy storage technology; and applied research in improved polycrystalline materials for solar cells and photoelectrolysis of water.

  6. New View of Gas and Dust in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2010-08-01

    The recognizable components in meteorites differ in their relative abundances of the three oxygen isotopes (16O, 17O, and 18O). In particular, the amount of 16O varies from being like that of the Earth to substantially enriched compared to the other two isotopes. The current explanation for this interesting range in isotopic composition is that dust and gas in the solar nebula (the cloud of gas and dust surrounding the primitive Sun) began with the same 16O-rich composition, but the solids evolved towards the terrestrial value. A new analysis of the problem by Alexander Krot (University of Hawaii) and colleagues at the University of Hawaii, the University of Chicago, Clemson University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory leads to the bold assertion that primordial dust and gas differed in isotopic composition. The gas was rich in 16O as previously thought (possibly slightly richer in 16O than the measurements of the solar wind returned by the Genesis Mission), but that the dust had a composition close to the 16O-depleted terrestrial average. In this new view, the dust had a different history than did the gas before being incorporated into the Solar System. Solids with compositions near the terrestrial line may have formed in regions of the solar nebula where dust had concentrated compared to the mean solar dust/gas ratio (1 : ~100). The idea has great implications for understanding the oxygen-isotope composition of the inner Solar System and the origin of materials in the molecular cloud from which the Solar System formed.

  7. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  8. The New England solar energy atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book offers a convenient source of historical solar radiation data excerpted from the Solar Radiation Energy Resource Atlas of the United States. The collection of regional maps and the graphic summaries of the resource data pertinent to the New England area accomplish the author's goal of providing design data in a more compact format than that of the national atlas.

  9. Heat-Energy Analysis for Solar Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Heat-energy analysis program (HEAP) solves general heat-transfer problems, with some specific features that are "custom made" for analyzing solar receivers. Can be utilized not only to predict receiver performance under varying solar flux, ambient temperature and local heat-transfer rates but also to detect locations of hotspots and metallurgical difficulties and to predict performance sensitivity of neighboring component parameters.

  10. Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

  11. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  12. Solar-wind krypton and solid/gas fractionation in the early solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, D. S.; Neugebauer, M.; Pepin, R. O.

    1991-01-01

    The solar-system Kr abundance is calculated from solar-wind noble-gas ratios, determined previously by low-temperature oxidations of lunar ilmenite grains, normalized to Si by spacecraft solar-wind measurements. The estimated Kr-83 abundance of 4.1 + or - 1.5 per million Si atoms is within uncertainty of estimates assuming no fractionation, determined from CI-chondrite abundances of surrounding elements. This is significant because it is the first such constraint on solid/gas fractionation, though the large uncertainty only confines it to somewhat less than a factor of two.

  13. Polymers in solar energy utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Coulter, D. R.; Dao, C.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    A laser photoacoustic technique (LPAT) has been verified for performing accelerated life testing of outdoor photooxidation of polymeric materials used in solar energy applications. Samples of the material under test are placed in a chamber with a sensitive microphone, then exposed to chopped laser radiation. The sample absorbs the light and converts it to heat by a nonradiative deexcitation process, thereby reducing pressure fluctuations within the cell. The acoustic signal detected by the microphone is directly proportional to the amount of light absorbed by the specimen. Tests were performed with samples of ethylene/methylacrylate copolymer (EMA) reprecipitated from hot cyclohexane, compressed, and molded into thin (25-50 microns) films. The films were exposed outdoors and sampled by LPAT weekly. The linearity of the light absorbed with respect to the acoustic signal was verified.Correlations were established between the photoacoustic behavior of the materials aged outdoors and the same kinds of samples cooled and heated in a controlled environment reactor. The reactor tests were validated for predicting outdoor exosures up to 55 days.

  14. Solar Energy: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses many of the economic and policy questions related to the widespread introduction of solar power, presents recent progress in developing solar technologies and advancing their economic feasibility, and reviews some recommendations that have been made for achieving the early introduction and sustained application of solar…

  15. General solar energy information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  16. Tower-supported solar-energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple-collector tower system supports three receiver/concentrators that absorb solar energy reflected from surrounding field of heliostats. System overcomes disadvantages of tower-supported collectors. Booms can be lowered during heavy winds to protect arms and collectors.

  17. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  18. Regeneration of desiccants with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghate, S.R.; Butts, C.L.; Lown, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Saturated silica gel was regenerated with solar energy. This paper describes the experimental set-up for silica gel regeneration and data collection. The regenerated silica gel can be used to dry high moisture in-shell pecans.

