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1

Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

Lee, J. H.

1981-01-01

2

Innovative gas energy systems for use with passive solar residences  

SciTech Connect

The GRI asked Booz, Allen, and Hamilton to analyze the integration of passive solar with gas-fired energy systems for heating and cooling homes. Direct gain, trombe wall, thermosiphon and thermal roof storage heating systems were studied. Solar load control, evaporative cooling, earth coupling, and night radiation cooling systems were investigated. The drawbacks of conventional gas backup systems are discussed. Innovative passive/gas combinations are recommended. These include multizone gas furnace, decentralized gas space heater, gas desiccant dehumidifier, and gas dehumidifier for basement drying. The multizone furnace saves $1500, and is recommended for Pilot Version development.

Hartman, D.; Kosar, D.

1983-06-01

3

Assessment of residential passive solar/gas-fired energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was made to provide a comprehensive analysis of the issues involved in integrating passive solar with gas-fired back-up energy systems including: characterize major passive solar technologies; analyze technical and economic requirements of back-up heating and cooling systems; evaluate potential improvements for gas-fired heating equipment that could enhance its fit with passive solar heating; investigate the feasibility of passive solar cooling coupled with gas dehumidification equipment; and identify R&D opportunities for GRI which offer benefits to the gas ratepayer and to the gas industry. Passive solar heating, because of its potential to significantly reduce home heating loads and of the ease with which electric backup systems can be installed could result in a decrease in gas market share, as a primary heating fuel in new housing.

Hartman, D. L.; Hirshberg, A. S.

1982-12-01

4

A solar simulator-pumped gas laser for the direct conversion of solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most proposed space power systems are comprised of three general stages, including the collection of the solar radiation, the conversion to a useful form, and the transmission to a receiver. The solar-pumped laser, however, effectively eliminates the middle stage and offers direct photon-to-photon conversion. The laser is especially suited for space-to-space power transmission and communication because of minimal beam spread, low power loss over large distances, and extreme energy densities. A description is presented of the first gas laser pumped by a solar simulator that is scalable to high power levels. The lasant is an iodide C3F7I that as a laser-fusion driver has produced terawatt peak power levels.

Weaver, W. R.; Lee, J. H.

1981-01-01

5

Energy cost and greenhouse gas emissions of a Chinese solar tower power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that the application of solar power system can save energy and relief global climate change. Presented in this study is the account of energy performance and greenhouse gas emissions of a planned solar tower power plant in China based on the life cycle analysis method. The conservative estimation of energy cost for the concerned plant is

Q. Yang; G. Q. Chen; Y. H. Zhao; B. Chen; Z. Li; Z. F. Wang

2011-01-01

6

A liquefied petroleum gas gasification system utilizing solar thermal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied petroleum gas (abbreviated as LPG) is still an important source of residential gas in China due to its advantages. LPG gasfier is the key equipment of the LPG center supplement system. Traditional LPG vaporizer mainly depends on electric heating as its heat source, which leads to high energy cost and can not meet the demand of energy conservation policy.

Guohua Shi; Youyin Jing; Yuefen Gao

2008-01-01

7

Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model was used to size the system to minimize the annualized cost of hot water. The annualized cost of solar-assisted gas-energy water heating is found to be less expensive than electric water heating but more expensive than gas water heating. The feasibility of a natural gas utility supplying the auxiliary fuel is evaluated. It is estimated that gas-utilizing companies will find it profitable to offer solar water heating as part of a total energy service option or on a lease basis when the price of new base-load supplies of natural gas reaches $2.50-$3.00 per million Btu.

Davis, E. S.

1975-01-01

8

Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

9

An Application of Solar Energy Storage in the Gas: Solar Heated Biogas Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature is an important factor that may affect the performance of anaerobic digestion. Therefore, biogas plants without heating system work only in warmer regions for the whole year. In regions with extreme temperature variations, for instance in Turkey, the biogas plant should be built with heating system. One of the methods is to use solar energy to increase the reactor

G. Kocar; A. Eryasar

2007-01-01

10

A space-based combined thermophotovoltaic electric generator and gas laser solar energy conversion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a spaceborne energy conversion system consisting of a thermophotovoltaic electric generator and a gas laser. As a power source for the converson, the system utilizes an intermediate blackbody cavity heated to a temperature of 2000-2400 K by concentrated solar radiation. A double-layer solar cell of GaAs and Si forms a cylindrical surface concentric to this blackbody cavity, receiving the blackbody radiation and converting it into electricity with cell conversion efficiency of 50 percent or more. If the blackbody cavity encloses a laser medium, the blackbody radiation can also be used to simultaneously pump a lasing gas. The feasibility of blackbody optical pumping at 4.3 microns in a CO2-He gas mixture was experimentally demonstrated.

Yesil, Oktay

1989-01-01

11

Coal gasification by CO 2 gas bubbling in molten salt for solar\\/fossil energy hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification with CO2 (the Boudouard reaction: C+CO2=2CO, ?rH°=169.2 kJ\\/mol at 1150 K), which can be applied to a solar thermochemical process to convert concentrated solar heat into chemical energy, was conducted in the molten salt medium (eutectic mixture of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, weight ratio=1\\/1) to provide thermal storage. When CO2 gas was bubbled through the molten salt, higher reaction

Jun Matsunami; Shinya Yoshida; Yoshinori Oku; Osamu Yokota; Yutaka Tamaura; Mitsunobu Kitamura

2000-01-01

12

Solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first section, New Interest in Solar Development, discusses solar technology under the following topics: enormous abundance of energy from the sun; existing uses for heating water and buildings; cost factor for conversion of sunlight to electricity; and wind power as indirect use of solar energy. In the second section, Progress Toward Tapping Sun Power, the topics are: historical experiments

Hamer

1976-01-01

13

Toward the renewables - A natural gas/solar energy transition strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inevitability of an energy transition from today's non-renewable fossil base toward a renewable energy base is considered from the viewpoint of the need for a national transition strategy. Then, one such strategy is offered. Its technological building blocks are described in terms of both energy use and energy supply. The strategy itself is then sketched at four points in its implementation; (1) initiation, (2) early transition, (3) late transition, and (4) completion. The transition is assumed to evolve from a heavily natural gas-dependent energy economy. It then proceeds through its transition toward a balanced, hybrid energy system consisting of both centralized and dispersed energy supply technologies supplying hydrogen and electricity from solar energy. Related institutional, environmental and economic factors are examined briefly.

Hanson, J. A.; Escher, W. J. D.

1979-01-01

14

Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/683/), and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

Biewick, Laura R. H.; Wilson, Anna B.

2014-01-01

15

Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

Building Design and Construction, 1977

1977-01-01

16

Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model

E. S. Davis

1975-01-01

17

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

1981-01-01

18

Solar thermal energy receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

Baker, Karl W. (inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (inventor)

1992-01-01

19

Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 11 of PDF), learners compare the air pressure within a dark and a light bottle both heated by the sun, and discover that solar energy can be collected and stored in many ways. Although this was created as a post-visit activity for a workshop about photosynthesis, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity.

COSI

2009-01-01

20

Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

Knapp, Henry H., III

21

Alternative Energy: Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of the sun's energy. Topics include the history of solar energy usage and its more recent adaptations. There is also discussion of how the sun produces and radiates energy, what happens when it reaches Earth, types of solar systems, and the most common use of solar energy (heating). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate the effects of color and collection area on the amount of solar energy absorbed by a system. They will use aluminum pie pans of different sizes and colors and compare the relative effect by their ability to heat water placed in them.

John Pratte

22

Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

O'Brien, Alexander

23

The solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothermic decomposition of natural gas into a carbon-rich condensed phase and a hydrogen-rich gas phase, using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat, is considered as a model reaction for conducting a 2nd-law analysis of a solar decarbonization process in which carbon is removed from fossil fuels prior to their use for power generation. The theoretical

D. Hirsch; M. Epstein; A. Steinfeld

2001-01-01

24

Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy generation of electricity is advocated as a means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions associated with the generation from fossil fuels. Whilst it is true that renewable sources do not generate significant carbon dioxide whilst producing electricity, as with fossil-fuelled plants they do embody significant emissions in their materials of construction. The “full-chain” environmental impacts of wind, hydro, solar-thermal

Brian Norton; Phillip C Eames; Steve NG Lo

1998-01-01

25

Solar Energy Entrepreneurs  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region May 31, 2012 #12;Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region Meeting Objectives growth · Make our region an increasingly stronger hub for solar power You

Rubloff, Gary W.

26

Solar energy collection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collection system for a building is described. A solar energy collector is disposed at the exterior surface of the building and includes a solar energy absorbent body having a surface which is exposed to sunlight and from which solar energy can be transmitted as sensible heat. A panel which is transparent to sunlight is spaced from the

Hummell

1978-01-01

27

Solar energy collection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collection system for a building is described. A solar energy collector is disposed at the exterior surface of the building and includes a solar energy absorbent body having a surface which is exposed to sunlight and from which solar energy can be transmitted as sensible heat. A panel which is transparent to sunlight is spaced from the

1982-01-01

28

Solar energy assessment using remote sensing technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 20% of the final energy consumed in Europe is used in buildings. The active and passive use of solar energy is an approach to reduce the fossil energy consumption and the greenhouse gas emissions originated by buildings. Consideration of solar energy technologies in urban planning demands accurate information of the available solar resources. This can be achieved by the

Annette Hammer; Detlev Heinemann; Carsten Hoyer; Rolf Kuhlemann; Elke Lorenz; Richard Müller; Hans Georg Beyer

2003-01-01

29

Solar energy assessment using remote sensing technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 20% of the final energy consumed in Europe is used in buildings. The active and passive use of solar energy is an approach to reduce the fossil energy consumption and the greenhouse gas emissions originated by buildings. Consideration of solar energy technologies in urban planning demands accurate information of the available solar resources. This can be achieved by the

Annette Hammer; Detlev Heinemann; Carsten Hoyer; Rolf Kuhlemann; Elke Lorenz; Richard Muller; Hans Georg

30

Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric-and Nuclear Power: A Life-cycle  

E-print Network

Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric- and Nuclear, photovoltaic, nuclear, life cycle 1 #12;Introduction The production of energy by burning fossil fuels generates, it is envisioned that expanding generation technologies based on nuclear power and renewable energy sources would

31

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

1984-01-01

32

A Solar Energy Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 5,000 references to literature through 1976 dealing with various aspects of solar energy. Categories are established according to area of solar research. These categories include: (1) overview; (2) measurement; (3) low-range solar energy collection (below 120 degrees C); (4) intermediate-range solar energy collection (120…

Guthrie, David L.; Riley, Robert A.

33

Solar Energy Usage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar

Crank, Ron

34

History of Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Solar Center offers this history of Solar Energy. Written by John Perlin, author of "From Space to Earth - The Story of Solar Electricity," the article summarizes three major solar energy subjects -- photovoltaics, solar thermal, and passive solar architecture. Visitors can get a quick overview of "how we have learned to capture sunlight and use it to make electricity, heat water and heat our homes."

35

Alternatives in solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

Schueler, D. G.

1978-01-01

36

[Efficiency of oxidant gas generator cells powered by electric or solar energy].  

PubMed

Diseases caused by microbial contaminants in drinking water continue to be a serious problem in countries like Mexico. Chlorination, using chlorine gas or chlorine compounds, is one of the best ways to treat drinking water. However, difficulties in handling chlorine gas and the inefficiency of hypochlorite solution dosing systems--due to sociopolitical, economic, and cultural factors--have reduced the utility of these chlorination procedures, especially in far-flung and inaccessible rural communities. These problems led to the development of appropriate technologies for the disinfection of water by means of the on-site generation of mixed oxidant gases (chlorine and ozone). This system, called MOGGOD, operates through the electrolysis of a common salt solution. Simulated system evaluation using a hydraulic model allowed partial and total costs to be calculated. When powered by electrical energy from the community power grid, the system had an efficiency of 90%, and in 10 hours it was able to generate enough gases to disinfect about 200 m3 of water at a cost of approximately N$8 (US $1.30). When the electrolytic cell was run on energy supplied through a photoelectric cell, the investment costs were higher. A system fed by photovoltaic cells could be justified in isolated communities that lack electricity but have a gravity-fed water distribution system. PMID:9542448

Brust Carmona, H; Benitez, A; Zarco, J; Sánchez, E; Mascher, I

1998-02-01

37

Nonrenewable energy cost and greenhouse gas emissions of a 1.5 MW solar power tower plant in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that renewable energy based systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and save fossil energy from the grid. Nevertheless, any energy conversion systems need extra energy to deliver energy into society. It is necessary to estimate the total direct and indirect fossil energy cost and associated greenhouse gas emissions by any system over its

G. Q. Chen; Q. Yang; Y. H. Zhao; Z. F. Wang

2011-01-01

38

Solar radiant energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar radiant energy collector comprising a source of liquid having a medium dispersed therein with a high absorptance to solar energy, a transparent tube of an extended length wound in a configuration to provide a flat-like planar surface for maximum exposure to solar radiant energy, a reflector surface positioned on the opposite side of said planar surface to that

Minardi

1974-01-01

39

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar window which can alternatively act either as a passive solar heat collector or an active solar heat collector. A substantially transparent pair of panels are mounted in opposed position to each other and define a chamber therebetween. When it is desired to admit solar energy to the structure in which the window is mounted, air is permitted to

Mcclintock

1983-01-01

40

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for generating solar energy utilizes a plurality of solar radiation absorption bodies formed as spherical balls which interact with solar radiation focalization devices which constitute paraboloid mirrors in order to effect heating of the spherical balls by the solar radiation which is concentrated at an irradiation position defined by the paraboloid mirrors. The heated balls are transported to

Merges

1981-01-01

41

Matter & Energy Solar Energy  

E-print Network

standard semiconductor in most electronic devices, including the photovoltaic cells that solar panels use efficient than the more commonly used silicon. (Credit: John Rogers) Ads by Google Solar Panel Available Now windturbines solar panels www.c

Rogers, John A.

42

Hybrid mode solar power plant with gas and steam cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic improvement of combined gas and steam cycles by the addition of pressure stages is discussed. The terminal temperature difference between the gas turbine exhaust gas and the heated water\\/steam is reduced and the exhaust gas is cooled accordingly. For solar power plants which feed constant power into the electric grid, supplementary fossil fuel energy input into the cycle in

K. Bammert; H. H. Finckh

1983-01-01

43

Solar Energy Technician/Installer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

Moore, Pam

2007-01-01

44

Solar energy emplacement developer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

1991-01-01

45

Experimenting with Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

Roman, Harry T.

2004-01-01

46

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power  

E-print Network

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Over the last thirty years, more-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation could publication (Burkhardt et al. 2012). LCA of Energy Systems Concentrating Solar Power Coal #12;Published

47

Solar energy modulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

Hale, R. R. (inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

1984-01-01

48

Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

Knapp, Henry H., III

49

Solar energy and building  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume gives a systematic survey of research into the uses of solar energy for heating and providing other energy requirements of residential and nonresidential buildings. General data on global energy consumption and solar radiation are presented, and various methods available for the conversion of radiant energy into a useable form are examined. These include chemical, electrical, and thermal conversion,

S. V. Szokolay

1975-01-01

50

Solar Energy: Heat Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

Knapp, Henry H., III

51

Solar Energy: Home Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

Knapp, Henry H., III

52

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle pressure is close to atmospheric pressure, then the vacuum pump will evacuate the hydrogen gas from the first bottle to store into the second high pressure bottle. When the first bottle become vacuum then the procedure is repeated again.

Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

2009-09-01

53

Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

None

2011-01-01

54

Fluid absorption solar energy receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

Bair, Edward J.

1993-01-01

55

Iowa and solar energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are some different ways solar energy is used in our society? This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to five uses for solar energy in the state of Iowa. They include signs by the department of transportation, roof grids, solar cars, thin-film photovoltaics, and tents produced for the U.S. Army. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

56

Solar Energy Development Progresses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an engineering conference at which participants agreed that solar energy is a feasible energy source, although costs of such technology are presently very high. Also describes recent developments in solar energy research, and estimates the costs of this technology. (MLH)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

1975-01-01

57

Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

Knapp, Henry H., III

58

Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy

Knapp, Henry H., III

59

Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy

Buchanan, Marion; And Others

60

Solar energy: principles and possibilities.  

PubMed

As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities. PMID:20222355

Rhodes, Christopher J

2010-01-01

61

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a solar energy system, which includes a lower solar energy collector. It comprises: an outer cabinet including a top, bottom, a front, a back and opposite sides; the outer cabinet including an opening; the outer cabinet forming an enclosed interior; an inner cabinet including a top, a bottom, a front, a back and opposite sides; the inner

1990-01-01

62

Solar energy device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy powered hot air turbine is described comprising a heat collector having an air inlet and outlet with the turbine connected to the air inlet. The heat collector is heated by solar energy and is constructed so that the hot air exhausts through the air outlet thus sucking air in through the air inlet to power the turbine.

Newland

1977-01-01

63

Baseload Solar Power for California? Ammonia-based Solar Energy Storage Using Trough Concentrators  

E-print Network

Baseload Solar Power for California? Ammonia-based Solar Energy Storage Using Trough Concentrators.1. Storing Solar Energy with Ammonia H2 / N2 gas liquid NH3 Heat Exchangers Power Generation (Steam Cycle to eventually optimise the reactor geometry for ammonia-based solar energy storage with troughs, which

64

Solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1977-01-01

65

Solar energy for industrial process heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

1979-01-01

66

Considerations for the calculation of greenhouse gas reduction by photovoltaic solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CO2 comprehensive balance within the life-cycle of a photovoltaic energy system requires careful examination of the CO2 sinks and sources at the locations and under the conditions of production of each component, during transport, installation and operation, as well as at the site of recycling. Calculations of the possible effect on CO2 reduction by PV energy systems may be

S. Krauter; R. Ruther

2004-01-01

67

Florida Solar Energy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An institute of the University of Central Florida, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is the largest and most active state-supported renewable energy and energy efficiency research, training, testing and certification institute in the United States. FSEC's mission is to research and develop energy technologies that enhance Florida's economy and environment, and to educate the public, students and practitioners on the results of the research. Their website contains educational resources for children and adults, including workshops and courses about working with solar energy systems, energy gauge rater training, and building science training and certification. Also available are useful guides about home energy ratings, maximizing energy efficiency in the home, energy efficient home-design tips, and information about solar energy.

2002-04-04

68

Solar Server: Forum for Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Germany, this site provides a forum for news and information regarding all aspects of solar energy. The site provides background information on the technical aspects pertaining to solar energy and photovoltaics. A variety of images and descriptions provide useful background information about photovoltaic roof tiles and their role in solar buildings.

69

Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

2011-03-01

70

SOLAR ENERGY Andrew Blakers  

E-print Network

. These are energy from the sun (in its various forms), nuclear energy (fission and fusion), fossil energy (coal, oil and thorium deposit limitations, and waste disposal. Nuclear fusion is still several decades away from combined, including fossil, nuclear fission and geothermal. Solar energy: · is indefinitely sustainable

71

Solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (inventors)

1979-01-01

72

Solar Energy Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty articles addressing different aspects of solar energy are compiled in this book. They represent the views of different governmental and non-governmental organizations, members of congress, and other individuals including, for example, Barry Commoner and Amory Lovins. Topics discussed include the need for federal support, passive solar

Rose, Harvey, Ed.

73

The Solar Energy Notebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

74

Hybrid mode solar power plant with gas and steam cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic improvement of combined gas and steam cycles by the addition of pressure stages is discussed. The terminal temperature difference between the gas turbine exhaust gas and the heated water/steam is reduced and the exhaust gas is cooled accordingly. For solar power plants which feed constant power into the electric grid, supplementary fossil fuel energy input into the cycle in a combustion chamber downstream of the receiver is suggested. The fuel energy, which is input at a higher temperature level than is possible with solar energy, is converted into mechanical and electric power at a higher degree of utilization than in a straight fossil fuelled power plant. The solar energy, which is input at a relatively low temperature, is upgraded if the working fluid is heated in the tailing combustion chamber to a temperature higher than the limit imposed by the receiver.

Bammert, K.; Finckh, H. H.

75

Brayton cycle solarized advanced gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is the development of a Brayton Engine/Generator Set for solar thermal to electrical power conversion, authorized under DOE/NASA Contract DEN3-181. The objective was to design, fabricate, assemble, and test a small, hybrid, 20-kW Brayton-engine-powered generator set. The latter, called a power conversion assembly (PCA), is designed to operate with solar energy obtained from a parobolic dish concentrator, 11 meters in diameter, or with fossil energy supplied by burning fuels in a combustor, or by a combination of both (hybrid model). The CPA consists of the Brayton cycle engine, a solar collector, a belt-driven 20-kW generator, and the necessary control systems for automatic operation in solar-only, fuel-only, and hybrid modes to supply electrical power to a utility grid. The original configuration of the generator set used the GTEC Model GTP36-51 gas turbine engine for the PCA prime mover. However, subsequent development of the GTEC Model AGT101 led to its selection as the powersource for the PCA. Performance characteristics of the latter, thermally coupled to a solar collector for operation in the solar mode, are presented. The PCA was successfully demonstrated in the fuel-only mode at the GTEC Phoenix, Arizona, facilities prior to its shipment to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for installation and testing on a test bed concentractor (parabolic dish). Considerations relative to Brayton-engine development using the all-ceramic AGT101 when it becomes available, which would satisfy the DOE heat engine efficiency goal of 35 to 41 percent, are also discussed in the report.

