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1

Open-loop transport of solar energy using natural-gas networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the feasibility of transporting solar energy via a thermochemical-energy process and natural-gas networks. The high-temperature solar energy from a central receiver is converted to chemical-bond energy by steam reforming of natural gas to synthesis gas: HEAT + CHâ + HâO ..-->.. CO + 3Hâ. The synthesis gas is dehydrated and transported in the natural-gas pipeline. At the

Nix

1983-01-01

2

A combined heat and power system for buildings driven by solar energy and gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hybrid solar\\/gas system intended to provide cooling\\/heating and electricity generation for buildings was developed. The system is based on the combination of an ejector heat pump cycle with a Rankine cycle. It is driven by solar energy and supplemented by a gas burner. The system also uses an environmentally friendly refrigerant to have minimal impact on the environment.

A. C. Oliveira; C. Afonso; J. Matos; S. Riffat; M. Nguyen; P. Doherty

2002-01-01

3

A solar pumped gas laser for the direct conversion of solar energy  

SciTech Connect

The first solar pumping of a gas laser scalable to high-power levels was achieved. The solar radiation was from a xenon arc solar simulator with a 4-kW beam power and a spectral distribution of air mass zero to an accuracy of about 20%. With the lasant n-heptafluoropropyl iodide (C/sub 3/F/sub 7/I), continuous lasing at 1.315 ..mu..m for over 10 ms and peak power output of 10 W were obtained for a single static fill. Numerical simulations based on the kinetics of the iodine laser match well the experimentally observed lasing features. The laser was also operated with quasisteady flow for up to 200 ms at a 30-Hz pulse rate indicating the feasibility of continual lasing by flowing the lasant. Since an equivalent pumping power is obtainable from a modest-sized collector only 2 m in diameter, this research indicates that solar energy can be transformed effectively directly into a continuous laser output which may be useful for extended space communications, powering deep space or near-Earth missions, and possibly even supplying energy to the Earth.

Weaver, E.E.; Lee, J.H.

1983-11-01

4

Inflatable solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inflatable solar energy collector utilizes flexible materials and is adapted to be inflated by a flow of pressurized gas therethrough. Inflation positions a solar energy collecting panel at an appropriate predetermined angle for effectively collecting solar energy. The solar collector includes an enclosure defining a generally tubular configuration, and the energy collecting panel extends in a planar and chord-like

D. K. Brindle; D. Y. Shanfelt

1980-01-01

5

Personalized energy: the home as a solar power station and solar gas station.  

PubMed

Point-of-use solar energy would generate the exact amount of energy any one individual needs, at the location where it is needed. Such a means of energy supply would create a revolution in society's approach to energy use, and allow a more level playing field for all. This Viewpoint considers some of the key enablers for this technology. PMID:19408259

Nocera, Daniel G

2009-01-01

6

Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model was used to size the system to minimize the annualized cost of hot water. The annualized cost of solar-assisted gas-energy water heating is found to be less expensive than electric water heating but more expensive than gas water heating. The feasibility of a natural gas utility supplying the auxiliary fuel is evaluated. It is estimated that gas-utilizing companies will find it profitable to offer solar water heating as part of a total energy service option or on a lease basis when the price of new base-load supplies of natural gas reaches $2.50-$3.00 per million Btu.

Davis, E. S.

1975-01-01

7

Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

8

Solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

Rapp, D.

9

A space-based combined thermophotovoltaic electric generator and gas laser solar energy conversion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a spaceborne energy conversion system consisting of a thermophotovoltaic electric generator and a gas laser. As a power source for the converson, the system utilizes an intermediate blackbody cavity heated to a temperature of 2000-2400 K by concentrated solar radiation. A double-layer solar cell of GaAs and Si forms a cylindrical surface concentric to this blackbody cavity, receiving the blackbody radiation and converting it into electricity with cell conversion efficiency of 50 percent or more. If the blackbody cavity encloses a laser medium, the blackbody radiation can also be used to simultaneously pump a lasing gas. The feasibility of blackbody optical pumping at 4.3 microns in a CO2-He gas mixture was experimentally demonstrated.

Yesil, Oktay

1989-01-01

10

Coal gasification by CO 2 gas bubbling in molten salt for solar\\/fossil energy hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification with CO2 (the Boudouard reaction: C+CO2=2CO, ?rH°=169.2 kJ\\/mol at 1150 K), which can be applied to a solar thermochemical process to convert concentrated solar heat into chemical energy, was conducted in the molten salt medium (eutectic mixture of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, weight ratio=1\\/1) to provide thermal storage. When CO2 gas was bubbled through the molten salt, higher reaction

Jun Matsunami; Shinya Yoshida; Yoshinori Oku; Osamu Yokota; Yutaka Tamaura; Mitsunobu Kitamura

2000-01-01

11

Toward the renewables - A natural gas/solar energy transition strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inevitability of an energy transition from today's non-renewable fossil base toward a renewable energy base is considered from the viewpoint of the need for a national transition strategy. Then, one such strategy is offered. Its technological building blocks are described in terms of both energy use and energy supply. The strategy itself is then sketched at four points in its implementation; (1) initiation, (2) early transition, (3) late transition, and (4) completion. The transition is assumed to evolve from a heavily natural gas-dependent energy economy. It then proceeds through its transition toward a balanced, hybrid energy system consisting of both centralized and dispersed energy supply technologies supplying hydrogen and electricity from solar energy. Related institutional, environmental and economic factors are examined briefly.

Hanson, J. A.; Escher, W. J. D.

1979-01-01

12

Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/683/), and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

Biewick, Laura R. H.; Wilson, Anna B.

2014-01-01

13

Evaluation of the efficiency of a device which uses solar energy to apply thermal shocks to gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal shock device described uses a conical injector nozzle as an absorbing cavity for concentrated solar energy. Experiments with methane are reported; the gas flowing rapidly through the nozzle is heated to nearly 1700 K by the walls which are nearly 2500 K. The methane was very rapidly chilled by contact with jets of cold argon gas in a

J. Lede; C. Weber; J. Villermaux

1978-01-01

14

Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

Building Design and Construction, 1977

1977-01-01

15

Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model

E. S. Davis

1975-01-01

16

Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 11 of PDF), learners compare the air pressure within a dark and a light bottle both heated by the sun, and discover that solar energy can be collected and stored in many ways. Although this was created as a post-visit activity for a workshop about photosynthesis, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity.

Cosi

2009-01-01

17

Solar energy conversion panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy conversion panel is provided by means of which solar energy is recovered as converted electrical energy and also thermal energy. An array of solar energy collectors direct solar energy received from the sun upon photovoltaic cells within the collectors. The photovoltaic cells convert a portion of this energy into electrical energy. The balance of the solar energy

1981-01-01

18

Alternative Energy: Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of the sun's energy. Topics include the history of solar energy usage and its more recent adaptations. There is also discussion of how the sun produces and radiates energy, what happens when it reaches Earth, types of solar systems, and the most common use of solar energy (heating). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate the effects of color and collection area on the amount of solar energy absorbed by a system. They will use aluminum pie pans of different sizes and colors and compare the relative effect by their ability to heat water placed in them.

Pratte, John

19

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector includes a solar panel with channels for solar energy collecting fluid or liquid which channels are adapted to efficiently use the available panel area and thus more efficiently collect the solar energy per unit area than so far achieved. This solar energy collector comprises a solar panel distinctively including fluid channels tapering in width from an

Kerr

1981-01-01

20

Advanced solar energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

Lee, J.H.

1981-08-01

21

Solar energy engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total and spectral solar irradiance is considered along with a solar energy availability prediction from climatological data, heat transfer for solar energy utilization, liquid flat plate collectors, convective heat transfer effects within Honeycomb structures for flat plate solar collectors, solar air heaters and their applications, concentrating collectors, a solar pond, and solar furnaces. Attention is also given to photovoltaic

A. A. M. Sayigh

1977-01-01

22

Solar Energy Reporting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Last year the people of Cleveland, Ohio were troubled by natural gas shortages during one of the coldest winters on record. The severe winter generated a great deal of interest in solar energy as an alternative source of heat. Home owners, home builders and civic officials wanted to know just how much solar energy is available in Cleveland. Now they get a daily report through the city's news media, from information supplied as a community service by NASA's Lewis Research Center. Lewis routinely makes daily measurements of solar energy as part of its continuing research in behalf of the Department of Energy. The measuring device is a sun sensor called a pyranometer (upper photo) located atop a building at the NASA Center. To make the information conveniently available to news media, Lewis developed a Voice Output Integrating Insolometer, an automated system that acquires information from the sun sensor and translates it into a recorded telephone message. The Lewis pyranometer collects sun data for 15 hours daily and measures the total solar energy yield. For reporting to the public, the information is electronically converted to a specific reading. A media representative calling in gets a voice-synthesized announcement of a two or three digit number; the number corresponds to the kilowatt-hours of solar energy that would be available to a typical 500-square-foot solar collector system. Response in Cleveland has been favorable and interest is developing in other parts of the country.

1978-01-01

23

Solar Energy Entrepreneurs  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region May 31, 2012 #12;Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region Meeting Objectives should attend if you.... · ... work in the solar energy market

Rubloff, Gary W.

24

Solar energy device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy device is described for converting solar energy to a usable form of energy which includes a solar energy collector arranged adjacent a solar energy collector surface in sun energy transferring relation and tracking means to orient the face in perpendicular relationship to the sun rays.

1977-01-01

25

The solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothermic decomposition of natural gas into a carbon-rich condensed phase and a hydrogen-rich gas phase, using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat, is considered as a model reaction for conducting a 2nd-law analysis of a solar decarbonization process in which carbon is removed from fossil fuels prior to their use for power generation. The theoretical

D. Hirsch; M. Epstein; A. Steinfeld

2001-01-01

26

Solar energy collection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collection system for a building is described. A solar energy collector is disposed at the exterior surface of the building and includes a solar energy absorbent body having a surface which is exposed to sunlight and from which solar energy can be transmitted as sensible heat. A panel which is transparent to sunlight is spaced from the

Hummell

1978-01-01

27

Solar energy collection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collection system for a building is described. A solar energy collector is disposed at the exterior surface of the building and includes a solar energy absorbent body having a surface which is exposed to sunlight and from which solar energy can be transmitted as sensible heat. A panel which is transparent to sunlight is spaced from the

1982-01-01

28

Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy generation of electricity is advocated as a means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions associated with the generation from fossil fuels. Whilst it is true that renewable sources do not generate significant carbon dioxide whilst producing electricity, as with fossil-fuelled plants they do embody significant emissions in their materials of construction. The “full-chain” environmental impacts of wind, hydro, solar-thermal

Brian Norton; Phillip C Eames; Steve NG Lo

1998-01-01

29

Solar energy assessment using remote sensing technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 20% of the final energy consumed in Europe is used in buildings. The active and passive use of solar energy is an approach to reduce the fossil energy consumption and the greenhouse gas emissions originated by buildings. Consideration of solar energy technologies in urban planning demands accurate information of the available solar resources. This can be achieved by the

Annette Hammer; Detlev Heinemann; Carsten Hoyer; Rolf Kuhlemann; Elke Lorenz; Richard Müller; Hans Georg Beyer

2003-01-01

30

Solar energy assessment using remote sensing technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 20% of the final energy consumed in Europe is used in buildings. The active and passive use of solar energy is an approach to reduce the fossil energy consumption and the greenhouse gas emissions originated by buildings. Consideration of solar energy technologies in urban planning demands accurate information of the available solar resources. This can be achieved by the

Annette Hammer; Detlev Heinemann; Carsten Hoyer; Rolf Kuhlemann; Elke Lorenz; Richard Muller; Hans Georg

31

Storage of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework is presented for identifying appropriate systems for storage of electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal energy in solar energy supply systems. Classification categories include the nature of the supply system's setting; the type of energy supplied; the type of solar energy collection system used (including 'indirect' solar energy, such as wind and hydropower); the type of energy stored; and

T. B. Taylor

1979-01-01

32

Solar Energy Usage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar

Crank, Ron

33

Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

1980-01-01

34

Potential of solar energy for Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluated is the rapidly growing solar energy program and it is determined which areas are appropriate for immediate development in Texas. Home heating and cooling via solar energy as well as integration of solar energy into electric and gas utilities are considered.

A. F. Hildebrandt

1974-01-01

35

Alternatives in solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

Schueler, D. G.

1978-01-01

36

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector includes a housing having a cover transparent to solar energy. A solar energy absorber is enclosed within the housing just beneath the cover. The absorber is formed to define a plurality of narrow fluid channels of triangular cross section which are disposed in close proximity to each other. The triangular cross section fluid channels are defined

1981-01-01

37

Solar energy collecting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting system is described, which may be operated to provide usable energy throughout the year, comprises a plurality of rows of elongate radiant solar energy collecting panels, each having upper and lower edges, being mounted to form an angle to the horizon and to face the sun's position at solar noon. An elongate reflector, also having upper

Broberg

1977-01-01

38

Forecasting solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past cloud studies help electric utilities evaluate the future impact of solar equipment because demand will go up with successive-day occurrences of low solar energy when solar customers must use their backup systems. Statistical probabilities developed for central Missouri on the basis of 25 years of solar-radiation measurements show how utilities can benefit from historical data in planning future demand.

1981-01-01

39

[Efficiency of oxidant gas generator cells powered by electric or solar energy].  

PubMed

Diseases caused by microbial contaminants in drinking water continue to be a serious problem in countries like Mexico. Chlorination, using chlorine gas or chlorine compounds, is one of the best ways to treat drinking water. However, difficulties in handling chlorine gas and the inefficiency of hypochlorite solution dosing systems--due to sociopolitical, economic, and cultural factors--have reduced the utility of these chlorination procedures, especially in far-flung and inaccessible rural communities. These problems led to the development of appropriate technologies for the disinfection of water by means of the on-site generation of mixed oxidant gases (chlorine and ozone). This system, called MOGGOD, operates through the electrolysis of a common salt solution. Simulated system evaluation using a hydraulic model allowed partial and total costs to be calculated. When powered by electrical energy from the community power grid, the system had an efficiency of 90%, and in 10 hours it was able to generate enough gases to disinfect about 200 m3 of water at a cost of approximately N$8 (US $1.30). When the electrolytic cell was run on energy supplied through a photoelectric cell, the investment costs were higher. A system fed by photovoltaic cells could be justified in isolated communities that lack electricity but have a gravity-fed water distribution system. PMID:9542448

Brust Carmona, H; Benitez, A; Zarco, J; Sánchez, E; Mascher, I

1998-02-01

40

Solar energy conversion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for converting solar energy to useful energy principally for home use. The apparatus provides a complete system for receiving solar energy over a large area, e.g. 1,000 square feet; concentrating the energy; and directing the energy toward a target of a few square feet at an extremely high temperature. The receiving, concentrating and transmitting apparatus consists of

Thompson

1983-01-01

41

Storage of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework is presented for identifying appropriate systems for storage of electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal\\u000a energy in solar energy supply systems. Classification categories include the nature of the supply system’s setting; the type\\u000a of energy supplied ; the type of solar energy collection system used (including ‘ indirect ’ solar energy, such as wind and\\u000a hydropower) ; the type

Theodore B. Taylor

1979-01-01

42

Matter & Energy Solar Energy  

E-print Network

standard semiconductor in most electronic devices, including the photovoltaic cells that solar panels use efficient than the more commonly used silicon. (Credit: John Rogers) Ads by Google Solar Panel Available Now windturbines solar panels www.c

Rogers, John A.

43

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating system for space air heating of a building has a solar energy collector in air flow communication with underground heat storage structure. The collector has an elongated frame defining a plurality of air passages. A plurality of solar energy absorption panels are arranged in ascending space elevations in each air passage so that the air flowing through

1980-01-01

44

Experimenting with Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

Roman, Harry T.

2004-01-01

45

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power  

E-print Network

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Over the last thirty years, more-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation could publication (Burkhardt et al. 2012). LCA of Energy Systems Concentrating Solar Power Coal #12;Published

46

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This solar energy collector includes a base and an outwardly inclined collar having a mirror finish carried by the base. An energy absorbing pine tar substance for absorbing solar energy is carried by the base. Copper tubing arranged in a generally spiral pattern provides a heat exchange conduit located within the energy absorbing substance and fluid is passed through the

Hicks

1982-01-01

47

Solar Energy: Heat Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

Knapp, Henry H., III

48

The energy impacts of solar heating.  

PubMed

The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy it saves under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of implementation projected by the Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy. For the rapid growth case, the cumulative energy invested to the year 2000 is calculated to be (1/2) to 1(1/2) times the amount saved. An impact of rapid solar heating implementation is to shift energy demand from premium heating fuels (natural gas and oil) to coal and nuclear power use in the industries that provide materials for solar equipment. PMID:17820033

Whipple, C

1980-04-18

49

Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

None

2011-01-01

50

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment  

E-print Network

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University.................................................................................................. 2 2.2 Solar Radiation Data for Calculating Solar Energy Resource .................... 3 3 Campus.1 Evaluation of Suitability for Solar Energy Generation................................ 12 4.2 Solar

Brownstone, Rob

51

Solar energy prospects grow for US southwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In connection with the disappearance of oil and gas, the traditional energy sources of the region, there appears to be every incentive to develop solar energy for domestic and industrial use in the U.S. Southwest. The various approaches for the utilization of solar energy are discussed, taking into account its direct application to water and space heating and to air

E. J. Jeffs

1977-01-01

52

Solar Energy Development Progresses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an engineering conference at which participants agreed that solar energy is a feasible energy source, although costs of such technology are presently very high. Also describes recent developments in solar energy research, and estimates the costs of this technology. (MLH)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

1975-01-01

53

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle pressure is close to atmospheric pressure, then the vacuum pump will evacuate the hydrogen gas from the first bottle to store into the second high pressure bottle. When the first bottle become vacuum then the procedure is repeated again.

Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

2009-09-01

54

Energy strategies: Toward a solar future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book includes an assessment of energy requirements, nonrenewable and renewable energy resources, energy storage and transmission, and projections of energy demands. Topics also covered include coal gasification, oil shale, nuclear fission generators, geothermal energy, solar heating and cooling, photovoltaic cells, wind generators, biomass to gas conversion, ocean thermal energy, and wave energy extraction.

H. W. Kendall; S. J. Nadis

1980-01-01

55

Solar energy: principles and possibilities.  

PubMed

As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities. PMID:20222355

Rhodes, Christopher J

2010-01-01

56

Solar energy collection panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collection panel is described for collecting solar energy to heat water. The panel is a simple, two component arrangement. That is, a cast, one piece construction provides a combined base and frame for the panel and defines the bottom and side walls of a plurality of separate channels for the flow of water to be heated directly

Ogilvie

1981-01-01

57

Solar energy apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy structure which includes translucent panel members which may be generally V-shaped. Through panel configuration and interlocks the solar energy is permitted to pass through the panel structure which also serves to provide thermal insulation. It also provides an air envelope to the building surface to which it is attached. The structure may be made up of extruded

1984-01-01

58

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting apparatus is described which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes a solar energy absorptive panel which

Mcarthur

1980-01-01

59

Solar energy apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy structure includes translucent panel members which cooperate to define a series of closed air spaces which may be generally v-shaped. Through panel configuration and interlocks the solar energy is permitted to pass through the panel structure which also serves to provide thermal insulation and drainage. In one embodiment, a panel member located between the starter panel and

1981-01-01

60

Solar energy collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector includes an enclosure within which is located a solar energy-absorbing panel disposed in spaced relation with an overlying glazing. The enclosure is a single sheet of metal fabricated with integral side and end walls, spacing ribs, glaze-holding lips, lock joints and tie down brackets.

1977-01-01

61

Solar energy receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly efficient, open-ended solar energy receiver is disclosed having a porous element through which air passes and a conventional heat exchanger positioned above and immediately adjacent to the porous element such that when solar energy is focused onto the porous element, a constant controlled temperature hot air stream from the element is conveyed by the temperature controlled convectively rising

Colao

1981-01-01

62

Solar energy - Industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved system efficiencies and reduced capital costs are identified as goals in the operation of solar energy industrial projects. An analysis by the Solar Energy Research Institute and DOE of the field performance of six industrial systems using the computer code SOLIPH showed that for well-designed and constructed steam systems a range of thermal efficiencies of 30 to 35 percent can be expected. The Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit program of Sandia National Laboratories is examined. The economics of industrial solar systems is considered with emphasis on technology costs and major economic parameters. It was found that the solar industrial process heat system was potentially competitive, both in the present and through 1998, only under the most favorable conditions. Local energy rates, solar conditions, land availability and tax incentives are shown to impact strongly on the feasibility of individual projects.

Kearney, D.; Lewandowski, A.

1983-12-01

63

Solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1977-01-01

64

Solar energy collecting panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting panel comprises a hollow collector through which an intermediate fluid is circulated to be warmed by solar radiation incident on the panel. The panel comprises a panel body including a general channel-shaped section comprising first wall having a pair of side walls extending along and projecting from a pair of opposed edges of said first wall,

Giuganino

1980-01-01

65

Solar energy collector panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting panel includes a pair of elongated spaced apart tubular fluid headers formed of heat conductive material and a plurality of elongated hollow tubular panel elements or risers formed of heat conductive material extended between the headers. The panel elements have an outer wall adapted to face and absorb solar radiation and transfer the heat directly into

Hubbard

1978-01-01

66

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the

William R. Aiman; David W. Gregg

1983-01-01

67

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a product gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor and solar energy is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front and a pyrolysis front. A gasification zone is produced well above the coal level within the reactor.

W. R. Aiman; D. W. Gregg

1983-01-01

68

Energy 101: Solar PV  

ScienceCinema

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

None

2013-05-29

69

Energy 101: Solar PV  

SciTech Connect

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

None

2011-01-01

70

Solar energy collecting panel assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector is disclosed having panel assemblies for absorbing solar energy and transferring heat to moving air. Each panel assembly has a heat insulated housing carrying a plurality of side-by-side solar energy collector units. Each unit has a base plate carrying upwardly directed longitudinal ribs providing solar energy collector surfaces and downwardly directed longitudinal fins providing heat dissipating

1981-01-01

71

Factors influencing solar energy commercialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospects for solar energy commercialization in Arizona are examined. Topics considered include the relative demand potential for selected solar energy products, factors influencing current and future demand for solar energy products, and recommended business and government actions to accelerate commercialization. A Delphi process was used to collect survey data. Water heaters were identified as the solar energy products with

B. J. Walker

1978-01-01

72

Brayton cycle solarized advanced gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is the development of a Brayton Engine/Generator Set for solar thermal to electrical power conversion, authorized under DOE/NASA Contract DEN3-181. The objective was to design, fabricate, assemble, and test a small, hybrid, 20-kW Brayton-engine-powered generator set. The latter, called a power conversion assembly (PCA), is designed to operate with solar energy obtained from a parobolic dish concentrator, 11 meters in diameter, or with fossil energy supplied by burning fuels in a combustor, or by a combination of both (hybrid model). The CPA consists of the Brayton cycle engine, a solar collector, a belt-driven 20-kW generator, and the necessary control systems for automatic operation in solar-only, fuel-only, and hybrid modes to supply electrical power to a utility grid. The original configuration of the generator set used the GTEC Model GTP36-51 gas turbine engine for the PCA prime mover. However, subsequent development of the GTEC Model AGT101 led to its selection as the powersource for the PCA. Performance characteristics of the latter, thermally coupled to a solar collector for operation in the solar mode, are presented. The PCA was successfully demonstrated in the fuel-only mode at the GTEC Phoenix, Arizona, facilities prior to its shipment to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for installation and testing on a test bed concentractor (parabolic dish). Considerations relative to Brayton-engine development using the all-ceramic AGT101 when it becomes available, which would satisfy the DOE heat engine efficiency goal of 35 to 41 percent, are also discussed in the report.