  19. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  20. Argonne Solar Energy Program annual report. Summary of solar program activities for fiscal year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The R and D work done at Argonne National Laboratory on solar energy technologies during the period October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979 is described. Technical areas included in the ANL solar program are solar energy collection, heating and cooling, thermal energy storage, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, biomass conversion, satellite power systems, and solar liquid-metal MHD power systems.

  1. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date. PMID:26798020

  2. The solar system/interstellar medium connection - Gas phase abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Barry L.

    1987-01-01

    Gas-phase abundances in the outer solar system are presented as diagnostics of the interstellar medium at the time of the solar system formation, some 4.55 billion years ago. Possible influences of the thermal and chemical histories of the primitive solar nebula and of the processes which led to the formation and evolution of the outer planets and comets on the elemental and molecular composition of the primordial matter are outlined. The major components of the atmospheres of the outer planets and of the comae of comets are identified, and the cosmogonical and cosmological implications are discussed.

  3. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of; cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  4. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1979-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  5. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells. PMID:20931630

  6. Solar energy receiver for a Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A solar energy receiver includes a separable endless wall formed of a ceramic material in which a cavity of substantially cylindrical configuration is defined for entrapping solar flux. An acceptance aperture is adapted to admit to the cavity a concentrated beam of solar energy. The wall is characterized by at least one pair of contiguously related segments separated by lines of cleavage intercepting the aperture. At least one of the segments is supported for pivotal displacement. A thermal-responsive actuator is adapted to respond to excessive temperatures within the cavity for initiating pivoted displacement of one segment, whereby thermal flux is permitted to escape from the cavity.

  7. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  8. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  9. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  10. Focusing on the future: Solar thermal energy systems emerge as competitive technologies with major economic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    Hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens are now receiving a portion of their daily demand for electricity from large-scale solar thermal electric generating stations-power plants that use concentrated solar energy to drive electric power generators. Just as with coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and nuclear energy, concentrated solar energy can create working temperatures of around 600C and much higher. Also, solar power plants contribute almost nothing to the atmospheric greenhouse effect and pose few, if any, of the other environmental problems associated with conventional energy sources. As a result of research and development within the national Solar Thermal Technology Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), solar thermal energy is on the threshold of competing economically with conventional power plants and is now viable for international markets. Its potential for spurring American economic growth and exports is significant.

  11. Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Solar energy, being a non-depleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. It can be used to generate electricity, for heating and cooling buildings, and for producing clean renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuel. There is little question of the technical feasibility for utilizing solar energy. The chief problem is rapidly providing innovative solutions that are economically competititive with other systems.

  12. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  13. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  14. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  15. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  16. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  17. The Case for the Large Scale Development of Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the history of solar energy development. Discusses global effects (temperature, particle and other pollution) of burning fossil fuels. Provides energy balance equations for solar energy distribution and discusses flat plate collectors, solar cells, photochemical and photobiological conversion of solar energy, heat pumps. (CS)

  18. Bio-Inspired Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warncke, Kurt

    2009-11-01

    The areas of solar-powered catalysts for energy rich fuels formation and bio-inspired molecular assemblies for integrating photon-to-fuels pathways have been identified by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. S. Department of Energy as challenges for the next generation of sustainable, high-efficiency solar energy conversion systems [1]. The light-harvesting, energy-transducing and carbon compound-synthesizing (carbon dioxide-fixing) reactions that are encompassed by natural photosynthesis offer molecular paradigms for efficient free energy capture and storage. We seek to emulate these features in cell-free, protein-based systems. Our goal is to transform the robust (alpha,beta)8-barrel fold of an enzyme that naturally catalyzes radical reactions into a catalytic module for the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate, by using the cobalt-containing cobalamins and other organocobalt centers. The activation of the catalytic center will be driven by photo-reduction, by using soluble and attached organic or semiconductor architectures. Progress on the biochemical, chemical, physical, and molecular biological (including rational design of high binding affinity and reactivity towards carbon dioxide) approaches to the development of the photocatalytic system will be presented.[4pt] [1] Lewis, N.; Crabtree, G. In: Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science: 2005.

  19. Solar energy applications at Army ammunition plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, A. P.; Moy, S. M.

    1982-06-01

    The Army Ammunition Plants use significant quantities of fossil fuels. To reduce dependence on these scarce, costly, and non-renewable fuels, a study was conducted to investigate potential solar energy applications at the AAPs. Solar energy is a low-level energy source which is best applied to low temperature applications. It can be used at the AAPs to preheat boiler feedwater, provide hot air for dry-houses, provide domestic hot water and heat for administration buildings, and provide hot water for manufacturing processes such as metal cleaning, phosphating, and X-ray film processing. Use of the flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, or solar ponds with the possible addition of a heat pump, offers reasonably economical means of applying solar technology to AAP needs.