1986-01-01

76

Energy 101: Solar PV  

ScienceCinema

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

None

2013-05-29

77

Energy 101: Solar PV  

SciTech Connect

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

None

2011-01-01

78

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment  

E-print Network

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University..................................................................................................................... 1 2 Solar Resource Assessment ........................................................................................... 2 2.1 Solar Radiation

Brownstone, Rob

79

Using Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how solar energy can be used to heat water. Learners first discuss energy usage in their daily lives and then divide into pairs to conduct an experiment in which they use the sun to heat water. As an optional extension, learners can follow this activity with a project to design their own alternative energy invention.

American Museum of Natural History

2008-01-01

80

Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)

Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

81

Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the possibilities afforded by solar energy as one of the alternative energy sources capable to take the place of the dwindling oil and gas reserves. Solar energy, being a nondepleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. Steps taken toward providing innovative solutions that are economically competitive with other systems are briefly reviewed.

Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

1973-01-01

82

Solar energy unit  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collection device, the present invention provides a transparent housing formed in the shape of a pyramid, a fluid being directed through the interior of the pyramid for absorption of heat energy concentrated within the interior of said pyramid by the walls thereof.

Jones, J.M.

1980-06-03

83

Hydroelectric Solar Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A means of direct conversion of solar energy to hydroelectric energy is discussed. The mechanism is appropriate to low-lying coastal desert regions with high potential evaporation rates. Formulas for output power are obtained. Climate and related data appropriate to suitable locations are included.

RICHARD L. LIBOFF

1978-01-01

84

Hydroelectric solar energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A means of direct conversion of solar energy to hydroelectric energy is discussed. The mechanism is appropriate to low-lying coastal desert regions with high potential evaporation rates. Formulas for output power are obtained. Climate and related data appropriate to suitable locations are included. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors

R. L. Liboff

1978-01-01

85

Solar energy conversion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy conversion apparatus is disclosed including a housing portion, an energy absorbing portion, a fluid directing portion and a cover portion; the housing portion including a molded plastic pan member including a base section with upwardly extending spaced spacer sections, the pan member including outwardly inclined sidewall sections having spaced inner and outer wall sections with a top section

1983-01-01

86

Solar energy conversion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy conversion apparatus including a housing portion, an energy absorbing portion, a fluid directing portion and a cover portion; the housing portion including a molded plastic pan member including a base section with upwardly extending spaced spacer sections, insulation covering the exposed surface of the base section to a depth less than the height of the spacer sections; the

1983-01-01

87

The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

Bockris, J. O'M.

1974-01-01

88

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect

If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces an equally rich future, with nanoscience enabling the discovery of the guiding principles of photonic energy conversion and their use in the development of cost-competitive new technologies.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S. (Materials Science Division); (California Inst. of Tech.)

2008-03-01

89

Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

1980-01-01

90

Energy payback and CO{sub 2} gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences  

SciTech Connect

A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

Kulcinski, G.L.

2002-12-01

91

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling  

SciTech Connect

A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

92

Gas Turbine\\/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined

C. S. Turchi; Z. Ma; M. Erbes

2011-01-01

93

Solar energy system and solar collector therefor  

SciTech Connect

A solar collector for a solar energy system comprises a solar absorber for converting solar radiation into heat, a heat transfer fluid for transferring heat from the solar absorber, at least one passage for flow of the fluid in contact with the solar absorber surface, and apparatus for creating a relative vacuum in the at least one passage so as to minimize the creation of a stagnant boundary layer of the fluid when it is pumped through the at least one passage. The at least one passage is preferably formed by a convoluted surface on the solar absorber which defines at least one groove, and a flexible sheet which overlies the convoluted surface and sealingly engages the surface through the action of a vacuum. The heat transfer fluid preferably is selected from the group of mineral oil, aliphatic hydrocarbon oils, and silicone oils.

Allen, R.W.

1982-03-23

94

Rapid Solar-thermal Dissociation of Natural Gas in an Aerosol Flow Reactor  

E-print Network

black production. For solar-thermal processing, where carbon black is sold, fossil energy usageRapid Solar-thermal Dissociation of Natural Gas in an Aerosol Flow Reactor Jaimee Dahl a , Karen A solar-thermal aerosol flow reactor process is being developed to dissociate natural gas (NG) to hydrogen

95

Solar Photovoltaic Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

1979-01-01

96

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector includes a housing having a back reflective wall and a transparent forward wall. The chamber between the walls is sealed against air-interchange with the surrounding air. A number of parallel blackened pipes are interconnected to define a fluid path from an inlet to an outlet, and the pipes are spaced so that there exists a plurality

1979-01-01

97

Solar energy assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector and heat exchanger assembly is described comprising a housing having a transparent top, a transparent wall within the housing parallel to the top to divide the housing into upper and lower chambers, the upper chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet, the lower chamber having a liquid inlet interconnected by a conduit to a

1979-01-01

98

Solar energy transport system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector comprises a heat conducting sheet having a front surface exposed to the sun and a system of liquid-receiving open-top troughs projecting from the back surface into an air space, with liquid supply means delivering liquid to the troughs and drain means receiving any liquid overflowing the troughs. Inlet and outlet air conduits communicate with the air

1977-01-01

99

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector is described which consists of: (a) a frame; (b) a heat absorbing panel supported in the frame so as to be exposed to sun rays, the panel having spaced magnifying lens integral with the panel through its top surface in order to concentrate the sun rays for increased efficiency and hot water heating areas, the area

Stephens

1986-01-01

100

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy system employing high-pressure high velocity air as the primary heat transfer medium comprises a plurality of collector panels connected in parallel with each other in a closed loop that also includes an air compressor and a heat exchanger that is connected to external energy utilization means. A self-actuating temperature-responsive air flow control valve associated with each collector

1981-01-01

101

Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

Cherry, W. R.

1974-01-01

102

Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue] [Purdue

2014-01-21

103

Central solar energy receiver  

DOEpatents

An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

104

SOLARES - A new hope for solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of orbiting reflectors, SOLARES, has been studied as a possible means of reducing the diurnal variation and enhancing the average intensity of sunlight with a space system of minimum mass and complexity. The key impact that such a system makes on the economic viability of solar farming and other solar applications is demonstrated. The system is compatible with incremental implementation and continual expansion to meet the world's power needs. Key technology, environmental, and economic issues and payoffs are identified. SOLARES appears to be economically superior to other advanced, and even competitive with conventional, energy systems and could be scaled to completely abate our fossil fuel usage for power generation. Development of the terrestrial solar conversion technique, optimized for this new artificial source of solar radiation, yet remains.

Billman, K. W.; Gilbreath, W. P.; Bowen, S. W.

1978-01-01

105

Solar energy storage using phase change materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the climb in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind efforts to more effectively utilise various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. However, the large-scale utilisation of this form

Murat Kenisarin; Khamid Mahkamov

2007-01-01

106

Solar energy collector  

SciTech Connect

A solar window which can alternatively act either as a passive solar heat collector or an active solar heat collector. A substantially transparent pair of panels are mounted in opposed position to each other and define a chamber therebetween. When it is desired to admit solar energy to the structure in which the window is mounted, air is permitted to be retained in the chamber and sunlight to pass through the window to thus heat the interior of the structure. When heat is not required in the structure, a second fluid which may be an optically dense solar energy absorbent or reflective fluid is passed through the chamber so as to respectively absorb or reflect the sunlight passing into the chamber, and in this way reduce the amount of solar heat passing through the window, and, in the case of an absorbent fluid, to retain the heat for later use. Pleasing architectural aesthetics or practical advantages in the case of greenhouses may further be obtained by passing colored fluid through the chamber which fluid may additionally achieve the selective absorption of light of certain wavelengths passing through the window. An alternative embodiment of the invention includes providing the inside window panel with grooves adjacent the chamber and disposed at such an angle thereto that radiation in a spectral region in which the material of said window is at least partially transparent attempting to pass outwardly through said window is substantially reflected back into said structure. Accordingly the angle at which the walls of such grooves are disposed must exceed the critical angle to support total internal reflection for the particular materials utilized.

Mcclintock, M.

1983-01-18

107

Solar energy: Technology and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that in 1970 the total energy consumed in the U.S. was equal to the energy of sunlight received by only 0.15% of the land area of the continental U.S. The utilization of solar energy might, therefore, provide an approach for solving the energy crisis produced by the consumption of irreplaceable fossil fuels at a steadily increasing rate. Questions regarding the availability of solar energy are discussed along with the design of solar energy collectors and various approaches for heating houses and buildings by utilizing solar radiation. Other subjects considered are related to the heating of water partly or entirely with solar energy, the design of air conditioning systems based on the use of solar energy, electric power generation by a solar thermal and a photovoltaic approach, solar total energy systems, industrial and agricultural applications of solar energy, solar stills, the utilization of ocean thermal power, power systems based on the use of wind, and solar-energy power systems making use of geosynchronous power plants.

Williams, J. R.

1974-01-01

108

A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer for solar and planetary observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a prototype spectrometer for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. In this recently developed spectrometer, the energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

Judge, Darrell L.

1994-01-01

109

New Mexico Solar Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Mexico Solar Energy Association provides valuable educational resources for teaching students about solar energy. The site has a variety of student projects, resources, and curricula examples. The resources provided on the site cover solar cell demonstrations, DC electricity, photovoltaics, and sustainability.

110

Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power  

ScienceCinema

From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

None

2013-05-29

111

Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power  

SciTech Connect

From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

None

2010-01-01

112

Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy  

E-print Network

Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both ...

Nocera, Daniel G.

113

Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video describes how concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar energy to generate electricity. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and focuses on parabolic troughs.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

114

Solar energy for the hospital?  

PubMed

You can't scrap your boiler and expect solar panels to provide steam for process and heating, but solar systems are cost-effective now for domestic hot water generation, according to a leading solar energy engineering/design/build firm. PMID:10249853

1981-01-01

115

Fluidized bed solar energy heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is an improved solar air heater which comprises an air fluidized bed unit having: (A) an inlet for incoming cool air; (B) an outlet for heated air; (C) a clear coverplate; (D) a solar heat collector element disposed within said unit for absorbing heat from solar energy entering said unit through said cover plate; and (E) a fluidization zone

1982-01-01

116

SERI (Solar Energy Research Institute) solar radiation resource assessment project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earth receives vast amounts of energy from the sun in the form of incident solar radiation. Solar radiation drives the earth's weather and sustains life. As a result of the increasing costs, uncertain availability, and potentially severe environmental impacts of other sources of energy, insolation is being considered as a clean renewable energy source for our needs for heating, cooling, electricity, and fuels. Widespread interest and activities were initiated immediately after the oil embargo of the mid-1970s. For many applications, the insolation must be converted to a different form, such as heat, electricity, or a fuel (liquid, gas, or solid). A technology that can do this is known as a solar energy conversion device or technology. A wide range of candidate technologies is being developed. Some of these technologies include photovoltaics (converting insolation to electricity), solar thermal (converting insolation to heat), solar thermal-electric (converting insolation to heat, then to electricity), and biomass (converting insolation to biomass and then to fuels).

Hulstrom, R. L.; Maxwell, E.; Riordan, C.; Rymes, M.; Stoffel, T.

1989-10-01

117

Solar energy: the awakening science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book concerns answers to the questions: (1) is solar energy the key to the future of our energy needs; and (2) what are the facts and true potential of this enormous, still largely unexplored source of renewable power. It reviews the knowledge of solar energy from the mirrors that Archimedes used to set a Roman fleet aflame in 215

D. Behrman

1976-01-01

118

Gas Turbine\\/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine \\/ parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines

C. S. Turchi; Z. Ma

2011-01-01

119

Terrestrial solar thermionic energy conversion systems concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results obtained from studies of a (1) solar concentrator, (2) solar energy receiver - thermionic converter system, and (3) solar thermionic topping system are described. Peripheral subsystems, which are required for any solar energy conversion system, are also discussed.

Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

1975-01-01

120

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark  

E-print Network

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-22 #12;Connectable solar air collectors Søren �stergaard Jensen Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre Package 91 #12;92 #12;93 #12;Appendix B Working drawings for the connectable solar air collectors 94 #12

121

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark  

E-print Network

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-22 #12;Connectable solar air collectors Søren �stergaard Jensen Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre within the project "Connectable solar air collector/PVT collector" (Sammenkoblelig luftsolfanger

122

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

DOEpatents

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01

123

Hydrogen production from solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

1975-01-01

124

SOLAR ENERGY FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to determine which existing or emerging pollution control processes are best suited to make use of solar energy input and to determine the potential benefits of such applications. Pollution control processes were matched with compatible solar energy systems,...

125

Rooftop solar energy collector panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector panel is adapted to be mounted on a rooftop for heating air forced therethrough. The panel is rectangular in form and outwardly opens. A closure member is affixed to the outermost peripheral edge portion of the housing and forms a thermal barrier through which solar energy can travel into the interior of the housing, while thermal

B. O. Behrendt; I. L. Cisneros; D. R. Stephenson; R. B. Stephenson

1981-01-01

126

Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plans  

E-print Network

Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plans March 2011 #12;2 Why Solar Energy Research at BNL BNL's capabilities can advance solar energy In the Northeast #12;North Array Field South Array Field Variability and Non-Dispatchability · Solar energy varies · Solar generation cannot be dispatched when needed

Homes, Christopher C.

127

Solar energy for highway uses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under this effort fifteen solar energy heating systems were installed as demonstration projects by various state transportation agencies. These projects were intended to demonstrate to the owning agency and other transportation agencies that solar heating can indeed be a viable and appropriate alternative for their facilities. The intent is that through the exposure and experience gained, the states would adopt solar heating as a standard option for their other facilities.

1984-08-01

128

Chapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy spectrum  

E-print Network

;Photovoltaic devices or solar cells convert thePhotovoltaic devices or solar cells convert the incident solar Solar cell plant #12;Cars powered by photovoltaic devices PHYS5320 Chapter Nine 5 #12;Solar EnergyChapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy

Wang, Jianfang

129

New and emerging developments in solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy can potentially play a very important role in providing most of the heating, cooling and electricity needs of the world. With the emergence of solar photocatalytic detoxification technology, solar energy also has the potential to solve our environmental problems. However, we do not see widespread commercial use of solar energy. Some of the emerging developments in solar may

D. Y. Goswami; S. Vijayaraghavan; S. Lu; G. Tamm

2004-01-01

130

High flux solar energy transformation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

1991-04-09

131

Solar energy power generation system  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy power generation system is described which consists of: (a) means for collecting and concentrating solar energy; (b) heat storage means; (c) Stirling engine means for producing power; (d) first heat transfer means for receiving the concentrated solar energy and for transferring heat to the heat storage means; and (e) second heat transfer means for controllably transferring heat from the storage means to the Stirling engine means and including a discharge heat pipe means for transferring heat to the Stirling engine means and further including means for inserting and withdrawing the discharge heat pipe means into and out of the heat storage means.

Nilsson, J.E.; Cochran, C.D.

1986-05-06

132

High flux solar energy transformation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

1991-04-09

133

Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics; (9)…

LaHart, David E.

134

Middle School Solar Energy Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designed as an educational tool to teach middle school students about what solar energy is, why we should use it, and how it works, the poster will focus on using parabolic troughs to power a solar thermal power plant and the basics of how that process works. Additionally, it highlights the research being done by UL Lafayette in this particular

Daniel Newman

2012-01-01

135

The Geography of Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After learning about two promising techniques for generating electricity--photovoltaic cells and wind energy conversion systems--secondary students analyze two maps of the United States showing solar radiation and available wind power to determine which U.S. regions have potential for these solar electric systems. (RM)

LaHart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

1984-01-01

136

Sun tracking solar energy boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sun tracking solar energy boiler is described comprising, in combination, a solar radiation collector and tracking assembly, a boiler assembly, and an electric power generating assembly, said collector and tracking assembly comprising a lens, a hollow crown plate located approximately at the focal point of the lens, said lens being movable by a diurnal drive means and a declination

1980-01-01

137

Solar energy collector panel  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector panel, having an absorber plate and a frame within which the absorber plate is mounted, is described. The absorber plate is comprised of a plurality of absorber plate sections each having interlocking structure formed along both of their lateral edges. This interlocking structure forms a tubular passage when the interlocking structure of the adjacent absorber plate sections are matingly locked together. An elongated tubing member whose external diameter is slightly larger than the internal diameter of the tubular passage is frictionally captured within each of the tubular passages. The absorber plate sections are formed of extruded metal and they have a plurality of corrugated surface portions that provide the absorber plate sections with greater surface exposure and improved absorption angles to the sun throughout the day. The thickness of the absorber plate sections is the greatest where the interlocking structure of the adjacent absorber plate sections are matingly locked together, thereby providing a greater mass for heat conduction transfer from the absorber plate sections to the elongated tubing member. The interlocking structure formed on the lateral edges of the absorber plate sections comprise a fin portion whose configuration is basically that of a cylindrical tube that has been cut in half longitudinally. A recess is formed adjacent one edge of the fin portion and a protrusion is formed adjacent the opposite edge of the fin portion. The frame has a back plate, side frame members, end frame members, and a glass top panel.

Waiche, M. R.

1981-01-27

138

High-temperature Solar Thermal Energy Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mislocation of solar energy production facilities and points of demand and the temporal mismatch of solar energy availability and energy demand make transport and storage of solar energy essential. Research at the Solar Energy Research Institute has focused on high-temperature, diurnal storage because of the frequency of use and the potential for conservation of premium fossil fuels. Also, high-temperature

Werner Luft

1985-01-01

139

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specification and drawings disclose an apparatus for collecting incident solar radiation and using it to heat a fluid such as air. The disclosed apparatus comprises a housing having a generally triangular cross-section which defines an upwardly facing chamber having its open upper end closed by a sheet of solar transmissive plastic material. Positioned within the chamber, generally at the

1978-01-01

140

Solar energy collector panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elongated solar collector includes a plurality of longitudinal side-by-side elongated panel sections having interconnected adjacent longitudinal marginal edges and including integral portions defining fluid passages extending longitudinally along the panel sections and opening endwise outwardly of the opposite ends of the panel sections. Elongated fluid inlet and outlet manifolds extend transversely of the opposite ends of the solar collector

D. S. Ellis; W. B. Simmons

1981-01-01

141

The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)

Whipple, Chris

1980-01-01

142

Non-tracking solar energy concentrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed a nontracking solar energy concentrator, which has a plurality of parallel flow channels, receiving a heat exchange medium for absorption of incident solar energy. The solar energy is concentrated by a superimposed cylindrical Fresnel lens which directs a concentrated beam of incident solar energy to selected ones of the plurality of flow channels. The flow channels discharge

R. N. Woodworth; U. Brynjestad

1978-01-01

143

Solar energy at Forest Research Solar Power at Alice Holt  

E-print Network

Solar energy at Forest Research Solar Power at Alice Holt research station provides a renewable source of energy reducing reliance on power from the national grid Forest Research, an agency to install a solar photovoltaic system to meet some of the research station's energy needs. #12;In January

144

Solar energy systems for industrialization  

SciTech Connect

This is a presentation given to illustrate a need for solar energy, and to suggest a solution as well as its implementation. Current sources of global energy mainly consist of fossil fuels, which are finite in their supply as well as harmful to the environment. A viable solution is solar energy, which is relatively inexhaustible in supply and available with emerging technology. In addition, a process for energy transmission via wireless power transmission is presented. The benefits of this technology include assisting rural areas of developing countries and aiding those countries` national economies. Implementation methods for this technology on a global scale are also given.

Glaser, P.E.; Leonard, R.S. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)]|[Institute for Sustainable Futures, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

145

Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy  

PubMed Central

Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both legacy and non-legacy worlds, and minimally contributes to increasing the anthropogenic level of carbon dioxide. Because PE will be possible only if solar energy is available 24 hours a day, 7 day a week, the key enabler for solar PE is an inexpensive storage mechanism. HX (X = halide or OH?) splitting is a fuel-forming reaction of sufficient energy density for large scale solar storage but the reaction relies on chemical transformations that are not understood at the most basic science level. Critical among these are multielectron transfers that are proton-coupled and involve the activation of bonds in energy poor substrates. The chemistry of these three italicized areas is developed, and from this platform, discovery paths leading to new HX and H2O splitting catalysts are delineated. For the case of the water splitting catalyst, it captures many of the functional elements of photosynthesis. In doing so, a highly manufacturable and inexpensive method has been discovered for solar PE storage. PMID:19775081

Nocera, Daniel G.

2012-01-01

146

Solar Energy Technology Programs: Photovoltaic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main page for the U.S. Department of Energy website on photovoltaics. "The U.S. Department of Energy works to provide clean, reliable, affordable solar electricity for the nation through its research programs in photovoltaic (PV) energy systems. The following pages explain the "how's" and "why's" of PV. Whether you are a student, consumer, engineer, or researcher, there is something here for you. The website includes the following pages: -How PV works -Why PV is important -How and why PV is used -How DOE is supporting research of solar energy -How you, the consumer, can use PV and other solar energy technologies -How students, educators, and trainers can learn more about PV.

147

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664677 Invited article  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664­677 Invited article Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells G. Khrypunova , A. Romeob , F. Kurdesauc , D.L. Ba¨ tznerd , H. Zogge , A Abstract Recent developments in the technology of high vacuum evaporated CdTe solar cells are reviewed

Romeo, Alessandro

148

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is

Purnomo Sidi Priambodo; Feri Yusivar; Aries Subiantoro; Ridwan Gunawan

2009-01-01

149

Gas-cycle solar refrigeration system performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat-driven Vuilleumier refrigerator is a small combined compressor-expander machine that is presently receiving great attention for use over the temperature range 5-80 K. Since it is driven by heat, it is expected to drive the machine by solar energy to produce refrigeration at not too low temperatures. In this paper, the performance of the idealized cycle is first reviewed

L.-T. Chen

1978-01-01

150

Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

151

Surface meteorology and Solar Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

152

Integrated solar energy system optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

Young, S. K.