1986-01-01

73

Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)

Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

74

Hybrid mode solar power plant with gas and steam cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic improvement of combined gas and steam cycles by the addition of pressure stages is discussed. The terminal temperature difference between the gas turbine exhaust gas and the heated water/steam is reduced and the exhaust gas is cooled accordingly. For solar power plants which feed constant power into the electric grid, supplementary fossil fuel energy input into the cycle in a combustion chamber downstream of the receiver is suggested. The fuel energy, which is input at a higher temperature level than is possible with solar energy, is converted into mechanical and electric power at a higher degree of utilization than in a straight fossil fuelled power plant. The solar energy, which is input at a relatively low temperature, is upgraded if the working fluid is heated in the tailing combustion chamber to a temperature higher than the limit imposed by the receiver.

Bammert, K.; Finckh, H. H.

75

Electricity Production Using Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a solar-powered development project is used to identify whether it is possible to utilize solar technologies in the electricity production sector. Electricity production from solar energy has been found to be a promising method in the future. Concentrated solar energy can be converted to chemical energy via high-temperature endothermic reactions. Coal and biomass can be pyrolyzed or

M. F. Demirbas

2007-01-01

76

Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the possibilities afforded by solar energy as one of the alternative energy sources capable to take the place of the dwindling oil and gas reserves. Solar energy, being a nondepleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. Steps taken toward providing innovative solutions that are economically competitive with other systems are briefly reviewed.

Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

1973-01-01

77

Solar energy collector system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple flat plate reflectors, preferably compound of a panel with a reflector surface layer laminated thereto, are pivoted to move with the position of the sun and concentrate additional energy on a solar energy collector panel. The array can take a tented or triangular end view shape for closing to protect reflective surfaces from hail or sandstorm, etc. Also the

Dumbeck

1982-01-01

78

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling  

SciTech Connect

A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

79

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect

If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces an equally rich future, with nanoscience enabling the discovery of the guiding principles of photonic energy conversion and their use in the development of cost-competitive new technologies.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S. (Materials Science Division); (California Inst. of Tech.)

2008-03-01

80

Solar energy storage and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for storing and utilizing solar energy is disclosed which includes the use of solar energy collectors attached to heat pipes for changing solar flux into heat energy and transmitting the heat energy into the earth below the surface of the ground. An expanding array of pipes, formed of heat conductive material, distributes the heat throughout a large, unconstrained

Yuan

1979-01-01

81

Electricity production using solar energy  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a solar-powered development project is used to identify whether it is possible to utilize solar technologies in the electricity production sector. Electricity production from solar energy has been found to be a promising method in the future. Concentrated solar energy can be converted to chemical energy via high-temperature endothermic reactions. Coal and biomass can be pyrolyzed or gasified by using concentrated solar radiation for generating power. Conventional energy will not be enough to meet the continuously increasing need for energy in the future. In this case, renewable energy sources will become important. Solar energy is an increasing need for energy in the future. Solar energy is a very important energy source because of its advantages. Instead of a compressor system, which uses electricity, an absorption cooling system, using renewable energy and kinds of waste heat energy, may be used for cooling.

Demirbas, M.F.

2007-07-01

82

Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

Cherry, W. R.

1974-01-01

83

Spectral solar radiation data base at SERI (Solar Energy Research Institute)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the results to date of a cooperative project among the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), and the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG E) to build a spectral solar radiation data base. The objective is to build a data base representing a range of air masses

C. Riordan; D. Myers; M. Rymes; R. Hulstrom; W. Marion; C. Jennings; C. Whitaker

1989-01-01

84

Solar energy absorber panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a solar energy absorber panel comprising a heat absorbing and conducting sheet and an array of fluid conduits in thermal contact with the sheet. For a given efficiency, the weight of the panel is minimized by providing a sheet thickness of between about 0.001 inch and about 0.006 inch and a conduit density of between about 3 and

Godrick

1976-01-01

85

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy heated structure, such as an occupied building or greenhouse, includes a walled structure enclosing space volume. A movable insulated panel with a reflective surface is pivotably supported within the space volume. In a first position the panel cooperates with an insulated portion of the walled structure to enclose a lower portion of the space volume containing the

Maes

1981-01-01

86

Solar energy absorbing panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy absorbing panel is provided which may be integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building , and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The panel is composed of a plurality of

McArthur

1981-01-01

87

Solar energy heating panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting and radiating panel for heating a fluid such as air circulating in an enclosure disposed behind the panel. The panel is in the form of a pan made of sheet metal, such as thin aluminum, darkened on its irradiated surface, the blackened or darkened surface being protected by a pane of glass. The panel has a

McMurtrie

1984-01-01

88

Solar energy collector panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector panel, having an absorber plate and a frame within which the absorber plate is mounted, is described. The absorber plate is comprised of a plurality of absorber plate sections each having interlocking structure formed along both of their lateral edges. This interlocking structure forms a tubular passage when the interlocking structure of the adjacent absorber plate

Waiche

1981-01-01

89

Solar Photovoltaic Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

1979-01-01

90

Potential of solar energy for Texas. Project N\\/T-3, final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home heating and cooling via solar energy as well as integration of solar energy into electric and gas utilities are considered. Large-scale collection of solar energy via the solar tower or central receiver concept results in heat collection at a cost estimated to be equivalent to oil at $8\\/bbl. Introduction of solar energy technology could cause as much as $35

1974-01-01

91

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark  

E-print Network

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-22 #12;Connectable solar air collectors Søren �stergaard Jensen Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre for renewable energy of the Danish Energy Agency. The project group behind the project was: Solar Energy Centre

92

Folded plate solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting wall or roof panel comprises a folded plate-type structural member capable of becoming an integral part of a building and incorporating a solar energy absorbent surface in heat-exchange relation with a fluid. The folded plate is configured to position the absorbent surface to optimize solar energy collection.

Soot

1981-01-01

93

Solar energy use in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more passive solar-heated homes in Northern China than in any other place in the world, since from ancient times Chinese homes have been built and oriented to take advantage of the winter sun. Current solar energy research in China is described including the activities of the Beijing Solar Energy Research Institute and the Gansu Natural Energy Research Institute.

Butti

1982-01-01

94

Solar-pumped gas laser development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of gas properties through detailed kinetic models led to the identification of critical gas parameters for use in choosing appropriate gas combinations for solar pumped lasers. Broadband photoabsorption in the visible or near UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to insure good solar absorption efficiency. The photoexcitation density is independent of the absorption bandwidth. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than 10 A to insure lasing threshold over reasonable gain lengths. The system should show a high degree of chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. Although photoexcitation of electronic vibrational transitions is considered as a possible system if the emission bands sufficiently narrow, it appears that photodissociation into atomic metastables is more likely to result in a successful solar pumped laser system.

Wilson, J. W.

1980-01-01

95

Solar energy storage using phase change materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the climb in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind efforts to more effectively utilise various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. However, the large-scale utilisation of this form

Murat Kenisarin; Khamid Mahkamov

2007-01-01

96

SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL IN JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to constitute a database for the researchers interested in utilizing solar power in Jordan. It presents the investigation for seven sites distributed on all territory of the country. Based on long-term measured solar irradiation levels, provided by the National Energy Research Center, solar insolation profiles as well as solar irradiance characteristics are estimated. The obtained results

Yaser Anagreh; Ahmad Bataineh; Muhammad Al-Odat

97

Gas cooled solar power plant for generating electrical energy in the 20MWe operating range (GAST): Preliminary design phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

R&D work required for the erection of a pilot plant was defined. Since the location of the site is not yet determined, the project work was based on preliminary basic data. Significant results of the preliminary design phase include both the choice of a combined gas/steam thermal energy conversion process for the reference concept and basic concepts for heliostat, heliostat field arrangement, receiver, tower and master control/process computer system.

Kostrzewa, S.; Wehowsky, P.

1981-07-01

98

Advances in solar energy technology. Volume 3. Heating, agricultural and photovoltaic applications of solar energy  

SciTech Connect

This volume discusses the heating, agricultural and photovoltaic applications of solar energy, and contains the following chapters, solar cookers, solar desalination, solar food drying, solar-powered water pumps, solar greenhouses, solar cells.

Garg, H.P.

1987-01-01

99

SERI solar energy storage program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal energy storage technologies are identified for specific solar thermal applications. The capabilities and limitations of direct-contact thermal storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport are examined. Storage of energy from active solar thermal systems for industrial process heat and the heating of buildings is analyzed and seasonal energy storage is covered. The coordination of numerous thermal energy storage research

F. Baylin; R. J. Copeland; A. Kotch; T. Kriz; W. Luft; R. G. Nix; J. O. Wright

1982-01-01

100

An Introduction to Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is solar energy. Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly by the sun and collected elsewhere, nor- mally the Earth. The sun creates its energy through a thermonuclear process that

Eric W. Brown

101

Solar energy: Technology and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that in 1970 the total energy consumed in the U.S. was equal to the energy of sunlight received by only 0.15% of the land area of the continental U.S. The utilization of solar energy might, therefore, provide an approach for solving the energy crisis produced by the consumption of irreplaceable fossil fuels at a steadily increasing rate. Questions regarding the availability of solar energy are discussed along with the design of solar energy collectors and various approaches for heating houses and buildings by utilizing solar radiation. Other subjects considered are related to the heating of water partly or entirely with solar energy, the design of air conditioning systems based on the use of solar energy, electric power generation by a solar thermal and a photovoltaic approach, solar total energy systems, industrial and agricultural applications of solar energy, solar stills, the utilization of ocean thermal power, power systems based on the use of wind, and solar-energy power systems making use of geosynchronous power plants.

Williams, J. R.

1974-01-01

102

SERI solar energy storage program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on advanced technologies, system analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage program are presented. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are being performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and assessments are being prepared of thermal energy storage in solar applications.

Copeland, R. J.; Wright, J. D.; Wyman, C. E.

1980-02-01

103

New Mexico Solar Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Mexico Solar Energy Association provides valuable educational resources for teaching students about solar energy. The site has a variety of student projects, resources, and curricula examples. The resources provided on the site cover solar cell demonstrations, DC electricity, photovoltaics, and sustainability.

2008-03-25

104

Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy  

E-print Network

Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both ...

Nocera, Daniel G.

105

Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video describes how concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar energy to generate electricity. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and focuses on parabolic troughs.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

106

SERI solar energy storage program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on advanced technologies, system analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage program are presented. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are being performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and

R. J. Copeland; J. D. Wright; C. E. Wyman

1980-01-01

107

Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume outlines the principles, techniques, and possibilities of solar energy use through photovoltaic conversion, and also develops a strategy for the future, which may help to improve Spain's energy situation. The document covers the main components of a photovoltaic system, cells and panels, energy storage, batteries, remote uses, cost problems, marketing possibilities, solar energy activities in other countries, and

P. Pezuela; F. Ruedo

1981-01-01

108

Solar energy and shelter design  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major contributions to the global environmental crisis is misuse of energy and the inability to harness certain energy sources. Designing with solar energy is discussed through three major sections: ''The Issues,'' ''Designing with the Sun,'' and ''Solar Energy Collection and Utilization.'' The first section discusses the environmental situation that requires new attitudes toward living; it discusses those

1973-01-01

109

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark  

E-print Network

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-22 #12;Connectable solar air collectors Søren �stergaard Jensen Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre Søren �stergaard Jensen and Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre, Danish Technological Institute

110

A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer for solar and planetary observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a prototype spectrometer for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. In this recently developed spectrometer, the energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

Judge, Darrell L.

1994-01-01

111

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, September 1981March 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Craftsman Enterprises is an industrial laundry in Dallas, Texas. The active solar energy system is equipped with 1011 square feet of liquid collector panels, a 2000-gallon steel storage tank, and two 100-gallon gas-fired hot water heaters in series with a condensate heat exchanger which is piped to a steam boiler. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, operating

1982-01-01

112

Solar energy: the awakening science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book concerns answers to the questions: (1) is solar energy the key to the future of our energy needs; and (2) what are the facts and true potential of this enormous, still largely unexplored source of renewable power. It reviews the knowledge of solar energy from the mirrors that Archimedes used to set a Roman fleet aflame in 215

D. Behrman

1976-01-01

113

Solar energy - Promises and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although solar energy systems cannot be justified economically as providers of 100% of a home's heating requirements, combinations of solar heating and conventional utilities for space and hot water heating are feasible. Studies by Mitre-ERDA and the Office of Technology Assessment indicate that in most parts of the U.S. solar heating is now competitive with electricity; in many areas, tax

R. B. Peterson

1977-01-01

114

Prospects for solar energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

At best solar energy is expected to supply 20 to 30% of the total requirement from any direct solar conversion processes in the forseeable future (30 to 40 years). These include both electric-generation methods such as photovoltaic or thermal electric schemes, the indirect but related ocean thermal and wind efforts, as well as biomass conversion activity and solar heating\\/cooling efforts.

Manasse

1978-01-01

115

Solar energy for the hospital?  

PubMed

You can't scrap your boiler and expect solar panels to provide steam for process and heating, but solar systems are cost-effective now for domestic hot water generation, according to a leading solar energy engineering/design/build firm. PMID:10249853

1981-01-01

116

Local leadership for solar energy  

SciTech Connect

San Diego County is the first governmental unit in the US to mandate the use of solar energy. An ordinance requires the use of solar water heating in new housing. The process by which the ordinance was enacted is reviewed, including a Solar Ordinance Feasibility Analysis whose conclusions are reported. Arguments for and against the ordinance are reviewed. (LEW)

Pulliam, E.R. (San Diego County Energy Office, CA); Hedgecock, R.A.

1980-05-01

117

The status of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It appears from most indications, both technical and nontechnical, that solar energy technology will have a chance to prove itself useful during the next few years. Domestic hot water is perhaps the most economically justified solar application presently. The reason for this is that hot water is needed fairly uniformly throughout the year. Solar collectors for the space heating of

C. E. Backus

1978-01-01

118

Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document contains a collection of bibliographies concerning the implementation of solar energy technology into architecture. Some titles of included works are: Passive Solar Handbook; Solar Energy; The Solar Home Book; Performance Criteria for Solar Heating and Cooling Systems; Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design; Regional Guidelines for Buildings; and A survey of Passive Solar Buildings. A total of

Givoni

1989-01-01

119

SERI solar energy storage program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage technologies are identified for specific solar thermal applications. The capabilities and limitations of direct-contact thermal storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport are examined. Storage of energy from active solar thermal systems for industrial process heat and the heating of buildings is analyzed and seasonal energy storage is covered. The coordination of numerous thermal energy storage research and development activities is described.

Baylin, F.; Copeland, R. J.; Kotch, A.; Kriz, T.; Luft, W.; Nix, R. G.; Wright, J. O.

1982-05-01

120

Hydrogen production from solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

1975-01-01

121

Solar energy for village development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothetical village of 300 persons in Tanzania is considered as a model of third world energy requirements. Small-scale solar power generation is proposed as the most efficient way of meeting those requirements. Both direct (photovoltaic cells and flat-plate solar cells), and indirect (wind, mini-hydroelectric generators, and methane production from organic wastes) forms of solar energy are compared with conventional

N. L. Brown; J. W. Howe

1978-01-01

122

Solar energy at Forest Research Solar Power at Alice Holt  

E-print Network

Solar energy at Forest Research Solar Power at Alice Holt research station provides a renewable to install a solar photovoltaic system to meet some of the research station's energy needs. #12;In January dioxide emissions, when compared with traditional forms of energy generation. · The solar installation

123

Solar Energy Project: Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of materials supports the teaching of solar energy concepts in the context of secondary school science. Included in this collection are a basic teacher's guide to activities involved in the curriculum; a discussion of multi-disciplinary extensions of solar energy education by subject area; a section on hardware needed for the…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

124

Energy production from solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for obtaining solar energy in a useful form by utilizing solar ponds is described. The method comprises direct or indirect contact of hot liquid from the pond with a low boiling point immiscible working fluid for transfer of the heat energy from the liquid to the working fluid. The heated working fluid is separated from the liquid and

1977-01-01

125

Rooftop solar energy collector panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector panel is adapted to be mounted on a rooftop for heating air forced therethrough. The panel is rectangular in form and outwardly opens. A closure member is affixed to the outermost peripheral edge portion of the housing and forms a thermal barrier through which solar energy can travel into the interior of the housing, while thermal

B. O. Behrendt; I. L. Cisneros; D. R. Stephenson; R. B. Stephenson

1981-01-01

126

Passive solar energy in buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing commercial, institutional and domestic buildings so that they reap the benefits of freely available solar energy, is explored fully. People have been orientating buildings to make use of sunlight since they first began to live in permanent dwellings. New techniques are now available for employing passive solar energy in the home. On a bigger scale, these and other techniques

1988-01-01

127

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

M. F. Smith Associates is a single-family residence in Jamestown, Rhode Island. The home has approximately 1752 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 512 square feet. The array faces 15 degrees

1979-01-01

128

SOLAR ENERGY FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to determine which existing or emerging pollution control processes are best suited to make use of solar energy input and to determine the potential benefits of such applications. Pollution control processes were matched with compatible solar energy systems,...

129

Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plans  

E-print Network

Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plans March 2011 #12;2 Why Solar Energy Research at BNL BNL's capabilities can advance solar energy In the Northeast #12;North Array Field South Array Field Variability and Non-Dispatchability · Solar energy varies · Solar generation cannot be dispatched when needed

Homes, Christopher C.

130

Solar energy collection panel and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy, concentrating and absorption panel is provided together with a method for converting solar energy to heat energy or electrical energy by the reflection and concentration of solar energy intersecting the panel. The panel is formed with a solar energy receiving portion thereof which is defined by a plurality of parallel channels extending horizontally across the panel, each

Lemelson

1981-01-01

131

Solar energy collector panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar collector panel including a housing having a solar window therein and which contains a loop of tubing through which a fluid is pumped for heating of the fluid. A heat absorbing porous wicking membrane containing a vaporizable working liquid is positioned within the housing for collecting solar heat and transferring that heat to the fluid within the tubing.

Cutchaw

1975-01-01

132

New and emerging developments in solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy can potentially play a very important role in providing most of the heating, cooling and electricity needs of the world. With the emergence of solar photocatalytic detoxification technology, solar energy also has the potential to solve our environmental problems. However, we do not see widespread commercial use of solar energy. Some of the emerging developments in solar may

D. Y. Goswami; S. Vijayaraghavan; S. Lu; G. Tamm

2004-01-01

133

Update on BNL's Solar Energy Research Plans  

E-print Network

Update on BNL's Solar Energy Research Plans Presented to CAC by Bob Lofaro January 12, 2012 #12;2 First, BP Solar is going out of business, but this will not impact BNL's plans for solar energy research! BP Solar will meet all of its contractual commitments with regard to supporting BNL's solar energy

Homes, Christopher C.

134

Solar energy for highway uses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under this effort fifteen solar energy heating systems were installed as demonstration projects by various state transportation agencies. These projects were intended to demonstrate to the owning agency and other transportation agencies that solar heating can indeed be a viable and appropriate alternative for their facilities. The intent is that through the exposure and experience gained, the states would adopt solar heating as a standard option for their other facilities.

1984-08-01

135

Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics; (9)…

LaHart, David E.

136

SOLAR ENERGY AND OUR ELECTRICITY FUTURE  

E-print Network

SOLAR ENERGY AND OUR ELECTRICITY FUTURE Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Solar Power (CSP) #12;Solar Energy Fun Facts More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour Solar energy is the only long-term option capable of meeting the energy (electricity and transportation

137

Particle–gas reacting flow under concentrated solar irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient heat transfer model is developed for a reacting flow of CH4 laden with carbon particles directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation and undergoing thermal decomposition into carbon and hydrogen. The unsteady mass and energy conservation equations, coupling convective heat and mass transfer, radiative heat transfer, and chemical kinetics for a two-phase solid–gas flow, are formulated and solved numerically

G. Maag; W. Lipi?ski; A. Steinfeld

2009-01-01

138

Passive solar energy in buildings  

SciTech Connect

Designing commercial, institutional and domestic buildings so that they reap the benefits of freely available solar energy, is explored fully. People have been orientating buildings to make use of sunlight since they first began to live in permanent dwellings. New techniques are now available for employing passive solar energy in the home. On a bigger scale, these and other techniques are also applicable to sophisticated modern buildings like offices and schools, for example to cut down on fossil fuel usage. An authoritative assessment of the potential for utilizing passive solar energy is ser out in six sections. Domestic dwellings, offices, and industrial, retail and service buildings are all covered.

O'Sullivan, P. (Welsh School of Architecture, UWIST, Cardiff (US))

1988-01-01

139

Assessment of energy conservation using solar energy in Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tables of measured and calculated data which indicate the amount of fossil energy that could be conserved by using solar and wind energy in Kansas are presented. Data include solar energy received; estimated energy consumption; energy available daily from direct use of solar energy for an average home; minimum potential daily and annual energy savings using solar energy for space

J. T. Pytlinski

1978-01-01

140

Heating buildings with solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general description of a solar heating system used for room heating, cooking, water heating, drying clothes, and electrical consumption for cooling and heating, is given. A degree day analysis for Gainesville, Florida, indicated that the solar heating system would consume 126 kWh of electricity during the winter months, giving a 92% reduction of energy consumption when compared to a

E. A. Farber; C. A. Morrison; H. A. Ingley; F. J. Tarud

1975-01-01

141

Sun tracking solar energy boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sun tracking solar energy boiler is described comprising, in combination, a solar radiation collector and tracking assembly, a boiler assembly, and an electric power generating assembly, said collector and tracking assembly comprising a lens, a hollow crown plate located approximately at the focal point of the lens, said lens being movable by a diurnal drive means and a declination

1980-01-01

142

The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)

Whipple, Chris

1980-01-01

143

Solar energy collector panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elongated solar collector includes a plurality of longitudinal side-by-side elongated panel sections having interconnected adjacent longitudinal marginal edges and including integral portions defining fluid passages extending longitudinally along the panel sections and opening endwise outwardly of the opposite ends of the panel sections. Elongated fluid inlet and outlet manifolds extend transversely of the opposite ends of the solar collector

D. S. Ellis; W. B. Simmons

1981-01-01

144

Storage of solar energy as hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy, when used in conjunction with water to produce hydrogen, forms an inexhaustible source of transportable primary energy. Hydrogen is, thus, a potential means of storing solar energy. The spectral characteristics of solar radiation and the energetics and different techniques of water-decomposition employing solar energy are discussed. These include: electrolysis, thermal and thermochemical decomposition, photochemical, photoelectrochemical and some novel

M. V. C. Sastri

1979-01-01

145

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stewart-Teele-Mitchell site is a single-family residence in Malta, New York. The home has approximately 1900 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 432 square feet. The array faces south at an

1979-01-01

146

Solar Energy Education. Solar solutions: Reader, Part III  

SciTech Connect

A collection of magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy is presented in this booklet. This is the third of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader books. The articles provide brief discussions on the various applications of solar energy including: heat, photovoltaics; wind, hydro, and biomass. A glossary of terms is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

147

Receiver design in solar-heated gas turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of solar energy in a gas turbine plant is discussed. The distribution of solar radiation inside the receiver cavity is addressed, employing a radiation heat transfer calculation which yields the local temperatures on the receiver inner walls, the radiation loss of the receiver, and the useful heat absorbed by the working medium. Three-dimensional temperature fields and thermal stress fields are calculated. The influence of the geometric and thermodynamic parameters on strain in the tubes is investigated, allowing for thermal stress and stresses resulting from the pressure of the working medium. The steady state behavior of the receiver under variable insolation is then considered, distinguishing between constant and variable-speed gas turbine operation.

Bammert, K.; Seifert, P.

148

Efficient utilization of solar energy for domestic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortage of energy is dangerously affecting the economic growth of the developing countries. Oil, gas and coal reserves are being depleted rapidly and are affecting the environment. Embargo and safety requirements limit the development of nuclear energy. Renewable energy resources need to be embedded with the conventional generation. A lot has been said and done on solar energy. However emphasis

N. M. Sheikh

2008-01-01

149

Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a collection of bibliographies concerning the implementation of solar energy technology into architecture. Some titles of included works are: Passive Solar Handbook; Solar Energy; The Solar Home Book; Performance Criteria for Solar Heating and Cooling Systems; Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design; Regional Guidelines for Buildings; and A survey of Passive Solar Buildings. A total of 46 bibliographies are included. (FSD)

Givoni, B.