  20. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kai, K.

    1986-01-01

    A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

  1. Passive solar energy information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  2. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  3. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  4. Explore engineering with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.H.

    1995-11-01

    An outreach program was initiated at the University of Minnesota by faculty and student members of the Society of Women Engineers in the spring of 1994 to interest students in 3rd through 9th grade, particularly girls, in careers in engineering. Interaction with elementary and junior high students focuses on hands-on experiences with portable solar devices. This paper reports progress of the program including descriptions of the solar devices, their use in visits to local schools, day visits to the University, and week-long summer camps, and continuing education programs for elementary and secondary school teachers.

  5. Mathematics and Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humer, Barbara

    This learning module for use with junior high school students offers some basic career awareness in the energy field while covering some basic principles and aspects of energy use, such as vocabulary, basic electricity, energy efficiency, and home utility meter reading. Math problems are offered in volume and surface area, energy efficiency,…

  6. Port of Galveston Solar Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Falcioni, Diane; Cuclis, Alex; Freundlich, Alex

    2014-03-31

    This study on the performance characteristics of existing solar technologies in a maritime environment was funded by an award given to The Port of Galveston (POG) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The study includes research performed by The Center for Advanced Materials at the University of Houston (UH). The UH researchers examined how solar cell efficiencies and life spans can be improved by examining the performance of a variety of antireflective (AR) coatings mounted on the top of one of the POG’s Cruise Terminals. Supplemental supporting research was performed at the UH laboratories. An educational Kiosk was constructed with a 55” display screen providing information about solar energy, the research work UH performed at POG and real time data from the solar panels located on the roof of the Cruise Terminal. The Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) managed the project.

  7. Energy analysis of the solar power satellite.

    PubMed

    Herendeen, R A; Kary, T; Rebitzer, J

    1979-08-01

    The energy requirements to build and operate the proposed Solar Power Satellite are evaluated and compared with the energy it produces. Because the technology is so speculative, uncertainty is explicitly accounted for. For a proposed 10-gigawatt satellite system, the energy ratio, defined as the electrical energy produced divided by the primary nonrenewable energy required over the lifetime of the system, is of order 2, where a ratio of 1 indicates the energy breakeven point. This is significantly below the energy ratio of today's electricity technologies such as light-water nuclear or coal-fired electric plants. PMID:17758765

  8. Desalting system utilizing solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, T.

    1985-06-25

    A heat-transfer medium is heated by a solar heat collector and then adiabatically compressed. The heat-transfer medium thus compressed exchanges heat with the seawater to heat it, and is then adiabatically expanded with the heated seawater being evaporated and the steam thus produced, upon heat exchange with the seawater, changed into fresh water.

  9. Solar Energy of the North

    SciTech Connect

    Davis St. Peter Director of Faclities Charles Bonin Vice President of Administration & Finance

    2012-01-12

    The concept of this project was to design a solar array that would not only provide electricity for the major classroom building of the campus but would also utilize that electricity to enhance the learning environment. It was also understood that the project would be a research and data gathering project.

  10. The Status of Solar Energy as Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, D. O.

    1979-01-01

    Discused is the biological conversion of solar energy via photosynthesis into stored energy in the form of biomass. Detailed are the research and development programs on biomass of the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Brazil, Philippines, Sahel, India, and China. (BT)

  11. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  12. Using Solar Energy to Desalinate Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Harry Z.

    1978-01-01

    Material presented is adapted from Desalination with Solar Energy, a paper presented before the International Symposium on Energy Sources and Development, held in Spain in 1977. Desalination systems energized by the sun, conditions governing their efficiency, and their costs are discussed. (HM)

  13. Solar energy system with wind vane

    DOEpatents

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  14. Radiation energy receiver for laser and solar propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, D. F. G.; Hertzberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of remotely heating a rocket propellant with a high intensity radiant energy flux is especially attractive due to its high specific impulse and large payload mass capabilities. In this paper, a radiation receiver-thruster which is especially suited to the particular thermodynamic and spectral characteristics of highly concentrated solar energy is proposed. In this receiver, radiant energy is volumetrically absorbed within a hydrogen gas seeded with alkali metal vapors. The alkali atoms and molecules absorb the radiant flux and, subsequently, transfer their internal excitation to hydrogen molecules through collisional quenching. It is shown that such a radiation receiver would outperform a blackbody cavity type receiver in both efficiency and maximum operating temperatures. A solar rocket equipped with such a receiver-thruster would deliver thrusts of several hundred newtons at a specific impulse of 1000 seconds.