1982-11-01

153

Solar energy technology  

SciTech Connect

This book contains over 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Experimental analysis of a rotary silica gel dehumidifier: Adiabatic air dehumidification in laminar flow desiccant materices; A simplified design tool for composite Trombe-Michel wall solar collectors; and Wind tunnel tests on scale models of parabolic trough concentrators.

Murphy, L.M.; Guven, H.M.; Lowrey, P.

1987-01-01

154

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar collector is described in the form of a shell having an upper face of heat-conductive material with recesses and a serpentine coil arranged in the recesses and in a snug fit in heat exchanging relation with the heat absorbing material and said coil comprising a tubular length with an inlet and an outlet opening whereby material to be

1977-01-01

155

Solar energy collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosure illustrates a solar collector comprising an evacuated generally rectangular glass shell of a configuration commonly used for television tubes and a flat plate receiver having a black chrome surface positioned within the shell. A conduit in heat exchange relation to the plate has a single inlet and outlet for heat exchange fluid which extends through an insulating seal

Uroshevich

1981-01-01

156

Thin film solar energy collector  

DOEpatents

A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-11-22

157

Office of Educational Programs Solar Energy Lab  

E-print Network

Office of Educational Programs Solar Energy Lab Overview Kaitlin Thomassen Target student audience: High School Regents Physics High School AP Physics #12;Solar Energy Lab: Goals Highlight research Solar Farm & Northeast Solar Energy Research Center (NSERC) Scientists and engineers will research

Homes, Christopher C.

158

Australia speeds up solar energy research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term projects are concentrared on improving the efficiency and ; reducing the cost of existing types of solar water heaters and solar water-; desalination plants. Larger-term projects include fundamental studies on thermal ; transfer problems energy measurement, heat storage media, and solar-energy ; collectors. An investigation of the distribution of solar energy over the ; continent is being carried out

Scholes

1973-01-01

159

Think GREEN - Utilizing Renewable Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar energy is radiant energy that is produced by the Sun. Every day the Sun radiates an enormous amount of energy. How much solar energy a place on Earth receives depends on several conditions. In this lesson, students will explore real NASA satellite data for energy from the Sun and cloud cover for their area to determine if they can harness this solar energy, a renewable energy source, by using a solar collector. They will develop skills in graphing and reading graphs.

160

Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role is described that solar energy will play in the heating and cooling of buildings, the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts on the various energy markets and estimated costs of such systems are discussed along with illustrations of some of the processes to accomplish the goals. The conclusions of the NSF/NASA Solar Energy Panel (1972) are given along with the estimated costs to accomplish the 15 year recommended program and also the recent and near future budget appropriations and recommendations are included.

Cherry, W. R.

1974-01-01

161

Low-energy solar positrons.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluxes of solar particles, consistent with Kinsey's (1970) measurements and demodulated in a manner consistent with the cosmic-ray transport equations discussed by Gleeson and Axford (1967), are shown to be able to produce low-energy positrons in the solar atmosphere via unstable CNO beta-particle emitters. Computed positron fluxes are presented for various diffusion coefficient values and compared with measurements of Cline and Hones (1970).

Gregory, C. T.

1972-01-01

162

Solar-thermal energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of insolation which have to be considered in an assessment of the potential for solar energy devices at a geographical location are examined. A thermal analysis of flat-plate collectors is conducted, taking into account a qualitative description, the collector energy gain and fluid temperature rise, and the mathematical relations concerning the heat losses. Attention is also given to

E. M. Sparrow; R. B. Sparrow

1976-01-01

163

Solar Energy - Solution or Pipedream?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of lessons and class activities is designed for presentation in a sequence of nine class days. The collection is intended to provide the student in advanced science classes with awareness of the possibilities and limitations of solar energy as a potential solution to the energy crisis. Included are discussion of the following: (1)…

Polk, Joyce

164

Organic Solar Energy and Berries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how a device made with dye from a plant, specifically cherries, blackberries, raspberries and/or black currents, can be used to convert light energy into electrical energy. They do this by building their own organic solar cells and measuring the photovoltaic devices' performance based on power output.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

165

Kinetic Analysis of Gas Splitting on Oxide Surfaces for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermochemical cycles have the potential to convert solar energy into chemical fuels at high thermodynamic efficiency. This can be done by reducing an oxide at high temperature and oxidizing the reduced oxide at a lower temperature in H2O or CO2 to produce H2 or CO. The gas splitting reaction at low temperature is kinetically limited, possibly from slow kinetics

Heine Hansen; Bryce Meredig; Chris Wolverton

2010-01-01

166

Solar energy, its conversion and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work being carried out at the University of Florida Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory in converting solar energy, our only income, into other needed and useful forms of energy is described. A treatment such as this demonstrates, in proper perspective, how solar energy can benefit mankind with its many problems of shortages and pollution. Descriptions were given of the conversion processes, equipment, and performance. The testing of materials, solar water heating, space heating, cooking and baking, solar distillation, refrigeration and air-conditioning, work with the solar furnace, conversion to mechanical power, hot air engines, solar-heated sewage digestion, conversion to electricity, and other devices will be discussed.

Farber, E. A.

1972-01-01

167

Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

1978-01-01

168

Solar energy collector  

SciTech Connect

A high performance, light-weight solar collector is disclosed. The collector consists of an upper glazing, a central fluid panel and a lower layer of insulating material. A fluid manifold is joined to each end of the panel and directs a fluid into and out of the panel. The glazing, panel and insulating layer are joined together and held in position by an attaching assembly and rail members.

Evans, J.H.; Clark, W.E.; Hatman, J.J.

1984-01-24

169

Can industry afford solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Falling oil prices and conservation measures have reduced the economic impetus to develop new energy sources, thus decreasing the urgency for bringing solar conversion technologies to commercial readiness at an early date. However, the capability for solar to deliver thermal energy for industrial uses is proven. A year-round operation would be three times as effective as home heating, which is necessary only part of the year. Flat plate, parabolic trough, and solar tower power plant demonstration projects, though uneconomically operated, have revealed engineering factors necessary for successful use of solar-derived heat for industrial applications. Areas of concern have been categorized as technology comparisons, load temperatures, plant size, location, end-use, backup requirements, and storage costs. Tax incentives have, however, supported home heating and not industrial uses, and government subsidies have historically gone to conventional energy sources. Tax credit programs which could lead to a 20% market penetration by solar energy in the industrial sector by the year 2000 are presented.

Kreith, F.; Bezdek, R.

1983-03-01

170

GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSIS OF SOLAR-THERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-thermal electricity generation contributes to climate change because it incurs the emission of greenhouse gases during the provision of services and the production of materials needed for the construction and operation of solar power plants. These greenhouse gas costs (GGC) can be determined using either material inventories in physical units or monetary cost breakdowns. Solar-only plants employing parabolic troughs, central

M. LENZEN

1999-01-01

171

Demonstrate use of solar energy for laundromat washing and drying. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar system was designed and installed to supply energy to a university laundry. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the use of solar energy in both the washing and drying processes of laundry operations and to determine the expected gas energy savings. The limited performance data available indicate a 30% saving in gas consumption while laundry operations

Whitacre

1982-01-01

172

SOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

of renewable energy sources into existing energy supply structures. This not only demands substantial efforts. A key issue hereby is the prediction of renewable energy fluxes, typically for time scales from the subSOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Detlev Heinemann Oldenburg

Heinemann, Detlev

173

Solar Energy for Rural Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

174

BEACON SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT (08-AFC-2) Project Title: Beacon Solar Energy Project (Beacon)  

E-print Network

BEACON SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT (08-AFC-2) FACT SHEET Project Title: Beacon Solar Energy Project (Beacon) Sponsor: Beacon Solar, LLC (Beacon Solar), a Delaware limited liability company and wholly owned and operate the Beacon Solar Energy Project (Beacon). Location: The project is located in eastern Kern County

175

Universal solar energy desalination system  

SciTech Connect

The design which has been developed for a solar-powered water desalination plant is a highly flexible one; and thus, suitable for worldwide application. The system is modular in nature, utilizing a combination of solar thermal and wind energy to operate the reverse osmosis desalination unit. The system's flexibility lies in the fact that the configuration of the plant can be altered so that it is suitable for any given site. Plant capacity and the size of the solar thermal and wind energy systems are dependent upon a variety of site-specific characteristics. Furthermore, the design of each of the subsystems is also highly interdependent. Examination of the site characteristics and their interactions will allow a design which is optimal for the site.

Fusco, V.S.

1982-08-01

176

Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

2011-08-01

177

Solar thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book starts with a description of possible energy storage systems and the recent developments in the field. Then it moves on to the basics of sensible heat storage-discussing liquid, solid, and dual-media storage systems. Next, it deals with chemical energy storage, making use of detailed treatments of both thermal dissociation and catalytic reactions. It explores long-term energy storage concepts,

H. P. Garg; S. C. Mullick; A. K. Bhargava

1985-01-01

178

Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

Benedek, L.

1985-01-01

179

Warming up to solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global warming, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.

Biondo, B.

1996-07-01

180

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the March through August 1978 operation of the Reedy Creek Utility District solar energy system is presented. This system was designed to provide space heating and cooling as well as hot water for a two story modern office building located in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. Results of an evaluation of measured system performance and a comparison of

C. T. Wallace; A. R. Brooks; L. J. Murphy

1978-01-01

181

Modular solar energy collector systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A readily fabricated, high efficient modular solar energy collector that may be arranged in a wide variety of arrays comprises a relatively small, typically but not necessarily rectangular, panel structure that is centrally coupled to an insulative support that may define an outlet conduit. In a specific example, a pair of coextensive, thermally conductive panels, the outer one of which

Knoos

1980-01-01

182

Solar Energy Education Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography lists publications and audiovisual materials devoted to renewable energy sources: sun, wind, water and biomass. A few general texts are included that present concepts fundamental to all energy sources. Materials were selected to be adaptable to classroom, workshops, and training sessions. Also, many do-it-yourself…

Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

183

Solar Energy. Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

184

PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report addresses the environmental consequences of three kinds of solar energy utilization: photovoltaic, concentrator (steam electric) and flat plate. The application of solar energy toward central power generating stations is emphasized. Discussions of combined modes and o...

185

Solar-assisted low energy dwellings  

SciTech Connect

The Zero Energy House Group was formed as a subproject of the CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study in 1974 by seven participating countries experimenting with solar-assisted low-energy dwellings for temperate and northern European climatic conditions. A Zero Energy House is one in which solar energy is used to meet the reduced energy needs of buildings incorporating various thermal energy conservation features. This final report of the Zero Energy House Group includes brief descriptions of 13 major low-energy dwellings in the participating CCMS countries. An overall assessment of the state-of-the-art in solar-assisted low-energy dwellings is also included.

Esbensen, T V

1980-02-01

186

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect

The Sun provides Earth with a staggering amount of energy - enough to power the great oceanic and atmospheric currents, the cycle of evaporation and condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow, and the typhoons, hurricanes, and tornadoes that so easily destroy the natural and built landscape. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906, with magnitude 7.8, released an estimated 10{sup 17} joules of energy, the amount the Sun delivers to Earth in one second. Earth's ultimate recoverable resource of oil, estimated at 3 trillion barrels, contains 1.7 x 10{sup 22} joules of energy, which the Sun supplies to Earth in 1.5 days. The amount of energy humans use annually, about 4.6 x 10{sup 20} joules, is delivered to Earth by the Sun in one hour. The enormous power that the Sun continuously delivers to Earth, 1.2 x 10{sup 5} terawatts, dwarfs every other energy source, renewable or nonrenewable. It dramatically exceeds the rate at which human civilization produces and uses energy, currently about 13 TW.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.; Materials Science Division; Cal Tech

2007-03-01

187

Control of solar energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two approaches to the control of large solar energy systems, i.e., programmed control and control systems relying on the use of orientation transducers and feedback, are briefly reviewed, with particular attention given to problems associated with these control systems. A new control system for large solar power plants is then proposed which is based on a combination of these approaches. The general design of the control system is shown and its principle of operation described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of the approach proposed here are demonstrated.

Sizov, Iu. M.; Zakhidov, R. A.; Baranov, V. G.

188

Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plansgy  

E-print Network

Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plansgy March 8, 2011, #12;Outline O i f th LISF S l PV P j Field LIPA Substation South Array Field LIPA Substation #12;#12;#12;BNL is developing a solar energy, February 2009 · EERE Renewable Systems interconnection Study, February 2008 · EERE Solar Energy Technology

Homes, Christopher C.

189

Solar Energy in the Home. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended for grades 10-12 physical, earth, or general science classes, this 5-7 day unit is designed to give students a general understanding of solar energy and its use as a viable alternative to present energy sources. Along with this technology, students examine several factors of solar energy which influence the choice of solar home site…

Roeder, Allen A.; Woodland, James A.

190

SERI Solar Energy Storage Program: FY 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Energy Storage Program during its sixth year are summarized. During FY 1984 a study was conducted to identify the most promising high-temperature containment concepts considering corrosion resistance, material strength at high temperature, reliability of performance, and cost. Of the two generic types of high-temperature thermal storage concepts,

W. Luft; M. Bohn; R. J. Copeland; F. Kreith; R. G. Nix

1985-01-01

191

Non-tracking solar energy collector system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor to nasa)

1978-01-01

192

Solar energy collector and heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector and heat exchanger for use in a solar energy system that provides space heating and preheating of water for a building or residence is disclosed. The solar collector and heat exchanger comprises a rectangularly shaped, box-like housing. A thermal pane glass panel covers the top of the housing and permits radiant energy to pass therethrough to

Pyle

1979-01-01

193

Universal solar energy desalination system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

Fusco, V. S.

194

Solar energy for village development.  

PubMed

The National Academy of Sciences held a joint workshop with the Government of Tanzania last August on the potential of solar energy for the villages of that country. Costs of five solar technologies (mini-hydroelectric generators, wind, methane generation from organic wastes, photovoltaic cells, and flat-plate solar collectors) were compared with costs of diesel-generated electricity and with electricity from the national grid. Each of the five technologies is either now competitive with diesel or will be in a few years. Although the figures presented are not conclusive since they are derived from calculations rather than an actual test, the results are encouraging enough to warrant serious testing in Third World villages. PMID:17788101

Brown, N L; Howe, J W

1978-02-10

195

Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

Williams, J. R.

1974-01-01

196

Central solar-energy receiver  

DOEpatents

An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

Not Available

1981-10-27

197

Upper limit for the conversion of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semiconductor in the solar radiation field acts as a thermal electronic engine. It converts absorbed radiation heat into chemical energy of the excited electron-hole gas. In flow equilibrium, a homogeneous semiconductor gives off this chemical energy by radiative recombination to the surroundings. If provision is made, as by a p-n junction, to divert the excited electrons and holes, before

W. Ruppel; P. Wuerfel

1980-01-01

198

Conversion of concentrated solar thermal energy into chemical energy.  

PubMed

When a concentrated solar beam is irradiated to the ceramics such as Ni-ferrite, the high-energy flux in the range of 1500-2500 kW/m(2) is absorbed by an excess Frenkel defect formation. This non-equilibrium state defect is generated not by heating at a low heating-rate (30 K/min), but by irradiating high flux energy of concentrated solar beam rapidly at a high heating rate (200 K/min). The defect can be spontaneously converted to chemical energy of a cation-excess spinel structure (reduced-oxide form) at the temperature around 1773 K. Thus, the O(2) releasing reaction (?-O(2) releasing reaction) proceeds in two-steps; (1) high flux energy of concentrated solar beam absorption by formation of the non-equilibrium Frenkel defect and (2) the O(2) gas formation from the O(2-) in the Frenkel defect even in air atmosphere. The 2nd step proceeds without the solar radiation. We may say that the 1st step is light reaction, and 2nd step, dark reaction, just like in photosynthesis process. PMID:22434435

Tamaura, Yutaka

2012-01-01

199

Solar Energy Monitor In Space (SEMIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements made at high altitudes from aircraft have resulted in the establishment of standard values of the solar constant and extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance. These standard values and other solar spectral curves are described. The problem of possible variations of the solar constant and solar spectrum and their influence on the earth-atmosphere system and weather related phenomena is examined. It is shown that the solar energy input parameters should be determined with considerably greater accuracy and precision than has been possible. An instrument package designed as a compact, low weight solar energy monitor in space (SEMIS) is described.

Thekaekara, M. P.

1974-01-01

200

Solar energy meter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument was developed to continually integrate the energy available in incident light on a specifically oriented surface. The unit was designed for outdoor use in remote locations and is capable of operation over a temperature range of -20 to +60 C with good accuracy. The unit is weather resistant, requires low power, has a high input impedance, is inexpensive, and has a visual readout and an analog output for recording.

Masters, R. M.

1977-01-01

201

Building Integration Of Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way solar systems are used in buildings is different from what it used to be. Buildings are no longer designed to use just passive solar energy systems, such as windows and sunspaces, or active solar systems, such as solar water collectors. In fact, the words passive and active no longer make sense, as the newer buildings combine several of

Anne Grete Hestnes

1999-01-01

202

Solar Energy: Potential Powerhouse for Jobs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Components of solar energy systems are described, the development of the solar industry discussed, and implications are drawn for employment opportunities in industries (which may expand into new, solar-related areas) and in the professions, from law to sales, upon the advent of solar heating. (AJ)

McCallion, Tom

1976-01-01

203

Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)

Glaser, Peter E.

1972-01-01

204

Luminescent solar concentrators and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells for solar energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing energy demand and the parallel increase of greenhouse gas emissions are challenging researchers to find new and cleaner energy sources. Solar energy harvesting is arguably the most promising candidate for replacing fossil-fuel power generation. Photovoltaics are the most direct way of collecting solar energy; cost continues to hinder large-scale implementation of photovoltaics, however. Therefore, alternative technologies that will allow the extraction of solar power, while maintaining the overall costs of fabrication, installation, collection, and distribution low, must be explored. This thesis focuses on the fabrication and testing of two types of devices that step up to this challenge: the luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells. In these devices I make use of novel materials, semiconducting polymers and inorganic nanoparticles, both of which have lower costs than the crystalline materials used in the fabrication of traditional photovoltaics. Furthermore, the cost of manufacturing LSCs and the nanoparticle solar cells is lower than the manufacturing cost of traditional optics-based concentrators and crystalline solar cells. An LSC is essentially a slab of luminescent material that acts as a planar light pipe. The LSC absorbs incoming photons and channels fluoresced photons toward appropriately located solar cells, which perform the photovoltaic conversion. By covering large areas with relatively inexpensive fluorescing organic dyes or semiconducting polymers, the area of solar cell needed is greatly reduced. Because semiconducting polymers and quantum dots may have small absorption/emission band overlaps, tunable absorption, and longer lifetimes, they are good candidates for LSC fabrication, promising improvement with respect to laser dyes traditionally used to fabricate LSCs. Here the efficiency of LSCs consisting of liquid solutions of semiconducting polymers encased in glass was measured and compared to the efficiency of LSCs based on small molecule laser dyes and on quantum dots. Factors affecting the optical efficiency of the system such as the luminescing properties of the fluorophors were examined. The experimental results were compared to Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results suggest that commercially available quantum dots cannot serve as viable LSC dyes because of large absorption/emission band overlap and relatively low quantum yield. Materials such as Red F demonstrate that semi-conducting polymers with high quantum yield and small absorption/emission band overlap are good candidates for LSCs. Recently, a solar cell system based purely on CdSe and Cite nanoparticles as the absorbing materials was proposed ans it was suggested that its operational mechanism was that of polymer donor/acceptor systems. Here we present solar cells consisting of a sintered active bilayer of CdSe and PbSe nanoparticles in the structure ITO/CdSe/interlayer/PbSe/Al, where an interlayer of LiF or Al2O3 was found necessary to prevent low shunt resistance from suppressing the photovoltaic behavior. We fabricated unoptimized solar cells with a short-circuit current of 6 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.18 V, and a fill factor of 41%. External quantum efficiency spectra revealed that photons from the infrared portion of the spectrum were not collected, suggesting that the low bandgap PbSe film did not contribute to the photocurrent of the structure despite exhibiting photoconductivity. Other measurements, however, showed that the PbSe film was indeed necessary to produce a photovoltage and transport electrons. Through sintering, the nanoparticle films acquired bandgaps similar to those of the corresponding bulk materials and became more conductive. Because the PbSe films were found to be considerably more conductive than the CdSe ones, we suggest that the PbSe layer is effectively behaving like a low conductivity electrical contact. Therefore, in contrast to the photovoltaics presented in the seminal research on CdSe/Cite solar cells, the CdSe/PbSe solar cell system presented here d

Sholin, Veronica

205

Solar energy collector/storage system  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

1983-05-24

206

Solar total energy project Shenandoah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site of utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant, is presented. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes.

1980-01-01

207

Central collector solar energy receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of compact steam generator technology to the design and fabrication of central receivers for solar-energy-powered electrical power plants is described. A feasibility study is performed on four design concepts for the central receiver, all of which use the techniques of high-pressure tube forming and segmentation: (1) spiral tube array, (2) cruciform tube array, (3) vertical tube array, and

A. Sobin; W. Wagner; C. R. Easton

1976-01-01

208

Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS  

SciTech Connect

This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

Nathan Lewis

2010-02-26

209

Life cycle assessment of the conventional and solar thermal production of zinc and synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current industrial productions of zinc and synthesis gas are characterized by their high energy consumption and their concomitant environmental pollution. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) could be reduced substantially by combining both productions and by replacing fossil fuels with concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The extent of such a GHG mitigation has been quantified

Miriam Werder; Aldo Steinfeld

2000-01-01

210

Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

Munsell, Devon R.