1989-01-01

150

SOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

SOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Detlev Heinemann Oldenburg or progress with respect to the development of solar irradiance forecasting methods. Heck and Takle (1987 presents different state-of-the-art approaches to solar irradiance forecasting in different time scales

Heinemann, Detlev

151

Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy  

PubMed Central

Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both legacy and non-legacy worlds, and minimally contributes to increasing the anthropogenic level of carbon dioxide. Because PE will be possible only if solar energy is available 24 hours a day, 7 day a week, the key enabler for solar PE is an inexpensive storage mechanism. HX (X = halide or OH?) splitting is a fuel-forming reaction of sufficient energy density for large scale solar storage but the reaction relies on chemical transformations that are not understood at the most basic science level. Critical among these are multielectron transfers that are proton-coupled and involve the activation of bonds in energy poor substrates. The chemistry of these three italicized areas is developed, and from this platform, discovery paths leading to new HX and H2O splitting catalysts are delineated. For the case of the water splitting catalyst, it captures many of the functional elements of photosynthesis. In doing so, a highly manufacturable and inexpensive method has been discovered for solar PE storage. PMID:19775081

Nocera, Daniel G.

2012-01-01

152

Australia speeds up solar energy research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term projects are concentrared on improving the efficiency and ; reducing the cost of existing types of solar water heaters and solar water-; desalination plants. Larger-term projects include fundamental studies on thermal ; transfer problems energy measurement, heat storage media, and solar-energy ; collectors. An investigation of the distribution of solar energy over the ; continent is being carried out

Scholes

1973-01-01

153

Residential solar energy use in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential use of solar energy has meant installation of various types of solar systems for home and water heating and, to a lesser degree, for electrical power and cooling. This study represents an analysis of solar energy as an innovation and the perception of that innovation by recent system adopters. Specific objectives include an analysis of the solar energy adoption

H. C. Jr

1987-01-01

154

Home landscaping to use solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author explains techniques for land utilization and manipulation that make better use of active and passive solar heating and cooling systems. Fully covered are the sun and energy needs, solar patterns and access, active and passive use of solar energy, site analysis techniques for maximum use of solar energy on any site, and site selection, guidelines, and criteria. The

Robinette

1987-01-01

155

SOLAR ENERGY A New York perspective,  

E-print Network

SOLAR ENERGY A New York perspective, Richard Perez & Thomas Thompson (Based upon a manuscript the St. Lawrence Seaway to Montauk Point, solar electric PV power can lower the cost of energy in NYS of and markets for solar energy, in all of its forms, but especially in the area of photovoltaics. DEFINING SOLAR

Perez, Richard R.

156

Office of Educational Programs Solar Energy Lab  

E-print Network

Office of Educational Programs Solar Energy Lab Overview Kaitlin Thomassen Target student audience: High School Regents Physics High School AP Physics #12;Solar Energy Lab: Goals Highlight research Solar Farm & Northeast Solar Energy Research Center (NSERC) Scientists and engineers will research

Homes, Christopher C.

157

Surface meteorology and Solar Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

158

Solar Energy Development onSolar Energy Development on DoD Installations in the  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Development onSolar Energy Development on DoD Installations in the Mojave & Colorado/how solar can contribute to installation level energy· Assess whether/how solar can contribute to installation-level energy security · Recommend policy and programmatic modifications to accelerate solar

159

Integrated solar energy system optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

Young, S. K.

1982-11-01

160

Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role is described that solar energy will play in the heating and cooling of buildings, the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts on the various energy markets and estimated costs of such systems are discussed along with illustrations of some of the processes to accomplish the goals. The conclusions of the NSF/NASA Solar Energy Panel (1972) are given along with the estimated costs to accomplish the 15 year recommended program and also the recent and near future budget appropriations and recommendations are included.

Cherry, W. R.

1974-01-01

161

Thin film solar energy collector  

DOEpatents

A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-11-22

162

Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis, the…

Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

163

Advanced Research in Solar-Energy Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute is reviewed. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimen...

W. Luft

1983-01-01

164

Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

1978-01-01

165

Environmental Impacts from the Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable, and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. Solar energy systems (i.e., photovoltaics, solar thermal) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources. It is known that these systems have some minor negative impacts on the environment during their production and operation. This study presents

H. Gunerhan; A. Hepbasli; U. Giresunlu

2008-01-01

166

Solar energy conversion arrangement utilizing photovoltaic members  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arrangement for converting solar energy directly to electrical energy is disclosed herein and utilizes a group of photovoltaic-like panel members, each of which is designed to convert solar energy into electrical energy by developing a voltage across opposite terminals thereof in response to and dependent upon its collection of solar energy. These panel members are electrically interconnected together in

1983-01-01

167

Solar Energy - Solution or Pipedream?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of lessons and class activities is designed for presentation in a sequence of nine class days. The collection is intended to provide the student in advanced science classes with awareness of the possibilities and limitations of solar energy as a potential solution to the energy crisis. Included are discussion of the following: (1)…

Polk, Joyce

168

Organic Solar Energy and Berries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how a device made with dye from a plant, specifically cherries, blackberries, raspberries and/or black currents, can be used to convert light energy into electrical energy. They do this by building their own organic solar cells and measuring the photovoltaic devices' performance based on power output.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

169

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is

Purnomo Sidi Priambodo; Feri Yusivar; Aries Subiantoro; Ridwan Gunawan

2009-01-01

170

Solar energy panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a solar panel. It comprises: a main body portion and a pair of caps in a mating arrangement at the opposite ends of the main body portion. The main body portion comprises an integrated sheet formed from a pair of spaced skins separated by a series of uniformly spaced parallel ribs running the full length of the

1990-01-01

171

Solar energy panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating panel utilizing an improved panel member construction to increase the strength and heat transfer capacity of the panel. The panel has upper and lower layers of individual interconnected panel members, with the panel members in the upper layer including a pair of spaced outwardly extending leg portions and a bight portion therebetween having a plurality of spaced

J. A. Bette; J. R. Bette; W. A. Bette

1984-01-01

172

Solar coal-gasification reactor with pyrolysis-gas recycle. [Patent application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a product gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor, and solar energy is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front and a pyrolysis front. A gasification zone is produced well above the coal level within the reactor.

W. R. Aiman; D. W. Gregg

1981-01-01

173

SOLAR ENERGY Andrew Blakers  

E-print Network

. Other problems include oil spills, oil-related warfare (for example, the Gulf wars) and pollution from. These are energy from the sun (in its various forms), nuclear energy (fission and fusion), fossil energy (coal, oil

174

Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

Lansing, F. L.

1981-01-01

175

Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric-and Nuclear Power: A Life-cycle  

E-print Network

for solar-electric- and nuclear-power-generation, based on data from 12 photovoltaic (PV) companies widely, from 40 to 180 CO2-eq./kWh for PV, and 3.5 to 100 CO2-eq./kWh for nuclear power. Country, it is envisioned that expanding generation technologies based on nuclear power and renewable energy sources would

176

Solar energy in Israel: Utilization and research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State of Israel has been a pioneer in solar energy development and utilization since it was founded. In the 50's, solar domestic hot water heaters (DHWS) became commercially available. At the same time, research work was started in different areas of solar energy, which led to more advanced solar systems for additional applications. The presentation includes some details on commercial utilization of solar energy and a brief description of the main R&D projects in industry, universities and research institutes.

Zvirin, Y.; Zamkow, Sophie

1991-05-01

177

Solar energy and domestic heating needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A French project (five solar houses at Aramon and five at le Havre) has demonstrated the compatibility of solar energy with domestic heating needs. This paper describes the Aramon and le Havre project and gives attention to the diurnal, seasonal and annual adaptation of solar energy to house heating needs. Consideration is also given to solar collectors, the storage tank,

M. F. Simon; H. Michel

1977-01-01

178

Impact of Reflectors on Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to show that implementing different types of reflectors in solar energy systems, will dramatically improve energy production by means of concentrating and intensifying more sunlight onto a solar cell. The Solar Intensifier unit is designed to increase efficiency and performance of a set of solar panels. The unit was fabricated and tested. The experimental results show good

J. Rizk; M. H. Nagrial

2008-01-01

179

Impact of Reflectors on Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to show that implementing different types of reflectors in solar energy systems, will dramatically improve energy production by means of concentrating and intensifying more sunlight onto a solar cell. The Solar Intensifier unit is designed to increase efficiency and performance of a set of solar panels. The unit was fabricated and tested. The experimental results show good

J. Rizk; M. H. Nagrial

2009-01-01

180

Solar energy panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A light-weight, low-cost and high efficiency solar panel includes a light-weight rectangular wood frame which surrounds and houses a copper absorber plate. A pair of spaced glazings, formed from plastic film materials, are disposed above the absorber to define a pair of enclosed air spaces. The lower glazing is capable of withstanding high temperatures and the upper glazing material is

Hyman

1980-01-01

181

Solar energy: will it conserve nonrenewable resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines three solar energy applications: heating, thermal electric, and photovoltaic. Designs for these alternatives have recently been developed so that we can predict the magnitude of the material quantities for the commercial application of solar energy. If solar energy applications are to be economically successful, the energy consumed for fabricating, constructing, and operating such plants must be less

Baron

1978-01-01

182

GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSIS OF SOLAR-THERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-thermal electricity generation contributes to climate change because it incurs the emission of greenhouse gases during the provision of services and the production of materials needed for the construction and operation of solar power plants. These greenhouse gas costs (GGC) can be determined using either material inventories in physical units or monetary cost breakdowns. Solar-only plants employing parabolic troughs, central

M. LENZEN

1999-01-01

183

Solar Energy for Rural Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

184

Solar energy collection panels and energy recovery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy collection panels and energy recovery systems for recovering solar energy to reduce the power consumption in water heaters, air-conditioning systems and the like are described. The solar panels comprise decorative roofing panels having a second formed panel thereunder so as to define an air flow passage therebetween. The panels absorb solar energy, thereby heating the air within, which

1978-01-01

185

The design of a solar receiver for a 25-kWe gas turbine engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a solar receiver designed to be used with a single-point-focus, parabolic concentrator. The receiver accepts the concentrated solar radiation and uses it to heat the working gas of a small, open-cycle gas turbine to about 1500 F (815 C). The receiver employs a high-efficiency, metallic plate-fin heat transfer surface to effect this energy transfer. The thermal and mechanical design features of the receiver are discussed.

Greeven, M.; Coombs, M.; Eastwood, J.

1980-03-01

186

Hydrogen Without Tears: Addressing the Global Energy Crisis via a Solar to Hydrogen Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the dominant scaleable vision is a solar-hydrogen economy, where solar thermal collectors are preferred to solar cells. Also for mobile storage, pure hydrogen (liquid and\\/or gas) is preferred to both electric batteries and hydrogen fuel cells. Placing this form of a solar hydrogen economy as an end vision on our energy policy. Governments profits, as they can

Derek Abbott

2009-01-01

187

Universal solar energy desalination system  

SciTech Connect

The design which has been developed for a solar-powered water desalination plant is a highly flexible one; and thus, suitable for worldwide application. The system is modular in nature, utilizing a combination of solar thermal and wind energy to operate the reverse osmosis desalination unit. The system's flexibility lies in the fact that the configuration of the plant can be altered so that it is suitable for any given site. Plant capacity and the size of the solar thermal and wind energy systems are dependent upon a variety of site-specific characteristics. Furthermore, the design of each of the subsystems is also highly interdependent. Examination of the site characteristics and their interactions will allow a design which is optimal for the site.

Fusco, V.S.

1982-08-01

188

Solar energy and substainable development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the dawn of the 21st century, the world population doesn't stop rising. More than ever, energy and environment problems remain at the heart of our society concerns. What will we leave to the future generations ? Therefore, a twenty pupil class of 4e (13 and 14 year old pupils) has made a specific work about this topic, called "solar power and sustainable development". Initially, the pupils participated to the settlement of a meteorological station on the school grounds. This station, which provides readings about temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, sun radiations, wind power and wind heading is fed by photovoltaic cells and thus works independently. The pupils have then come to realize the ecological and practical interests of such a functioning (e.g. : for the latter : neither batteries nor electrical wires are needed). These past few years, in Provence (a highly sunny region), many solar panel installations have been created and many private house roofs have been equipped with photovoltaic cells. Indeed, this energy presents some significant assets : it is free, clean and will never run out. The village of Vinon sur Verdon, where stands our college, is partly fed by a solar panel park, located a few kilometers away. Strongly sensitive to the assets of this energy source, the pupils have made a poster asserting the benefits of solar power. Another side of solar energy has been asserted : the output of hot sanitary water. They have built a miniature on this topic. In order to be thorough, some elements remain in shadow, such as environment impacts done by the making, the transport and the recycling of solar panels that will be brought up in a collaboration with research establishments.

Roux, Maria Carmen; Nalin, Olivier

2010-05-01

189

PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report addresses the environmental consequences of three kinds of solar energy utilization: photovoltaic, concentrator (steam electric) and flat plate. The application of solar energy toward central power generating stations is emphasized. Discussions of combined modes and o...

190

The Source of Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE not Mr. Proctor's ``Other Worlds'' by me to refer to, but my impression on reading that book some little time ago, certainly was, that if it did not directly support the meteoric theory of solar energy, it at least favoured the idea of innumerable meteors falling into the sun. The principal portion of my letter in last week's

R. P. Greg

1870-01-01

191

Warming up to solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global warming, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.

Biondo, B.

1996-07-01

192

Entering the solar energy field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mr. Crawford, formerly chariman of Edison Electric Inst., says the enormous potential the sun holds for the energy future depends in large measure on how utility executives answer some critical questions about the role their companies will play in its development. He notes that there is no unanimity among electric utilities as to what their solar role should be, the

2009-01-01

193

Variable entropy solar energy harvester  

SciTech Connect

A collector of solar energy has, in cross-section, the profile of a nested, truncated and inverted trough which is formed as an array of concentric annular conic frusta. The array ascends from a base, defined by the outermost frustum, to a vertex defined by the innermost frustum. The collector is disposed intermediate the sun and an absorber of solar energy. The collector is operatively connected with sun-tracking means for movement in a predetermined direction and through a predetermined distance relative to the center of the remote absorber. The frusta have reflective inner surfaces, each of which is defined by a singular and unique parabola. Light incident upon the surfaces is transmitted by a single reflection, through the openings at the base of the trough, onto a common focus located at the absorber for the optimal concentration of the collected radiation which may be utilized as thermal energy or converted into other useful forms of energy.

York, B.H.

1982-09-07

194

Solar energy collector and transfer apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a solar energy collector and transfer apparatus comprising a main support frame, a plurality of spaced parallel solar energy absorber-transfer tube units mounted on said main support frame and arranged in a common plane, solar energy intercepting and concentrating panels mounted on said main support frame and arranged in tandem relationship on opposite sides of

J. Fries; J. Grove; G. Toomey

1980-01-01

195

Solar energy collector-light emitting panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a solar energy collector which utilizes spaced-apart shaped reflector surface supports and a reflective surface with apertures selectively located so that the device collects a portion of the solar energy to transmit same through conductors, and also allows a smaller portion of the solar energy to be passed to the side opposite the reflector surface, this

Niedermeyer

1980-01-01

196

Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plansgy  

E-print Network

Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plansgy March 8, 2011, #12;Outline O i f th LISF S l PV P j Field LIPA Substation South Array Field LIPA Substation #12;#12;#12;BNL is developing a solar energy, February 2009 ďż˝ EERE Renewable Systems interconnection Study, February 2008 ďż˝ EERE Solar Energy Technology

Homes, Christopher C.

197

TEST FACILITY FOR BUILDING INTEGRATED SOLAR ENERGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building integrated solar energy is characterised by a high degree of interplay with the building it is installed in and often also a high degree of interaction between different kinds of building integrated solar energy features. The high degree of interplay often creates major difficulties when trying to determine the pe r- formance of these solar energy components. Today, building

Sřren Řstergaard Jensen

198

Solar Energy in the Home. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended for grades 10-12 physical, earth, or general science classes, this 5-7 day unit is designed to give students a general understanding of solar energy and its use as a viable alternative to present energy sources. Along with this technology, students examine several factors of solar energy which influence the choice of solar home site…

Roeder, Allen A.; Woodland, James A.

199

Solar Energy Education Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography lists publications and audiovisual materials devoted to renewable energy sources: sun, wind, water and biomass. A few general texts are included that present concepts fundamental to all energy sources. Materials were selected to be adaptable to classroom, workshops, and training sessions. Also, many do-it-yourself…

Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

200

Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

2011-08-01

201

Solar Spicules Generate Energy  

NASA Video Gallery

Looking almost like seaweed waving in the water, these giant jets shooting off the sun's surface may hold enough energy to heat the sun's atmosphere, the corona, to well over a million degrees Fahr...

202

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect

The Sun provides Earth with a staggering amount of energy - enough to power the great oceanic and atmospheric currents, the cycle of evaporation and condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow, and the typhoons, hurricanes, and tornadoes that so easily destroy the natural and built landscape. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906, with magnitude 7.8, released an estimated 10{sup 17} joules of energy, the amount the Sun delivers to Earth in one second. Earth's ultimate recoverable resource of oil, estimated at 3 trillion barrels, contains 1.7 x 10{sup 22} joules of energy, which the Sun supplies to Earth in 1.5 days. The amount of energy humans use annually, about 4.6 x 10{sup 20} joules, is delivered to Earth by the Sun in one hour. The enormous power that the Sun continuously delivers to Earth, 1.2 x 10{sup 5} terawatts, dwarfs every other energy source, renewable or nonrenewable. It dramatically exceeds the rate at which human civilization produces and uses energy, currently about 13 TW.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.; Materials Science Division; Cal Tech

2007-03-01

203

Solar Energy Utilisation Potential of three different Swiss Urban Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides providing a more efficient energy use, a large scale application of solar energy technologies in the urban context will be required in the upcoming decades to achieve a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the biosphere. Three different urban sites, representative of three of the largest Swiss cities (Basel, Geneva and Lausanne), were examined in order to assess

M Montavon; J-L Scartezzini; R Compagnon

204

Building Integration Of Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way solar systems are used in buildings is different from what it used to be. Buildings are no longer designed to use just passive solar energy systems, such as windows and sunspaces, or active solar systems, such as solar water collectors. In fact, the words passive and active no longer make sense, as the newer buildings combine several of

Anne Grete Hestnes

1999-01-01

205

Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

Krupka, M. C.

1980-09-01

206

Solar energy: Radiation nation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunlight is a ubiquitous form of energy, but not as yet an economic one. In the first of two features, Oliver Morton looked at how interest in photovoltaic research is heating up in California's Silicon Valley. In this, the second, Carina Dennis talks to Australian researchers hoping to harness the dawn Sun's heat.

Carina Dennis

2006-01-01

207

Solar energy collector panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collector panel for thermal energy emanating from the sun comprises a coiled length of tubing arranged in a planar toroid and held in that position by a plurality of radial clamps. The tubing is continuous and carries the fluid to be heated, typically water from a swimming pool or similar container, in a spiral path in the plane of

1977-01-01

208

SmartSolarGrid Deciding what to do with Solar Energy production  

E-print Network

SmartSolarGrid Deciding what to do with Solar Energy production Diogo Morgado and Paulo Ferreira. Solar energy has been subject of great development in the past years, which led to the concept of Solar, Solar energy, Solar road, Smart- SolarGrid 1 Introduction Mankind is facing a threat from the effects

Ferreira, Paulo

209

Advanced research in solar energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of the Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800 C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The

WERNER LUFT

1983-01-01

210

The SERI Solar Energy Storage Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SERI Solar Energy Storage Program provides research on advanced technologies, system analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Systems. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are

Robert J. Copeland; John D. Wright; Charles E. Wyman

1980-01-01

211

Luminescent solar concentrators and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells for solar energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing energy demand and the parallel increase of greenhouse gas emissions are challenging researchers to find new and cleaner energy sources. Solar energy harvesting is arguably the most promising candidate for replacing fossil-fuel power generation. Photovoltaics are the most direct way of collecting solar energy; cost continues to hinder large-scale implementation of photovoltaics, however. Therefore, alternative technologies that will allow the extraction of solar power, while maintaining the overall costs of fabrication, installation, collection, and distribution low, must be explored. This thesis focuses on the fabrication and testing of two types of devices that step up to this challenge: the luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells. In these devices I make use of novel materials, semiconducting polymers and inorganic nanoparticles, both of which have lower costs than the crystalline materials used in the fabrication of traditional photovoltaics. Furthermore, the cost of manufacturing LSCs and the nanoparticle solar cells is lower than the manufacturing cost of traditional optics-based concentrators and crystalline solar cells. An LSC is essentially a slab of luminescent material that acts as a planar light pipe. The LSC absorbs incoming photons and channels fluoresced photons toward appropriately located solar cells, which perform the photovoltaic conversion. By covering large areas with relatively inexpensive fluorescing organic dyes or semiconducting polymers, the area of solar cell needed is greatly reduced. Because semiconducting polymers and quantum dots may have small absorption/emission band overlaps, tunable absorption, and longer lifetimes, they are good candidates for LSC fabrication, promising improvement with respect to laser dyes traditionally used to fabricate LSCs. Here the efficiency of LSCs consisting of liquid solutions of semiconducting polymers encased in glass was measured and compared to the efficiency of LSCs based on small molecule laser dyes and on quantum dots. Factors affecting the optical efficiency of the system such as the luminescing properties of the fluorophors were examined. The experimental results were compared to Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results suggest that commercially available quantum dots cannot serve as viable LSC dyes because of large absorption/emission band overlap and relatively low quantum yield. Materials such as Red F demonstrate that semi-conducting polymers with high quantum yield and small absorption/emission band overlap are good candidates for LSCs. Recently, a solar cell system based purely on CdSe and Cite nanoparticles as the absorbing materials was proposed ans it was suggested that its operational mechanism was that of polymer donor/acceptor systems. Here we present solar cells consisting of a sintered active bilayer of CdSe and PbSe nanoparticles in the structure ITO/CdSe/interlayer/PbSe/Al, where an interlayer of LiF or Al2O3 was found necessary to prevent low shunt resistance from suppressing the photovoltaic behavior. We fabricated unoptimized solar cells with a short-circuit current of 6 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.18 V, and a fill factor of 41%. External quantum efficiency spectra revealed that photons from the infrared portion of the spectrum were not collected, suggesting that the low bandgap PbSe film did not contribute to the photocurrent of the structure despite exhibiting photoconductivity. Other measurements, however, showed that the PbSe film was indeed necessary to produce a photovoltage and transport electrons. Through sintering, the nanoparticle films acquired bandgaps similar to those of the corresponding bulk materials and became more conductive. Because the PbSe films were found to be considerably more conductive than the CdSe ones, we suggest that the PbSe layer is effectively behaving like a low conductivity electrical contact. Therefore, in contrast to the photovoltaics presented in the seminal research on CdSe/Cite solar cells, the CdSe/PbSe solar cell system presented here d

Sholin, Veronica

212

Solar energy collector/storage system  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

1983-05-24

213

Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS  

SciTech Connect

This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

Nathan Lewis

2010-02-26

214

Optimal energy management for solar car race  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a solar car simulation and race strategy program developed for the University of Illinois Sunrayce 95 solar car race team. The goal is to complete the ten-day race course in the minimum total running time, using solar energy alone. In cloudy weather, even the most competitive cars can become energy-limited. The strategic choice in that case, is

G. S. Wright

1996-01-01

215

Conversion of solar energy into electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four main methods used for the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity are related to photovoltaic power conversion, photoemissive power conversion, photogalvanic power conversion, and photomagnetic power conversion. Indirect conversion methods involving a heat stage are also considered, taking into account the conversion of solar energy into heat, the conversion of solar heat directly into electricity, and the

M. A. Kettani

1977-01-01

216

Experimental investigation of an atmospheric-open cyclone solar reactor for solid-gas thermochemical reactions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that a solar receiver-reactor has been designed to conduct solid-gas chemical reactions, using concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of high-temperature process heat. It consists of a conical cyclone gas-particle separator that has been modified to let concentrated solar energy enter the cavity through a windowless (atmospheric-open) aperture. It combines the advantages of cavity receivers and volumetric reactors, and permits continuous mode of operation. A small-scale prototype reactor to conduct the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate at 1300 K was experimentally investigated in a solar furnace. Its thermal performance was evaluated. The mean energy absorption efficiency, based on the optically measured power incident on the receiver aperture, was 43 percent. Reaction products showed high degree of calcination.