  15. The Prospects of Solar Energy for Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, A.; Gururaja, J.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the potential application of solar energy and its possible benefits to developing countries. Various energy needs, including domestic, agricultural, and household, that could be met by using solar energy are discussed. (BT)

  16. Solar wind-magnetosphere energy input functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bargatze, L.F.; McPherron, R.L.; Baker, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    A new formula for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy input parameter, P/sub i/, is sought by applying the constraints imposed by dimensional analysis. Applying these constraints yields a general equation for P/sub i/ which is equal to rho V/sup 3/l/sub CF//sup 2/F(M/sub A/,theta) where, rho V/sup 3/ is the solar wind kinetic energy density and l/sub CF//sup 2/ is the scale size of the magnetosphere's effective energy ''collection'' region. The function F which depends on M/sub A/, the Alfven Mach number, and on theta, the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle is included in the general equation for P/sub i/ in order to model the magnetohydrodynamic processes which are responsible for solar wind-magnetosphere energy transfer. By assuming the form of the function F, it is possible to further constrain the formula for P/sub i/. This is accomplished by using solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indices, and simple statistical methods. It is found that P/sub i/ is proportional to (rho V/sup 2/)/sup 1/6/VBG(theta) where, rho V/sup 2/ is the solar wind dynamic pressure and VBG(theta) is a rectified version of the solar wind motional electric field. Furthermore, it is found that G(theta), the gating function which modulates the energy input to the magnetosphere, is well represented by a ''leaky'' rectifier function such as sin/sup 4/(theta/2). This function allows for enhanced energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented southward. This function also allows for some energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented northward. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  17. The effects of solarization on the performance of a gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, Christiaan; van der Spuy, Johan; von Backström, Theodor

    2016-05-01

    Various hybrid solar gas turbine configurations exist. The Stellenbosch University Solar Power Thermodynamic (SUNSPOT) cycle consists of a heliostat field, solar receiver, primary Brayton gas turbine cycle, thermal storage and secondary Rankine steam cycle. This study investigates the effect of the solarization of a gas turbine on its performance and details the integration of a gas turbine into a solar power plant. A Rover 1S60 gas turbine was modelled in Flownex, a thermal-fluid system simulation and design code, and validated against a one-dimensional thermodynamic model at design input conditions. The performance map of a newly designed centrifugal compressor was created and implemented in Flownex. The effect of the improved compressor on the performance of the gas turbine was evident. The gas turbine cycle was expanded to incorporate different components of a CSP plant, such as a solar receiver and heliostat field. The solarized gas turbine model simulates the gas turbine performance when subjected to a typical variation in solar resource. Site conditions at the Helio100 solar field were investigated and the possibility of integrating a gas turbine within this system evaluated. Heat addition due to solar irradiation resulted in a decreased fuel consumption rate. The influence of the additional pressure drop over the solar receiver was evident as it leads to decreased net power output. The new compressor increased the overall performance of the gas turbine and compensated for pressure losses incurred by the addition of solar components. The simulated integration of the solarized gas turbine at Helio100 showed potential, although the solar irradiation is too little to run the gas turbine on solar heat alone. The simulation evaluates the feasibility of solarizing a gas turbine and predicts plant performance for such a turbine cycle.

  18. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. PMID:26092694

  19. Solar energy is growing up fast

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-15

    Few investors were willing - until recently - to put big money into large-scale solar investments, in part because they were not sure if they could find a willing buyer for the generated electricity. Several things have changed the equation in favor of solar energy - in fact, in favor of all sorts of non-traditional energy technologies. First, the cost of traditional fossil-fueled technologies has been steadily rising as fuel prices and construction costs escalate. Second, renewables-friendly policies have created a relatively low-risk market for renewables and/or low-carbon generation. Third, as investors scale up and innovate, the cost of alternative technologies has been rapidly falling. Combined, these trends have had a remarkable impact on solar energy technologies over the past couple of years, with stunning results. In particular, German policymakers are trying to create a new industrial base on par with car manufacturing and precision machine tools.

  20. The Texas Instruments Solar Energy System development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. L.

    The system is described, showing that energy conversion and storage functions are combined in a novel way. Here, small silicon solar cells are immersed in an electrolyte and the current generated by the cells is used directly to electrolyze a halogen acid, for example, HBr. The hydrogen and bromine produced can be stored separately until needed and then recombined in a fuel cell to give electrical energy on demand. The fuel cell HBr product is returned to the solar chemical convertor, thus completing the closed loop energy cycle. In summarizing the achievements to date, it is noted that feasibility demonstration of a 13% array electrical efficiency prepared by a laboratory process and 10% array efficiencies have been obtained from potentially scalable solar cell and array processes.