211

SOLAR ENERGY A New York perspective,  

E-print Network

SOLAR ENERGY A New York perspective, Richard Perez & Thomas Thompson (Based upon a manuscript misconception that New York doesn't get enough sun and that solar power is both too expensive and too unreliable the St. Lawrence Seaway to Montauk Point, solar electric PV power can lower the cost of energy in NYS

Perez, Richard R.

212

Solar energy applications in telecommunications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a half-decade of a coupled wind-photovoltaic powered, remotely sited telecommunications installation called 'Aerosolec' are reported. A station is examined which was situated at 500 m altitude between Nice and Monaco and comprised a 4 module solar cell plant generating 180 W, a 300 W windpowered generator, and a battery bank. The batteries were linked by a diode, charged by the photovoltaics only when load was met, and provided voltage when the wind/solar cell configuration failed to produce enough power to meet demand. Output of the generators and meteorological parameters were recorded for two years. The station drew a nominal 180W, which was met by the power systems, and involved an actual extra discharge of excess energy. Other, similar stations are outlined, and the use of coupled wind/solar systems for telephone service in remote sites, for optic fiber repeaters, and for telephone relay station are recommended. Cost advantages are seen with the solar/wind systems over liquid hydrocarbon fueled generator systems for low power demand installations.

Girard, J.

213

SmartSolarGrid Deciding what to do with Solar Energy production  

E-print Network

SmartSolarGrid Deciding what to do with Solar Energy production Diogo Morgado and Paulo Ferreira. Solar energy has been subject of great development in the past years, which led to the concept of Solar, Solar energy, Solar road, Smart- SolarGrid 1 Introduction Mankind is facing a threat from the effects

Ferreira, Paulo

214

Solar-energy storage-systems analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems analysis activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) related to energy storage in solar applications are described, and the purpose, methods and, where available, the results of each study are summarized. Areas of investigation include storage of electrical and thermal energy in solar total energy systems, a theoretical investigation of the value of storage, and the national fuel displacement potential of semi-passive solar storage walls. Investigations of the cost effectiveness of a spectrum of passive solar storage devices and the value of several possible improvements in these devices constitutes BNL's contribution to the Solar Applications Analysis for Energy Storage (SAAES) project.

Leigh, R W

1981-04-01

215

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 13881391 Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1388­1391 Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells A. Romeob,�, G. Khrypunovc , S. Galassinid , H. Zogga , A.N. Tiwaria,e a Thin Film Physics Group We present a different back contact for CdTe solar cell by the application of only a transparent

Romeo, Alessandro

216

Cocoon drying through solar energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

Kulunk, M.

1983-12-01

217

Solar total energy project Shenandoah  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

None

1980-01-10

218

Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

1977-01-01

219

Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

2009-09-01

220

Nanostructured solar irradiation control materials for solar energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailoring the solar absorptivity (?s) and thermal emissivity (?T) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The ?s and ?T were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the ?s and ?T by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

Kang, Jin Ho; Marshall, Iseley A.; Torrico, Mattew N.; Taylor, Chase R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel; Sauti, Godfrey; Gibbons, Luke J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Park, Cheol; Lowther, Sharon E.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Bryant, Robert G.

2012-10-01

221

Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

2012-01-01

222

Solar Energy Development onSolar Energy Development on DoD Installations in the  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Development onSolar Energy Development on DoD Installations in the Mojave & Colorado and Implications fReport is available for download at: http://www.icfi.com/insights/reports/2012/full-report-solar the technical and economic potential to site solar on 9 major DoD installations in the Mojave and Colorado

223

More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

Dustin, M. O.

1987-01-01

224

Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

1990-01-01

225

Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.  

PubMed

Taking the UK as a case study, this paper describes current energy use and a range of sustainable energy options for the future, including solar power and other renewables. I focus on the area involved in collecting, converting and delivering sustainable energy, looking in particular detail at the potential role of solar power. Britain consumes energy at a rate of about 5000 watts per person, and its population density is about 250 people per square kilometre. If we multiply the per capita energy consumption by the population density, then we obtain the average primary energy consumption per unit area, which for the UK is 1.25 watts per square metre. This areal power density is uncomfortably similar to the average power density that could be supplied by many renewables: the gravitational potential energy of rainfall in the Scottish highlands has a raw power per unit area of roughly 0.24 watts per square metre; energy crops in Europe deliver about 0.5 watts per square metre; wind farms deliver roughly 2.5 watts per square metre; solar photovoltaic farms in Bavaria, Germany, and Vermont, USA, deliver 4 watts per square metre; in sunnier locations, solar photovoltaic farms can deliver 10 watts per square metre; concentrating solar power stations in deserts might deliver 20 watts per square metre. In a decarbonized world that is renewable-powered, the land area required to maintain today's British energy consumption would have to be similar to the area of Britain. Several other high-density, high-consuming countries are in the same boat as Britain, and many other countries are rushing to join us. Decarbonizing such countries will only be possible through some combination of the following options: the embracing of country-sized renewable power-generation facilities; large-scale energy imports from country-sized renewable facilities in other countries; population reduction; radical efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes; and the growth of non-renewable low-carbon sources, namely 'clean' coal, 'clean' gas and nuclear power. If solar is to play a large role in the future energy system, then we need new methods for energy storage; very-large-scale solar either would need to be combined with electricity stores or it would need to serve a large flexible demand for energy that effectively stores useful energy in the form of chemicals, heat, or cold. PMID:23816908

MacKay, David J C

2013-08-13

226

10 Solar powerplants. gas turbines packaged for offshore gas platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weatherby Engineering Co. neared completion recently of 8 modules mounting a total of 9 gas turbine engines, all destined for an offshore gas injection platform. The platform capacity is 80 MMcfd. The inlet pressure on the platform is 45 psig and the discharge pressure is 3,410 psig. The system constitutes a complete gas dehydration and compressor station and the modules

Alberte

1976-01-01

227

Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

Not Available

2008-04-01

228

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

229

Reducing fuel usage through applications of conservation and solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal technology, coupled with aggressive conservation measures, offers the prospect of greatly reducing the dependence of industry on oil and natural gas. The near-term market for solar technology is largely in industrial processes operating at temperatures below 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F). Such process heat can be supplied by the relatively unsophisticated solar equipment available today. The number and diversity of industrial plants using process heat at this temperature allows favorable matches between solar technologies and industrial processes. The problems involved with the installation and maintenance of conservation and solar equipment are similar. Both compete for scarce investment capital, and each complicates industrial operations and increases maintenance requirements. Technological innovations requiring new types of equipment and reducing the temperature requirements of industrial processes favor the introduction of solar hardware. The industrial case studies program at the Solar Energy Research Institute has examined technical, economic, and other problems facing the near-term application of solar thermal technology to provide industrial process heat. The plant engineer is in the front line of any measure to reduce energy consumption or to supplement existing fuel supplies. The conditions most favorable to the integration of solar technology are presented and illustrated with examples from actual industrial plants.

May, E. K.; Hooker, D. W.

1980-04-01

230

The Solar Energy Timetable. Worldwatch Paper 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are…

Hayes, Denis

231

Battle Keeps Solar Energy in Receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mirror structure in solar concentrator reduces heat loss by reflection and reradiation. Baffle reflects entering rays back and forth in solar-concentrator receiver until they reach heat exchanger. Similarly, infrared energy reradiated by heat exchanger is prevented from leaving receiver. Surfaces of baffle and inside wall of receiver are polished and highly reflective at solar and infrared wavelengths.

Mcdougal, A. R.; Hale, R. R.

1982-01-01

232

Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

Reynolds, John S.

233

Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system  

DOEpatents

An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

2003-08-05

234

SOLAR ENERGY AND OUR ELECTRICITY FUTURE  

E-print Network

SOLAR ENERGY AND OUR ELECTRICITY FUTURE Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia;Outline of Today's Discussion Background Solar Cells and the Photoelectric Effect From Cells to PV Systems Modeling PV Performance Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Some things not addressed in this presentation

235

Solar energy applications at Army ammunition plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Army Ammunition Plants use significant quantities of fossil fuels. To reduce dependence on these scarce, costly, and non-renewable fuels, a study was conducted to investigate potential solar energy applications at the AAPs. Solar energy is a low-level energy source which is best applied to low temperature applications. It can be used at the AAPs to preheat boiler feedwater, provide

A. P. Lowry; S. M. Moy

1982-01-01

236

Hydrogen production through solar energy water electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water electrolysis systems are seen as the principal means of producing a large amount of hydrogen in the future. Hydrogen energy production from direct solar energy conversion facilities located on the shores of oceans and lakes is discussed. The electrolysis interface is shown to be conveniently adapted to direct solar energy conversion; this, however, will depend on technical and economic

D. Dini

1983-01-01

237

Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

2011-01-01

238

Compact integrated solar energy generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy generation systems, or any renewable systems, usually include energy storages, local dc loads and grid-tied dc-ac inversion stages. Almost always, these entities have their own power converters for processing the intermediate solar energy transferred through the systems. Having individual converters does have some advantages like more flexible individual control and easier design, but it does not provide opportunities

Poh Chiang Loh; Lei Zhang; Shun He; Feng Gao

2010-01-01

239

Drying of agricultural crops by solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main application for solar energy in southern Mediterranean countries in agriculture is the drying of agricultural crops. The optimisation of dryers necessitates complete knowledge of the whole drying process, thus leading to energy savings and avoiding environmental pollution by using renewable sources of energy. We present a study concerning thermal behaviour of a solar air heater as a source

Saber Chemkhi; Fethi Zagrouba; Ahmed Bellagi

2004-01-01

240

The design and construction of a low power gas turbine for solar energy conversion - An analytical model of operation of the installation in a variable mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic analysis of a Brayton cycle engine used for the conversion of solar thermal energy to electricity is presented and compared with experimental results. The power configuration is a parabolic concentrator with the engine placed at the focus. Its benefits are a minimal visual impact, modular construction, rapid start-up, simple site planning, and flexibility as to end use. Consideration is given to a generator powered by hot air and mounted in series with other modules, and to heating elements mounted in parallel. A numerical model accounts for system losses, and application is demonstrated with a system producing 2.5 kWe at 800 C, i.e., a 45 kWt output. A second model is devised to describe the isentropic efficiencies which can be expected during variable speed operations. Finally costs of the power plant are compared with costs of conventionally fueled facilities.

Leone, J. F.

241

Simple Experiments on the Use of Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 5 solar energy experiments that can be used in secondary school: flat-plate collector, solar thermoelectric generator, simple concentrators, solar cell, and natural storage of solar energy. (MLH)

Vella, G. J.; Goldsmid, H. J.

1976-01-01

242

Biomimetic utilization of solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most interesting recent publications dealing with so-called artificial photosynthesis, i.e., the development of photocatalytic converters of solar energy to the chemical bond energy using the fundamental principles of natural oxygenic photosynthesis, are discussed. The key stages of photosynthesis that should be reproduced in the artificial converters include light harvesting and transport of the light quantum to reaction centres where photoinduced charge separation occurs to give elementary reducing agents and oxidants (electrons and holes). The dark catalytic reactions involving the elementary reducing agents and oxidants give stable end products, namely, dioxygen and carbohydrates in the natural photosynthesis or dioxygen and hydrogen in the artificial photosynthesis. The bibliography includes 99 references.

Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, Aleksandr E.

2012-12-01

243

Pumps in solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of where pumps should be included in the solar system is discussed. Only the thermosiphon solar system does not use pumps. Other types of solar systems employ centrifugal water circulation pumps. Pumps operate in the solar systems when the differential controller indicates that water or fluid in the outlet of the collector is hotter than the water or

Cook

1977-01-01

244

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2014-04-01

245

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2012-04-01

246

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2011-04-01

247

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2013-04-01

248

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2010-04-01

249

Solar-wind krypton and solid/gas fractionation in the early solar nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar-system Kr abundance is calculated from solar-wind noble-gas ratios, determined previously by low-temperature oxidations of lunar ilmenite grains, normalized to Si by spacecraft solar-wind measurements. The estimated Kr-83 abundance of 4.1 + or - 1.5 per million Si atoms is within uncertainty of estimates assuming no fractionation, determined from CI-chondrite abundances of surrounding elements. This is significant because it is the first such constraint on solid/gas fractionation, though the large uncertainty only confines it to somewhat less than a factor of two.

Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, D. S.; Neugebauer, M.; Pepin, R. O.

1991-01-01

250

Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

Luckett, Rickey D.

251

Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To the extent increases are present for some solar adopters, the analysis seeks to determine whether there is a "solar rebound" effect analogous to the "rebound" or "take-back" effect that has been observed and studied within the energy efficiency literature. Similarly, to the extent that electric users may decrease overall consumption after installation of a solar system, the study seeks to explore the possibility that solar adoption is part of a continued effort towards clean energy practices more generally, such as energy efficiency and conservation. In this way, the study seeks to determine whether there is a synergistic effect between solar and decreased consumption, for solar adopters generally or for some subsets therein. The assembled data allowed testing of various hypotheses that could help explain observed changes in consumption in different households. One variable that was carefully examined was the sizing of the solar system. As part of the study, analysis of 4,355 systems was conducted to determine how each residential solar system was sized with respect to pre-installation energy consumption. Other potentially interesting or explanatory variables for which information was available include total and net costs of the solar system; age of the home; the climate zone (inland or coastal) where the home is located; the home's pre-installation energy consumption; home characteristics such as assessed value and square footage; and the identity of the solar installation contractor. Aside from extending the literature on the rebound effect to the context of home-based energy generation, this study links to the innovation diffusion literature by focusing on solar "innovators" to understand more about the characteristics that may drive behavior, or conditions under which they also adopt clean energy technologies and practices. The results have clear policy relevance with regard to the development and coordination of policies to promote integration of solar and energy efficiency. Currently

McAllister, Joseph Andrew

252

Technical assessment of solar thermal energy storage technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is recognized as one of the most promising alternative energy options. On sunny days, solar energy systems generally collect more energy than necessary for direct use. Therefore, the design and development of solar energy storage systems, is of vital importance and nowadays one of the greatest efforts in solar research. These systems, being part of a complete solar

Hassan E. S. Fath

1998-01-01

253

Solar\\/gas Rankine\\/Rankine-cycle heat pump assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of Rankine-cycle solar-augmented gas-fired heat pumps (SAGFHP) for multi-family residential and light-commercial applications. The SAGFHP design considered in this report is based on the successful UTRC turbocompressor system which has been tested both in the laboratory and in a solar cooling installation in Phoenix. AZ. An hour-by-hour modeling of

H. E. Khalifa; G. Melikian

1982-01-01

254

Ulysses probes solar wind, interstellar gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ESA-NASA Ulysses mission will furnish high-latitude observations which may deepen current understanding of the outward flow of gases from the magnetically open regions of the sun. Also furnished will be a clearer view of the processes in the Galaxy that create cosmic rays, and how cosmic rays enter the solar system. The Ulysses mission has already achieved important new results during its travel in the ecliptic plane; the density and temperature of the interstellar neutral He flowing into the solar system has been directly measured.

Goldstein, Bruce

1992-01-01

255

Renewable Energy Living Lab: Smart Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use real-world data to evaluate whether solar power is a viable energy alternative for several cities in different parts of the U.S. Working in small groups, they examine maps and make calculations using NREL/US DOE data from the online Renewable Energy Living Lab. In this exercise, students analyze cost and availability for solar power, and come to conclusions about whether solar power is a good solution for four different locations.

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department,

256

Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

Bloomfield, H. S.

1979-01-01

257

Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of; cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

Bloomfield, H. S.

1978-01-01

258

Licking County Community Solar Energy Program  

SciTech Connect

A Community Solar Energy Feasibility Study and Education Program for Central Ohio is described. LEADS Community Action Agency and the Denison University Homestead, with support of federal and university grants, designed and constructed five solar heating systems. Three passive solar greenhouses, one passive trombe wall and one active solar system were retrofitted on local structures between April 1979 and April 1980. Two semesters of community solar education through the Denison Experimental College and one semester through Ohio State University/Newark were coordinated with design, construction and performance of these five solar systems. Community residents received a balanced education including classroom training in solar energy practice. Classes and demonstrations were also conducted for such diverse groups as elementary, junior and senior high schools, senior citizens, mental health organizations, news media, other community action agencies and colleges statewide as well as interested individuals.

Downs, R. (LEADS, Newark, OH); Blynn, R.; Glosser, D.; Homestead, D.

1980-01-01

259

The solar system/interstellar medium connection - Gas phase abundances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gas-phase abundances in the outer solar system are presented as diagnostics of the interstellar medium at the time of the solar system formation, some 4.55 billion years ago. Possible influences of the thermal and chemical histories of the primitive solar nebula and of the processes which led to the formation and evolution of the outer planets and comets on the elemental and molecular composition of the primordial matter are outlined. The major components of the atmospheres of the outer planets and of the comae of comets are identified, and the cosmogonical and cosmological implications are discussed.

Lutz, Barry L.

1987-01-01

260

Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar

Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

261

Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

1982-01-01

262

Projects in a Solar Energy Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes student projects on applications of solar energy optics to home design. Project criterion (requiring sketches and detailed calculations of time rate of energy flow/production) is that half the heat for the heating season be taken from the solar resource; calculations must be based on meteorological data for a specific location. (JM)

Lindsay, Richard H.

1983-01-01

263

Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

264

Solar energy conversion by water photodissociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects of the photochemical conversion of solar energy by simple nonbiological systems are discussed. The basic concepts of direct and catalyzed photodissociation of water are outlined. Water dissociation in closed-cycle processes based on endothermic photochemical reactions offers a potential solution to the problem of solar energy conversion. It is shown that transition metal commplexes whose excited state chemistry is

V. Balzani; L. Moggi; M. F. Manfrin; F. Bolletta; M. Gleria

1975-01-01

265

Non-tracking solar energy collector system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1978-01-01

266

Solar energy air-heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy air-heating system readily installable on the exterior wall of a residence or other building, the system including a module constituted by a slab of rigid foam plastic thermal insulation material whose upper face is covered by a fibrous mat having a blackened surface to absorb solar energy. Each edge of the slab is secured to a molding

F. G. Reick; M. Ebert

1984-01-01

267

Shallow solar pond energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a shallow solar pond energy conversion system is presented as an effective way to produce large-scale electric power from solar energy. Water is used both for heat collection and heat storage. Inexpensive layers of weatherable transparent plastic over the water suppress heat loss to the environment. The hot water is stored in an insulated reservoir at night.

W. C. Dickinson; A. F. Clark; J. A. Day; L. F. Wouters

1976-01-01

268

Solar energy system performance evaluation, October 1980 - April 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy system of a single-story, concrete block office building with 1670 square feet of conditioned space was studied. The retrofit active solar energy system is designed to supply 65% of the total heating. The system is equipped with 400 square feet of hydronic flat-plate collectors, a 2000-gallon steel tank for heat storage, and an auxiliary gas-fired boiler. The system

P. W. Kendall

1981-01-01

269

Nuclear Processes at Solar Energy  

E-print Network

LUNA, Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at Gran Sasso, is measuring fusion cross sections down to the energy of the nucleosynthesis inside stars. Outstanding results obtained up to now are the cross-section measurements within the Gamow peak of the Sun of $^{3}He(^{3}He,2p)^{4}He$ and the $D(p,\\gamma)^{3}He$. The former plays a big role in the proton-proton chain, largely affecting the calculated solar neutrino luminosity, whereas the latter is the reaction that rules the proto-star life during the pre-main sequence phase. The implications of such measurements will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained last year on the study of $^{14}N(p,\\gamma)^{15}O$, the slowest reaction of the CNO cycle, will also be shown.

Carlo Broggini

2003-08-29

270

Developing a solar energy industry in Egypt  

E-print Network

This paper assesses Egypt's current energy infrastructure and its problems, the available solar energy resource, and the technologies required to harness this resource. After this assessment, an industry based on high ...

AbdelMessih, Sherife (Sherife Mohsen)

2009-01-01

271

Solar Energy: Progress and Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses many of the economic and policy questions related to the widespread introduction of solar power, presents recent progress in developing solar technologies and advancing their economic feasibility, and reviews some recommendations that have been made for achieving the early introduction and sustained application of solar

Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

272

Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

Modisette, J. L.

1972-01-01

273

Solar Thermal Energy: Design a Solar Hot Water Heater System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has students examine a collector and tank for a solar hot water heater and estimate the amount of energy and money saved by replacing the traditional hot water heater. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Bullwinkel, Matt

274

Ch.2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons  

E-print Network

Ch.2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons #12;Learning Objective One: The Solar System #12;Milky Aphelion ­ farthest, on July 4 152,083,000 km #12;Learning Objective Two: The Solar Energy #12;What is Solar Energy? Energy is the capacity of a physical system to do work. The unit is Joule (J). Solar

Pan, Feifei

275

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory  

E-print Network

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) Instrument of Energy (DoE). Objectives · Provide Improved Methods for Radiometer Calibrations · Develop a Solar Energy Resources · Offer Unique Training Methods for Solar Monitoring Network Design, Operation

276

University of Wisconsin Madison !Solar Energy Laboratory !Slide 1! John Edlebeck  

E-print Network

University of Wisconsin ­ Madison !Solar Energy Laboratory !Slide 1! John Edlebeck M@wisc.edu Hometown: Duluth, MN #12;University of Wisconsin ­ Madison !Solar Energy Laboratory !Slide 2! Motivation! · The supercritical carbon dioxide gas turbine cycle has numerous advantages over traditional

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

277

Space solar power - An energy alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

Johnson, R. W.