Steinfeld, A.; Imhof, A.; Mischler, D. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland))

1992-08-01

217

Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

Munsell, Devon R.

218

Life cycle assessment of the conventional and solar thermal production of zinc and synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current industrial productions of zinc and synthesis gas are characterized by their high energy consumption and their concomitant environmental pollution. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) could be reduced substantially by combining both productions and by replacing fossil fuels with concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The extent of such a GHG mitigation has been quantified

Miriam Werder; Aldo Steinfeld

2000-01-01

219

Man's energy problems - Outlook for intense exploitation of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the potential of large-scale development of solar energy resources, and gives a general description of four main technologies for exploiting solar energy: (1) direct utilization in thermal form, (2) indirect utilization by using thermo-generator equipment for converting solar energy into electrical energy, (3) direct conversion into electricity, (4) indirect utilization by transforming (pyrolysis) of refuse material. The

P. L. Finocchi

1975-01-01

220

Solar energy applications in telecommunications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a half-decade of a coupled wind-photovoltaic powered, remotely sited telecommunications installation called 'Aerosolec' are reported. A station is examined which was situated at 500 m altitude between Nice and Monaco and comprised a 4 module solar cell plant generating 180 W, a 300 W windpowered generator, and a battery bank. The batteries were linked by a diode, charged by the photovoltaics only when load was met, and provided voltage when the wind/solar cell configuration failed to produce enough power to meet demand. Output of the generators and meteorological parameters were recorded for two years. The station drew a nominal 180W, which was met by the power systems, and involved an actual extra discharge of excess energy. Other, similar stations are outlined, and the use of coupled wind/solar systems for telephone service in remote sites, for optic fiber repeaters, and for telephone relay station are recommended. Cost advantages are seen with the solar/wind systems over liquid hydrocarbon fueled generator systems for low power demand installations.

Girard, J.

221

Thermochemical solar energy and the Navy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochemical energy transport is described, which is a new technology which promises to be especially valuable for the collection of solar energy. Practical demonstrations are expected within one to three years. When combined with storage, thermochemical solar energy systems could be used to meet major portions of the energy requirements of selected Navy facilities. 7 refs.

TALBOT A. CHUBB

1981-01-01

222

Organoruthenium Complexes for Solar Energy Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the greatest challenges of this time is providing the world with the energy it needs to sustain human kind's current standard of living. Solar energy is the most abundant and ubiquitous renewable energy source available, and as such it holds great promises. Traditionally, the field of solar energy conversion has been dominated by solid-state semiconductor technology. However, the

S. H. Wadman

2008-01-01

223

Economic aspects of solar energy for industrial process heat  

SciTech Connect

Energy requirements for industrial process heat (IPH) represent a high percentage of the national demand for oil and natural gas. Although solar IPH systems have the potential for significant industrial energy savings, current costs to the user of installed solar plants will not meet the normal investment criteria of industrial firms. Most companies using process heat predicate the application of new and improved systems on the attainment of 2 to 4 years payback time on the investment. In order to achieve the payback, substantial improvements in solar system technology and costs must be obtained. In addition, more favorable tax regulations and incentives must be implemented if we are to hasten the use of solar energy. The key factors which must be considered for solar IPH applications are outlined. Included in these factors are system performance, land availability and cost, integrated solar plant/building systems design, taxation effects, and installed cost of the solar system. Cost goals are presented for solar IPH systems with varying levels of Federal tax incentives and a comparison of projected system costs shows solar systems to be cost competitive by the mid-1980's.

Cohen, A.D.; McCarthy, R.L.; Trice, J.B.

1980-01-01

224

Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

1977-01-01

225

Some Recent Research on Solar Energy Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico is located in the Earth’s sunbelt, where solar energy is plentiful for potential applications of solar energy conversion\\u000a systems. According to several estimations (Renn? et al. 2000), the average insolation over the country’s surface amounts to 5 kWh\\/day, which puts Mexico in a privileged situation for\\u000a the deployment of solar energy technologies. Other renewable energy sources such as: wind,

Camilo A Arancibia-Bulnes; Antonio Jiménez; Oscar Jaramillo; Claudio Estrada

226

Cocoon drying through solar energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

Kulunk, M.

1983-12-01

227

Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

2012-01-01

228

76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENERGY Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy...Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and...

2011-09-29

229

Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

2009-09-01

230

SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program  

SciTech Connect

The SERI Solar Energy Storage Program is summarized. The program provides research, systems analysis, and assessments of thermal energy storage and transport in support of the Thermal Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Technology; emphasis is on thermal energy storage for solar thermal power and process heat applications and on thermal energy transport. Currently, research is in progress on direct-contact thermal energy storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. In addition, SERI is directing the definition of new concepts for thermal energy storage and supporting research on thermal energy transport by sensible and latent heat media. SERI is performing systems analyses of thermal energy storage for solar thermal application and coordinating thermal energy storage activities for solar applications.

Wyman, C.E.

1981-08-01

231

Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

Not Available

2008-04-01

232

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

233

Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.  

PubMed

Taking the UK as a case study, this paper describes current energy use and a range of sustainable energy options for the future, including solar power and other renewables. I focus on the area involved in collecting, converting and delivering sustainable energy, looking in particular detail at the potential role of solar power. Britain consumes energy at a rate of about 5000 watts per person, and its population density is about 250 people per square kilometre. If we multiply the per capita energy consumption by the population density, then we obtain the average primary energy consumption per unit area, which for the UK is 1.25 watts per square metre. This areal power density is uncomfortably similar to the average power density that could be supplied by many renewables: the gravitational potential energy of rainfall in the Scottish highlands has a raw power per unit area of roughly 0.24 watts per square metre; energy crops in Europe deliver about 0.5 watts per square metre; wind farms deliver roughly 2.5 watts per square metre; solar photovoltaic farms in Bavaria, Germany, and Vermont, USA, deliver 4 watts per square metre; in sunnier locations, solar photovoltaic farms can deliver 10 watts per square metre; concentrating solar power stations in deserts might deliver 20 watts per square metre. In a decarbonized world that is renewable-powered, the land area required to maintain today's British energy consumption would have to be similar to the area of Britain. Several other high-density, high-consuming countries are in the same boat as Britain, and many other countries are rushing to join us. Decarbonizing such countries will only be possible through some combination of the following options: the embracing of country-sized renewable power-generation facilities; large-scale energy imports from country-sized renewable facilities in other countries; population reduction; radical efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes; and the growth of non-renewable low-carbon sources, namely 'clean' coal, 'clean' gas and nuclear power. If solar is to play a large role in the future energy system, then we need new methods for energy storage; very-large-scale solar either would need to be combined with electricity stores or it would need to serve a large flexible demand for energy that effectively stores useful energy in the form of chemicals, heat, or cold. PMID:23816908

MacKay, David J C

2013-08-13

234

Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

1990-01-01

235

Reducing fuel usage through applications of conservation and solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal technology, coupled with aggressive conservation measures, offers the prospect of greatly reducing the dependence of industry on oil and natural gas. The near-term market for solar technology is largely in industrial processes operating at temperatures below 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F). Such process heat can be supplied by the relatively unsophisticated solar equipment available today. The number and diversity of industrial plants using process heat at this temperature allows favorable matches between solar technologies and industrial processes. The problems involved with the installation and maintenance of conservation and solar equipment are similar. Both compete for scarce investment capital, and each complicates industrial operations and increases maintenance requirements. Technological innovations requiring new types of equipment and reducing the temperature requirements of industrial processes favor the introduction of solar hardware. The industrial case studies program at the Solar Energy Research Institute has examined technical, economic, and other problems facing the near-term application of solar thermal technology to provide industrial process heat. The plant engineer is in the front line of any measure to reduce energy consumption or to supplement existing fuel supplies. The conditions most favorable to the integration of solar technology are presented and illustrated with examples from actual industrial plants.

May, E. K.; Hooker, D. W.

1980-04-01

236

Solar energy collector having solar selective coating of low reflectance  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector and process for its preparation are disclosed in which the collector has a solar selective layer of overlying, multiple coatings. The first coating is a reflective metal; the second coating is a semiconductor material being absorbent in the solar spectrum; and the third coating being the coating exposed to solar radiation is a dielectric material defining an anti-reflection guard. The dielectric coating is transparent to radiation in the solar spectrum and has a relatively low refractive index. The thickness of the dielectric coating is of a magnitude to decrease reflectance from the semiconductor coating by destructive interference. The solar selective layer may be prepared by depositing the various coatings in sequence as by thermal evaporation techniques.

Spanoudis, L.

1982-06-15

237

Combined solar collector and energy storage system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

Jensen, R. N. (inventor)

1980-01-01

238

Solar energy applications in UK buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that 40% to 50% of the UK energy consumption is used in buildings for heating, lighting, etc. Solar energy could assist in the provision of space and water heating and in the long term potentially cut energy consumption by 10% to 20%. The main characteristics of solar radiation in the UK are: (1) a high proportion

R. G. Courtney

1977-01-01

239

Testing and Analyzing of Solar Energy Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar energy resource of two typical areas was tested by taking advantage of different instruments from home and abroad in Inner Mongolia. Compared the actually tested data with satellite data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration, energy cost was estimated in different solar energy resource conditions through the use of RETScreen project analysis software form Canada. Analysis results show

Zhao Mingzhi; Liu Zhizhang; Zhang Qingzhu

2010-01-01

240

Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

2011-01-01

241

Passive solar energy design and materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive solar approaches are examined, taking into account direct gain, the thermal storage wall, the solar greenhouse, the roof pond, and the convective loop. Various system components are considered. Window treatments are discussed along with thermal storage, freon-activated controls, hinged skylid shutters and nightwall clips, beadwalls, thermic diode solar panels, heat pipes, the Skytherm roof pond, the energy roof, Suncatcher

J. K. Paul

1979-01-01

242

The Solar Energy Timetable. Worldwatch Paper 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are…

Hayes, Denis

243

Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

Reynolds, John S.

244

Stochastic design of solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the statistical element in the behaviour of solar radiation on the performance of solar energy systems is investigated through a stochastic model constructed for diffuse radiance. A demonstration of the use of such a model in a transient simulation study of three conceptual solar thermal systems is presented. The discussion concentrates on features that would not be

Faud M. F. Siala

1995-01-01

245

US Department of Energy: Concentrating Solar Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an introduction to the US Department of Energy's research and developments in concentrating solar power. The site outlines the department's three main technologies and the programs goals. Links to more information about solar heating, solar lighting, and photovoltaics are also provided.

2007-09-26

246

SERI (Solar Energy Research Institute) Solar-Energy-Storage Program. FY 1982 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Solar Energy Storage Program during its fourth year, FY 1982. This program provides supporting research and technology and systems analyses and assessments to the US Depar...

W. Luft, M. Bohn, R. J. Copeland, R. G. Nix

1983-01-01

247

Gas-magnetic field interactions in the solar corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is evident from eclipse photographs that gas-magnetic field interactions are important in determining the structure and dynamical properties of the solar corona and interplanetary medium. Close to the Sun in regions of strong field, the coronal gas can be contained within closed loop structures. However, since the field in these regions decreases outward rapidly, the pressure and inertial forces

G. W. Pneuman; Roger A. Kopp

1971-01-01

248

Summary of solar energy technology characterizations  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

None

1980-09-01

249

Feasibility of an iodine gas laser pumped by concentrated terrestrial solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

The present work demonstrates the feasibility of a t-C{sub 4}F{sub 9}I iodine gas laser pumped by concentrated terrestrial solar radiation. Iodine gas lasers have advantages when compared to solid-state systems. They pump at low concentration ({approximately}100 suns, as compared to 45,000 suns for the most efficient solid-state lasers; Cooke, 1992), and thus do not require expensive, optical-grade concentration systems. The lasant medium (iodine gas) is easily cooled by flowing the lasant medium, while solid-state lasers require complicated cooling apparatus to avoid crystal fracture from thermal gradients. Finally, a gas laser is easily upsized, as the iodine gas will expand to fill any oscillation cavity. Solid-state lasers are limited by the size of the crystal that can be grown and cooled, and the higher efficiency comes at the cost of the very high solar concentration requirements. The iodine gas under consideration has a smaller overlap with the terrestrial solar spectrum than solid state lasers, and therefore has a lower efficiency. However, comparison of relative efficiencies should also include cost estimates of highly specialized optical equipment (such as sapphire CPC`s), cooling requirements (liquid nitrogen baths), and losses due to blockage of the chopper wheel. Such simplistic comparisons as ratio of power out to solar power in are misleading, as they contain the implicit assumption that solar energy must be purchased, as are fossil fuels. In reality, the solar energy is free, and the true expense is the manufacture and degree of sophistication required of the solar radiation reflection system, and the cooling system.

Terry, C.K.; Peterson, J.E.; Goswami, D.Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-05-01

250

Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

Luckett, Rickey D.

251

Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To the extent increases are present for some solar adopters, the analysis seeks to determine whether there is a "solar rebound" effect analogous to the "rebound" or "take-back" effect that has been observed and studied within the energy efficiency literature. Similarly, to the extent that electric users may decrease overall consumption after installation of a solar system, the study seeks to explore the possibility that solar adoption is part of a continued effort towards clean energy practices more generally, such as energy efficiency and conservation. In this way, the study seeks to determine whether there is a synergistic effect between solar and decreased consumption, for solar adopters generally or for some subsets therein. The assembled data allowed testing of various hypotheses that could help explain observed changes in consumption in different households. One variable that was carefully examined was the sizing of the solar system. As part of the study, analysis of 4,355 systems was conducted to determine how each residential solar system was sized with respect to pre-installation energy consumption. Other potentially interesting or explanatory variables for which information was available include total and net costs of the solar system; age of the home; the climate zone (inland or coastal) where the home is located; the home's pre-installation energy consumption; home characteristics such as assessed value and square footage; and the identity of the solar installation contractor. Aside from extending the literature on the rebound effect to the context of home-based energy generation, this study links to the innovation diffusion literature by focusing on solar "innovators" to understand more about the characteristics that may drive behavior, or conditions under which they also adopt clean energy technologies and practices. The results have clear policy relevance with regard to the development and coordination of policies to promote integration of solar and energy efficiency. Currently

McAllister, Joseph Andrew

252

Advanced research in solar-energy storage  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute is reviewed. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800/sup 0/C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

Luft, W.

1983-01-01

253

Advanced research in solar energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives an overview of the Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800 C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

Luft, W.

1983-01-01

254

Solar Technological Progress and Use of Solar Energy in the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy can potentially play a very important role in providing most of the heating, cooling and electricity needs of the world The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. There are a variety of different technologies used in order to take advantage of solar energy. The primary solar

Mustafa Balat

2006-01-01

255

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any  

E-print Network

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any Type Of System www.CleanEnergy and uses solar energy more efficiently than plants. In fact, it provides a solution to one of the major, but the technology is primarily designed to be used with solar panels as a source of clean, renewable solar energy

Lovley, Derek

256

The design and construction of a low power gas turbine for solar energy conversion - An analytical model of operation of the installation in a variable mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic analysis of a Brayton cycle engine used for the conversion of solar thermal energy to electricity is presented and compared with experimental results. The power configuration is a parabolic concentrator with the engine placed at the focus. Its benefits are a minimal visual impact, modular construction, rapid start-up, simple site planning, and flexibility as to end use. Consideration is given to a generator powered by hot air and mounted in series with other modules, and to heating elements mounted in parallel. A numerical model accounts for system losses, and application is demonstrated with a system producing 2.5 kWe at 800 C, i.e., a 45 kWt output. A second model is devised to describe the isentropic efficiencies which can be expected during variable speed operations. Finally costs of the power plant are compared with costs of conventionally fueled facilities.

Leone, J. F.

257

Zero energy homes: Combining energy efficiency and solar energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a typical Florida house, air-conditioning accounts for about 35% of all the electricity the home uses. As the largest single source of energy consumption in Florida, a home's air-conditioning load represents the biggest energy challenge facing Florida residents. The Florida Solar Energy Center designed a project to meet this challenge. Two homes were built with the same floor plan

2000-01-01

258

Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar

Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

259

SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program provides research, system analysis, and assessments of thermal energy storage and transport in support of the Thermal Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Technology; emphasis is on thermal energy storage for solar thermal power and process heat applications and on thermal energy transport. Currently, research is in progress on direct-contact thermal energy storage and

C. E. Wyman

1981-01-01

260

Projects in a Solar Energy Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes student projects on applications of solar energy optics to home design. Project criterion (requiring sketches and detailed calculations of time rate of energy flow/production) is that half the heat for the heating season be taken from the solar resource; calculations must be based on meteorological data for a specific location. (JM)

Lindsay, Richard H.

1983-01-01

261

Solar energy absorber apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved apparatus and method for absorbing solar energy, the apparatus providing a sealed envelope having a transparent upper panel with a solar energy absorbing panel thermally isolated against convective and conductive heat losses by a partial vacuum in the sealed envelope. The transparent panel has an upwardly extending curvilinear surface which increases its strength characteristics against the pressure differential

Johnson

1982-01-01

262

Solar energy absorber apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved apparatus and method is presented for absorbing solar energy. The apparatus provides a sealed envelope having a transparent upper panel with a solar energy absorbing panel thermally isolated against convective and conductive heat losses by a partial vacuum in the sealed envelope. The transparent panel has an upwardly extending curvilinear surface which increases its strength characteristics against the

Johnson

1980-01-01

263

Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

264

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory  

E-print Network

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) Instrument of Energy (DoE). Objectives · Provide Improved Methods for Radiometer Calibrations · Develop a Solar Energy Resources · Offer Unique Training Methods for Solar Monitoring Network Design, Operation

265

Ch.2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons  

E-print Network

Ch.2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons #12;Learning Objective One: The Solar System #12;Milky Aphelion ­ farthest, on July 4 152,083,000 km #12;Learning Objective Two: The Solar Energy #12;What is Solar Energy? Energy is the capacity of a physical system to do work. The unit is Joule (J). Solar

Pan, Feifei

266

The SERI solar energy storage program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In support of the DOE thermal and chemical energy storage program, the solar energy storage program (SERI) provides research on advanced technologies, systems analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Systems. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are being performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and assessments are being prepared of thermal energy storage in solar applications. A ranking methodology for comparing thermal storage systems (performance and cost) is presented. Research in latent heat storage and thermochemical storage and transport is reported.

Copeland, R. J.; Wright, J. D.; Wyman, C. E.

1980-03-01

267

Developing a solar energy industry in Egypt  

E-print Network

This paper assesses Egypt's current energy infrastructure and its problems, the available solar energy resource, and the technologies required to harness this resource. After this assessment, an industry based on high ...

AbdelMessih, Sherife (Sherife Mohsen)

2009-01-01

268

Solar Energy: An Infinite Source of Clean Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundance, cleanliness and widespread distri bution are great incentives for the application of solar energy to man's energy requirements. Recent and impend ing fuel shortages, cost increases of energy and environ mental degradation have provided strong incentives for the development of solar energy for wide practical use. However, its low intensity and high variability impose severe econo mic problems in

George O. G. Löf

1973-01-01

269

Nuclear Processes at Solar Energy  

E-print Network

LUNA, Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at Gran Sasso, is measuring fusion cross sections down to the energy of the nucleosynthesis inside stars. Outstanding results obtained up to now are the cross-section measurements within the Gamow peak of the Sun of $^{3}He(^{3}He,2p)^{4}He$ and the $D(p,\\gamma)^{3}He$. The former plays a big role in the proton-proton chain, largely affecting the calculated solar neutrino luminosity, whereas the latter is the reaction that rules the proto-star life during the pre-main sequence phase. The implications of such measurements will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained last year on the study of $^{14}N(p,\\gamma)^{15}O$, the slowest reaction of the CNO cycle, will also be shown.

Carlo Broggini

2003-08-29

270

SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The program provides research, system analysis, and assessments of thermal energy storage and transport in support of the Thermal Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Technology; emphasis is on thermal energy storage for solar thermal power and process heat applications and on thermal energy transport. Currently, research is in progress on direct-contact thermal energy storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. In addition, SERI is directing the definition of new concepts for thermal energy storage and supporting research on thermal energy transport by sensible and latent heat media. SERI is performing systems analyses of thermal energy storage for solar thermal application and coordinating thermal energy storage activities for solar applications.

Wyman, C. E.

1981-08-01

271

Solar Thermal Energy: Design a Solar Hot Water Heater System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has students examine a collector and tank for a solar hot water heater and estimate the amount of energy and money saved by replacing the traditional hot water heater. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Bullwinkel, Matt

2013-01-08

272

Progress in the utilization of solar energy in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy research in Chile is discussed in terms of indirect and direct utilization. Solar evaporation, solar distillation, and solar heating are examples of indirect utilization. Specific projects involving the production of table salt from sea water are explained, and equipment used for solar desalination, cookers, and furnaces is described. Research on the direct utilization of solar energy includes studies

J. G. Hirschmann; B. Seifert

1977-01-01

273

Chapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy spectrum  

E-print Network

Chapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy spectrum Photovoltaic device principlesPhotovoltaic device principles pn junction photovoltaic I-V characteristics Series and shunt resistanceSeries and shunt resistance Temperature effectse pe a u e e ec s Solar

Wang, Jianfang

274

Plasmonic conversion of solar energy  

E-print Network

near- infrared radiation, abundant in the solar spectrum.near infrared region, covering a considerably larger portion of the solar radiation spectrum [spectrum is mostly composed of less energetic photons falling in the visible and near infrared

Clavero, Cesar

2014-01-01

275

The solar system/interstellar medium connection - Gas phase abundances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gas-phase abundances in the outer solar system are presented as diagnostics of the interstellar medium at the time of the solar system formation, some 4.55 billion years ago. Possible influences of the thermal and chemical histories of the primitive solar nebula and of the processes which led to the formation and evolution of the outer planets and comets on the elemental and molecular composition of the primordial matter are outlined. The major components of the atmospheres of the outer planets and of the comae of comets are identified, and the cosmogonical and cosmological implications are discussed.

Lutz, Barry L.

1987-01-01

276

Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of; cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

Bloomfield, H. S.

1978-01-01

277

Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

Bloomfield, H. S.

1979-01-01

278

Solar Energy: Progress and Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses many of the economic and policy questions related to the widespread introduction of solar power, presents recent progress in developing solar technologies and advancing their economic feasibility, and reviews some recommendations that have been made for achieving the early introduction and sustained application of solar

Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

279

A total fuel cycle approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Solar generation technologies as greenhouse gas offsets in U.S. utility systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gas emissions in the electric utility sector occur not only at generation facilities, but also during upstream processes that support the construction and operation of energy facilities. A total fuel cycle approach is used to evaluate the potential greenhouse gas savings that could result from the deployment of solar generation technologies in utility systems in the United States. Total

Jennifer A. Martin

1997-01-01

280

The energy impacts of solar heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the paper is to examine the impact of a rapid implementation of active solar space heating and water heating on the U.S. energy supply. The net energy analysis for an expanding supply system is discussed, together with several estimates of the energy requirements of solar heating equipment, and two solar heating integration paths to represent low and high growth rate scenarios. It is concluded that the cumulative energy invested to the year 2000 will be 1/2 to 1.5 times the amount saved.

Whipple, C.