  1. An assessment of solar energy as a national energy resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, P.; Woodward, W.; Cherry, W. E.; Morse, F. H.; Herwig, L. O.

    1972-01-01

    The applications are discussed of solar energy for thermal energy for buildings; chemical and biological conversion of organic materials to liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels; and the generation of electricity. It is concluded that if solar development programs are successful, building heating for public use is possible within 5 years, building cooling in 6 to 10 years, synthetic fuels from organic materials in 5 to 8 years, and electricity production in 10 to 15 years.

  2. Manufacture of silicon carbide using solar energy

    DOEpatents

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using solar energy. The method is efficient and avoids the need for use of electrical energy to heat the reactants. Finely divided silica and carbon are admixed and placed in a solar-heated reaction chamber for a time sufficient to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

  3. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  4. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  5. Impacts of solar energy utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Various methods of conducting surveys and analyses to determine the attitude of the public toward the energy crisis are discussed. Models to determine the impact of the energy crisis and proposed alternative sources of energy on the social structure are analyzed. The various interest groups which are concerned with energy and the nature of their interest are identified. The government structure for controlling resource production and allocation is defined.

  6. Chemical reactions driven by concentrated solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Moshe

    Solar energy can be used for driving endothermic reactions, either photochemically or thermally. The fraction of the solar spectrum that can be photochemically active is quite small. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to combine photochemical and thermal processes in order to increase the overall efficiency. Two thermally driven reactions are being studied: oil shale gasification and methane reforming. In both cases, the major part of the work was done in opaque metal reactors where photochemical reactions cannot take place. We then proceeded working in transparent quartz reactors. The results are preliminary, but they seem to indicate that there may be some photochemical enhancement. The experimental solar facilities used for this work include the 30 kW Schaeffer Solar Furnace and the 3 MW Solar Central Receiver in operation at the Weizmann Institute. The furnace consists of a 96 sq. m flat heliostat, that follows the sun by computer control. It reflects the solar radiation onto a spherical concentrator, 7.3 m in diameter, with a rim angle of 65 degrees. The furnace was characterized by radiometric and calorimetric measurements to show a solar concentration ratio of over 10,000 suns. The central receiver consists of 64 concave heliostats, 54 sq. m each, arranged in a north field and facing a 52 m high tower. The tower has five target levels that can be used simultaneously. The experiments with the shale gasification were carried out at the lowest level, 20 m above ground, which has the lowest solar efficiency and is assigned for low power experiments. We used secondary concentrators to boost the solar flux.

  7. Incentives for solar energy in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, K. D.

    1981-05-01

    Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax deductions for fuel expenses with tax credits for capital investments for energy. The result is a simple expression for tax equity. The effects that market penetration of solar energy has on conventional energy prices are analyzed with a free market model. It is shown that net costs of a subsidy program to the society can be significantly reduced by price. Several government loan guarantee concepts are evaluated as incentives that may not require direct outlays of government funds; their relative effectiveness in achieving loan leverage through project financing, and their cost and practicality, are discussed.

  8. Solar flare neon and solar cosmic ray fluxes in the past using gas-rich meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nautiyal, C. M.; Rao, M. N.

    1986-01-01

    Methods were developed earlier to deduce the composition of solar flare neon and to determine the solar cosmic ray proton fluxes in the past using etched lunar samples and at present, these techniques are extended to gas rich meteorites. By considering high temperature Ne data points for Pantar, Fayetteville and other gas rich meteorites and by applying the three component Ne-decomposition methods, the solar cosmic ray and galactic cosmic ray produced spallation Ne components from the trapped SF-Ne was resolved. Using appropiate SCR and GCR production rates, in the case of Pantar, for example, a GCR exposure age of 2 m.y. was estimated for Pantar-Dark while Pantar-Light yielded a GCR age of approx. 3 m.y. However the SCR exposure age of Pantar-Dark is two orders of magnitude higher than the average surface exposure ages of lunar soils. The possibility of higher proton fluxes in the past is discussed.

  9. Solar Energy Employment and Requirements, 1978-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Girard W.; Field, Jennifer

    Based on data collected from a mailed survey of 2800 employers engaged in solar energy activities, a study identified the characteristics of establishments engaged in solar work and the number and occupational distribution of persons working in solar energy activities in 1978, and projected solar labor requirements through 1983. The scope of the…

  10. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringel, Robert F.

    Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…