1978-01-01

278

Antisoiling Coatings for Solar-Energy Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluorocarbons resist formation of adherent deposits. Promising coating materials reduce soiling of solar photovoltaic modules and possibly solar thermal collectors. Contaminating layers of various degrees of adherence form on surfaces of devices, partially blocking incident solar energy, reducing output power. Loose soil deposits during dry periods but washed off by rain. New coatings help prevent formation of more-adherent, chemically and physically bonded layers rain alone cannot wash away.

Cuddihy, E. F.; Willis, P.

1986-01-01

279

Solar Total Energy at Sandia Labs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sandia Laboratories' Solar Total Energy Program is described. This program consists of designing, building, installing, and operating a field of concentrating parabolic trough solar collectors which provide energy at 310 C, a 32-kW organic Rankine cycle power plant, and the heating and cooling equipment to utilize the cascaded, low-temperature energy from the turbine\\/generator. Included in the presentation are descriptions

J. A. Leonard

1976-01-01

280

Low cost solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended, curved sawtooth contoured surface covered with a metallized polymeric reflecting material, reflected solar energy to a movably supported collector that was kept at the concentrated line focus of the reflector primary. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy was obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that directed off-angle energy to the absorber pipe.

Miller, C. G.; Stephans, J. B. (inventors)

1977-01-01

281

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 15991610 Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials  

E-print Network

) solar energy conversion systems (or solar cells) are the most widely used power systems. HoweverSolar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1599­1610 Improving solar cell efficiency using Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop T1714 106, 4800 Oak Grove Drive

Dowling, Jonathan P.

282

Solar energy at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Basic concepts for using the energy of the sun have been known for centuries. The challenge today, the goal of the Department of Energy`s National Solar Energy Program is to create the technology needed to establish solar energy as a practical, economical alternative to energy produced by depletable fuels--and to use that solar-produced energy in a wide variety of applications. To assist the DOE in this national effort, Sandia sponsors industrial and university research and development, manages a series of technical programs, operates solar experimental facilities, and carries out its own scientific and engineering research. This booklet describes their projects, their technical objectives, and explains how their experimental facilities are used to find the answers we`re seeking. Prospective participants from companies involved in solar-energy development or applications should find it especially useful since it outlines broad areas of opportunity. Projects include: central receiver technology; line-focus thermal technology; photovoltaic systems technology; wind turbine development; energy storage technology; and applied research in improved polycrystalline materials for solar cells and photoelectrolysis of water.

NONE

1981-12-31

283

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology  

SciTech Connect

An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1982-01-01

284

Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

285

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics  

SciTech Connect

Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

286

INTERACTION OF THE SOLAR WIND WITH THE NEUTRAL COMPONENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is constructed to represent the interaction between the solar wind and the neutral component of the interstellar gas. It is found that the neutral gas has several important effects on the solar-wind expansion beyond the orbit of the earth and that it should be possible to infer the presence of the neutral gas from observations of the solar

Thomas E. Holzer

1972-01-01

287

Mini-Optics Solar Energy Concentrator  

E-print Network

This invention deals with the broad general concept for focussing light. A mini-optics tracking and focussing system is presented for solar power conversion that ranges from an individual's portable system to solar conversion of electrical power that can be used in large scale power plants for environmentally clean energy. It can be rolled up, transported, and attached to existing man-made, or natural structures. It allows the solar energy conversion system to be low in capital cost and inexpensive to install as it can be attached to existing structures since it does not require the construction of a superstructure of its own. This novel system is uniquely distinct and different from other solar tracking and focussing processes allowing it to be more economical and practical. Furthermore, in its capacity as a power producer, it can be utilized with far greater safety, simplicity, economy, and efficiency in the conversion of solar energy.

Mark Davidson; Mario Rabinowitz

2003-09-12

288

High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona  

E-print Network

Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

2008-04-16

289

High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona  

E-print Network

Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

Widom, A; Larsen, L

2008-01-01

290

Solar energy collection by the tower system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy collecting tests were carried out under Japan's Sunshine Project, as part of the solar thermal electric power system. The total mirror area of the heliostats was increased by a factor of three to 300 sq m, making the dimensional ratio between the tower height and field diameter equivalent to that of the pilot plant, as well as achieving

T. Taguchi; M. Takemoto

1981-01-01

291

Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

1982-01-01

292

Heat-Energy Analysis for Solar Receivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat-energy analysis program (HEAP) solves general heat-transfer problems, with some specific features that are "custom made" for analyzing solar receivers. Can be utilized not only to predict receiver performance under varying solar flux, ambient temperature and local heat-transfer rates but also to detect locations of hotspots and metallurgical difficulties and to predict performance sensitivity of neighboring component parameters.

Lansing, F. L.

1982-01-01

293

Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

Antal, M. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

294

Semi transparent solar energy thermal storage device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer

1985-01-01

295

Stanhope solar energy project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Two water heating systems and two space heating systems were installed to service one building for the purpose of demonstrating solar energy utilization. A fireplace and solar collectors were used to heat the water, and a Trombe Wall and four passive window boxes are to be used to heat the living spaces when installed.

Not Available

1982-10-12

296

Collector means for solar energy collecting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes absorber means for a solar energy collector system, which includes an absorber plate means having at least one side thereof exposed to solar rays. The absorber means consist of: (a) transparent glazing panel means, generally parallel to and in spaced relation to the exposed side of the absorber plate means; and (b) absorber plate cap means coupled

R. D. Nikkel; P. M. LEsperance

1986-01-01

297

Polymers in solar energy utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser photoacoustic technique (LPAT) has been verified for performing accelerated life testing of outdoor photooxidation of polymeric materials used in solar energy applications. Samples of the material under test are placed in a chamber with a sensitive microphone, then exposed to chopped laser radiation. The sample absorbs the light and converts it to heat by a nonradiative deexcitation process, thereby reducing pressure fluctuations within the cell. The acoustic signal detected by the microphone is directly proportional to the amount of light absorbed by the specimen. Tests were performed with samples of ethylene/methylacrylate copolymer (EMA) reprecipitated from hot cyclohexane, compressed, and molded into thin (25-50 microns) films. The films were exposed outdoors and sampled by LPAT weekly. The linearity of the light absorbed with respect to the acoustic signal was verified.Correlations were established between the photoacoustic behavior of the materials aged outdoors and the same kinds of samples cooled and heated in a controlled environment reactor. The reactor tests were validated for predicting outdoor exosures up to 55 days.

Liang, R. H.; Coulter, D. R.; Dao, C.; Gupta, A.

1983-01-01

298

Durability of solar energy materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general test procedure for qualification of solar absorber surface durability has been developed based on the results of a comprehensive case study performed within the framework of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task X. It was assumed, in the development of the qualification procedure, that the intended use of the absorber surface to be qualified, was in

M Koehl

2001-01-01

299

Affordable Solar Energy Solar Powder is a solar-energy company that has developed an innovative technology that will set a new  

E-print Network

Affordable Solar Energy Solar Powder is a solar-energy company that has developed an innovative technology that will set a new low cost point for solar energy. The company plans to manufacture and distribute high-efficiency, high yield, low cost solar panels. The company is making green energy more

Jawitz, James W.

300

General solar energy information user study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1981-03-01

301

Solar energy generation in three dimensions  

E-print Network

We formulate, solve computationally and study experimentally the problem of collecting solar energy in three dimensions. We demonstrate that absorbers and reflectors can be combined in the absence of sun tracking to build ...

Bernardi, Marco

302

Tower-supported solar-energy collector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple-collector tower system supports three receiver/concentrators that absorb solar energy reflected from surrounding field of heliostats. System overcomes disadvantages of tower-supported collectors. Booms can be lowered during heavy winds to protect arms and collectors.

Selcuk, M. K.

1977-01-01

303

Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries  

E-print Network

The demand for renewable energy sources has stimulated technological advances in solar cell development. Initially, development and fabrication were extremely costly and no encouragement for use in industrial applications was made. Today, evidence...

Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

1980-01-01

304

Evacuated balloon for solar energy collection  

SciTech Connect

A large cylindrically-shaped balloon-like structure having hemispherical ends with fins utilized in conjunction with airflow thereacross based upon Bernoulli's principle for maneuvering and maintaining stability. The balloon is compartmentalized, contains a uniquely designed structural support system, and contains pumps for evacuating the air therein. The structure may be used for any lifting application. In particular solar-energy is collected through a transparent portion of the structure and reflected from shaped surfaces that direct solar energy on energy converting panels. The electrical energy generated is utilized to operate an evacuation system, while the remainder of the electrical energy is beamed by microwaves to a receiving station on earth.

Bliamptis, E. E.

1985-08-13

305

Emerging NOAA Surface Solar Radiation for Solar Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar power has been growing at an annual rate of 40% in recent years. By 2025 it could grow to 10% of U.S. power needs. Sunlight is the fuel for solar power generation technologies, and as such one needs to know the quality and future availability of the fuel for accurate analysis of system performance. Sunlight (solar radiation) at the surface has been routinely estimated in real time from measurements of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) operated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). The GOES solar radiation data have been made available in the GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) suite since January 1996 for the contiguous U.S. every daytime hour at a spatial resolution of ~50 km (GSIP-V1). Since April 2009, solar radiation retrievals have been performed at a higher spatial resolution (~14 km) and cover larger areas (GSIP-V2). The GSIP-V1 data have recently been screened for quality, adjusted for changes in calibration, and parameters useful for the solar energy sector have been derived for the period of 1999-2009. In this presentation, we describe the quality control process and various adjustments applied, and provide examples of selected solar energy parameters (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.) and their evaluation. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), one of the flagship instruments of NOAA's new geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. The ABI algorithm, that is quite different from the one applied in GSIP-V1 and V2, uses atmospheric and surface data retrieved from multiple narrow bands using algorithms dedicated to the retrieval of these data. The algorithm is currently run with proxy data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the EOS satellites Terra and Aqua and the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. The ABI algorithm will be explained as well as examples will be shown.

Kondratovich, V.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.

2012-12-01

306

Solar Energy: Impacts & Management MeasuresSolar Energy: Impacts & Management Measures Vasilis Fthenakis  

E-print Network

Targets Geographic Locations Phoenix, AZ Kansas City, MO New York, NY Financing Conditions Low: 8.2% after1 Solar Energy: Impacts & Management MeasuresSolar Energy: Impacts & Management Measures Vasilis impacts & comparisons with other power generation · Energy use · Emissions · Land use · Endangered species

Ohta, Shigemi

307

Solar energy thermalization and storage device  

DOEpatents

A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

1981-09-01

308

Solar energy receiver for a Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy receiver includes a separable endless wall formed of a ceramic material in which a cavity of substantially cylindrical configuration is defined for entrapping solar flux. An acceptance aperture is adapted to admit to the cavity a concentrated beam of solar energy. The wall is characterized by at least one pair of contiguously related segments separated by lines of cleavage intercepting the aperture. At least one of the segments is supported for pivotal displacement. A thermal-responsive actuator is adapted to respond to excessive temperatures within the cavity for initiating pivoted displacement of one segment, whereby thermal flux is permitted to escape from the cavity.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1980-01-01

309

Solar energy utilization in the USSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

Shpilrain, E. E.

1991-05-01

310

Review of solar-energy drying systems II: an overview of solar drying technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy

O. V Ekechukwu; B Norton

1999-01-01

311

Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emphasis was placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ utilizing a unique solar cell array roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5 percent efficiency at 28 C and 100 mW\\/sq cm insolation are used to

M. C. Krupka

1980-01-01

312

Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers  

E-print Network

Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers SEPTEMBER 2010 Solar Energy: www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx PROCURING SOLAR ENERGY: A GUIDE FOR FEDERAL FACILITY DECISION MAKERS #12;September 2010 3 Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers Blaise

313

The Case for the Large Scale Development of Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of solar energy development. Discusses global effects (temperature, particle and other pollution) of burning fossil fuels. Provides energy balance equations for solar energy distribution and discusses flat plate collectors, solar cells, photochemical and photobiological conversion of solar energy, heat pumps. (CS)

O'Reilly, S. A.

1977-01-01

314

Solar Noble Gas Microdistributions in Murchison and CM Rim Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. Identifiable components of certain carbonaceous chondrites have been interpreted as nebula products. MacPherson et al. [1] described some rims around refractory inclusions in Allende (C3V) as accretionary, and Metzler et al. [2] attributed a nebular origin to fine-grained dust mantles (rims) in CM meteorites. In nebula formation scenarios such as that evoked by Metzler et al., we would expect rim material to be largely devoid of solar-implanted noble gases while the brecciated matrix material would be relatively solar gas-rich. Of particular interest in this study, therefore, is examining the microdistribution of solar noble gases in carbonaceous chondrites to attempt to assess the validity of current models for rim formation. Procedure. A polished thick section of Murchison (CM) (~300 micrometers thick) was prepared without epoxy impregnation since epoxy is not compatible with the high-vacuum, noble gas mass spectrometer. Noble gases were extracted from targeted regions in situ by pulsed-laser excavation and measured by an ion-counting noble gas mass spectrometer [3]. Typical excavation volumes were about 150 micrometers x 150 micrometers x 100 micrometers. Previous Results. Neon isotopic data from these measurements were reported at LPSC XXVI [3]. All data extracted from the section's rim areas plot within the triangle defined by a three component mixture between 'planetary' (Ne-A), solar wind, and spallation. However, as pointed out by R. Wieler, the data could also be interpreted as a three component mixture between Ne-A, spallation and Q-Ne [4]. Current Results and Discussion. Figure 1 plots the noble gas elemental ratios for representative (other rim and matrix data, though in agreement, are not plotted in order to reduce clutter) rim and matrix analyses along with Q, referenced to 36Ar and normalized to solar wind (ilmenite 12001 [5]). As expected, the heavier noble gases are dominated by Q. In fact, the Xe and Kr isotopic data are indistinguishable from Q within error (not plotted). In contrast, the lighter gases are overabundant relative to their Q complement. While this enrichment might be interpreted as a contribution from an A-type planetary component (Ne,He-A), similarity between rims and matrix, as shown in Fig. 1, suggests the presence of solar gas since the matrix is certainly a solar gas carrier for this 'gas-rich' meteorite. An identical solar-enriched signature was measured in the inner as well as outer portion of a single ~300 micrometers thick rim, suggesting that all the material in this rim was similarly exposed. Thus, solar wind irradiation appears to be pervasive in this section of Murchison, present in both matrix and throughout all rims measured in this study. Therefore, modification of the simple one-stage model for nebula accretion of rimmed objects [2] may be required. References: [1] MacPherson G. J. et al. (1985) GCA, 49, 2267-2279. [2] Metzler K. et al., GCA, 56, 2873-2897. [3] Hohenberg C. M. (1980) Rev. Sci. Instrum., 51, 1075-1082. [4] Wieler R. et al. (1992) GCA, 56, 2907-2921. [5] Eberhardt P. et al. (1972) Proc. LSC Conf. 3rd, 1821-1856.

Woolum, D. S.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Kehm, K.; Poelstra, K.; Guntalilib, E.

1995-09-01

315

Oakmead Industries, Santa Clara, California solar-energy-system performance evaluation, October 1980-May 1981  

SciTech Connect

The Oakmead Industries solar energy system is a commercial office/manufacturing building in California equipped with 2622 square feet of liquid flat-plate collectors, 1675 square feet of Trombe wall glazing, a 6500-gallon steel storage tank, two gas-fired auxiliary space heating units and an auxiliary electric resistance water heater. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are calculated. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems is examined, and the operating energy and energy savings are tabulated. Weather conditions are tabulated for the site. (LEW)

Pakkala, P.A.

1981-01-01

316

Oakmead Industries, Santa Clara, California solar-energy-system performance evaluation October 1980 - May 1981  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oakmead Industries solar energy system is a commercial office/manufacturing building in California equipped with 2622 square feet of liquid flat-plate collectors, 1675 square feet of Trombe wall glazing, a 6500-gallon steel storage tank, two gas-fired auxiliary space heating units and an auxiliary electric resistance water heater. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are calculated. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems is examined, and the operating energy and energy savings are tabulated. Weather conditions are tabulated for the site.

Pakkala, P. A.

317

EEE 498/EEE591: Solar Energy Instructor: C J Tracy  

E-print Network

are details of the solar cell device, cell manufacturing methods, solar modules, batteries, systemsEEE 498/EEE591: Solar Energy Fall 2011 Instructor: C J Tracy Email: clarence.tracy@asu.edu Course solar energy through photovoltaics (PV), starting with the nature and variability of terrestrial solar

Zhang, Junshan

318

Shenandoah Solar Total-Energy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and construction of the world's first solar total energy plant in the private sector was completed and checkout is underway. During its operational phase, the solar plant will furnish electrical power, process steam, and other thermal energy to a nearby knitwear factory. The solar system consists of a collector field containing 114 parabolic dish collectors which supply thermal energy at 4000 C to drive a 400 kW multistage Rankine cycle turbine generator. Some steam is extracted from the turbine and supplied to the knitwear manufacturing processes. The system will be grid connected. Presented are a description of the system and components being installed; a summary of performance testing of the extraction turbine and of four prototype parabolic dish collectors; and a discussion of design considerations and insights which have general applicability to solar thermal system designs.

Leonard, J. A.; Hunke, R. W.

1982-12-01

319

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

320

The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

Kai, K.

1986-01-01

321

Solar-processed metals as clean energy carriers and water-splitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-step solar thermochemical cycles and processes for the production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, and synthesis gas are considered. The first step is based on the thermal, electrothermal, or carbothermal reduction of metal oxides, producing metals, metal nitrides, metal carbides, or lower-valence metal oxides. These are hightemperature highly endothermic reactions that can be driven by concentrated solar energy, reducing the consumption of

A. Steinfeld; P. Kuhn; A. Reller; R. Palumbo; Y. Tamaura

1998-01-01

322

Solar versus fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that solar hot water systems save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional electric and gas hot water systems. Very rarely has the life-cycle energy requirements (including the embodied energy of manufacture) of solar hot water systems been analysed. The extent to which solar hot water systems can save energy compared to conventional electric

Robert H. Crawford

2001-01-01

323

Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar energy, being a non-depleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. It can be used to generate electricity, for heating and cooling buildings, and for producing clean renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuel. There is little question of the technical feasibility for utilizing solar energy. The chief problem is rapidly providing innovative solutions that are economically competititive with other systems.

Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

1973-01-01

324

Passive solar energy information user study  

SciTech Connect

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1980-11-01

325

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, AND PUBLICATIONS  

E-print Network

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, and Buildings Systems Integration Center National Renewable Energy Laboratory 8 July 2009 SOLAR SYSTEM POTENTIAL/calculators/PVWATTS/version1/ http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version2/ Estimates the electrical energy

326

Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

THE noble-gas elemental and isotopic composition in the Earth is significantly different from that of the present atmosphere, and provides an important clue to the origin and history of the Earth and its atmosphere. Possible candidates for the noble-gas composition of the primordial Earth include a solar-like component, a planetary-like component (as observed in primitive meteorites) and a component similar in composition to the present atmosphere. In an attempt to identify the contributions of such components, we have measured isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea1-3. We find a systematic enrichment in 20Ne and 21Ne relative to 22Ne, compared with atmospheric neon. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in our samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic and nucleogenic components. These data suggest that the noble-gas isotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solar-like component. We infer that this component was acquired during the formation of the Earth.

Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.

1991-01-01

327

Greenhouse-gas emissions from solar electric- and nuclear power: A life-cycle study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar- and nuclear-electricity-generation technologies often are deemed “carbon-free” because their operation does not generate any carbon dioxide. However, this is not so when considering their entire lifecycle of energy production; carbon dioxide and other gases are emitted during the extraction, processing, and disposal of associated materials. We determined the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, namely, CO2, CH4, N2O, and chlorofluorocarbons due

Vasilis M. Fthenakis; Hyung Chul Kim

2007-01-01

328

Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition  

SciTech Connect

A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-03-01

329

Potential for supplying solar thermal energy to industrial unit operations  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have identified major industries deemed most appropriate for the near-term adoption of solar thermal technology to provide process heat; these studies have been based on surveys that followed standard industrial classifications. This paper presents an alternate, perhaps simpler analysis of this potential, considered in terms of the end-use of energy delivered to industrial unit operations. For example, materials, such as animal feed, can be air dried at much lower temperatures than are currently used. This situation is likely to continue while economic supplies of natural gas are readily available. However, restriction of these supplies could lead to the use of low-temperature processes, which are more easily integrated with solar thermal technology. The adoption of solar technology is also favored by other changes, such as the relative rates of increase of the costs of electricity and natural gas, and by energy conservation measures. Thus, the use of low-pressure steam to provide process heat could be replaced economically with high-temperature hot water systems, which are more compatible with solar technology. On the other hand, for certain operations such as high-temperature catalytic and distillation processes employed in petroleum refining, there is no ready alternative to presently employed fluid fuels.

May, E.K.

1980-04-01

330

External Photoevaporation of the Solar Nebula: Jupiter's Noble Gas Enrichments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model explaining the elemental enrichments in Jupiter's atmosphere, particularly the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe. While He, Ne, and O are depleted, seven other elements show similar enrichments (~3 times solar, relative to H). Being volatile, Ar is difficult to fractionate from H2. We argue that external photoevaporation by far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby massive stars removed H2, He, and Ne from the solar nebula, but Ar and other species were retained because photoevaporation occurred at large heliocentric distances where temperatures were cold enough (lsim 30 K) to trap them in amorphous water ice. As the solar nebula lost H, it became relatively and uniformly enriched in other species. Our model improves on the similar model of Guillot & Hueso. We recognize that cold temperatures alone do not trap volatiles; continuous water vapor production is also necessary. We demonstrate that FUV fluxes that photoevaporated the disk generated sufficient water vapor in regions <~ 30 K to trap gas-phase species in amorphous water ice in solar proportions. We find more efficient chemical fractionation in the outer disk: whereas the model of Guillot & Hueso predicts a factor of three enrichment when only <2% of the disk mass remains, we find the same enrichments when 30% of the disk mass remains. Finally, we predict the presence of ~0.1 M ? of water vapor in the outer solar nebula and protoplanetary disks in H II regions.