1980-04-01

281

How to use solar energy in your home and business  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book accumulates explanations about solar energy and solar hardware in 12 chapters, namely: How to Cut Your Utility Bills; Solar Water Heating--New Techniques for Saving Money; Installing a Commercial Solar Water Heater; Solar Space Systems, Liquid-Type; Advantages of Air-Type Solar Collector Systems; Solar Heat for Summer Cooling; Passive Solar Techniques--Versatile and Low-Cost; Solar Heating for Swimming Pools and Spas;

1977-01-01

282

Solar Total Energy at Sandia Labs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sandia Laboratories' Solar Total Energy Program is described. This program consists of designing, building, installing, and operating a field of concentrating parabolic trough solar collectors which provide energy at 310 C, a 32-kW organic Rankine cycle power plant, and the heating and cooling equipment to utilize the cascaded, low-temperature energy from the turbine\\/generator. Included in the presentation are descriptions

J. A. Leonard

1976-01-01

283

Solar energy conversion and storage systems for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible utilization of solar energy in its various manifestations such as heat, winds, tides, and ocean thermal gradients is reviewed. Methods of solar energy collection, conversion, and utilization are examined, along with the solar energy potential. Special attention is given to various systems for meeting the needs of solar energy storage. The systems considered include: (1) thermal energy storage

R. Ramakumar; H. J. Allison; W. L. Hughes

1974-01-01

284

Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

285

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics  

SciTech Connect

Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

286

Mini-Optics Solar Energy Concentrator  

E-print Network

This invention deals with the broad general concept for focussing light. A mini-optics tracking and focussing system is presented for solar power conversion that ranges from an individual's portable system to solar conversion of electrical power that can be used in large scale power plants for environmentally clean energy. It can be rolled up, transported, and attached to existing man-made, or natural structures. It allows the solar energy conversion system to be low in capital cost and inexpensive to install as it can be attached to existing structures since it does not require the construction of a superstructure of its own. This novel system is uniquely distinct and different from other solar tracking and focussing processes allowing it to be more economical and practical. Furthermore, in its capacity as a power producer, it can be utilized with far greater safety, simplicity, economy, and efficiency in the conversion of solar energy.

Mark Davidson; Mario Rabinowitz

2003-09-12

287

Affordable Solar Energy Solar Powder is a solar-energy company that has developed an innovative technology that will set a new  

E-print Network

Affordable Solar Energy Solar Powder is a solar-energy company that has developed an innovative technology that will set a new low cost point for solar energy. The company plans to manufacture and distribute high-efficiency, high yield, low cost solar panels. The company is making green energy more

Jawitz, James W.

288

Solar energy storage researchers information user study  

SciTech Connect

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1981-03-01

289

High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona  

E-print Network

Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

2008-04-16

290

Solar energy storage by metal hydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal hydride systems for long-term solar thermal energy storage are examined. Various materials for solar heat storage for architectural applications are reviewed, including water, pebble beds, insulators such as rock wool, glass wool and synthetic resins, molten salts and reaction heat storage systems, of which the metal hydride system is considered the most effective. The thermodynamics of metal hydride systems

S. Ono; M. Yamaguchi; T. Ohta

1979-01-01

291

Solar energy systems for manufactured housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunities for solar energy utilization in manufactured housing such as mobile homes and modular homes are discussed. The general characteristics of the manufactured housing industry are described including market and prices. Special problems of the utilization of liquid heating collectors, air heating collectors, or passive types of solar heating systems in manufactured housing are considered. The market situation for

Balcomb

1976-01-01

292

Automated forecasts of daily global solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a joint effort, the Techniques Development Laboratory (TDL) of the National Weather Service and the Air Resources Laboratories (ARL) of the Environmental Research Laboratories have developed a method for producing daily forecasts of incoming global solar energy for periods one to two days in advance. Statistical regression was used to relate measurements of solar radiation to National Weather Service

Jensenius

1983-01-01

293

Big buildings and passive solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big buildings require that designers examine the program carefully and thoroughly. Internal heat and program cycles are important issues. Daylighting can be an effective solar design responses in reducing energy consumption and increasing the potential for solar heating contribution. Design calculation methodologies must be developed to address these types of building issues.

Kremers

1981-01-01

294

High-energy solar-particle events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent high-energy solar-particle events have been illustrated and described individually. The manner in which the observations have been used to develop and test concepts of the hydromagnetic behaviour of the solar plasma in space has been outlined. Some of the events have been analyzed in more detail than hitherto. The results seem to support the concept that the magnetic field

Hugh Carmichael

1962-01-01

295

Northeast Solar Energy Research Center (NSERC)  

E-print Network

Northeast Solar Energy Research Center (NSERC) A multi-purpose research facility on the BNL campus Solar PV Array Size and Type · ~1.0 MW total ­ Area 1 sized for testing utility-scale inverters · System panel technologies with crystalline silicon PV modules making up the bulk of the array · Capability

Ohta, Shigemi

296

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

None

1980-11-01

297

The Effect of the Neutral Solar Wind Component upon the Interaction of the Solar System with the Interstellar Gas Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between the neutral solar-wind component and the ionized component of the interstellar gas may significantly influence the gas parameters. Proper allowance for this effect may alter our ideas about processes in the solar-wind deceleration zone, and measurements of the L..cap alpha.. brightness of the interstellar gas may have to be interpreted.

M. A. Gruntman

1982-01-01

298

General solar energy information user study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1981-03-01

299

Energy transfer in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

Jelbring, H.

2013-12-01

300

Review of solar-energy drying systems II: an overview of solar drying technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy

O. V Ekechukwu; B Norton

1999-01-01

301

Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries  

E-print Network

The demand for renewable energy sources has stimulated technological advances in solar cell development. Initially, development and fabrication were extremely costly and no encouragement for use in industrial applications was made. Today, evidence...

Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

1980-01-01

302

Solar energy generation in three dimensions  

E-print Network

We formulate, solve computationally and study experimentally the problem of collecting solar energy in three dimensions. We demonstrate that absorbers and reflectors can be combined in the absence of sun tracking to build ...

Bernardi, Marco

303

Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

1974-01-01

304

Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers  

E-print Network

Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers SEPTEMBER 2010 Solar Energy: www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx PROCURING SOLAR ENERGY: A GUIDE FOR FEDERAL FACILITY DECISION MAKERS #12;September 2010 3 Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers Blaise

305

Research on solar energy technologies for the ecological architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The using of solar energy is very vital for ecological architecture. At present, the rich solar energy in China has not been brought into fully application in most cities. The investigation indicates that the application of solar energy technology in construction is a very efficient method, and we can make full use of solar energy technology by initiative means and

Wu Zhao; Yan Ma

2011-01-01

306

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

307

Solar wind-magnetosphere energy input functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new formula for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy input parameter, P\\/sub i\\/, is sought by applying the constraints imposed by dimensional analysis. Applying these constraints yields a general equation for P\\/sub i\\/ which is equal to rho V³l\\/sub CF\\/²F(M\\/sub A\\/,theta) where, rho V³ is the solar wind kinetic energy density and l\\/sub CF\\/² is the scale size of the magnetosphere's

L. F. Bargatze; R. L. McPherron; D. N. Baker

1985-01-01

308

Emerging NOAA Surface Solar Radiation for Solar Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar power has been growing at an annual rate of 40% in recent years. By 2025 it could grow to 10% of U.S. power needs. Sunlight is the fuel for solar power generation technologies, and as such one needs to know the quality and future availability of the fuel for accurate analysis of system performance. Sunlight (solar radiation) at the surface has been routinely estimated in real time from measurements of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) operated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). The GOES solar radiation data have been made available in the GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) suite since January 1996 for the contiguous U.S. every daytime hour at a spatial resolution of ~50 km (GSIP-V1). Since April 2009, solar radiation retrievals have been performed at a higher spatial resolution (~14 km) and cover larger areas (GSIP-V2). The GSIP-V1 data have recently been screened for quality, adjusted for changes in calibration, and parameters useful for the solar energy sector have been derived for the period of 1999-2009. In this presentation, we describe the quality control process and various adjustments applied, and provide examples of selected solar energy parameters (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.) and their evaluation. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), one of the flagship instruments of NOAA's new geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. The ABI algorithm, that is quite different from the one applied in GSIP-V1 and V2, uses atmospheric and surface data retrieved from multiple narrow bands using algorithms dedicated to the retrieval of these data. The algorithm is currently run with proxy data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the EOS satellites Terra and Aqua and the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. The ABI algorithm will be explained as well as examples will be shown.

Kondratovich, V.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.

2012-12-01

309

EEE 498/EEE591: Solar Energy Instructor: C J Tracy  

E-print Network

EEE 498/EEE591: Solar Energy Fall 2011 Instructor: C J Tracy Email: clarence.tracy@asu.edu Course solar energy through photovoltaics (PV), starting with the nature and variability of terrestrial solar are details of the solar cell device, cell manufacturing methods, solar modules, batteries, systems

Zhang, Junshan

310

Solar energy thermalization and storage device  

DOEpatents

A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

1981-09-01

311

Solar energy utilization in the USSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

Shpilrain, E. E.

1991-05-01

312

Modeling of the solar wind with interstellar gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As it is known the interface between the interplanetary plasma and the partially ionized gas of the local interstellar medium (LISM) is a region where there is a strong interaction between the solar wind (SW) and the LISM gas flow relative to the solar system. A study of the structure and physical properties of this interface ("heliosheath" in literature) is at present especially actual due to Voyager-1 and Voyager-2 crossed the solar wind termination shock (TS) in December 2004 and September 2007, respectively, and entered to the inner heliosheath bounded by the heliopause. Gas dynamic and magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) problems of the heliosheath structure are discussed in our presentation. In particular, the problems of the heliopause properties connected with the magnetic fields of the solar and LISM origin are discussed. Effect of the LISM magnetic field on the outer heliosheath (a region between the bow shock and the heliopause) structure is considered. New theoretical problems, which must be solved to predict experimental results onboard Voyagers in the nearest time and in future possible projects, are formulated.

Baranov, Vladimir

313

Solar energy policy: Malaysia vs developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countr ies all over the world is enquiring and taking efforts to implement the environment friendly renewable energy to mitigate the negative impacts of fossil fuels on the environment and their fast depletion. To reduce the reliance on fossil fuels and environmental degradation, many countries have focused and formulated solar energy related policies to increase its share into energy mix.

H. Fayaza; N. A. Rahim; R. Saidur; K. H. Solangi; H. Niaz; M. S. Hossain

2011-01-01

314

Oakmead Industries, Santa Clara, California solar-energy-system performance evaluation October 1980 - May 1981  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oakmead Industries solar energy system is a commercial office/manufacturing building in California equipped with 2622 square feet of liquid flat-plate collectors, 1675 square feet of Trombe wall glazing, a 6500-gallon steel storage tank, two gas-fired auxiliary space heating units and an auxiliary electric resistance water heater. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are calculated. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems is examined, and the operating energy and energy savings are tabulated. Weather conditions are tabulated for the site.

Pakkala, P. A.

315

Solar energy and energy management microcomputer controller evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and development of six microprocessor-based systems for the control of energy systems including those utilizing solar energy are summarized with particular emphasis on data sensors and the interface circuitry required for communication between the sensors and the microprocessors. The initial system collects data from 14 sensors and a clock with date information in order to control the solar

T. M. Murray Jr.

1980-01-01

316

Department of Energy solar energy objectives, calendar year 1980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of the Department of Energy for calendar year 1980 with respect to the output of each of the solar energy programs authorized by Congress are presented. The solar activities of the Department are described by the sector of the economy they are designed to serve.

1980-04-01

317

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, AND PUBLICATIONS  

E-print Network

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, and Buildings Systems Integration Center National Renewable Energy Laboratory 8 July 2009 SOLAR SYSTEM POTENTIAL/calculators/PVWATTS/version1/ http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version2/ Estimates the electrical energy

318

76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department...construction and startup of the Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP), a 250-megawatt...Impact Statement for the Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County,...

2011-09-01

319

Kinetic Analysis of Gas Splitting on Oxide Surfaces for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar thermochemical cycles have the potential to convert solar energy into chemical fuels at high thermodynamic efficiency. This can be done by reducing an oxide at high temperature and oxidizing the reduced oxide at a lower temperature in H2O or CO2 to produce H2 or CO. The gas splitting reaction at low temperature is kinetically limited, possibly from slow kinetics of the surface processes. For example, the rate of H2O splitting over CeO2 is increased by the addition of a rhodium catalyst. Little is known about the gas splitting reactions at the atomic level. In this work we use density functional theory to investigate the mechanism for the gas splitting reactions on oxide surfaces such as CeO2 (111) or on precious metal catalyst particles such as Rh or Pt.

Hansen, Heine; Meredig, Bryce; Wolverton, Chris

2010-03-01

320

Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar energy, being a non-depleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. It can be used to generate electricity, for heating and cooling buildings, and for producing clean renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuel. There is little question of the technical feasibility for utilizing solar energy. The chief problem is rapidly providing innovative solutions that are economically competititive with other systems.

Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

1973-01-01

321

Solar energy panel and medium for use therein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy panel and an energy storing medium for use therewith is described. The solar energy panel comprises a container having a transparent pane and designed to hold an energy storing medium. By utilizing a transparent material the solar radiation is passed directly to the energy absorbing medium thereby increasing the operating efficiency. A novel energy storing medium is

1979-01-01

322

Technology for Brayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution

1986-01-01

323

Solar-processed metals as clean energy carriers and water-splitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-step solar thermochemical cycles and processes for the production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, and synthesis gas are considered. The first step is based on the thermal, electrothermal, or carbothermal reduction of metal oxides, producing metals, metal nitrides, metal carbides, or lower-valence metal oxides. These are hightemperature highly endothermic reactions that can be driven by concentrated solar energy, reducing the consumption of

A. Steinfeld; P. Kuhn; A. Reller; R. Palumbo; Y. Tamaura

1998-01-01

324

Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

2011-10-01

325

Passive solar energy information user study  

SciTech Connect

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1980-11-01

326

Solar energy for a community recreation center  

SciTech Connect

A 58,000 ft/sup 2/ recreation center in Shenandoah, Georgia is described. Rooftop solar collectors and reflectors serve as a basis for the active solar heating and cooling systems. The recreation center clearly demonstrates the technical feasibility of solar application in a recreation setting; economically, however, results are shown to be mixed. Although effective in the heating mode, solar cooling is considered as questionable in terms of a reasonable payoff period. A computer model predicts a payoff period of 11 years based on 1977 energy prices. The design and construction costs of the solar heating and cooling system ($726,000) was 90% financed by ERDA. A hockey-size ice rink and a gymnasium plus locker rooms and meeting rooms comprised the major part of the floor space. Problems encountered and operation of the facility are described. (MJJ)

Libman, D.E.

1980-01-01

327

A perspective of solar energy and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively comprehensive overview is presented of solar energy as a U.S. and worldwide resource and of solar technology as the means of implementing its usage broadly. The various direct and indirect forms of solar energy resources are described. To show the flexibility in the use of solar energy resources, the various technologies and applications are described for converting those

Lloyd O. Herwig; George O. G. Löf

1981-01-01

328

Microbial Electrosynthesis Turns Solar Energy into Chemicals May 31, 2010  

E-print Network

Microbial Electrosynthesis Turns Solar Energy into Chemicals May 31, 2010 A new way to make electrosynthesis (ME) process is carbon neutral and uses solar energy more efficiently than plants. In fact, but the technology is primarily designed to be used with solar panels as a source of clean, renewable solar energy

Lovley, Derek

329

New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV\\/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature

Takumi Takashima; Tadayoshi Tanaka; Takuya Doi; Junji Kamoshida; Tatsuo Tani; Takashi Horigome

1994-01-01

330

Potential for supplying solar thermal energy to industrial unit operations  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have identified major industries deemed most appropriate for the near-term adoption of solar thermal technology to provide process heat; these studies have been based on surveys that followed standard industrial classifications. This paper presents an alternate, perhaps simpler analysis of this potential, considered in terms of the end-use of energy delivered to industrial unit operations. For example, materials, such as animal feed, can be air dried at much lower temperatures than are currently used. This situation is likely to continue while economic supplies of natural gas are readily available. However, restriction of these supplies could lead to the use of low-temperature processes, which are more easily integrated with solar thermal technology. The adoption of solar technology is also favored by other changes, such as the relative rates of increase of the costs of electricity and natural gas, and by energy conservation measures. Thus, the use of low-pressure steam to provide process heat could be replaced economically with high-temperature hot water systems, which are more compatible with solar technology. On the other hand, for certain operations such as high-temperature catalytic and distillation processes employed in petroleum refining, there is no ready alternative to presently employed fluid fuels.

May, E.K.

1980-04-01

331

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Gas lasers with solar excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CONTENTS 1. Introduction 703 2. General requirements for laser media using solar excitation 704 3. Lasers with direct excitation by solar light 705 3.1. Basic characteristics of laser media. 3.2. Photodissociation Br2-CO2 lasers. 3.3. Interhalogen molecule lasers. 3.4. Iodine lasers. 3.5. Alkali metal vapor lasers. 4. Lasers with thermal conversion of solar pumping 709 4.1. General considerations. 4.2. CO2 laser with excitation in a black body cavity and with gas flow. 4.3. cw CO2 laser without gas flow. 5. Space laser media with solar excitation 713 5.1. Population inversion of molecular levels in the outer atmosphere of the Earth. 5.2. Laser effect in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 5.3. Terrestrial experimental technique for observing infrared emission in the atmospheres of planets. 5.4. Designs for laser systems in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 6. Conclusions 717 References 717

Gordiets, B. F.; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya

1986-07-01

332

Greenhouse-gas emissions from solar electric- and nuclear power: A life-cycle study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar- and nuclear-electricity-generation technologies often are deemed “carbon-free” because their operation does not generate any carbon dioxide. However, this is not so when considering their entire lifecycle of energy production; carbon dioxide and other gases are emitted during the extraction, processing, and disposal of associated materials. We determined the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, namely, CO2, CH4, N2O, and chlorofluorocarbons due

Vasilis M. Fthenakis; Hyung Chul Kim

2007-01-01

333

Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between

Robert E

1987-01-01

334

Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which

1987-01-01

335

Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

THE noble-gas elemental and isotopic composition in the Earth is significantly different from that of the present atmosphere, and provides an important clue to the origin and history of the Earth and its atmosphere. Possible candidates for the noble-gas composition of the primordial Earth include a solar-like component, a planetary-like component (as observed in primitive meteorites) and a component similar in composition to the present atmosphere. In an attempt to identify the contributions of such components, we have measured isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea1-3. We find a systematic enrichment in 20Ne and 21Ne relative to 22Ne, compared with atmospheric neon. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in our samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic and nucleogenic components. These data suggest that the noble-gas isotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solar-like component. We infer that this component was acquired during the formation of the Earth.

Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D. B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D. A.

1991-01-01

336

Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as

Luis Martín; Luis F. Zarzalejo; Jesús Polo; Ana Navarro; Ruth Marchante; Marco Cony

2010-01-01

337

Reliability engineering in solar energy: workshop proceedings  

SciTech Connect

A workshop to reveal the scope of reliability-related activities in solar energy conversion projects and in nonsolar segments of industry is described. Two reliability programs, one in heating and cooling and one in photovoltaics, are explicated. This document also presents general suggestions for the establishment of a unified program for reliability, durability, maintainability, and safety (RDM and S) in present and future solar projects.

Gross, G.

1980-03-01

338

Explore engineering with solar energy  

SciTech Connect

An outreach program was initiated at the University of Minnesota by faculty and student members of the Society of Women Engineers in the spring of 1994 to interest students in 3rd through 9th grade, particularly girls, in careers in engineering. Interaction with elementary and junior high students focuses on hands-on experiences with portable solar devices. This paper reports progress of the program including descriptions of the solar devices, their use in visits to local schools, day visits to the University, and week-long summer camps, and continuing education programs for elementary and secondary school teachers.

Davidson, J.H. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-11-01

339

Solar Energy Status and Perspectives Peter Ahm, Director  

E-print Network

Solar Energy ­ Status and Perspectives Peter Ahm, Director PA Energy A/S (Ltd.) Snovdrupvej 16, DK energy in terms of thermal Solar Hot Water systems and electricity producing Photovoltaics contribute at present only to the global energy supply at a fraction of 1 %. However, the potential for solar energy

340

Solar Energy Technology: Research and Development in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Energy is a direct and perrenial energy source. It is non polluting and is available freely. The technology of converting solar energy into heat and utilizing it for various applications can now be commercially exploited. Solar Energy is received in the form of light and heat radiation. The radiant energy of the Sun can be converted into thermal, electrical,

Mehta Swati; Moulik T K

341

Iron disulfide for solar energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrite (Eg = 0.95 eV) is being developed as a solar energy material due to its environmental compatibility and its very high light absorption coefficient. A compilation of material, electronic and interfacial chemical properties is presented, which is considered relevant for quantum energy conversion. In spite of intricate problems existing within material chemistry, high quantum efficiencies for photocurrent generation (Eta

A ENNAOUI; S FIECHTER; C PETTENKOFER; N ALONSOVANTE; K BUKER; M BRONOLD; C HOPFNER; H TRIBUTSCH

1993-01-01

342

The Status of Solar Energy as Fuel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discused is the biological conversion of solar energy via photosynthesis into stored energy in the form of biomass. Detailed are the research and development programs on biomass of the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Brazil, Philippines, Sahel, India, and China. (BT)

Hall, D. O.

1979-01-01

343

Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

344

Solar and wind energy resources and prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and environmental issues are among the most important problems of public concern. There are increasing debates about whether to resort to drilling more oil and mining more coal or to using renewable, sustainable, and clean resources such as solar and wind energies. Through our analyses and modeling on the basis of the National Center for Environment Prediction data, we

Quanhua Liu; Qinxian Miao; Jue J. Liu; Wenli Yang

2009-01-01

345

Using Solar Energy to Desalinate Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Material presented is adapted from Desalination with Solar Energy, a paper presented before the International Symposium on Energy Sources and Development, held in Spain in 1977. Desalination systems energized by the sun, conditions governing their efficiency, and their costs are discussed. (HM)

Tabor, Harry Z.

1978-01-01

346

Sun-tracking solar energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of solar energy converter assemblies are carried by a support frame which is mounted for independent rotation about a horizontal and a vertical axis. Sensors detect the position of the sun; and control circuitry positions the support frame in elevation and azimuth so that the converter assemblies track and face the sun whenever the sun incident energy is

1980-01-01

347

Energy analysis of the solar power satellite.  

PubMed

The energy requirements to build and operate the proposed Solar Power Satellite are evaluated and compared with the energy it produces. Because the technology is so speculative, uncertainty is explicitly accounted for. For a proposed 10-gigawatt satellite system, the energy ratio, defined as the electrical energy produced divided by the primary nonrenewable energy required over the lifetime of the system, is of order 2, where a ratio of 1 indicates the energy breakeven point. This is significantly below the energy ratio of today's electricity technologies such as light-water nuclear or coal-fired electric plants. PMID:17758765

Herendeen, R A; Kary, T; Rebitzer, J

1979-08-01

348

SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

SciTech Connect

Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities; and at LBL projects are in progress which span that range of activities. To assess various solar applications it is important to quantify the solar resource. In one project, LBL is cooperating with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in the implementation and operation of a solar radiation data collection network in northern California. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure the solar and circumsolar (around the sun) radiation. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs which use focusing collectors (mirrors or lenses) to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts are being made to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology. DOE's San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) has been given technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. The installation of a solar hot water and space heating system on an LBL building established model techniques and procedures as part of the DOE Facilities Solar Demonstration Program. Technical support is also provided for SAN in a DOE small scale technology pilot program in which grants are awarded to individuals and organizations to develop and demonstrate solar technologies appropriate to small scale use. In the near future it is expected that research will exert a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. An absorption air conditioner is being developed that is air cooled yet suitable for use with temperatures available from flat plate collectors. With inexpensive but sophisticated micro-electronics to control their operation, the performance of many-component solar heating and cooling systems may be improved, and work is under way to develop such a controller and to evaluate commercially available units. Research is continuing on 'passive' approaches to solar heating and cooling where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed in a collaborative project with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. These models will be incorporated into public domain building energy analysis computer programs to be used in systems studies and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, then provide 'coolness' to the building. The laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the 'shape-memory' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources such as solar heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central receiver system or a parabolic dish. The conversion of the concentrated sunlight to thermal energy would be accomplished by the absorption of the light by a dispersion of very small particles suspended in a gas. Work continued this year on chemical storage processes (such as 2SO

Authors, Various

1980-10-01

349

Solar America: A Solar Energy Tour of the United States (CD-ROM)  

SciTech Connect

This CDROM contains nearly 500 photos and captions of solar energy technologies at work throughout the United States. Every state of the union is represented, as well as Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia, and U.S. outposts in Antarctica. The technologies represented are photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar hot water, and concentrating solar power. The CD promotes solar energy as a wise energy choice for America's present and future.