Monga, Nikhil; Desch, Steven

2015-01-01

331

Radiation energy receiver for laser and solar propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of remotely heating a rocket propellant with a high intensity radiant energy flux is especially attractive due to its high specific impulse and large payload mass capabilities. In this paper, a radiation receiver-thruster which is especially suited to the particular thermodynamic and spectral characteristics of highly concentrated solar energy is proposed. In this receiver, radiant energy is volumetrically absorbed within a hydrogen gas seeded with alkali metal vapors. The alkali atoms and molecules absorb the radiant flux and, subsequently, transfer their internal excitation to hydrogen molecules through collisional quenching. It is shown that such a radiation receiver would outperform a blackbody cavity type receiver in both efficiency and maximum operating temperatures. A solar rocket equipped with such a receiver-thruster would deliver thrusts of several hundred newtons at a specific impulse of 1000 seconds.

Rault, D. F. G.; Hertzberg, A.

1983-01-01

332

Mathematics and Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module for use with junior high school students offers some basic career awareness in the energy field while covering some basic principles and aspects of energy use, such as vocabulary, basic electricity, energy efficiency, and home utility meter reading. Math problems are offered in volume and surface area, energy efficiency,…

Humer, Barbara

333

Port of Galveston Solar Energy Project  

SciTech Connect

This study on the performance characteristics of existing solar technologies in a maritime environment was funded by an award given to The Port of Galveston (POG) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The study includes research performed by The Center for Advanced Materials at the University of Houston (UH). The UH researchers examined how solar cell efficiencies and life spans can be improved by examining the performance of a variety of antireflective (AR) coatings mounted on the top of one of the POG’s Cruise Terminals. Supplemental supporting research was performed at the UH laboratories. An educational Kiosk was constructed with a 55” display screen providing information about solar energy, the research work UH performed at POG and real time data from the solar panels located on the roof of the Cruise Terminal. The Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) managed the project.

Falcioni, Diane [Project Director, Port of Galveston; Cuclis, Alex [Project Manager, Houston Advanced Research Center; Freundlich, Alex [Principal Investigator, University of Houston

2014-03-31

334

Solar Energy of the North  

SciTech Connect

The concept of this project was to design a solar array that would not only provide electricity for the major classroom building of the campus but would also utilize that electricity to enhance the learning environment. It was also understood that the project would be a research and data gathering project.

Davis St. Peter Director of Faclities ( retired) Charles Bonin Vice President of Administration & Finance

2012-01-12

335

Microbial Electrosynthesis Turns Solar Energy into Chemicals May 31, 2010  

E-print Network

Microbial Electrosynthesis Turns Solar Energy into Chemicals May 31, 2010 A new way to make electrosynthesis (ME) process is carbon neutral and uses solar energy more efficiently than plants. In fact, but the technology is primarily designed to be used with solar panels as a source of clean, renewable solar energy

Lovley, Derek

336

New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV\\/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature

Takumi Takashima; Tadayoshi Tanaka; Takuya Doi; Junji Kamoshida; Tatsuo Tani; Takashi Horigome

1994-01-01

337

On the free energy of the solar cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free energy transformations leading to the observed solar cycle variations of the total solar irradiance are not known. The energy of magnetic fields and their dissipation related to the solar activity manifestations in large scale structures on the Sun do not look to be sufficient energy reservoirs and channels for producing the total solar radiation variations with the relative

I. S Veselovsky

2004-01-01

338

General solar energy information user study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy are presented. These results identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed: loan officers, real estate appraisers, tax assessors, insurers, lawyers, utility respresentatives, public interest group representatives, information and agricultural representatives, public interest group representatives, information and agricultural specialists at state cooperative extension service offices, and state energy office representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W. W.; Wood, B. L.; Marle, T. L.; Reinhardt, C. L.

1981-03-01

339

Florida Solar Energy Center: K-12 Curricula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains nine sets of curriculum materials on renewable energy sources, organized into units of instruction for Grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. In the High Energy Hydrogen units, students investigate how a fuel cell converts energy directly into usable electric power and why the process is pollution-free. The award-winning Solar Matters collection includes manuals for building a solar "still" to desalinate water, exploring properties of photovoltaic cells, and experimenting with fuel cells. Printable lesson plans are supplemented with interactive games and activities for use in the science classroom. Each instructional unit is aligned with science education standards.

340

Reliability engineering in solar energy: workshop proceedings  

SciTech Connect

A workshop to reveal the scope of reliability-related activities in solar energy conversion projects and in nonsolar segments of industry is described. Two reliability programs, one in heating and cooling and one in photovoltaics, are explicated. This document also presents general suggestions for the establishment of a unified program for reliability, durability, maintainability, and safety (RDM and S) in present and future solar projects.

Gross, G.

1980-03-01

341

Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine  

E-print Network

Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine Dr. Fletcher Miller SDSU Department of Mechanical Engineering Abstract Solar thermal power for electricity will describe the design of a high temperature solar receiver capable of driving a gas turbine for power

Ponce, V. Miguel

342

The Status of Solar Energy as Fuel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discused is the biological conversion of solar energy via photosynthesis into stored energy in the form of biomass. Detailed are the research and development programs on biomass of the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Brazil, Philippines, Sahel, India, and China. (BT)

Hall, D. O.

1979-01-01

343

Iron disulfide for solar energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrite (Eg = 0.95 eV) is being developed as a solar energy material due to its environmental compatibility and its very high light absorption coefficient. A compilation of material, electronic and interfacial chemical properties is presented, which is considered relevant for quantum energy conversion. In spite of intricate problems existing within material chemistry, high quantum efficiencies for photocurrent generation (Eta

A ENNAOUI; S FIECHTER; C PETTENKOFER; N ALONSOVANTE; K BUKER; M BRONOLD; C HOPFNER; H TRIBUTSCH

1993-01-01

344

Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

345

Using Solar Energy to Desalinate Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Material presented is adapted from Desalination with Solar Energy, a paper presented before the International Symposium on Energy Sources and Development, held in Spain in 1977. Desalination systems energized by the sun, conditions governing their efficiency, and their costs are discussed. (HM)

Tabor, Harry Z.

1978-01-01

346

Solar energy collector and storage device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved flat plate solar energy collector of integral construction capable of mass production in which metal tubing is eliminated is described. The collector includes a stamped planar tray and a radiant energy absorber plate connected together to form the inlet and outlet fluid header and the innerconnecting channels therebetween. The planar tray and absorber plate are mounted in a

1979-01-01

347

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

348

SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

SciTech Connect

Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities; and at LBL projects are in progress which span that range of activities. To assess various solar applications it is important to quantify the solar resource. In one project, LBL is cooperating with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in the implementation and operation of a solar radiation data collection network in northern California. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure the solar and circumsolar (around the sun) radiation. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs which use focusing collectors (mirrors or lenses) to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts are being made to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology. DOE's San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) has been given technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. The installation of a solar hot water and space heating system on an LBL building established model techniques and procedures as part of the DOE Facilities Solar Demonstration Program. Technical support is also provided for SAN in a DOE small scale technology pilot program in which grants are awarded to individuals and organizations to develop and demonstrate solar technologies appropriate to small scale use. In the near future it is expected that research will exert a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. An absorption air conditioner is being developed that is air cooled yet suitable for use with temperatures available from flat plate collectors. With inexpensive but sophisticated micro-electronics to control their operation, the performance of many-component solar heating and cooling systems may be improved, and work is under way to develop such a controller and to evaluate commercially available units. Research is continuing on 'passive' approaches to solar heating and cooling where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed in a collaborative project with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. These models will be incorporated into public domain building energy analysis computer programs to be used in systems studies and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, then provide 'coolness' to the building. The laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the 'shape-memory' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources such as solar heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central receiver system or a parabolic dish. The conversion of the concentrated sunlight to thermal energy would be accomplished by the absorption of the light by a dispersion of very small particles suspended in a gas. Work continued this year on chemical storage processes (such as 2SO

Authors, Various

1980-10-01

349

Zero energy homes: Combining energy efficiency and solar energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

In a typical Florida house, air-conditioning accounts for about 35% of all the electricity the home uses. As the largest single source of energy consumption in Florida, a home's air-conditioning load represents the biggest energy challenge facing Florida residents. The Florida Solar Energy Center designed a project to meet this challenge. Two homes were built with the same floor plan on near-by lots. The difference was that one (the control home) conformed to local residential building practices, and the other (the Zero Energy home) was designed with energy efficiency in mind and a solar technology system on the roof. The homes were then monitored carefully for energy use. The projects designers were looked to answer two questions: (1) could a home in a climate such as central Florida be engineered and built so efficiently that a relatively small PV system would serve the majority of its cooling needs--and even some of its daytime electrical needs; and (2) would that home be as comfortable and appealing as the conventional model built alongside it? The answer was yes, even though it was conducted in the summer of 1998--one of the hottest summers on record in Florida.

NREL

2000-03-09

350

Solar: A Clean Energy Source for Utilities (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Summarizes the activities that the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program conducts to collaborate with and benenfit utilities with the goal of accelerating solar technologies adoption by removing barriers to solar deployment.

Not Available

2009-07-01

351

The Prospects of Solar Energy for Developing Nations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the potential application of solar energy and its possible benefits to developing countries. Various energy needs, including domestic, agricultural, and household, that could be met by using solar energy are discussed. (BT)

Ramachandran, A.; Gururaja, J.

1979-01-01

352

Agegraphic Chaplygin gas model of dark energy  

E-print Network

We establish a connection between the agegraphic models of dark energy and Chaplygin gas energy density in non-flat universe. We reconstruct the potential of the agegraphic scalar field as well as the dynamics of the scalar field according to the evolution of the agegraphic dark energy. We also extend our study to the interacting agegraphic generalized Chaplygin gas dark energy model.

Ahmad Sheykhi

2010-02-07

353

Solar America: A Solar Energy Tour of the United States (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This CDROM contains nearly 500 photos and captions of solar energy technologies at work throughout the United States. Every state of the union is represented, as well as Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia, and U.S. outposts in Antarctica. The technologies represented are photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar hot water, and concentrating solar power. The CD promotes solar energy as a wise energy choice for America's present and future.

Not Available

2003-06-01

354

Solar America: A Solar Energy Tour of the United States (CD-ROM)  

SciTech Connect

This CDROM contains nearly 500 photos and captions of solar energy technologies at work throughout the United States. Every state of the union is represented, as well as Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia, and U.S. outposts in Antarctica. The technologies represented are photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar hot water, and concentrating solar power. The CD promotes solar energy as a wise energy choice for America's present and future.

Not Available

2001-12-01

355

Solar energy - When, where and how  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive review is presented of the conversion technologies by which solar energy may be turned into useful end products. The degree of maturity of these technologies, which include photovoltaics, biomass conversion, and direct and indirect solar thermal conversion systems such as wind energy and ocean thermal gradients, ranges from those that are available commercially, such as hot water heating, to those that are in a robust embryonic stage, such as the production of ethanol from woody biomass. The cost, performance, market potential and environmental/social impact of these technologies are considered to determine (1) what fraction of the U.S. energy budget will be solar in the short, middle, and long terms, and (2) what the mix and distribution of these technologies will be in the year 2000.

Touryan, K. J.

1981-05-01

356

Storage and cooling by solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques for converting solar energy into mechanical energy for use in small-to-large scale refrigeration systems are examined. The systems considered included a Rankine cycle, 106 kW system coupled to 58 sq m of flat plate collectors, photovoltaic panels with storage in the form of ice, a positive ventilation and ice bank cooling system, ammonia-water absorption refrigeration, intermittent refrigeration, and solid adsorption refrigeration. All the equipment will be required to produce storage temperatures in the range 0-10 C and, consequently, the use of solar energy for deep freeze applications is considered unlikely. Small units which feature storage spaces of around one cubic meter can be satisfied by solar cells or intermittent absorption units. Larger-sized storage will employ the ammonia absorption process. Flat-plate collectors are foreseen to supply the power in rural areas.

Exell, R. H. B.

1982-01-01

357

Multi-power port gas turbine configurations for solar cogeneration applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New system configurations and control techniques which account for the nuances inherent in solar input-gas turbine cogeneration power plants are presented. Compensation for diurnal and seasonal variations, weather conditions, operation in non-steady-state modes, and in the presence of high exhaust back pressures at the outlet of the turbines all require innovations in order to minimally change existing turbine designs when introducing a solar source into the fuel sector. The usage of multiple power ports to the machines, and/or multishaft machines, or even variable torque converters is suggested. Specific attention is given systems powered by an energy gained from a central solar power tower surrounded by heliostats. Control processes which alter the temperature/pressure inputs to drive assemblies are offered as means to ensure continuous shaft speeds.

Damsker, D.; Curto, P. A.

1982-08-01

358

The High Energy Solar Physics Mission (HESP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's major solar flare project for the next solar maximum around the turn of the century is the High Energy Solar Physics Mission (HESP). The prime objective of HESP is to study the flare energy release, particle acceleration, and transport processes through high-resolution spatially-resolved spectroscopy of X-rays and gamma-rays. The strawman instrument for HESP to achieve this objective is the High Energy Imaging Spectrometer (HEISPEC). It will make imaging spectroscopy observations with an angular resolution of several arcseconds and an energy resolution of ~1 keV from a few keV to ~1 MeV and gamma-ray spectroscopy observations with similar energy resolution to 10 MeV. The plan is to launch HEISPEC in the year 2000 with a Pegasus launch vehicle into an equatorial orbit to obtain 2 - 3 years of observations during the next solar maximum. In order to fully interpret the HEISPEC observations, it will be necessary to obtain complementary observations of the thermal, ! dynamic, and magnetic context in which the high energy emissions are produced. Much of the necessary context information will be obtained from closely coordinated ground-based optical and radio observations. In addition, it is hoped that additional instruments will be flown on other US or foreign spacecraft to provide context soft X-ray and UV/EUV observations of the high temperature emissions not accessible from the ground.

Dennis, B. R.

1994-07-01

359

Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

Loferski, J. J.

1976-01-01

360

Gas heat conduction in an evacuated tube solar collector  

SciTech Connect

We investigated experimentally the pressure dependency of the gas heat conduction in an evacuated plate-in-tube solar collector. A stationary heat loss experiment was built up with an electrically heated real-size collector model. The gas pressure was varied from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 4} Pa, the temperatures of the absorber and the casing were held at 150{degree}C (electrical heaters) and 30{degree}C (water cooling), respectively. Losses by radiation and solid conduction were determined experimentally at pressures below 0.1 Pa. At higher pressures these background losses were subtracted from the total heat losses, to receive the heat losses by gas heat conduction. The experimental results were compared with approximate theoretical models. The onset of convection is in agreement with the usual theories for parallel plates taking the largest distance between the absorber and the gas tube as the plate distance. As a first approximation the pressure dependency of the gas heat conduction is described by the usual theory for parallel plates, taking the smallest distance between the absorber and the glass tube as the plate distance. 11 refs., 3 figs.

Beikircher, T.; Goldemund, G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Benz, N. [ZAE Bayern, Muenchen (Germany)] [ZAE Bayern, Muenchen (Germany)

1996-10-01

361

Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

362

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-01-01

363

Manufacture of silicon carbide using solar energy  

DOEpatents

A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using solar energy. The method is efficient and avoids the need for use of electrical energy to heat the reactants. Finely divided silica and carbon are admixed and placed in a solar-heated reaction chamber for a time sufficient to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

1992-01-01

364

Impacts of solar energy utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various methods of conducting surveys and analyses to determine the attitude of the public toward the energy crisis are discussed. Models to determine the impact of the energy crisis and proposed alternative sources of energy on the social structure are analyzed. The various interest groups which are concerned with energy and the nature of their interest are identified. The government structure for controlling resource production and allocation is defined.

1973-01-01

365

The Solar Wind Charge-Transfer X-Ray Emission in the 1\\/4 keV Energy Range: Inferences on Local Bubble Hot Gas at Low Z  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present calculations of the heliospheric solar wind charge-exchange (SWCX) emission spectra and the resulting contributions of this diffuse background in the ROSAT 1\\/4 keV bands. We compare our results with the soft X-ray background (SXRB) emission detected in front of 378 identified shadowing regions during the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. This foreground component is principally attributed to the hot gas

D. Koutroumpa; R. Lallement; J. C. Raymond; V. Kharchenko

2009-01-01

366

Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility  

SciTech Connect

SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR DEVICE FABRICATION LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT The space allocated for this laboratory was �¢����shell space�¢��� that required an upfit in order to accommodate nano-fabrication equipment in a quasi-clean room environment. This construction project (cost $279,736) met the non-federal cost share requirement of $250,000 for this award. The central element of the fabrication laboratory is a new $400,000+ stand-alone system, funded by other sources, for fabricating and characterizing photovoltaic devices, in a state-of-the-art nanofabrication environment. This congressionally directed project also included the purchase of an energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) detector for a pre-existing transmission electron microscope (TEM). This detector allows elemental analysis and elemental mapping of materials used to fabricate solar energy devices which is a key priority for our research center. TASK 2: SOLAR ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT (INSTRUMENTATION) This laboratory provides access to modern spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation for characterizing devices, materials and components on time scales ranging from femtoseconds to seconds and for elucidating mechanisms. The goals of this congressionally directed project included the purchase and installation of spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation that would substantially and meaningfully enhance the capabilities of this laboratory. Some changes were made to the list of equipment proposed in the original budget. These changes did not represent a change in scope, approach or aims of this project. All of the capabilities and experiments represented in the original budget were maintained. The outcome of this Congressionally Directed Project has been the development of world-class fabrication and spectroscopy user facilities for solar fuels research at UNC-CH. This award has provided a significant augmentation of our pre-existing instrumentation capabilities which were funded by earlier UNC SERC projects, including the Energy Frontier

Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

2011-11-11

367

Solar Energy Employment and Requirements, 1978-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on data collected from a mailed survey of 2800 employers engaged in solar energy activities, a study identified the characteristics of establishments engaged in solar work and the number and occupational distribution of persons working in solar energy activities in 1978, and projected solar labor requirements through 1983. The scope of the…

Levy, Girard W.; Field, Jennifer

368

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.

369

Incentives for solar energy in industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax deductions for fuel expenses with tax credits for capital investments for energy. The result is a simple expression for tax equity. The effects that market penetration of solar energy has on conventional energy prices are analyzed with a free market model. It is shown that net costs of a subsidy program to the society can be significantly reduced by price. Several government loan guarantee concepts are evaluated as incentives that may not require direct outlays of government funds; their relative effectiveness in achieving loan leverage through project financing, and their cost and practicality, are discussed.

Bergeron, K. D.

1981-05-01

370

An assessment of solar energy as a national energy resource  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applications are discussed of solar energy for thermal energy for buildings; chemical and biological conversion of organic materials to liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels; and the generation of electricity. It is concluded that if solar development programs are successful, building heating for public use is possible within 5 years, building cooling in 6 to 10 years, synthetic fuels from organic materials in 5 to 8 years, and electricity production in 10 to 15 years.

Donovan, P.; Woodward, W.; Cherry, W. E.; Morse, F. H.; Herwig, L. O.

1972-01-01

371

Thermodynamic and design considerations of organic Rankine cycles in combined application with a solar thermal gas turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies are considered to provide a significant contribution for the electric power production in the future. Different kinds of technologies are presently in operation or under development, e.g. parabolic troughs, central receivers, solar dish systems and Fresnel reflectors. This paper takes the focus on central receiver technologies, where the solar radiation is concentrated by a field of heliostats in a receiver on the top of a tall tower. To get this CSP technology ready for the future, the system costs have to reduce significantly. The main cost driver in such kind of CSP technologies are the huge amount of heliostats. To reduce the amount of heliostats, and so the investment costs, the efficiency of the energy conversion cycle becomes an important issue. An increase in the cycle efficiency results in a decrease of the solar heliostat field and thus, in a significant cost reduction. The paper presents the results of a thermodynamic model of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for combined cycle application together with a solar thermal gas turbine. The gas turbine cycle is modeled with an additional intercooler and recuperator and is based on a typical industrial gas turbine in the 2 MW class. The gas turbine has a two stage radial compressor and a three stage axial turbine. The compressed air is preheated within a solar receiver to 950°C before entering the combustor. A hybrid operation of the gas turbine is considered. In order to achieve a further increase of the overall efficiency, the combined operation of the gas turbine and an Organic Rankine Cycle is considered. Therefore an ORC has been set up, which is thermally connected to the gas turbine cycle at two positions. The ORC can be coupled to the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle at the intercooler and after the recuperator. Thus, waste heat from different cycle positions can be transferred to the ORC for additional production of electricity. Within this investigation different working fluids and ORC conditions have been analyzed in order to evaluate the best configuration. The investigations have been performed by application of improved thermodynamic and process analysis tools, which consider the real gas behavior of the analyzed fluids. The results show that by combined operation of the solar thermal gas turbine and the ORC, the combined cycle efficiency is approximately 4%-points higher than in the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle.

Braun, R.; Kusterer, K.; Sugimoto, T.; Tanimura, K.; Bohn, D.

2013-12-01

372

Online National Solar Energy Directory and 2005 Solar Decathlon Product Directory. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), in partnership with the American Solar Energy Society, developed an online National Solar Energy Directory with clear, comprehensive information on suppliers and purchasing options. The site was originally located at FindSolar.com, but has recently been moved to Find-Solar.org. The original FindSolar.com domain name has been taken by the American Solar Energy Society (a partner in this project) and utilized for a similar but different project. This Find-Solar.org directory offers the rapidly growing base of potential solar customers a simple, straightforward destination to learn about their solar options. Members of the public are able to easily locate contractors in their geographic area and verify companiesâ?? qualifications with accurate third-party information. It allows consumers to obtain key information on the economics, incentives, desirability, and workings of a solar energy system, as well as competing quotes from different contractors and reviews from customers they have worked with previously. Find-Solar.org is a means of facilitating the growing public interest in solar power and overcoming a major barrier to widespread development of U.S. solar markets. In addition to the development of Find-Solar.org, SEPA developed a separate online product directory for the 2005 DOE Solar Decathlon to facilitate the communication of information about the energy efficiency and renewable energy products used in each university teamâ??s home.

Hamm, Julia; Taylor, Mike

2008-12-31

373

Economical solar-heating or cooling system with new solar-energy concentrators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Economical solar energy collector, made from array of cylindrical Fresnel lenses, does not require tracking mechanism. As the sun changes position, lenses focus solar energy on different collector elements.

Shimada, K.

1975-01-01

374

High Energy Gas Fracturing Test  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed two tests of a high-energy gas fracturing system being developed by Western Technologies of Crossville, Tennessee. The tests involved the use of two active wells located at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), thirty-five miles north of Casper, Wyoming (See Figure 1). During the testing process the delivery and operational system was enhanced by RMOTC, Western Technologies, and commercial wireline subcontractors. RMOTC has assisted an industrial client in developing their technology for high energy gas fracturing to a commercial level. The modifications and improvements implemented during the technology testing process are instrumental in all field testing efforts at RMOTC. The importance of well selection can also be critical in demonstrating the success of the technology. To date, significant increases in well productivity have been clearly proven in well 63-TPX-10. Gross fluid production was initially raised by a factor of three. Final production rates increased by a factor of six with the use of a larger submersible pump. Well productivity (bbls of fluid per foot of drawdown) increased by a factor of 15 to 20. The above results assume that no mechanical damage has occurred to the casing or cast iron bridge plug which could allow well production from the Tensleep ''B'' sand. In the case of well 61-A-3, a six-fold increase in total fluid production was seen. Unfortunately, the increase is clouded by the water injection into the well that was necessary to have a positive fluid head on the propellant tool. No significant increase in oil production was seen. The tools which were retrieved from both 63-TPX-10 and 61-A-3 indicated a large amount of energy, similar to high gram perforating, had been expended downhole upon the formation face.

Schulte, R.

2001-02-27

375

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

376

Saudi Arabia's experience in solar energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress in solar energy research in Saudi Arabia is discussed with emphasis on the efforts of a government research entity - King Adbulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Three programs currently underway at KACST are considered: the continuation of activities initiated under the Solar Energy Research American/Saudi (SOLERAS) program, a Saudi/German program, and projects developed and conducted completely by KACST. The objectives, management structure, and program organization of SOLEARS are outlined, and attention is focused on urban, rural/agricultural, and industrial applications as well as resource development activities and accomplishments. Solar-hydrogen projects pursued together with Germany are reviewed, and their objectives, program management, and technical plans are covered. Domestic programs dealing with photovoltaic-powered lightning and hot-water systems are summarized.

Huraib, Fahad S.

377

Solar Energy Directory: A Directory of Domestic and International Firms Involved in Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory is intended to provide a link between suppliers of solar energy technology and information and potential users of these products. Included are over 1400 national and international entries. These listings include architects, associations, education sources, wind power technology and information sources, solar research organizations,…

Centerline Co., Phoenix, AZ.

378

Energy release in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of energy release in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free energy storage, and the fragmentation of energy release in time and space.

Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.

1994-01-01

379

The energy spectra of solar flare electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 50 electron energy spectra from .1 to 100 MeV originating from solar flares was made by the combination of data from two spectrometers onboard the International Sun Earth Explorer-3 spacecraft. The observed spectral shapes of flare events can be divided into two classes through the criteria of fit to an acceleration model. This standard two step acceleration

P. A. Evenson; D. Hovestadt; P. Meyer; D. Moses

1985-01-01

380

Analysis of passive solar thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study of the effects of energy storage by phase change materials (PCMs) on the thermal performance of a simple, one-room passive solar building. It was found that in direct gain applications, the PCM melting temperature was the thermophysical parameter that most directly affected the building heating load. The relative influence of PCM thickness, thermal conductivity, location,

J. J. Tomlinson; G. A. Geist; M. D. Morris

1984-01-01

381

Solar Energy Experiment for Beginning Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment illustrating how such chemical concepts as light absorption, thermodynamics, and solid-state photovoltaics can be incorporated into solar energy education. Completed in a three-hour period, the experiment requires about two hours for data collections with the remaining hour devoted to calculations and comparison of results.…

Davis, Clyde E.

1983-01-01

382

Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was conducted to develop solar energy installers curriculum guides for use in high school vocational centers and community colleges. Project activities included researching job competencies for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning industry and determining through interviews and manufacturers' literature what additional…

Walker, Gene C.

383

Solar energy collecting panel and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a solar energy collecting panel and an apparatus for utilizing of the panel. The collecting panel comprises a first layer of heat absorbing material. A fiber mat for repeatedly transporting fluid by both surface tension and capillary action to a first surface of the heat absorbing layer is arranged to intimately contact the first surface.

Luebke

1983-01-01

384

Collector means for solar energy collecting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with the present invention, an improved collector means for a solar energy collector system having an absorber plate and a glazing panel spaced from at least one side of the absorber plate in which a cap means is coupled to an extends along one edge of the absorber plate and a depending leg extends over the complimentary edge

R. D. Nikkel; P. M. LEsperance

1985-01-01

385

Solar energy heating module and assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy module comprising a sealable chamber having cross-flow radiator means having honeycomb cells and dividing said chamber into fluid inlet and outlet compartments, means to supply fluid to said inlet chamber including at least one perforated sleeve extending through said inlet compartment and supported by said chamber, and a perforated manifold extending through said inlet compartment and generally

G. H. Hamilton; R. M. Turner; J. L. Jr. Ward

1974-01-01

386

Solar energy tracking and collector apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for tracking and collecting solar energy including at least one collector having elongated reflective surfaces which are parabolic in cross-section. A heat collection and transfer conduit is carried by said collector with said conduit having an inlet at one end and an outlet at the other end. The inlet is connected to an inlet manifold and the outlet

C. B. Marshall; L. A. Marshall

1982-01-01

387

Adjustable collection members for solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting assembly is disclosed consisting of a rectangular supporting frame with a plurality of vane structures mounted in parallel relationship therein. Each vane structure consists of a generally Z-shaped bar member of extruded aluminum with an integral conduit at the corner between the lower flange and the web of the bar member. The conduit has extended end

R. Stamminger; H. M. Cullis

1983-01-01

388

Solar energy collector with collapsible supporting structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector formed of a black plastic material in a rigid, unitary, one-piece self-supporting construction. The collector is formed with inlet and outlet manifolds and a multiplicity of fluid flow passages extending therebetween. Each passage is provided with at least one flow restriction to provide a uniform distribution of flow through all passages. A series of such collectors

R. D. Goodman; W. F. Krueger; A. R. Shaw

1980-01-01

389

Storing solar energy in thermally stratified tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical and experimental work on improving stratification in solar thermal energy storage tanks is reported. The Richardson number (Ri) is used as the controlling parameter. It is shown that the Ri must be prevented from decreasing below 0.25 if stratification is to occur. Attention is given to the diurnal cycle of a water thermal storage unit. The pumping of warm

R. L. Cole; F. O. Bellinger

1982-01-01

390

Collector means for solar energy collecting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with the present invention, an improved collector means for a solar energy collector system having an absorber plate and a glazing panel spaced from at least one side of the absorber plate in which a cap means is coupled to and extends along one edge of the absorber plate and a depending leg extends over the complimentary edge

R. D. Nikkel; P. M. LEsperance

1984-01-01

391

Solar energy collector having hollow microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollow glass microspheres made from a low heat conductivity glass composition containing a high vacuum and a thin metal coating deposited on the inner wall surface of the microspheres are described. The hollow glass microspheres are used to make superior insulation materials in the construction of highly efficient solar energy collectors. The hollow glass microspheres can also be made to

Torobin

1981-01-01

392

High temperature solar gas heating comparison between packed and fluidized bed receivers. I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results are analyzed for packed and fluidized beds used as absorbers for solar thermal energy in conjunction with a heat engine. The packed bed was composed of porous material in the form of equally sized spheres, and a Runge-Kutta condition was used to solve a system of five first order differential equations and obtain the flux and temperature profiles. The solar receiver was configured as a spherical concentrator achieving magnification of up to 2000. The packed and fluidized beds were contained within quartz tubes. The thermal transport fluid was a gas, and ZrO2 and SiC were employed as the fluidized and packed materials. Attention was given to the mean penetration of solar radiation, the gas temperature level, and the system thermal efficiency. Temperatures of the beds ranged from 700-1500 K, with thermal efficiencies of 30-70 percent. Cavity receivers were found to yield the best efficiencies, and the packed bed receiver was considered to be a candidate for dispersed solar power systems equipped with Stirling engines.

Flamant, G.; Olalde, G.

1983-01-01

393

The impact of geometrical parameters on the thermal performance of a solar receiver of dish-type concentrated solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional model of parabolic dish-receiver system with argon gas as the working fluid is designed to simulate the thermal performance of a dish-type concentrated solar energy system. The temperature distributions of the receiver wall and the working gas are presented. The impact of the aperture size, inlet\\/outlet configuration of the solar receiver and the rim angle of the parabolic

Mo Wang; Kamran Siddiqui

2010-01-01

394

Multi-thermal Energies of Solar Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring energy partition in solar eruptions is key to understanding how different processes affect their evolution. In order to improve our knowledge on this topic, we are participating in a multi-study project to measure the energy partition of 400 M- and X-class flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this study we focus on the flare thermal energies of 391 of these events. We improve upon previous studies in the following ways: 1) We determine thermal energy using spatially resolved multi-thermal differential emission measures (DEMs) determined from AIA (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly) rather than relying on the isothermal assumption; 2) We determine flare volumes by thresholding these DEM maps rather than relying on single passband observations which may not show the full flare volume; 3) We analyze a greater number of events than previous similar studies to increase the statistical reliability of our results. We find that the thermal energies of these flares lie in the range 10^26.8—10^32 erg. These results are compared to those of Aschwanden et al. (2014) who examined a subset of these events. They determined the dissipated non-potential magnetic energy which is thought to be the total energy available to drive solar eruptions. For the 171 events common to both studies, we find that the ratio of flare thermal energy to dissipated magnetic energy ranges from 2%—40%. This is an order of magnitude higher than previously found by Emslie et al. (2012). This may be because Emslie et al. (2012) had to assume the amount of non-potential magnetic energy, or that they relied on the isothermal assumption to determine flare thermal energies. The improved results found here will help us better understand the role played by flare thermal processes in dissipating the overall energy of solar eruptions.

Ryan, Daniel; Aschwanden, Markus; Boerner, Paul; Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James; Warren, Harry

2015-04-01

395

Solar Thermal Energy: BTU or Bust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will allow students the opportunity to design, build, test and evaluate a solar energy heating device that will raise the temperature of a pound of water sealed in a PVC pipe to the highest BTU level without damaging the cylinder. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

396

Is Solar Energy the Fuel of the Future?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the present distribution of solar energy, traces its use through history, explores its potential utilization in the future, and presents the effects of the use of solar energy on pollution. (GS)

Cetincelik, Mauammer

1974-01-01

397

Pulsed Gas Feeding for Stoichiometric Operation of a Gas-Solid Vortex Flow Solar Chemical Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc and synthesis gas ~syngas!, besides being important mate- rial commodities, are attractive as energy carriers. Zinc finds ap- plications in Zn\\/air fuel cells and batteries, and it can also be reacted with water to form hydrogen that can be further processed for heat and electricity. Syngas can be used to fuel high-efficient gas turbines and is also the building

Stefan Kra?upl; Aldo Steinfeld

2001-01-01

398

Solar thermal and wind energy power source  

SciTech Connect

A transparent panel enclosed tower provides a confined space for solar heating air. An upright wind turbine, mounted on the tower top, communicates with the tower enclosed space. As the solar heated air expands and becomes lighter it is displaced by cooler atmospheric air at the bottom of the tower creating a turbine driving thermal updraft in combination with wind energy driving the turbine. The turbine includes an axial drive shaft driving a gear train in turn driving an electric generator, or the like.

Argo, W.H.

1980-09-23

399

* Corresponding author. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 58 (1999) 209}218  

E-print Network

* Corresponding author. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 58 (1999) 209}218 A highly e$cient and stable CdTe/CdS thin "lm solar cell N. Romeo, A. Bosio, R. Tedeschi*, A. Romeo, V. Canevari Dipartimento$cient and stable CdTe/CdS thin "lm solar cells. Our cells are prepared in three subsequent phases. Firstly, we

Romeo, Alessandro

400

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any  

E-print Network

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any Type Of System www Power 4 Homes Save Thousands on Bills. Build your own Solar Panel for under $50! boxsolarpannle.com Green fuel from solar power, bacteria and carbon dioxide By Frontier India | May 25th, 2010 | Category

Lovley, Derek

401

36Super-fast solar flares ! NASA's Ramaty High Energy Solar  

E-print Network

36Super-fast solar flares ! NASA's Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) satellite has been studying solar flares since 2002. The sequence of figures to the left shows a flaring region hr/3600 sec = 0.98 kilometers/sec. The solar flare blob was traveling at 207 kilometers per second

402

Political keys to a solar energy economy - a European view  

SciTech Connect

An agenda is proposed for introducing an international solar energy economy. Four strategic objectives are summarized: (1) an energy tax to replace sales tax, and therefore encourage energy conservation; (2) global afforestation; (3) conversion from the production of armaments to the production of solar technology; and (4) introduction of solar technologies to developing countries. The most important key to a solar energy economy is identified as the introduction of a programmatic approach for society.

Scheer, H. [Deutscher Bundestag, Bonn (Germany)

1993-12-31

403

Quasi-energy-independent solar neutrino transitions  

E-print Network

Current solar, atmospheric, and reactor neutrino data still allow oscillation scenarios where the squared mass differences are all close to 10^-3 eV^2, rather than being hierarchically separated. For solar neutrinos, this situation (realized in the upper part of the so-called large-mixing angle solution) implies adiabatic transitions which depend weakly on the neutrino energy and on the matter density, as well as on the ``atmospheric'' squared mass difference. In such a regime of ``quasi-energy-independent'' (QEI) transitions, intermediate between the more familiar ``Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein'' (MSW) and energy-independent (EI) regimes, we first perform analytical calculations of the solar nu_e survival probability at first order in the matter density, beyond the usual hierarchical approximations. We then provide accurate, generalized expressions for the solar neutrino mixing angles in matter, which reduce to those valid in the MSW, QEI and EI regimes in appropriate limits. Finally, a representative QEI scenario is discussed in some detail.

G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Palazzo

2002-02-06

404

Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine. 4 figs.

Salomon, R.E.

1987-06-30

405

Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine.

Salomon, Robert E. (Philadelphia, PA)

1987-01-01

406

Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context  

SciTech Connect

The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

Hawkins, D.

1980-04-01

407

Weather modification by carbon dust absorption of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility was investigated of beneficial weather modification through artificial solar energy absorption. A variety of physical ideas related to artificial heat sources on different scales of motion are considered. Interest is concentrated on the feasibility of mesoscale weather modification through solar energy absorption by carbon aerosol particles of .1 ..mu..m or less. Particles of this size maximize solar energy

William M. Gray; William M. Frank; Myron L. Corrin; Charles A. Stokes

1976-01-01

408

The solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling and magnetospheric disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere is examined and the influence of this coupling on magnetospheric disturbances is discussed. Following a review of the components of the total energy production rate of the magnetosphere and progress in the study of solar wind-magnetosphere correlations, the derivation of the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function, which has been found to

S.-I. Akasofu

1980-01-01

409

Short-Term Solar Energy Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Short-Term Solar Energy Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Networks Stefan Achleitner, Tao Liu an advantage for output power prediction. Solar Energy Prediction System Our prediction model is based variability of more then 100 kW per minute. For practical usage of solar energy, predicting times of high

Cerpa, Alberto E.

410

Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy  

E-print Network

Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy Thursday 22nd March prospects for inorganic thin film photovoltaic solar cells for large scale energy generation 2:55 Dr Emyr:50 Professor James Durrant (Imperial College London, England) Photochemical approaches to solar energy

Martin, Ralph R.

411

Sestar Technologies, LLC Revolutionar y Solar Energy Products  

E-print Network

Sestar Technologies, LLC Revolutionar y Solar Energy Products Sestar Technologies, LLC (SESTAR) is developing revolutionary solar energy products that will be integral components in the ultimate solution to the world's current and future energy pro- grams. It will lead to paradigm shifts in a number of solar

Jawitz, James W.

412

The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission  

E-print Network

The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission R. P. fla B. Dennis, G mission is to investigate the physics of particle acceleration and energy release in solar flares, through-ray/gamma-ray spectroscopy 1. INTRODUCTION The primary scientific objective of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar

California at Berkeley, University of

413

Brookhaven National Laboratory Solar Energy and Smarter Grid  

E-print Network

Brookhaven National Laboratory Solar Energy and Smarter Grid Research Update Presented to BNL CAC on Market Barriers #12;5 BNL's research agenda for solar energy and smarter electric grid focuses on two key areas Advancement of Solar Energy Generation in Northeast · Characterization of renewable generation

414

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth  

E-print Network

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons #12;© 2015 Pearson of the solar wind. · Explain the characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiant energy. · Illustrate the interception of solar energy and its uneven distribution at the top of the atmosphere

Pan, Feifei

415

Solar Energy Status and Perspectives Peter Ahm, Director  

E-print Network

Solar Energy ­ Status and Perspectives Peter Ahm, Director PA Energy A/S (Ltd.) Snovdrupvej 16, DK-8340 Malling Phone: +45 86 93 33 33; Fax: +45 86 93 36 05; e-mail: ahm@paenergy.dk Abstract Solar energy in terms of thermal Solar Hot Water systems and electricity producing Photovoltaics contribute

416

Control system and method for controlling a solar energy plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy plant comprises a solar energy boiler having preheating, evaporation, and superheating stages, and a control system for maintaining constant the temperature and the volume of the superheated steam at the boiler outlet upon variations in the incident solar energy. The flow of water entering the boiler is divided into a main flow, passing through the preheating, evaporation

Francia

1982-01-01

417

Method and apparatus for collecting solar energy  

SciTech Connect

A method and device for collecting solar energy is the subject of this application. A glass cloth coated with a light absorbing resinous material is utilized as the collector panel. A glass cloth coated with a translucent resinous material is the preferred material for a cover panel that is disposed in spaced relationship to the collector panel. A framework holds the two cloth layers in spaced planar relationship and a heat exchange medium is placed in contact with the collector panel. The device is used by placing it in direct sunlight, preferably at an angle to maximize the effects of the solar radiation. Radiation striking the light absorbing glass cloth is quickly dissipated by the glass fibers thereby heating the transfer medium. The resinous material, preferably black for the collector panel, provides a highly absorptive surface for the solar radiation and also protects the glass fiber of the cloth from deterioration as a result of radiation or corrosion.

Olsen, T.O.

1981-11-17

418

Harnessing surface plasmons for solar energy conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA research on the feasibility of solar-energy conversion using surface plasmons is reviewed, with a focus on inelastic-tunnel-diode techniques for power extraction. The need for more efficient solar converters for planned space missions is indicated, and it is shown that a device with 50-percent efficiency could cost up to 40 times as much per sq cm as current Si cells and still be competitive. The parallel-processing approach using broadband carriers and tunable diodes is explained, and the physics of surface plasmons on metal surfaces is outlined. Technical problems being addressed include phase-matching sunlight to surface plasmons, minimizing ohmic losses and reradiation in energy transport, coupling into the tunnels by mode conversion, and gaining an understanding of the tunnel-diode energy-conversion process. Diagrams illustrating the design concepts are provided.

Anderson, L. M.

1983-01-01

419

Performance Analysis of Two-Stage Thermal Energy Storage System of Solar Power Tower Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the principles of mass, energy conservation and state equation for ideal gas, operation performance of two-stage thermal energy storage system of the first 1MW solar tower power plant in China was calculated and analyzed using numerical simulation method. The results indicated that the pressure of nitrogen in oil tanks slightly changes as a function of temperature and volume

Jiayan Zhuang; Fengwu Bai; Ershu Xu

2011-01-01

420

Energy 101: Solar Photovoltaic (PV)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, from the US Department of Energy, shows the basics of how a PV panel converts light radiated from the sun into usable power, whether on the electric grid or off, and without emissions or the use of fossil fuels.

Department of Energy

421

Mobil Solar Energy Corporation thin EFG octagons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobil Solar Energy Corporation manufactures photovoltaic modules based on its unique Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) process for producing octagon-shaped hollow polycrystalline silicon tubes. The octagons are cut by lasers into 100 mm x 100 mm wafers which are suitable for solar cell processing. This process avoids slicing, grinding and polishing operations which are wasteful of material and are typical of most other wafer production methods. EFG wafers are fabricated into solar cells and modules using processes that have been specially developed to allow scaling up to high throughput rates. The goals of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Initiative (PVMaT) program at Mobil Solar were to improve the EFG manufacturing line through technology advances that accelerate cost reduction in production and stimulate market growth for its product. The program was structured into three main tasks: to decrease silicon utilization by lowering wafer thickness from 400 to 200 (mu)m; to enhance laser cutting yields and throughput while improving the wafer strength; and to raise crystal growth productivity and yield. The technical problems faced and the advances made in the Mobil Solar PVMaT program are described. The author concludes with a presentation of the results of a detailed cost model for EFT module production. This model describes the accelerated reductions in manufacturing costs which are already in place and the future benefits anticipated to result from the technical achievements of the PVMaT program.