Not Available

2001-12-01

350

Solar America: A Solar Energy Tour of the United States (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This CDROM contains nearly 500 photos and captions of solar energy technologies at work throughout the United States. Every state of the union is represented, as well as Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia, and U.S. outposts in Antarctica. The technologies represented are photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar hot water, and concentrating solar power. The CD promotes solar energy as a wise energy choice for America's present and future.

Not Available

2003-06-01

351

first major B,C,solar energy conference here The Solar Olympics, in which contestants at-  

E-print Network

, and wind energy. Speakers at Solwest 80 include Diana Rains of the California Energy Commission to the solar energy industry, and Doug Balcomb, president of the American section of the Interna- tional Solarfirst major B,C,solar energy conference here The Solar Olympics, in which contestants at- tempt

Farrell, Anthony P.

352

Low energy particle composition. [energy spectra, particle emission - solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy spectra and composition of the steady or 'quiet-time' particle flux, whose origin is unknown was studied. Particles and photons which are associated with solar flares or active regions on the sun were also studied. Various detection techniques used to measure the composition and energy spectra of low energy particles are discussed. Graphs of elemental abundance and energy spectra are given.

Gloeckler, G.

1975-01-01

353

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

354

Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine  

E-print Network

Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine Dr. Fletcher Miller SDSU Department of Mechanical Engineering Abstract Solar thermal power for electricity will describe the design of a high temperature solar receiver capable of driving a gas turbine for power

Ponce, V. Miguel

355

Saudi Aramco Gas Operations Energy Efficiency Program  

E-print Network

Saudi Aramco Gas Operations (GO) created energy efficiency strategies for its 5-year business plan (2011-2015), supported by a unique energy efficiency program, to reduce GO energy intensity by 26% by 2015. The program generated an energy savings...

Al-Dossary, F. S.

2012-01-01

356

Solar energy is growing up fast  

SciTech Connect

Few investors were willing - until recently - to put big money into large-scale solar investments, in part because they were not sure if they could find a willing buyer for the generated electricity. Several things have changed the equation in favor of solar energy - in fact, in favor of all sorts of non-traditional energy technologies. First, the cost of traditional fossil-fueled technologies has been steadily rising as fuel prices and construction costs escalate. Second, renewables-friendly policies have created a relatively low-risk market for renewables and/or low-carbon generation. Third, as investors scale up and innovate, the cost of alternative technologies has been rapidly falling. Combined, these trends have had a remarkable impact on solar energy technologies over the past couple of years, with stunning results. In particular, German policymakers are trying to create a new industrial base on par with car manufacturing and precision machine tools.

NONE

2008-06-15

357

Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close

L. E. G. Cambronero; J. M. Ruiz-Roman; I. Canadas; D. Martinez

2010-01-01

358

Foaming of aluminium–silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from AlSi alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close

L. E. G. Cambronero; I. Cańadas; D. Martínez; J. M. Ruiz-Román

2010-01-01

359

Solar Energy Employment and Requirements, 1978-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on data collected from a mailed survey of 2800 employers engaged in solar energy activities, a study identified the characteristics of establishments engaged in solar work and the number and occupational distribution of persons working in solar energy activities in 1978, and projected solar labor requirements through 1983. The scope of the…

Levy, Girard W.; Field, Jennifer

360

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-01-01

361

Manufacture of silicon carbide using solar energy  

DOEpatents

A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using solar energy. The method is efficient and avoids the need for use of electrical energy to heat the reactants. Finely divided silica and carbon are admixed and placed in a solar-heated reaction chamber for a time sufficient to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

1992-01-01

362

Limits to solar and biomass energy growth  

SciTech Connect

Drawing on some 45 assessments made by the Technology Assessments of Solar Energy (TASE), the authors examine the potential for commercialization of solar and biomass technologies. The book is divided into four major parts: Part I describes and compares technologies; Part II describes the natural and capital resources necessary for commercialization; Part III examines social, economic, and environmental impacts and institutional and regulatory factors; and Part IV analyzes the consequences of several deployment scenarios. The authors conclude that the disproportionate resource requirements for a modest energy contribution will be liminting factor. 103 references, 80 figures, 32 tables. (DCK)

Schiffman, Y.M.; D'Alessio, G.J.

1983-01-01

363

Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

Loferski, J. J.

1976-01-01

364

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

365

Multi-power port gas turbine configurations for solar cogeneration applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New system configurations and control techniques which account for the nuances inherent in solar input-gas turbine cogeneration power plants are presented. Compensation for diurnal and seasonal variations, weather conditions, operation in non-steady-state modes, and in the presence of high exhaust back pressures at the outlet of the turbines all require innovations in order to minimally change existing turbine designs when introducing a solar source into the fuel sector. The usage of multiple power ports to the machines, and/or multishaft machines, or even variable torque converters is suggested. Specific attention is given systems powered by an energy gained from a central solar power tower surrounded by heliostats. Control processes which alter the temperature/pressure inputs to drive assemblies are offered as means to ensure continuous shaft speeds.

Damsker, D.; Curto, P. A.

1982-08-01

366

Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility  

SciTech Connect

SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR DEVICE FABRICATION LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT The space allocated for this laboratory was �¢����shell space�¢��� that required an upfit in order to accommodate nano-fabrication equipment in a quasi-clean room environment. This construction project (cost $279,736) met the non-federal cost share requirement of $250,000 for this award. The central element of the fabrication laboratory is a new $400,000+ stand-alone system, funded by other sources, for fabricating and characterizing photovoltaic devices, in a state-of-the-art nanofabrication environment. This congressionally directed project also included the purchase of an energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) detector for a pre-existing transmission electron microscope (TEM). This detector allows elemental analysis and elemental mapping of materials used to fabricate solar energy devices which is a key priority for our research center. TASK 2: SOLAR ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT (INSTRUMENTATION) This laboratory provides access to modern spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation for characterizing devices, materials and components on time scales ranging from femtoseconds to seconds and for elucidating mechanisms. The goals of this congressionally directed project included the purchase and installation of spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation that would substantially and meaningfully enhance the capabilities of this laboratory. Some changes were made to the list of equipment proposed in the original budget. These changes did not represent a change in scope, approach or aims of this project. All of the capabilities and experiments represented in the original budget were maintained. The outcome of this Congressionally Directed Project has been the development of world-class fabrication and spectroscopy user facilities for solar fuels research at UNC-CH. This award has provided a significant augmentation of our pre-existing instrumentation capabilities which were funded by earlier UNC SERC projects, including the Energy Frontier

Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

2011-11-11

367

Assessment of some energy technologies associated with solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report we present our study of three alternative energy generation concepts which employ solar energy in some part of the system. We will discuss these subjects: Salinity Gradient Solar Ponds, Osmotic Membrane Power Generation, and Thermochemical Storage and Transport. The treatment of these items is not uniform. The report will emphasize the ponds, briefly dwell on Osmotic Membranes and only touch on the third topic. This, in fact, reflects the assessment of the potential of the three concepts.

Abarbanel, H. D.; Case, K. M.; Flatte, S. M.; Nierenberg, W. A.; Watson, K. M.

1981-10-01

368

A management strategy for solar panel — battery — super capacitor hybrid energy system in solar car  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of solar energy - battery - super-capacitor hybrid energy storage system in solar electric vehicles. The key point is the proposed energy management control algorithm. The entire system consists of a solar panel, a boost converter, a battery, a super capacitor, a bi-directional DC\\/DC converter, and a brushless DC motor. This paper gives the details

Bin Wu; Fang Zhuo; Fei Long; Weiwei Gu; Yang Qing; YanQin Liu

2011-01-01

369

Solar-hydrogen energy system and solar-hydrogen production methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods of producing hydrogen using solar energy are discussed, including direct thermal, thermochemical, electrolytical, and photosynthetical methods. The methods are compared and the advantages of each are described. In addition, attention is given to the advantages of using hydrogen to store solar energy. Indirect forms of solar energy, such as ocean thermal, ocean current, wind, and hydraulic, are also

T. N. Veziroglu; S. Kakac

1978-01-01

370

Impacts of solar energy utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various methods of conducting surveys and analyses to determine the attitude of the public toward the energy crisis are discussed. Models to determine the impact of the energy crisis and proposed alternative sources of energy on the social structure are analyzed. The various interest groups which are concerned with energy and the nature of their interest are identified. The government structure for controlling resource production and allocation is defined.

1973-01-01

371

Solar energy climatology of North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy climatology for North Carolina was developed using radiation data from the six SOLMET stations in the state. The climatology provides information needed to design solar powered space and water heating systems, and evaluate their performance. It specifies the distribution of montly average daily total radiatrion on a horizontal surface, relationships between radiation and temperature for an average heating season, and the variability of radiation within a season. The main features of the solar energy climatology can be explained by the synoptic climatology of the area. The absolute values of the SOLMET radiation data are questionable, although they are acceptable for system design purposes. Results are presented graphically, allowing the climatology to be easily related to system performance. Examples of the relationship are given for a typical active space and water heating system, using the F-chart method to calculate performance.

Robinson, P.J.; Easterling, W.E.

1982-11-01

372

Sustainable desalination using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global potable water demand is expected to grow, particularly in areas where freshwater supplies are limited. Production and supply of potable water requires significant amounts of energy, which is currently being derived from nonrenewable fossil fuels. Since energy production from fossil fuels also requires water, current practice of potable water supply powered by fossil fuel derived energy is not a

Veera Gnaneswar Gude; Nagamany Nirmalakhandan

2010-01-01

373

Agegraphic Chaplygin gas model of dark energy  

E-print Network

We establish a connection between the agegraphic models of dark energy and Chaplygin gas energy density in non-flat universe. We reconstruct the potential of the agegraphic scalar field as well as the dynamics of the scalar field according to the evolution of the agegraphic dark energy. We also extend our study to the interacting agegraphic generalized Chaplygin gas dark energy model.

Ahmad Sheykhi

2010-02-07

374

SERI Solar Energy Storage Program: FY 1983 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Solar Energy Storage Program during its fifth year, FY 1985. This program provides supporting research and technology and systems analyses and assessments to the US Depart...

W. Luft, M. S. Bohn, R. J. Copeland, R. G. Nix

1984-01-01

375

SERI Solar Energy Storage Program: FY 1984 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Energy Storage Program during its sixth year. During FY 1984 a study was conducted to identify the most promising high-temperature containment concepts considering corros...

W. Luft, M. Bohn, R. J. Copeland, F. Kreith, R. G. Nix

1985-01-01

376

Solar box cookers and geothermal energy  

SciTech Connect

A major amount of world-wide forest depletion is caused by harvesting cooking wood. Solar box cookers can help to ameliorate this situation in that they use solar energy instead of wood to cook food. Usable year-round in the tropics and for 6 to 8 months of the year in most sunny areas of the world, the cookers can cook almost anything if there is 15 minutes of sunshine every hour. Developed in 1976 solar box cookers represent a major advance over early solar cookers. Solar box cookers are about the size of an ice chest, easily constructed by the users themselves and inexpensive. The cookers are made of cardboard or wood, and aluminum foil. Each box is topped with a sheet of glass above which an adjustable reflective lid is positioned to angle in sunlight. The food cooks in covered, dark-colored pans. One cooker can cook 10-15 pounds of food in three to five hours. Fruits, vegetables, meats, and any baked goods can be prepared, and water and milk pasteurized in them. The coking food does not have to be stirred and will not burn. The developer is also looking for ways the geothermal community could interface with solar box cookers.

Not Available

1988-12-01

377

Prototype residential solar-energy system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complete solar-energy domestic-hot-water system for single-family residences is described in brochure. It contains data on procurement, installation, operation, and maintainance of system in residential or light commercial buildings. Appendix includes vendor brochures for major system components. Drawings, tables, and graphs complement text.

1978-01-01

378

Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was conducted to develop solar energy installers curriculum guides for use in high school vocational centers and community colleges. Project activities included researching job competencies for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning industry and determining through interviews and manufacturers' literature what additional…

Walker, Gene C.

379

Solar energy collecting panel and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a solar energy collecting panel and an apparatus for utilizing of the panel. The collecting panel comprises a first layer of heat absorbing material. A fiber mat for repeatedly transporting fluid by both surface tension and capillary action to a first surface of the heat absorbing layer is arranged to intimately contact the first surface.

Luebke

1983-01-01

380

Solar energy heating panel for a building  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy heating panel is provided for mounting in a building wall to effect heating of the air in an interior building space. A plurality of the heating panels are mounted in parallel relationship in a supporting structure for angular rotation about horizontal pivot axes to selected position. Each of the heating panels includes a heat-transfer controlling panel and

Tetirick

1982-01-01

381

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1979survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of surveys to determine the scope of solar energy projects sponsored by electric utilities in the United States are presented. It contains brief descriptions of 735 projects being conducted by 180 utility companies. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of

R. Furness

1979-01-01

382

Large-aperture radiant solar energy concentrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between the maximum concentration factor and the number and form of facets of a paraboloid mirror used for solar energy concentration is analyzed. The three-step approach begins by describing, in terms of differential geometry, the ray deflections associated with a facet system approximating an ideal paraboloid reflector. Then the formation of the receiver irradiation field is represented by

I. V. Baum

1978-01-01

383

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1983 survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a survey to determine the scope of electric utility participation in solar energy projects in the United States. This ninth edition contains brief descriptions of 870 projects conducted by 184 utility companies. The report also includes an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of new reports on utility-sponsored projects, a

1984-01-01

384

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1979 survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey to determine the scope of solar energy projects sponsored by electric utilities in the United States are presented. It contains brief descriptions of 735 projects being conducted by 180 utility companies. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list

Furness

1979-01-01

385

Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

386

Solar Energy Experiment for Beginning Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment illustrating how such chemical concepts as light absorption, thermodynamics, and solid-state photovoltaics can be incorporated into solar energy education. Completed in a three-hour period, the experiment requires about two hours for data collections with the remaining hour devoted to calculations and comparison of results.…

Davis, Clyde E.

1983-01-01

387

Sun tracking solar energy collector system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sun tracking solar energy collector system comprises a plurality of light focusing elements disposed side by side in the form of a surface array, providing a linear array of foci; and a metallic heat exchanger tube having externally a high absorbtivity, low reflectivity coating containing a working fluid such as water, air, hydrogen or helium, to which a substantial

Doundoulakis

1981-01-01

388

Thermodynamic and design considerations of organic Rankine cycles in combined application with a solar thermal gas turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies are considered to provide a significant contribution for the electric power production in the future. Different kinds of technologies are presently in operation or under development, e.g. parabolic troughs, central receivers, solar dish systems and Fresnel reflectors. This paper takes the focus on central receiver technologies, where the solar radiation is concentrated by a field of heliostats in a receiver on the top of a tall tower. To get this CSP technology ready for the future, the system costs have to reduce significantly. The main cost driver in such kind of CSP technologies are the huge amount of heliostats. To reduce the amount of heliostats, and so the investment costs, the efficiency of the energy conversion cycle becomes an important issue. An increase in the cycle efficiency results in a decrease of the solar heliostat field and thus, in a significant cost reduction. The paper presents the results of a thermodynamic model of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for combined cycle application together with a solar thermal gas turbine. The gas turbine cycle is modeled with an additional intercooler and recuperator and is based on a typical industrial gas turbine in the 2 MW class. The gas turbine has a two stage radial compressor and a three stage axial turbine. The compressed air is preheated within a solar receiver to 950°C before entering the combustor. A hybrid operation of the gas turbine is considered. In order to achieve a further increase of the overall efficiency, the combined operation of the gas turbine and an Organic Rankine Cycle is considered. Therefore an ORC has been set up, which is thermally connected to the gas turbine cycle at two positions. The ORC can be coupled to the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle at the intercooler and after the recuperator. Thus, waste heat from different cycle positions can be transferred to the ORC for additional production of electricity. Within this investigation different working fluids and ORC conditions have been analyzed in order to evaluate the best configuration. The investigations have been performed by application of improved thermodynamic and process analysis tools, which consider the real gas behavior of the analyzed fluids. The results show that by combined operation of the solar thermal gas turbine and the ORC, the combined cycle efficiency is approximately 4%-points higher than in the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle.

Braun, R.; Kusterer, K.; Sugimoto, T.; Tanimura, K.; Bohn, D.

2013-12-01

389

A presentation of solar irradiation data suitable for solar energy application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal global solar radiation patterns are discussed for two climatically U.S. stations (Phoenix, Arizona and Geneseo, New York). A concept of the solar utilization season is developed along with methodology to assess the frequency of periods of consecutive days when solar irradiation values do not attain specified threshold values. This analysis is considered more appropriate in applications of solar energy

R. L. Lougeay; A. J. Brazel

1984-01-01

390

Energy release in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of energy release in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free energy storage, and the fragmentation of energy release in time and space.

Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.

1994-01-01

391

Solar-hydrogen energy system for Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar-hydrogen energy system has been proposed for Pakistan as the best replacement for the present fossil fuel based energy system. It has been suggested to produce hydrogen via photovoltaic-electrolysis, utilizing the available non-agricultural sunny terrain in Baluchistan region. There will be a desalination plant for sea water desalination. The area under the photovoltaic panels with the availability of water

Lutfi

1990-01-01

392

Solar Thermal Energy: BTU or Bust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will allow students the opportunity to design, build, test and evaluate a solar energy heating device that will raise the temperature of a pound of water sealed in a PVC pipe to the highest BTU level without damaging the cylinder. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2013-01-08

393

Solar energy in Malaysia: Current state and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia is situated at the equatorial region with an average solar radiation of 400–600MJ\\/m2 per month. It has a promising potential to establish large scale solar power installations; however, solar energy is still at the infancy stage due to the high cost of photovoltaic (PV) cells and solar electricity tariff rate. The Malaysian government is keen to develop solar energy

S. Mekhilef; A. Safari; W. E. S. Mustaffa; R. Saidur; R. Omar; M. A. A. Younis

394

Situation and outlook of solar energy utilization in Tibet, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The near-exponential rise in tourist numbers and accelerating economic growth have challenged Tibetan energy supply and threaten its peculiar environment and valuable ecosystem. Exploitation of pollution free solar power may medicate this demand for energy. Here we shall provide a review of solar power development in Tibet. This region has a near inexhaustible source of solar energy due to its

Qiang Wang; Huan-Ning Qiu

2009-01-01

395

Economic competitiveness of solar energy with conventional fuels and electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical relations are presented for assessing the economic competitiveness of solar energy with other sources of energy. A nomogram for obtaining the required numerical data in studies of the economic feasibility of solar energy projects is also provided. The use of the nomogram is illustrated with the aid of specific examples involving a family size solar water heater and a

M. Saif-Ul-Rehamn

1976-01-01

396

Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy  

E-print Network

Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy Thursday 22nd March prospects for inorganic thin film photovoltaic solar cells for large scale energy generation 2:55 Dr Emyr:50 Professor James Durrant (Imperial College London, England) Photochemical approaches to solar energy

Martin, Ralph R.

397

Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal  

E-print Network

Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal 21st August - 2nd September 2011 on the principles of solar energy conversion. Theoretical knowledge will be complemented with practical workshops of solar energy conversion. Theoretical knowledge will be comple- mented with practical workshops

398

Short-Term Solar Energy Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Short-Term Solar Energy Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Networks Stefan Achleitner, Tao Liu an advantage for output power prediction. Solar Energy Prediction System Our prediction model is based variability of more then 100 kW per minute. For practical usage of solar energy, predicting times of high

Cerpa, Alberto E.

399

Brookhaven National Laboratory Solar Energy and Smarter Grid  

E-print Network

Brookhaven National Laboratory Solar Energy and Smarter Grid Research Update Presented to BNL CAC on Market Barriers #12;5 BNL's research agenda for solar energy and smarter electric grid focuses on two key areas Advancement of Solar Energy Generation in Northeast · Characterization of renewable generation

400

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth  

E-print Network

ďż˝ 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons #12;ďż˝ 2015 Pearson of the solar wind. ďż˝ Explain the characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiant energy. ďż˝ Illustrate the interception of solar energy and its uneven distribution at the top of the atmosphere

Pan, Feifei

401

Sestar Technologies, LLC Revolutionar y Solar Energy Products  

E-print Network

Sestar Technologies, LLC Revolutionar y Solar Energy Products Sestar Technologies, LLC (SESTAR) is developing revolutionary solar energy products that will be integral components in the ultimate solution to the world's current and future energy pro- grams. It will lead to paradigm shifts in a number of solar

Jawitz, James W.

402

WEATHER MODIFICATION BY CARBON DUST ABSORPTION OF SOLAR ENERGY  

E-print Network

WEATHER MODIFICATION BY CARBON DUST ABSORPTION OF SOLAR ENERGY by WM. M. GRAY, WM. M. FRANK, M OF SOLAR ENERGY by w. M. Gray, W. M. Frank, M. L. Corrin and C. A. Stokes Department of Atmospheric Science interception of solar energy. Growing population pressures and predicted future global food shortages dictate

Gray, William

403

The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission  

E-print Network

The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission R. P. fla B. Dennis, G mission is to investigate the physics of particle acceleration and energy release in solar flares, through-ray/gamma-ray spectroscopy 1. INTRODUCTION The primary scientific objective of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar

California at Berkeley, University of

404

Application of thin films to solar energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal areas of utilization of thin films and coatings in the harnessing of solar energy are (1) thermal control of structures, where reflecting or partially reflecting coatings and antireflection coatings are used to control incident solar radiation or to retain thermal energy; (2) photothermal conversion where solar energy is converted to low-grade heat (<150 degreeC) using reflector films, antireflection

D. M. Mattox

1976-01-01

405

Weather modification by carbon dust absorption of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility was investigated of beneficial weather modification through artificial solar energy absorption. A variety of physical ideas related to artificial heat sources on different scales of motion are considered. Interest is concentrated on the feasibility of mesoscale weather modification through solar energy absorption by carbon aerosol particles of .1 ..mu..m or less. Particles of this size maximize solar energy

William M. Gray; William M. Frank; Myron L. Corrin; Charles A. Stokes

1976-01-01

406

Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Polycrystalline Silicon : From Gas Molecule To Solar Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effort to investigate the use of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, has increased, their contribution to the total energy consumption remains insignificant. The conversion of solar energy into electricity through solar cells is one of the most promising techniques, but the use of these cells is limited by the high cost of electricity. The

P. A. T. T. van Veenendaal

2002-01-01

407

Development of the Supply Chain Optimization and Planning for the Environment (SCOPE) tool - applied to solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supply-chain decision tool is outlined that will assess the life-cycle greenhouse gases and energy demand of solar energy technology using a hybrid LCA structure. Energy and greenhouse gas metrics appropriate for the climate change mitigation goals of solar energy are discussed. Applying this methodology to SolFocus Inc. concentrator systems, preliminary results indicate that the energy payback time of SolFocus

Corinne Reich-Weiser; Tristan Fletcher; David A Dornfeld; Steve Horne

2008-01-01

408

Quasi-energy-independent solar neutrino transitions  

E-print Network

Current solar, atmospheric, and reactor neutrino data still allow oscillation scenarios where the squared mass differences are all close to 10^-3 eV^2, rather than being hierarchically separated. For solar neutrinos, this situation (realized in the upper part of the so-called large-mixing angle solution) implies adiabatic transitions which depend weakly on the neutrino energy and on the matter density, as well as on the ``atmospheric'' squared mass difference. In such a regime of ``quasi-energy-independent'' (QEI) transitions, intermediate between the more familiar ``Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein'' (MSW) and energy-independent (EI) regimes, we first perform analytical calculations of the solar nu_e survival probability at first order in the matter density, beyond the usual hierarchical approximations. We then provide accurate, generalized expressions for the solar neutrino mixing angles in matter, which reduce to those valid in the MSW, QEI and EI regimes in appropriate limits. Finally, a representative QEI scenario is discussed in some detail.

G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Palazzo

2001-05-09

409

High Energy Gas Fracturing Test  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed two tests of a high-energy gas fracturing system being developed by Western Technologies of Crossville, Tennessee. The tests involved the use of two active wells located at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), thirty-five miles north of Casper, Wyoming (See Figure 1). During the testing process the delivery and operational system was enhanced by RMOTC, Western Technologies, and commercial wireline subcontractors. RMOTC has assisted an industrial client in developing their technology for high energy gas fracturing to a commercial level. The modifications and improvements implemented during the technology testing process are instrumental in all field testing efforts at RMOTC. The importance of well selection can also be critical in demonstrating the success of the technology. To date, significant increases in well productivity have been clearly proven in well 63-TPX-10. Gross fluid production was initially raised by a factor of three. Final production rates increased by a factor of six with the use of a larger submersible pump. Well productivity (bbls of fluid per foot of drawdown) increased by a factor of 15 to 20. The above results assume that no mechanical damage has occurred to the casing or cast iron bridge plug which could allow well production from the Tensleep ''B'' sand. In the case of well 61-A-3, a six-fold increase in total fluid production was seen. Unfortunately, the increase is clouded by the water injection into the well that was necessary to have a positive fluid head on the propellant tool. No significant increase in oil production was seen. The tools which were retrieved from both 63-TPX-10 and 61-A-3 indicated a large amount of energy, similar to high gram perforating, had been expended downhole upon the formation face.

Schulte, R.

2001-02-27

410

Comparison of the solar energy utilisation potential of different urban environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides a more efficient energy use, large scale application of solar energy technologies in the urban context will be necessary in the upcoming decades to achieve a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the biosphere. Two different urban sites, representative of two of the largest Swiss cities (Basel and Geneva), were examined under this aspect in order to assess

M Montavon; J-L Scartezzini; R Compagnon

411

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Investigating Renewable Energy Data from Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Panels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using renewable sources of energy benefits the environment and contributes to more sustainable energy use. The burning of fossil fuels generates air pollution and increased CO2 in the atmosphere. CO2 is the major greenhouse gas warming our planet. Using more renewable sources of energy not only reduces pollution, but also conserves the current limited supply of fossil fuels. This chapter looks at how much solar energy is generated using photovoltaic panels on rooftops or exposed ground locations at installations around the U.S. The focus is on three different websites that monitor and report solar energy production from panels at a few hundred locations.

412

The SolarWiki Solar energy is the only inexhaustible energy source abundant enough to satisfy all the energy needs of our planet, but  

E-print Network

The SolarWiki Solar energy is the only inexhaustible energy source abundant enough to satisfy all the energy needs of our planet, but is only practical if an extensive solar-based infrastructure can of this infrastructure that efficiently harnesses solar energy is one of the greatest scientific, technological, economic

413

Production of high-energy chemicals using solar energy heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techno-economic studies and thermodynamic assessments of chemical reactions and processes were made and the market potentials for major chemical commodities that use significant amounts of fossil resources were determined in order to identify energy-intensive processes that would be suitable for the production of chemicals and fuels using solar energy process heat. Of particular importance was the comparison of relative costs

J. R. Dafler; J. Sinnott; M. Novil; B. D. Yudow; M. G. Rackoff

1978-01-01

414

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science  

SciTech Connect

Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

415

Solar Energy Forecast System Development and Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecast systems for predicting real-time solar energy generation are being developed along similar lines to those of more established wind forecast systems, but the challenges and constraints are different. Clouds and aerosols play a large role, and for tilted photovoltaic panels and solar concentrating plants, the direct beam irradiance, which typically has much larger forecast errors than global horizontal irradiance, must be utilized. At MDA Information Systems, we are developing a forecast system based on first principles, with the well-validated REST2 clear sky model (Gueymard, 2008) at its backbone. In tuning the model and addressing aerosol scattering and surface albedo, etc., we relied upon the wealth of public data sources including AERONET (aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths), Suominet (GPS integrated water vapor), NREL MIDC solar monitoring stations, SURFRAD (includes upwelling shortwave), and MODIS (albedo in different wavelength bands), among others. The forecast itself utilizes a blend of NWP model output, which must be brought down to finer time resolution based on the diurnal cycle rather than simple interpolation. Many models currently do not output the direct beam irradiance, and one that does appears to have a bias relative to its global horizontal irradiance, with equally good performance attained by utilizing REST2 and the model global radiation to estimate the direct component. We will present a detailed assessment of various NWP solar energy products, evaluating forecast skill at a range of photovoltaic installations.

Jascourt, S. D.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Cassidy, C.

2012-12-01

416

Energy 101: Solar Photovoltaic (PV)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, from the US Department of Energy, shows the basics of how a PV panel converts light radiated from the sun into usable power, whether on the electric grid or off, and without emissions or the use of fossil fuels.

Energy, Department O.

417

Pulsed Gas Feeding for Stoichiometric Operation of a Gas-Solid Vortex Flow Solar Chemical Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc and synthesis gas ~syngas!, besides being important mate- rial commodities, are attractive as energy carriers. Zinc finds ap- plications in Zn\\/air fuel cells and batteries, and it can also be reacted with water to form hydrogen that can be further processed for heat and electricity. Syngas can be used to fuel high-efficient gas turbines and is also the building

Stefan Kra?upl; Aldo Steinfeld

2001-01-01

418

Solar thermochemical energy conversion and transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature catalytic dissociation of SO3 and the CO2-CH4 reforming-methanation cycle are important chemical processes being considered in the development and application of solar-thermal energy conversion, transport, and storage systems. Separate facilities for evaluating chemical converter-heat exchangers at temperatures to 1000 C with high flow rates of SO3 and of mixtures of CO2 and CH4 feedstocks have been assembled and operated on the NMSU campus. A number of receiver elements (chemical reactors) have been tested in these laboratory facilities in an effort to optimize catalyst parameters and catalyst reactor configurations. These tests led to the design and fabrication of both low power and high power solar energy receivers which were operated successfully at the White Sands solar Furnace. Energy delivery methanation reactor design and parametric studies led to the fabrication and operation of laboratory closed-loop, energy conversion, transport, and delivery system. These latter experiments met with limited but promising success. Carbon deposition, though a problem, is believed to be controllable with the optimization of catalyst parameters and feedstock composition.

McCrary, J. H.; McCrary, G. E.

1982-11-01

419

SERI solar energy storage program: FY 1983 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Solar Energy Storage Program during its fifth year, FY 1985. This program provides supporting research and technology and systems analyses and assessments to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Thermal Energy Storage Program. In FY 1983, SERI researched direct-contact heat exchange, latent- and sensible-heat storage, and thermochemical energy

W. Luft; M. S. Bohn; R. J. Copeland; R. G. Nix

1984-01-01

420

SERI solar energy storage program: FY 1981 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal energy storage technologies are identified for specific solar thermal applications. The capabilities and limitations of direct-contact thermal storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport are examined. Storage of energy from active solar thermal systems for industrial process heat and the heating of buildings is analyzed and seasonal energy storage is covered. The coordination of numerous thermal energy storage research

F. Baylin; R. J. Copeland; A. Kotch; T. Kriz; W. Luft; R. G. Nix; J. D. Wright

1982-01-01

421

SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program. FY 1982 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Solar Energy Storage Program during its fourth year, FY 1982. This program provides supporting research and technology and systems analyses and assessments to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Thermal Energy Storage Program. In FY 1982, SERI researched direct-contact heat exchange, latent- and sensible-heat storage, and thermochemical energy

W. Luft; M. Bohn; R. J. Copeland; R. G. Nix

1983-01-01

422

Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore : assessment of solar photovoltaic systems  

E-print Network

To evaluate the feasibility of solar energy based Electric Vehicle Transportation System in Singapore, the state of the art Photovoltaic Systems have been reviewed in this report with a focus on solar cell technologies. ...

Sun, Li

2009-01-01

423

Operational experience from solar thermal energy projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

Cameron, C. P.

1984-03-01

424

Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context  

SciTech Connect

The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

Shea, C.A.

1980-12-01

425

International group trains to employ solar energy  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of International Education (IIE) manages the Energy Training Program (ETP) for the US Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Energy and Infrastructure. In 1992, ETP will be conducting additional renewable energy training courses. These will include in-country Renewable Energy Technology workshops, designed to incorporate US industry representation and technical assistance. Previous courses have had positive impacts on the increase of solar technologies in international markets. Twenty-one energy professionals from eleven countries were in the US from April 18-May 25, as part of the US Program (ETP). The participants, from Africa, Asia, and Latin America, attended the ETP course [open quotes]Solar Electric/Photovoltaic (PV) Technology.[close quotes] Their training program began in Washington, DC with the course orientation and overview, meetings with international organizations involved in PV projects, a field trip to Integrated Power Corporation, and the SOLAR ENERGY FORUM. Participants took part in the Photovoltaic Energy Conversion pre-conference workshop, technical sessions, exhibits, and receptions. The Forum was a good complement to the training since it afforded participants the opportunity to obtain state-of-the-art PV information and establish relationships with US photovoltaic companies. The subsequent four weeks of hands-on, practical training, which took place in Colorado, covered all aspects of PV system design and utilization, including technical and economic analysis. All participants prepared country-specific project papers which they presented at the conclusion of training. The detailed information necessary to complete their project papers was acquired through companies they met at the Forum.

Not Available

1993-01-01

426

Chemical Vapor Deposition Research for Fabrication of Solar Energy Convertors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project will support research on a new approach to a selective solar energy convertor that can be used to transform solar radiation into high temperature heat. The selective solar energy convertor is basically a two-layered construction in which the t...

B. O. Seraphin

1974-01-01

427

Common sense applications of solar energy in the home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy utilization combined with sound energy conservation can substantially reduce the operating costs of the average home. Passive solar systems which admit light in winter and exclude it in summer coupled with better insulation to slow the flow of heat are reappearing rapidly. Active solar systems which are more complex and costly are now being developed and tested. Examples

Bulter

1977-01-01

428

Studies of control strategies for Building Integrated Solar Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development work on Building Integrated Solar Energy Systems (BISES) has become an area of growing interest, not only in New Zealand (NZ) but worldwide. This interest has led to a significant growth in the use of solar energy to provide heating and electricity generation. This paper presents the theoretical and experimental results of a novel building integrated solar

Hanani Abd Wahab; Mike Dukea; James K. Carsona; Tim Anderson

2011-01-01

429

Evolution of electron energy spectrum during solar flares  

E-print Network

Evolution of electron energy spectrum during solar flares W. J. Liu, P. F. Chen, C. Fang, M. D of the electron energy spectrum during solar flares. It turns out that the model reproduces the soft: magnetic fields PACS: 96.60.qe, 96.50.Pw, 96.60.Hv 1 Introduction Particle acceleration in solar flares

Chen, P. F.

430

KINETICS OF GAS-GRAIN REACTIONS IN THE SOLAR NEBULA BRUCE FEGLEY, JR.  

E-print Network

KINETICS OF GAS-GRAIN REACTIONS IN THE SOLAR NEBULA BRUCE FEGLEY, JR. Planetary Chemistry the local en- vironment cooled significantly or before the gaseous solar nebula was dispersed indicates that troilite formation proceeded to completion in the solar nebula. Magnetite formation was much

Fegley Jr., Bruce

431

Evacuated balloon for solar energy collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large cylindrically-shaped balloon-like structure having hemispherical ends with fins utilized in conjunction with airflow thereacross based upon Bernoulli's principle for maneuvering and maintaining stability. The balloon is compartmentalized, contains a uniquely designed structural support system, and contains pumps for evacuating the air therein. The structure may be used for any lifting application. In particular solar-energy is collected through a

Bliamptis

1985-01-01

432

Solar energy conversion with fluorescent collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new principle for solar energy conversion is proposed and evaluated theoretically. Collection and concentration of direct\\u000a and diffuse radiation is possible by the use of a stack of transparent sheets of material doped with fluorescent dyes. High\\u000a efficiency of light collection can be achieved by light guiding and special design of collectors. The optical path length\\u000a in a triangular

A. Goetzberger; W. Greubel

1977-01-01

433

Solar thermochemical energy conversion and transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high temperature catalytic dissociation of SO3 and the CO2-CH4 reforming-methanation cycle are important chemical processes being considered in the development and application of solar-thermal energy conversion, transport, and storage systems. Separate facilities for evaluating chemical converter-heat exchangers at temperatures to 1000 C with high flow rates of SO3 and of mixtures of CO2 and CH4 feedstocks have been assembled

J. H. McCrary; G. E. McCrary

1982-01-01

434

High-energy processes in solar flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of high-energy processes in solar flares is reported, including the production of neutrons and pions, and incorporating isobaric and scaling models and a recent compilation of pion production data (Dermer, 1986). The broad-band gamma-ray spectrum resulting from the decay of neutral pions, the bremsstrahlung of positrons and electrons from the decay of charged pions, and the annihilation

R. J. Murphy; C. D. Dermer; R. Ramaty

1987-01-01

435

77 FR 36532 - Review of Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Solar Energy Industries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket...Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Solar Energy Industries Association; California...rulemaking recently submitted by the Solar Energy Industries Association...

2012-06-19

436

Review of solar thermoelectric energy conversion and analysis of a two cover flat-plate solar collector  

E-print Network

The process of solar thermoelectric energy conversion was explored through a review of thermoelectric energy generation and solar collectors. Existing forms of flat plate collectors and solar concentrators were surveyed. ...

Hasan, Atiya

2007-01-01

437

1981 Solar Energy Technical Training Directory. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

Solar energy technical training is defined to include all programs or courses offered by post-secondary educational institutions that lead to a degree or substantial training skill in a solar or solar-related vocational or technical field. Technical skills range from design and installation to the maintenance of solar energy systems or components. This directory lists all schools which offer a technical degree - usually a certificate, associate, or equivalent - in a solar or solar energy-related area. In most cases, the institutions offering these programs consisted of vocational/technical schools and junior or community colleges. All schools listed in the 1981 directory have responded at least once in the last two years to the national solar education survey. Data which is over one year-old is marked with an asterick after the course or program listing. In all, the 1981 Solar Energy Technical Training Directory contains information from over 150 schools.

Not Available

1981-05-01

438

Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities. Passive solar design  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities using passive solar designs are presented. More than one million residences and 1, 700 commercial buildings across the U.S. now employ passive solar designs.

NONE

1996-05-01

439

Solar Energy Research Institute Validation Test House Site Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Validation Test House at the Solar Energy Research Institute in Golden, Colorado, is being used to collect performance data for analysis/design tool validation as part of the DOE Passive Solar Class A Performance Evaluation Program.

Burch, J.; Wortman, D.; Judkoff, R.; Hunn, B.

1985-05-01

440

Technology for Brayton-cycle space powerplants using solar and nuclear energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brayton-cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors to generate from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power-generating system. Their development for solar-energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants

1986-01-01

441

Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Polycrystalline Silicon : From Gas Molecule To Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the effort to investigate the use of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, has increased, their contribution to the total energy consumption remains insignificant. The conversion of solar energy into electricity through solar cells is one of the most promising techniques, but the use of these cells is limited by the high cost of electricity. The major contributions to these costs are the material and manufacturing costs. Over the past decades, the development of silicon based thin film solar cells has received much attention, because the fabrication costs are low. A promising material for use in thin film solar cells is polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si:H). A relatively new technique to deposit poly-Si:H is Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hot-Wire CVD), in which the reactant gases are catalytically decomposed at the surface of a hot filament, mainly tungsten and tantalum. The main advantages of Hot-Wire CVD over PE-CVD are absence of ion bombardment, high deposition rate, low equipment cost and high gas utilization. This thesis deals with the full spectrum of deposition, characterization and application of poly-Si:H thin films, i.e. from gas molecule to solar cell. Studies on the decomposition of silane on the filament showed that the process is catalytic of nature and that silane is decomposed into Si and 4H. The dominant gas phase reaction is the reaction of Si and H with silane, resulting in SiH3, Si2H6, Si3H6 and H2SiSiH2. The film growth precursors are Si, SiH3 and Si2H4. Also, XPS results on used tantalum and tungsten filaments are discussed. The position dependent measurements show larger silicon contents at the ends of the tungsten filament, as compared to the middle, due to a lower filament temperature. This effect is insignificant for a tantalum filament. Deposition time dependent measurements show an increase in silicon content of the tungsten filament with time, while the silicon content on the tantalum filament saturates rather quickly. The deposition of poly-Si:H layers using tantalum as filament material has been investigated by ellipsometry. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on a series of films deposited at increasing hydrogen dilution revealed that the crystallinity of the layers increased. The deposition of profiled layers, using a highly crystalline seed layer was studied by both spectroscopic and kinetic ellipsometry. Both studies showed that by using a seed layer, more crystalline layers could be deposited using higher silane flows at which normally amorphous silicon layers are grown. Poly-Si:H thin films deposited using tungsten, tantalum and rhenium as filament material have been characterized. Device-quality poly-Si:H layers have been deposited using tungsten as filament material. The materials deposited using tantalum and rhenium showed properties that are less than device-quality. Finally, some solar cell results are given. The highest efficiency obtained was 4.41% for a n-i-p solar cell with a thickness <1.5 mu-m without the use of a back reflector. An increase in solar cell performance could be achieved by (i) using a lower substrate temperature, (ii) incorporating a textured back reflector to increase the effective pathway of the light and (iii) by using a more stable n-layer, possibly deposited by Hot-Wire CVD.

van Veenendaal, P. A. T. T.

2002-10-01

442

An overview of the SERI Solar Energy Storage Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage concepts and thermal energy transport by sensible and latent heat media are studied. Systems analyses are performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and assessments are used to coordinate thermal energy storage activities for solar applications, particularly in building heating and cooling.

Wyman, C. E.

1981-03-01

443

Central receiver solar energy system for an oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a central receiver solar energy system that will provide practical and effective use of solar energy for an oil refinery currently being designed by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation for the Provident Energy Company is discussed. The refinery will be built 25 miles southwest of Phoenix, Arizona, and is scheduled to be in operation by 1983. The

R. E. Sommerlad; R. Raghavan; R. A. Pichnarcik

1980-01-01

444

Argonne OutLoud presents: The Solar Energy Challenge  

SciTech Connect

To better understand the current and future role of solar energy, Argonne's Seth Darling framed the global energy supply and demand outlook over the next 40 years while examining potential energy sources from a feasibility and sustainability perspective. He also discussed the promise and challenges of solar energy while providing a broad overview of related research taking place at Argonne as well as his group's work on organic solar cells.

Seth Darling

2012-07-13

445

Argonne OutLoud presents: The Solar Energy Challenge  

ScienceCinema

To better understand the current and future role of solar energy, Argonne's Seth Darling framed the global energy supply and demand outlook over the next 40 years while examining potential energy sources from a feasibility and sustainability perspective. He also discussed the promise and challenges of solar energy while providing a broad overview of related research taking place at Argonne as well as his group's work on organic solar cells.

Seth Darling

2013-06-05

446

Solar-hydrogen energy system for Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

A solar-hydrogen energy system has been proposed for Pakistan as the best replacement for the present fossil fuel based energy system. It has been suggested to produce hydrogen via photovoltaic-electrolysis, utilizing the available non-agricultural sunny terrain in Baluchistan region. There will be a desalination plant for sea water desalination. The area under the photovoltaic panels with the availability of water would provide suitable environment for growing some cash crops. This would change the cast useless desert land into green productive farms. In order to show the quantitative benefits of the proposed system, future trends of important energy and economical parameters have been studied with and without hydrogen introduction. The following parameters have been included: population, energy demand (fossil + hydrogen), energy production (fossil + hydrogen), gross national product, fossil energy imports, world energy prices, air pollution, quality of life, environmental savings due to hydrogen introduction, savings due to the higher utilization efficiency of hydrogen, by-product credit, agricultural income, income from hydrogen sale, photovoltaic cell area, total land area, water desalination plant capacity, capital investment, operating and maintenance cost, and total income from the system. The results indicate that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would eliminate the import dependency of fossil fuels, increase gross product per capita, reduce pollution, improve quality of life and establish a permanent and clean energy system. The total annual expenditure on the proposed system is less than the total income from the proposed system. The availability of water, the cash crop production, electricity and hydrogen would result in rapid development of Baluchistan, the largest province of Pakistan.

Lutfi, N.

1990-01-01

447

Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made substantial progress in experimental and theoretical studies in two areas: Photoinduced donor to acceptor electron transfer followed by back transfer in random solutions; and electronic excitation transport in systems with complex inhomogeneous spatial geometries and inhomogeneous energy distributions. Through the development of accurate statistical mechanical theories, we have been able to relate dynamics in complex systems to

Fayer

1989-01-01

448

78 FR 31997 - Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...500-1] Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp., Order of Suspension...accurate information concerning the securities of Solar Energy Ltd. because it has not filed any periodic...

2013-05-28

449

The case for solar/hydrogen energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available solar technologies for producing H2-based fuels for all uses by the turn of the century are discussed. Although the annual global insolation is over 20 times the total remaining fossil fuels, the source is diffuse and variable, and areas of greatest input are not collocated with sites of greatest use. Therefore, the H2 supply must be transportable and storable, and the production facilities require large areas. Hydrogen fuels have a naturally occurring, nearly limitless supply, water, are nonpolluting, recyclable, and have the highest energy conversion efficiency of all liquid fuels. The production energy sources feasible before the year 2000 are identified as thermal heat engines, solar cells, hydroelectric plants, and wind turbines. Water electrolysis is concluded to be the sole method available for solar/hydrogen systems, and it is shown that ocean cryotanker transport of H2 fuels could be accomplished at the same efficiency and cost as with LNG fuels. Systems for production and/or storage of H2 fuels for the home, in automobiles, and on ocean platforms are described, and an international program to develop the H2-based fuel system is recommended.

Escher, W. J. D.

450

Energy resources of the developing countries and some priority markets for the use of solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy consumption for the developed and non-developed world is expressed as a function of GNP. An almost straight-line graph results when energy consumption statistics are treated in this manner. The richest countries consume the most energy, and the poorest countries the least. It therefore follows that greater energy production in the developing countries (leading to greater energy consumption) will contribute to their economic growth. Energy resources in the developing countries are compared, including: solid fossil fuels, crude oil, natural gas, oil shale, and uranium. Mention is also made of the potential of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, in the underdeveloped world; and it is these resources which offer the greatest possibilities for economic improvement if the money is forthcoming, i.e., from the world bank, to fund the necessary technology.

Siddiqi, T. A.; Hein, G. F.

1977-01-01

451

A Simple and Inexpensive Solar Energy Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is presented which utilizes the current solid state technology to demonstrate electrochemical generation of hydrogen gas, direct generation of electricity for pumping water, and energy conversion efficiency. The experimental module costs about $100 and can be used repeatedly. (BB)

Evans, J. H.; Pedersen, L. G.

1979-01-01

452

(seminario usos de la energia solar en la vivienda) solar energy applications for dwellings. Seminar 17-19 nov 80  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: National Ecoplan; National Urban Development Plan; The National Housing Program and the Use of Solar Systems and not Conventional Energies in Human Settlements; National Infrastructure for the Development of Solar Energy; Plans to Incorporate Solar Energy Systems into Mexican Communities; General Panorama of Solar Energy Projects Being Carried out in Mexico; and Recent Demonstration Projects in Mexico.

Not Available

1980-11-01

453

Fuel cell energy recovery from landfill gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase 1 results are discussed of an EPA sponsored program to show energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. EPA is interested in fuel cells for the application because it is the cleanest energy conversion technology available. Phase 1 is a conceptual design, cist, and evaluation study. The conceptual design of the fuel energy recovery concept is described and its economic and environmental feasibility is projected. Phase 2 covers the construction and testing of a landfill gas pretreatment system which will render landfill gas suitable for use in the fuel cell. Phase 3 is the demonstration of the energy recovery concept.

Sandelli, G. J.; Spiegel, R. J.

454

Solar Ovens-Understanding Energy Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers the concept of solar ovens. In this lesson, students will learn how "thermal energy flows from the hot air to the cold water via conduction and will indicate that this would continue to happen until the water sample reaches the same temperature as the oven air. The students will also answer questions about how heat could be lost in the oven through conduction and convection, as well as how to get more solar radiation into the oven." Additionally, this experiment will prompt students to examine the relationships between conduction, convection, and radiation. Teacher and Student guides for parts one and two are included. 

2014-07-25

455

Off-farm applications of solar energy in agriculture  

SciTech Connect

Food processing applications make up almost all present off-farm studies of solar energy in agriculture. Research, development and demonstration projects on solar food processing have shown significant progress over the past 3 years. Projects have included computer simulation and mathematical models, hardware and process development for removing moisture from horticultural or animal products, integration of energy conservation with solar energy augmentation in conventional processes, and commercial scale demonstrations. The demonstration projects include solar heated air for drying prunes and raisins, soy beans and onions/garlic; and solar generated steam for orange juice pasteurization. Several new and planned projects hold considerable promise for commerical exploitation in future food processes.

Berry, R.E.

1980-01-01

456

Residential solar design review: A manual on community architectural controls and solar energy use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intended primarily for members of private architectural review committees working for homeowners' associations, this guidebook examined some of the design review committees to solar installations and buildings in relation to existing aesthetic goals in their communities. The guide describes typical solar energy systems and explains why they look the way they do. Design alternatives for highlighting, concealing, and integrating solar

M. Jaffe; D. Erley

1980-01-01

457

36Super-fast solar flares ! NASA's Ramaty High Energy Solar  

E-print Network

36Super-fast solar flares ! NASA's Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) satellite has been studying solar flares since 2002. The sequence of figures to the left shows a flaring region observed on November 3, 2003. This flare was rated as 'X3.9' making it an extremely powerful event

458

Solar-Heated Gasifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catalytic coal and biomass gasifer system heated by solar energy. Sunlight from solar concentrator focused through quartz window onto ceramic-honeycomb absorber surface, which raises temperature of reactant steam, fluidizing gas, and reactor walls.

Qader, S. A.

1985-01-01

459

Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuel’s photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MIT’s technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuels—called Hybrisol—can also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

None

2012-01-09

460

Solar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting Questionnaire As someone who is familiar with solar energy issues, we hope that you will tak  

E-print Network

is familiar with solar energy issues, we hope that you will take a few moments to answer this short survey on your needs for information on solar energy resources and forecasting. This survey is conducted with the California Solar Energy Collaborative (CSEC) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) our objective

Islam, M. Saif

461

Residual Energy Spectrum of Solar Wind Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 yr of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of ?r = -0.19 and mean Alfvén ratio of r A = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cross helicity were also investigated, showing that globally balanced intervals with small residual energy contain local patches of larger imbalance and larger residual energy at all scales, as expected for nonlinear turbulent interactions.

Chen, C. H. K.; Bale, S. D.; Salem, C. S.; Maruca, B. A.

2013-06-01

462

RESIDUAL ENERGY SPECTRUM OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 yr of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of {sigma}{sub r} = -0.19 and mean Alfven ratio of r{sub A} = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cross helicity were also investigated, showing that globally balanced intervals with small residual energy contain local patches of larger imbalance and larger residual energy at all scales, as expected for nonlinear turbulent interactions.

Chen, C. H. K.; Bale, S. D.; Salem, C. S.; Maruca, B. A., E-mail: chen@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-06-20

463

Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

1983-01-01

464

Analysis of PURPA and solar energy  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) is designed to promote energy conservation, the efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates. PURPA specifically directs the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to encourage small power production from renewable resources (and also cogeneration of electric energy as well as heat) by setting standards under which facilities qualify for interconnection, and guidelines for sales between utilities and independent facilities. The way FERC carries out this mandate may critically affect the development of solar alternatives to electric power production from fossil and nuclear resources. This report comments on proposed FERC regulations and suggests ways to encourage small power production within the PURPA mandate. In addition, some internal strains within PURPA are analyzed that seem to limit the effectiveness with which FERC can encourage independent facilities, and possible modifications to PURPA are suggested. 255 references.

Rice, M.

1980-03-01

465

ELEMENTARY ENERGY RELEASE EVENTS IN SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect

Most theoretical investigations of particle acceleration during solar flares cannot be applied to observations for detailed study of the time evolution. We propose a phenomenological model for turbulence evolution and stochastic particle acceleration that links observations to the energy release and particle acceleration through two coefficients characterizing particle interactions with turbulent electromagnetic fields. In the linear regime the particle distribution does not affect the turbulence energy cascade. It is shown that electron acceleration critically depends on the intensity of small-scale turbulence and an impulsive nonthermal component only appears near the peak of the gradually evolving turbulence intensity. The model naturally reproduces the soft-hard-soft pattern of hard X-ray pulses, and we attribute the observed change in flux and spectral index correlation from the rise to decay phase of some pulses to changes in the background plasma. Detailed modeling of well observed individual events will probe the energy release processes.

Liu Siming; Fletcher, Lyndsay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sliu@astro.gla.ac.uk

2009-08-10

466

Use of Renewable Energy in Buildings: Experiences With Solar Thermal Utilization  

E-print Network

Solar energy is receiving much more attention in building energy systems in recent years. Solar thermal utilization should be based on the integration of solar collectors into buildings. The facades of buildings can be important solar collectors...

Wang, R.; Zhai, X.

2006-01-01

467

Potential of solar domestic hot water systems in rural areas for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of solar energy for preparing domestic hot water is one of the easiest methods of utilization of this energy. At least part of the needs for warm tap water could be covered by solar systems. At present, mainly coal is used for water heating at dwellings in rural areas in Poland. Warm tap water consumption will increase significantly in the future as standards of living are improved. This can result in the growth of electricity use and an increase in primary fuel consumption. Present and future methods of warm sanitary water generation in rural areas in Poland is discussed, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are estimated. It is predicted that the emission of CO2 and NO x will increase. The emission of CO and CH4 will decrease because of changes in the structure of the final energy carriers used. The economic and market potentials of solar energy for preparing warm water in rural areas are discussed. It is estimated that solar systems can meet 30% 45% of the energy demand for warm water generation in rural areas at a reasonable cost, with a corresponding CO2 emission reduction. The rate of realization of the economic potential of solar water heaters depends on subsidies for the installation of equipment.

Skowronski, Pawel; Wisniewski, Grzegorz

1996-01-01

468

The SERI solar-energy-storage program in FY 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SERI solar energy storage program in FY 1982 is summarized against the background of earlier years and the broader program of energy storage technology. The program provides research, system analyses, and assessments of thermal and thermochemical storage and transport, for thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications (TESSTA). Current activities include recommendations for the development of promising storage concepts

W. Luft

1982-01-01

469

California solar energy study: decision-analysis panel report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate motivations behind an individual's decision to purchase or not to purchase a solar energy system for a home, the California Energy Commission initiated a comprehensive survey program to analyze, in some depth, attitudes toward solar energy use. As part of that program, the CEC contracted for a series of panels comprised of homogenous groups of individuals

J. B. Margolin; M. R. Misch

1979-01-01

470

Solar Workshop: Terawatt Challenge!!? Sponsored by UD Energy Institute  

E-print Network

Solar Workshop: Terawatt Challenge!!? Sponsored by UD Energy Institute February 28, 2014 Clayton as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion Joshua Zide University of Delaware #12; Hall Conference Center - University of Delaware www.energy.udel.edu Time Title of Presentation Speaker

Firestone, Jeremy

471

Overview of Solar Energy Research: 1990 to Present  

E-print Network

ESL-TR-04/07-01 OVERVIEW OF SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH: 1990 TO PRESENT Briefing Prepared for Dr. May Akrawi British Consulate Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E., W. Dan Turner, Ph.D., P.E. Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A... Introduction: Energy Systems Laboratory ................................................................................................... 2 2 U.S.D.O.E. Thin Film Solar Test Bench (Riverside...

Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

2004-01-01

472

Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition  

SciTech Connect

In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-02-01

473

The potential of solar energy use in desiccant cooling cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of heat produced by solar thermal collectors is an interesting option for thermal driven air conditioning processes. A thermal driven cooling technique which fits well to non-tracking solar collectors is the desiccant cooling technique. Recently several projects have been carried out which focus on the connection of desiccant cooling systems with solar thermal energy for regeneration of the

H-M Henning; T Erpenbeck; C Hindenburg; I. S Santamaria

2001-01-01

474

OPTIMAi UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN HEATING AND COOLINGOF BUILDINGS  

E-print Network

OPTIMAi UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN HEATING AND COOLINGOF BUILDINGS C. Byron Winn Gearold R fundamental optimization problems involved in the design of a solar building. The first is a parameter- formance analysis of specific designs of solar heated and cooled buildings. To use the design program

Moore, John Barratt

475

Study of a water desalination unit using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the study of a water desalination new design process working with the humidification-dehumidification (HD) method using solar energy. This process was developed in order to boost the productivity of the solar multiple condensation evaporation cycle unit which is located at the national school of engineering of Sfax, Tunisia, by integrating into the latter a flat-plate solar air

Khalifa Zhani; Habib Ben Bacha; Tarek Damak

2009-01-01

476

Mars Solar Balloon Landed Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of atmospheric evolution and past climatic conditions. A Micromission plan is under study where a surface package including a miniaturized GCMS would be delivered to the surface by a solar heated hot air balloon based system. The balloon system would be deployed about 8 km above the surface of Mars, wherein it would rapidly fill with Martian atmosphere and be heated quickly by the sun. The combined buoyancy and parachuting effects of the solar balloon result in a surface package impact of about 5 m/sec. After delivery of the package to the surface, the balloon would ascend to about 4 km altitude, with imaging and magnetometry data being taken for the remainder of the daylight hours as the balloon is blown with the Martian winds. Total atmospheric entry mass of this mission is estimated to be approximately 50 kg, and it can fit as an Ariane 5 piggyback payload. The GCMS would obtain samples directly from the atmosphere at the surface and also from gases evolved from solid phase material collected from well below the surface with a Sample Acquisition and Transport Mechanism (SATM). The experiment envisioned in the Mars Micromission described would obtain samples from a much greater depth of up to one meter below the surface, and would search for organic molecules trapped in ancient stratified layers well below the oxidized surface. Insitu instruments on upcoming NASA missions working in concert with remote sensing measurement techniques have the potential to provide a more detailed investigation of mineralogy and the extent of simple volatiles such as CO2 and H2O in surface and subsurface solid phase materials. Within the context of subsequent mission opportunities such as those provided by the Ariane 5 piggyback payload based Micromissions, it is essential to implement an even broader chemical analysis and to enable a significant extension of previous isotope measurements. Such a development would enhance the presently very active study of questions of atmospheric evolution and loss and past climatic conditions. The method selected to implement this program can be based on well-established mass spectrometry techniques. Sampled gas is chemically and physically processed to separate the gas mixture into components using gas chromatograph and related enrichment techniques. This allows trace species to be identified and reveals isotopic distributions in many cases with improved precision. Samples of interest, such as organic molecules, may lie deep below the highly oxidized surface layer and the suggested program includes enhanced sampling techniques to measure volatiles preserved in solid phase material deep below the surface as well as gas from the well mixed atmosphere.

Mahaffy, P.; Harpold, D.; Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Gorevan, S.; Israel, G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Jones, J.; Owen, T.; Raulin, F.

1999-01-01

477

Coal gasification with CO 2 in molten salt for solar thermal\\/chemical energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification with CO2 in Na2CO3–K2CO3 molten salt that was used as thermal storage for gas\\/solid heterogeneous reaction was studied to apply this system for solar thermal\\/chemical energy conversion. The reactions were performed at 1173 K under various CO2 flow rates, weights of the molten salt and Na2CO3\\/K2CO3 ratios. The CO2 gas consumption rate increased with increasing CO2 flow rate,

J Matsunami; S Yoshida; Y Oku; O Yokota; Y Tamaura; M Kitamura

2000-01-01

478

The SERI solar-energy-storage program in FY 1982  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SERI solar energy storage program in FY 1982 is summarized against the background of earlier years and the broader program of energy storage technology. The program provides research, system analyses, and assessments of thermal and thermochemical storage and transport, for thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications (TESSTA). Current activities include recommendations for the development of promising storage concepts for specified solar thermal power and process heat systems in house and subcontracted explorations of advanced concepts, and assessments of long distance solar thermal energy transport concepts.

Luft, W.

1982-07-01

479

Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close to 300 W/cm{sup 2} on the mould is high enough to achieve complete foaming after heating for only 200 s. Under these conditions, the density and pore distribution in the foam change depending on the solar heating parameters and mould design. (author)

Cambronero, L.E.G.; Ruiz-Roman, J.M. [Grupo de Materiales Hibridos, ETSIM-UPM, Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Canadas, I.; Martinez, D. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

2010-06-15

480

On solar ponds: salty fare for the world's energy appetite  

SciTech Connect

It is shown how a uniquely simple salt-gradient solar-energy trap is proving an economical source of electricity and low-temperature heat at various sites around the world. Problems with solar ponds include the thickening of the surface layer despite grids of wave-suppressors; the economics of using solar ponds to generate power and desalt water depend largely on the ability to operate without a synthetic liner; and some solar ponds lose much more heat to the ground than predicted. It is concluded that development of solar ponds is likely to depend on energy demand.

Edesess, M.

1982-11-01

481

Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

2007-01-01

482

Solar energy system performance evaluation: final report for Honeywell OTS 41, Shenandoah (Newnan), Georgia  

SciTech Connect

The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 41) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of data collected between January and August 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 41 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 702 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 1000-gallon thermal storage tank; a 3-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted air conditioner; a water-to-air heat exchanger for solar space heating; a finned-tube coil immersed in the storage tank to preheat water for a gas-fired hot water heater; and associated piping, pumps, valves, and controls. The solar system has six basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 7 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 53 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 219 MMBtu and provided 11.4 MMBtu for cooling, 8.6 MMBtu for heating, and 8.1 MMBtu for domestic hot water. The projected net annual energy savings due to the solar system were approximately 50 MMBtu of fossil energy (49,300 cubic feet of natural gas) and a loss of 280 kWh(e) of electrical energy.

Mathur, A K; Pederson, S

1982-08-01

483

Solar energy system performance evaluation-seasonal report for Elcam San Diego, San Diego, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system, Elcam San Diego, was designed to supply domestic hot water heating for a single family residence located in Encinitas, California. System description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, maintenance, and conclusions are presented. The system is a 'Sunspot' two tank cascade type, where solar energy is supplied to either a 66 gallon preheat tank (solar storage) or a 40 gallon domestic hot water tank. Water is pumped directly from one of the two tanks, through the 65 square feet collector array and back into the same tank. Freeze protection is provided by automatically circulating hot water from the hot water tank through the collectors and exposed plumbing when freezing conditions exist. Auxiliary energy is supplied by natural gas. Analysis is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for one full season of operation.

1980-01-01

484

Statistical analysis of solar proton events in different energy channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new catalogue of the solar proton events in the energy channels >10 MeV, >30 MeV, >60 MeV and >100 MeV and GLE for the period 1976-2000 was created. Solar proton events (SPEs) for three complete 11-year solar cycles (1976-2000) have been studied. Longitudinal distribution of the 168 identified Halpha solar flares and peak size distributions of all 200 events

A. Belov; V. Kurt; M. Gerontidou; H. Mavromichalaki

2001-01-01

485

Diabat L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004. SOLAR RADIATION CLIMATE IN AFRICA  

E-print Network

Diabaté L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004 is very useful for preliminary assessment and modeling of solar energy systems. Following the approach: clearness index, atmosphere optics, clustering, interpolation, map, solar energy systems Nomenclature: (KTd

Boyer, Edmond

486

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 88 (2005) 6573 Investigation of pulsed non-melt laser annealing  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 88 (2005) 65­73 Investigation of pulsed non-melt laser Available online 15 December 2004 Abstract Pulsed non-melt laser annealing (NLA) has been used for the first at selected laser energy density in the range 20­60 mJ/cm2 and pulse number in the range 5­20 pulses. XRD peak

Anderson, Timothy J.

487

Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents an overview of research conducted on solar energy technologies and their implementation in the ObjECTS framework. The topics covered include financing assumptions and selected issues related to the integration of concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics PV technologies into the electric grid. A review of methodologies for calculating the levelized energy cost of capital-intensive technologies is

Yabei Zhang; Steven J. Smith

2007-01-01

488

Feasibility of Hydrogen Energy Production Through Natural Gas Steam Reformation Process in the UAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a feasibility study of producing environmental friendly hydrogen energy through natural gas steam-reformation process in the UAE, which has estimated natural gas reserves of 224.9 ? 109GJ. The current findings demonstrated that the cost of hydrogen energy produced by steam-reformation is approximately $8.2\\/GJ, which is 10%, 45% and 57% less than hydrogen produced through biomass gasification, solar-hydrogen

A. Kazim

489

Optical analysis of solar energy tubular absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy absorbed by a solar energy tubular receiver element for a single incident ray is derived. Two types of receiver elements were analyzed: (1) an inner tube with an absorbing coating surrounded by a semi-transparent cover tube, and (2) a semitransparent inner tube filled with an absorbing fluid surrounded by a semitransparent cover tide. The formation of ray cascades in the semitransparent tubes is considered. A numerical simulation to investigate the influence of the angle of incidence, sizing, thickness, and coefficient of extinction of the tubes was performed. A comparison was made between receiver elements with and without cover tubes. Ray tracing analyses in which rays were followed within the tubular receiver element as well as throughout the rest of the collector were performed for parabolic and circular trough concentrating collectors.

Saltiel, C.; Sokolov, M.

1982-11-01

490

Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of solar thermal technologies  

E-print Network

To build an electric car plus renewable energy system for Singapore, solar thermal technologies were investigated in this report in the hope to find a suitable "green" energy source for this small island country. Among all ...

Liu, Xiaogang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

491

Solar flare particles - Energy-dependent composition and relationship to solar composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plastic and glass track detectors on rockets and Apollo spacecraft have been used to determine the composition of particles from He to Ni at energies from 0.1 to 50 MeV per nucleon in several solar flares of widely varying intensities. At low energies the composition of solar particles is enriched in heavy elements by an amount, relative to the asymptotic high-energy composition, that increases with atomic number from Z = 2 up to at least Z = 50, that decreases with energy, and that varies from flare to flare. At high energies (usually beyond an energy of 5 to 20 MeV per nucleon) the composition becomes independent of energy and, though somewhat variable from flare to flare, approximates the composition of the solar atmosphere. A table of abundances of the even-Z elements from He to Ni (plus N) in solar particles is constructed by averaging the asymptotic high-energy abundances in several flares.

Crawford, H. J.; Price, P. B.; Cartwright, B. G.; Sullivan, J. D.

1975-01-01

492

How Solar Energy Can Work for You  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of solar heated homes looks bright. The increase in availability of solar hardware and information along with tax credits point to an increase in both solar water and space heating. Solar systems can add to the value of a house. (BB)

Iker, Sam

1978-01-01

493

International Solar Centre, Berlin - A Comprehensive Energy Design  

E-print Network

ESL-IC-10/05-06 1 INTERNATIONAL SOLAR CENTRE BERLIN - A COMPREHENSIVE ENERGY DESIGN Robert Himmler M. Norbert Fisch Technical University Braunschweig Institute of Building and Solar Technology (IGS) Mühlenpfordtstr. 23 38106 Braunschweig... / Germany ABSTRACT The International Solar Centre is a unique development in Berlin, combining a historic building and contemporary architecture to create 20 700 m˛ of customised office workspace. The building promotes a sustainable energy economy...

Fisch, M. N.; Himmler, R.

2005-01-01

494

Solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO2 for combined production of electricity and thermal energy is proposed. The proposed system consists of evacuated solar collectors, power generating turbine, high-temperature heat recovery system, low-temperature heat recovery system, and feed pump. The system utilizes evacuated solar collectors to convert CO2 into high-temperature supercritical state, used to drive a turbine and

H. Yamaguchi; X. R. Zhang; K. Fujima; M. Enomoto; N. Sawada

2006-01-01

495

Solar-assisted heat pump systems and energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental solar-assisted heat pump system with solar energy storage in encapsulated phase change material (PCM) packings at the Karadeniz Technical University in Trabzon, Turkey is described. It includes 30 m² solar collectors, a latent-heat thermal energy storage tank filled with PCM, a heat exchanger, a heat pump with double evaporators and condenser, and a conventional air conditioning channel. The

K. Kaygusuz; Oe. Comakli; T. Ahyan

1991-01-01

496

Solar wind heating beyond 1 AU. [interplanetary atomic hydrogen gas effect on protons and electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of an interplanetary atomic hydrogen gas on solar wind proton, electron and alpha-particle temperatures beyond 1 AU is considered. It is shown that the proton temperature (and probably also the alpha-particle temperature) reaches a minimum between 2 AU and 4 AU, depending on values chosen for solar wind and interstellar gas parameters. Heating of the electron gas depends primarily on the thermal coupling of the protons and electrons. For strong coupling, the electron temperature reaches a minimum between 4 AU and 8 AU, but for weak coupling (Coulomb collisions only), the electron temperature continues to decrease throughout the inner solar system. A spacecraft travelling to Jupiter should be able to observe the heating effect of the solar wind-interplanetary hydrogen interaction, and from such observations it may be possible of infer some properties of the interstellar neutral gas.

Holzer, T. E.; Leer, E.

1973-01-01

497

Design and part-load behavior of a receiver for a solar-heated gas turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper deals with the conversion of solar energy in a gas turbine plant with a parabolic dish collector. Particular consideration is devoted to the thermodynamic and mechanical design and part-load behavior of the receiver. The incident sunlight is focused by the parabolic dish and then beamed into the cavity receiver. Here the working medium of the gas turbine flows through tubes and is heated up to the receiver outlet temperature. The task of the receivers is to transfer the radiated energy as efficiently as possible to the working medium. Furthermore the required heating surface should be small as possible, i.e., optimum use must be made of the tube material with respect to its state of stress. It is shown which geometric and thermodynamic plant parameters influence these two design criteria. An optimum receiver design is presented on the basis of the results thus obtained. Finally, the variations in receiver efficiency and tube stressing when the gas turbine runs at constant speed or constant turbine inlet temperature, are investigated.

Bammert, K.; Seifert, P.

1984-06-01

498

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Boeing Engineering and Construction. System design final report  

SciTech Connect

The system design for a future commercial solar energy brackish water desalination plant is described. Key features of the plant are discussed along with its configuration selection rationale, design objectives, operation, and performance. The water treatment technology used in the plant is ion exchange pretreatment and single stage reverse osmosis desalination utilizing high-flux membranes. Electrical power needed for plant operation is produced by a solar energy system, which is based on the Brayton cycle having air as the working fluid. Primary solar system components are: heliostat field, central cavity-tube receiver, receiver support tower, thermal energy storage, and a commercial gas turbine generator set. The thermal energy storage subsystem is of the sensible heat brick type and provides a capability for continuous day/night power generation during most weather conditions. This system design was selected in a study of various system alternatives and their life cycle product water costs for a representative site in western Texas.

Not Available

1986-01-01

499

Greening Local Energy: Explaining the Geographic Distribution of Household Solar Energy Use in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Solar energy has potential to solve many types of planning problems. Knowing where existing household solar energy users are located and what factors explain this distribution can help craft appropriate local policies.Purpose: This study analyzes the spatial distribution of households who heat their homes with solar energy across the contiguous United States.Methods: We use geographic information systems (GIS) and

Sammy Zahran; Samuel D. Brody; Arnold Vedlitz; Michael G. Lacy; Chelsea Lynn Schelly

2008-01-01

500

Energy Saving and GHG Emission Reduction in a Micro-CCHP System by Use of Solar Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and the energy saving by integrating solar collectors and photovoltaic panels in a Stirling engine based microcombined cooling, heating and power (mCCHP) system are studied. The mCCHP system consists of a natural gas Stirling CHP and an adsorber chiller. When the thermal outputs of the Stirling CHP and solar collectors are not sufficient to cover the heat demand for domestic hot water (DHW), heating/cooling, an auxiliary heating boiler starts to operate. The energy saving by using solar energy varies from 13.35% in December to 59.62% in April, in the case of solar collectors usage and from 7.47% in December to 28.27% in July, in the case of photovoltaic panels usage. By using solar energy the annual GHG emission decreases by 31.98% and the fuel cost reduction varies from 12.73% in December to 49.78% in June.

Ion, Ion V.; Ciocea, Gheorghe; Popescu, Florin

2012-12-01