Kalejs, J. P.

1994-06-01

422

Oil, gas dominant sources of energy in U. S  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the U.S. oil and gas industry which has a major problem in how to communicate with the general public about the importance of oil and gas to the economy. Oil is the country's basic fuel, so ubiquitous that it is taken for granted like water. Discussions of energy problems should accordingly begin with the global supply and price of crude rather than with the merits of solar or wind power. Petroleum geologists have done such a good job of finding oil and gas that it looks as easy as growing crops, and engineers deliver the petroleum products like clockwork. Novel alternate energy sources of only token significance to the national economy get equal or greater media coverage than the giant but unglamorous and routine petroleum operations until a spill or other accident occurs.

Ivanhoe, L.F. (Novum Corp., Santa Barbara, CA (US))

1991-09-30

423

Solar thermal energy systems in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia has developed world leading solar thermal technologies, with only very low national market penetration. Domestic solar water heating is the most common solar thermal instrument, with around 5% of homes using it and most of these systems are conventional flat plate thermosyphon systems. Other low temperature solar thermal research includes solar crop drying, solar ponds and solar air heating

Keith Lovegrove; Mike Dennis

2006-01-01

424

Danish Energy Authority Poland -Electricity and gas  

E-print Network

Danish Energy Authority Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU Funds Electricity sector analyses December 2004 #12;Danish Energy Authority Poland Approved #12;Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU

425

Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal  

E-print Network

Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal 21st August - 2nd September 2011 and solar thermal technologies), solar architecture and social-economical aspects. Well-known scientific foundation in pho- tovoltaics and solar thermal technologies. Well-known resear- chers and scientists from

426

System for storage and use of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for economically storing solar energy in the form of heated water. The system includes an above ground swimming pool in conjunction with a solar collector whereby the water of the pool is heated and stored therein until needed for use. In one form of the invention, the solar collector comprises a solar cover overlying or floating

1978-01-01

427

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Investigating Renewable Energy Data from Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Panels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using renewable sources of energy benefits the environment and contributes to more sustainable energy use. The burning of fossil fuels generates air pollution and increased CO2 in the atmosphere. CO2 is the major greenhouse gas warming our planet. Using more renewable sources of energy not only reduces pollution, but also conserves the current limited supply of fossil fuels. This chapter looks at how much solar energy is generated using photovoltaic panels on rooftops or exposed ground locations at installations around the U.S. The focus is on three different websites that monitor and report solar energy production from panels at a few hundred locations.

428

Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

Anderson, L. M. (inventor)

1984-01-01

429

Solar Energy Forecast System Development and Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecast systems for predicting real-time solar energy generation are being developed along similar lines to those of more established wind forecast systems, but the challenges and constraints are different. Clouds and aerosols play a large role, and for tilted photovoltaic panels and solar concentrating plants, the direct beam irradiance, which typically has much larger forecast errors than global horizontal irradiance, must be utilized. At MDA Information Systems, we are developing a forecast system based on first principles, with the well-validated REST2 clear sky model (Gueymard, 2008) at its backbone. In tuning the model and addressing aerosol scattering and surface albedo, etc., we relied upon the wealth of public data sources including AERONET (aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths), Suominet (GPS integrated water vapor), NREL MIDC solar monitoring stations, SURFRAD (includes upwelling shortwave), and MODIS (albedo in different wavelength bands), among others. The forecast itself utilizes a blend of NWP model output, which must be brought down to finer time resolution based on the diurnal cycle rather than simple interpolation. Many models currently do not output the direct beam irradiance, and one that does appears to have a bias relative to its global horizontal irradiance, with equally good performance attained by utilizing REST2 and the model global radiation to estimate the direct component. We will present a detailed assessment of various NWP solar energy products, evaluating forecast skill at a range of photovoltaic installations.

Jascourt, S. D.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Cassidy, C.

2012-12-01

430

Solar Thermal Energy: An Overview of One-Sun Solar Thermal Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides an introduction to solar thermal energy. The presentation includes descriptions of solar basics, technology and future solar technology systems. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Burch, Jay

431

Thermal performance of space-cooling solar-energy systems in the National Solar Data Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results derived from analysis of data obtained from monitoring the operation of four solar energy cooling installations in the National Solar Data Network are presented. It is shown that chiller coefficients of performance (COP) on the order of 0.65 can be easily obtained with existing technology, provided the designer adequately matches the solar energy system to the absorption chiller. It

Bartlett

1979-01-01

432

Solar power. [Comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new

A. L. Walton; D. C. Hall

1990-01-01

433

The effect of solar-cycle ultraviolet flux variations on cometary gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects on comet gas of variations in the solar ultraviolet flux during solar cycle 21 are discussed. The photoionization, photodissociation, and resonance fluorescence and scattering rates of individual atoms and molecules increase by factors ranging up to 4, leading to potential order of magnitude variations in emission-line fluxes between minimum and maximum solar activity. These effects are illustrated for H2O and CO. Recent observations of comet Bradfield (1979) are discussed, and it is suggested that comets appearing near solar maximum be extensively observed to provide information on the response of cometary gas to solar flux variations, which can be used to discriminate between cometary models.

Oppenheimer, M.; Downey, C. J.

1980-01-01

434

The SolarWiki Solar energy is the only inexhaustible energy source abundant enough to satisfy all the energy needs of our planet, but  

E-print Network

The SolarWiki Solar energy is the only inexhaustible energy source abundant enough to satisfy all the energy needs of our planet, but is only practical if an extensive solar-based infrastructure can of this infrastructure that efficiently harnesses solar energy is one of the greatest scientific, technological, economic

435

Metal oxide semiconductors for solar energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation between energy consumption and human development illustrates the importance of this societal resource. We will consume more energy in the future. In light of issues with the status quo, such as climate change, long-term supply and security, solar energy is an attractive source. It is plentiful, virtually inexhaustible, and can provide more than enough energy to power society. However, the issue with producing electricity and fuels from solar energy is that it is expensive, primarily from the materials (silicon) used in building the cells. Metal oxide semiconductors are an attractive class of materials that are extremely low cost and can be produced at the scale needed to meet widespread demand. An industrially attractive thin film synthesis process based on aerosol deposition was developed that relies on self-assembly to afford rational control over critical materials parameters such as film morphology and nanostructure. The film morphology and nanostructure were found to have dramatic effects on the performance of TiO2-based photovoltaic dye-sensitized solar cells. Taking a cue from nature, to overcome the spatial and temporal mismatch between the supply of sunlight and demand for energy consumption, it is desirable to produce solar fuels such as hydrogen from photoelectrochemical water splitting. The source of water is important---seawater is attractive. The fundamental reaction mechanism for TiO2-based cells is discussed in the context of seawater splitting. There are two primary issues with producing hydrogen by photoelectrochemical water splitting using metal-oxide semiconductors: visible light activity and spontaneous activity. To address the light absorption issue, a combined theory-experiment approach was taken to understand the fundamental role of chemical composition in determining the visible light absorption properties of mixed metal-oxide semiconductors. To address the spontaneous activity issue, self-biasing all oxide p/n bulk-heterojunctions were synthesized and the nanostructure was systematically varied to understand the fundamental role of various characteristic length scales in the nanostructured region of the device on performance. The conclusion of this work is that solar energy harvesting by metal oxide semiconductors is highly promising. All of the scientific concepts have been proven, and steady gains in efficiency are being achieved as researchers continue to tackle the problem.

Thimsen, Elijah James

436

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science  

SciTech Connect

Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

437

Operational Experience from Solar Thermal Energy Projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

Cameron, C. P.

1984-01-01

438

Operational experience from solar thermal energy projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

Cameron, C. P.

1984-03-01

439

Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore : assessment of solar photovoltaic systems  

E-print Network

To evaluate the feasibility of solar energy based Electric Vehicle Transportation System in Singapore, the state of the art Photovoltaic Systems have been reviewed in this report with a focus on solar cell technologies. ...

Sun, Li

2009-01-01

440

Solar energy conversion with fluorescent collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new principle for solar energy conversion is proposed and evaluated theoretically. Collection and concentration of direct\\u000a and diffuse radiation is possible by the use of a stack of transparent sheets of material doped with fluorescent dyes. High\\u000a efficiency of light collection can be achieved by light guiding and special design of collectors. The optical path length\\u000a in a triangular

A. Goetzberger; W. Greubel

1977-01-01

441

Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal (PV\\/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV\\/Ts)

Y. Tripanagnostopoulos; M. Souliotis; Th. Makris

2010-01-01

442

Modular tubular solar energy collector apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosure relates to a modular form of solar energy collector apparatus in which several double-wall glass tube collectors, each with vacuum jacket, depend from opposite sides of an elongated manifold. The manifold includes split halves of foamed polymer insulation and rigid fiberglass reinforced skin thereon, assembled about closed-looped, serpentine liquid carrying tubes preferably of metal or glass in U-tube

Nugent

1978-01-01

443

Solar energy collector\\/storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector\\/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably

J. R. Bettis; F. R. Clearman

1983-01-01

444

High-energy processes in solar flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of high-energy processes in solar flares is reported, including the production of neutrons and pions, and incorporating isobaric and scaling models and a recent compilation of pion production data (Dermer, 1986). The broad-band gamma-ray spectrum resulting from the decay of neutral pions, the bremsstrahlung of positrons and electrons from the decay of charged pions, and the annihilation

R. J. Murphy; C. D. Dermer; R. Ramaty

1987-01-01

445

SERI solar energy storage program: FY 1983 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Solar Energy Storage Program during its fifth year, FY 1985. This program provides supporting research and technology and systems analyses and assessments to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Thermal Energy Storage Program. In FY 1983, SERI researched direct-contact heat exchange, latent- and sensible-heat storage, and thermochemical energy

W. Luft; M. S. Bohn; R. J. Copeland; R. G. Nix

1984-01-01

446

SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program. FY 1982 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Solar Energy Storage Program during its fourth year, FY 1982. This program provides supporting research and technology and systems analyses and assessments to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Thermal Energy Storage Program. In FY 1982, SERI researched direct-contact heat exchange, latent- and sensible-heat storage, and thermochemical energy

W. Luft; M. Bohn; R. J. Copeland; R. G. Nix

1983-01-01

447

New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method  

SciTech Connect

One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature of solar cell increases up to the prescribed temperature of thermal energy use, although it is lower than the cell temperature when using only solar cell panel. For maintaining cell conversion efficiency at the standard conditions, it is necessary to keep the cell at lower temperature. In this paper, electric and thermal energy obtained form a PV/T panel is evaluated in terms of energy. BAsed on this evaluation, the method of not to decrease cell conversion efficiency with collecting solar thermal energy was proposed.

Takashima, Takumi; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Doi, Takuya (Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)); Kamoshida, Junji (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan)); Tani, Tatsuo (Science Univ. of Tokyo, Takyo (Japan)); Horigome, Takashi (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

1994-03-01

448

Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

2010-01-01

449

SERI Solar Energy Storage Program: FY 1984  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Energy Storage Program during its sixth year are summarized. During FY 1984 a study was conducted to identify the most promising high-temperature containment concepts considering corrosion resistance, material strength at high temperature, reliability of performance, and cost. Of the two generic types of high-temperature thermal storage concepts, the single-tank system was selected using a two-medium approach to the thermocline maintenance. This concept promises low costs, but further research is required. A conceptual design for a sand-to-air direct-contact heat exchanger was developed using dual-lock hoppers to introduce the sand into the fluidized-bed exchanger, and using cyclones to remove sand particles from the output air stream. Preliminary cost estimates indicate heat exchanger subsystem annual levelized costs of about $4/GJ with compressor costs of an additional $0.75/GJ. An economic analysis comparing sensible and latent heat storage for nitrate and carbonate salts with solely sensible heat storage showed 3%-21% cost savings with combined sensible and latent heat storage.

Luft, W.; Bohn, M.; Copeland, R. J.; Kreith, F.; Nix, R. G.

1985-02-01

450

Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

2010-01-01

451

Thermochemical seasonal energy storage for solar thermal power  

SciTech Connect

During the many years that thermochemical energy storage has been under investigation, the concept has been plagued with two persistent problems: high capital cost and poor efficiency. Literally hundreds of chemical reactions have also been carried out. For short-term storage, thermochemical systems suffer in comparison with highly efficient sensible storage media such as molten salts. Long-term storage, on the other hand, is not cost-competitive with systems employing fossil backup power. Thermochemical storage will play a significant role in solar thermal electric conversion only under highly select circumstances. The portion of electric demand served by solar plants must be sufficiently high that the balance of the grid cannot fully supplant seasonal storage. High fossil fuel costs must preclude the use of gas turbines for backup power. Significant breakthroughs in the development of one or more chemical reaction systems must occur. Ingeniously integrated systems must be employed to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of thermochemical storage. A promising integration scheme discussed herein consists of using sensible storage for diurnal cycling in parallel with thermochemical seasonal storage. Under the most favorable circumstances, thermochemical storage can be expected to play a small but perhaps vital role in supplying baseload energy from solar thermal electric conversion plants.

Barnhart, J.S.

1984-01-01

452

Solar-energy adoption patterns in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the status of solar energy commercialization in the United States for residential domestic water- and space-heating systems. Utilizing tax claims submitted to the Internal Revenue Service and US Department of Energy data, adoption patterns in each state are determined and analyzed. The analyses include comparison with forecasts of solar feasibility and with other state characteristics. The solar

S. W. Sawyer; A. Sorrentino; R. M. Wirtshafter

1984-01-01

453

Solar energy adoption patterns in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the status of solar energy commercialization in the United States for residential domestic water- and space-heating systems. Utilizing tax claims submitted to the Internal Revenue Service and U.S. Department of Energy data, adoption patterns in each state are determined and analyzed. The analyses include comparison with forecasts of solar feasibility and with other state characteristics. The solar

S. W. Sawyer; A. Sorrentino; R. M. Wirtshafter

1984-01-01

454

Commercial building and industrial applications for solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of solar thermal energy collected by an evacuated tube collector to the supply of heat to commercial buildings and industrial processes is discussed. Evacuated tube solar collectors are described and the Sunpak solar collector, which consists of a manifold of 24 evacuated tubes, is presented. It is shown that the energy output characteristics of the Sunpak system exhibit

V. R. Daiga

1979-01-01

455

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part I. Energy, Society, and the Sun  

SciTech Connect

A collection of magazine articles which were selected for information on solar energy is presented in this booklet. This booklet is the first of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles provide brief discussions on topics such as the power of the sun, solar energy developments for homes, solar energy versus power plants, solar access laws, and the role of utilities with respect to the sun's energy. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

456

A Simple and Inexpensive Solar Energy Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is presented which utilizes the current solid state technology to demonstrate electrochemical generation of hydrogen gas, direct generation of electricity for pumping water, and energy conversion efficiency. The experimental module costs about $100 and can be used repeatedly. (BB)

Evans, J. H.; Pedersen, L. G.

1979-01-01

457

The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1994 review  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on DOE`s Solar Industrial Program. The topics of the report include an overview of the program, it`s participants and it`s objectives; solar detoxification--using solar energy to destroy environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil; solar process heat--generating industrial quantities of hot water, steam, and hot air from solar energy; and advanced processes--using concentrated solar energy to manufacture high-technology materials and develop new industrial processes.

NONE

1995-03-01

458

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California solar energy system performance evaluation, July 1980June 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory site is an office building in California with an active solar energy system designed to supply from 23 to 33% of the space heating load and part of the hot water load. The solar heating system is equipped with 1428 square feet of flat-plate collectors, a 2000-gallon water storage tank, and two gas-fired boilers to supply

1981-01-01

459

Williamson Home, Ipswich, Mass. solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Nov. 1981 - Apr. 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on solar water and space heating systems are given. The Williamson Home in Massachusetts is a single family residence whose active-solar-energy system is designed to supply 47% of the space heating and 91% of the hot water. The system is equipped with 339 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 240-cubic-foot rock bin for storage, a propane-gas furnace and

M. Cramer

1982-01-01

460

Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context  

SciTech Connect

The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

Shea, C.A.

1980-12-01

461

Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

Denholm, P.

2007-03-01

462

Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials  

E-print Network

Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

Lenert, Andrej

2014-01-01

463

Solar: A Clean Energy Source for Utilities (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts with utilities to remove the technical, regulatory, and market challenges they face in deploying solar technologies.

Not Available

2010-09-01

464

Solar Energy Research Institute Validation Test House Site Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Validation Test House at the Solar Energy Research Institute in Golden, Colorado, is being used to collect performance data for analysis/design tool validation as part of the DOE Passive Solar Class A Performance Evaluation Program.

Burch, J.; Wortman, D.; Judkoff, R.; Hunn, B.

1985-05-01

465

Solar energy collection by the tower system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energy collecting tests were carried out under Japan's Sunshine Project, as part of the solar thermal electric power system. The total mirror area of the heliostats was increased by a factor of three to 300 sq m, making the dimensional ratio between the tower height and field diameter equivalent to that of the pilot plant, as well as achieving a similar heat flux magnitude as the pilot plant. The absorbing efficiency of the No. 4 receiver was studied and proven to be inferior to the No. 7 receiver, with its improved wind shield cavity, reducing reflection losses at higher wind velocities. The difference in convection heat losses between the two receivers in the solar energy collecting apparatus did not, however, directly correspond to the difference between them measured in the pilot plant. Thus, a heat loss test was applied to the No. 7 receiver, and fluctuations in the measured values of absorbing efficiencies were shown to be due to fluctuations of convection heat loss. Future plans include the design of external receivers suitable for low towers, with a lighter weight and a greater compactness for minimum heat loss potential.

Taguchi, T.; Takemoto, M.

1981-01-01

466

Review of solar thermoelectric energy conversion and analysis of a two cover flat-plate solar collector  

E-print Network

The process of solar thermoelectric energy conversion was explored through a review of thermoelectric energy generation and solar collectors. Existing forms of flat plate collectors and solar concentrators were surveyed. ...

Hasan, Atiya

2007-01-01

467

76 FR 78021 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...construct a 150 megawatt (MW) solar concentrating thermal project on 1,410 acres...makes up the concentrating solar thermal electrical generation plant...receiver. The project uses thermal energy storage that allows solar energy to be captured...

2011-12-15

468

77 FR 36532 - Review of Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Solar Energy Industries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket...Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Solar Energy Industries Association; California...rulemaking recently submitted by the Solar Energy Industries Association...

2012-06-19

469

Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

By combining picosecond optical experiments and detailed statistical mechanics theory we continue to increase our understanding of the complex interplay of structure and dynamics in important energy transfer situations. A number of different types of problems will be focused on experimentally and theoretically. They are excitation transport among chromophores attached to finite size polymer coils; excitation transport among chromophores in monolayers, bilayers, and finite and infinite stacks of layers; excitation transport in large vesicle systems; and photoinduced electron transfer in glasses and liquids, focusing particularly on the back transfer of the electron from the photogenerated radical anion to the radical cation. 33 refs., 13 figs.

Fayer, M.D.

1986-11-01

470

Energy resources of the developing countries and some priority markets for the use of solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy consumption for the developed and non-developed world is expressed as a function of GNP. An almost straight-line graph results when energy consumption statistics are treated in this manner. The richest countries consume the most energy, and the poorest countries the least. It therefore follows that greater energy production in the developing countries (leading to greater energy consumption) will contribute to their economic growth. Energy resources in the developing countries are compared, including: solid fossil fuels, crude oil, natural gas, oil shale, and uranium. Mention is also made of the potential of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, in the underdeveloped world; and it is these resources which offer the greatest possibilities for economic improvement if the money is forthcoming, i.e., from the world bank, to fund the necessary technology.

Siddiqi, T. A.; Hein, G. F.

1977-01-01

471

Solar Ovens-Understanding Energy Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers the concept of solar ovens. In this lesson, students will learn how "thermal energy flows from the hot air to the cold water via conduction and will indicate that this would continue to happen until the water sample reaches the same temperature as the oven air. The students will also answer questions about how heat could be lost in the oven through conduction and convection, as well as how to get more solar radiation into the oven." Additionally, this experiment will prompt students to examine the relationships between conduction, convection, and radiation. Teacher and Student guides for parts one and two are included. 

472

Big optics for astronomy and solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aden Meinel came from the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory and the Department of Astronomy to found the Optical Sciences Center (OSC). Aden conceived and made at the Center of the optics for the revolutionary Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), which greatly influenced the design of future large research telescopes and the technology needed to make them. The Steward Observatory Mirror Lab was built to make honeycomb mirrors up to 8.4 m diameter, and with much faster focal ratio. In use in the current Large Binocular Telescope and future Giant Magellan Telescope, these mirrors provide powerful astronomical research capabilities with unique sensitivity for exoplanet observations in the infrared. The solar energy field can also benefit from Aden's legacy, by using multiple large solar mirrors configured like the MMT to power very high efficiency photovoltaic cells at each focus.

Angel, Roger

2014-10-01

473

SC-RISE LECTURE SERIES BRIGHT HORIZONS IN SOLAR ENERGY  

E-print Network

are being developed including biomass, geothermal, hydropower, ocean thermal energy conversion, solarSC-RISE LECTURE SERIES BRIGHT HORIZONS IN SOLAR ENERGY Sustainable Energy Opportunities, Options Time: 3:00 PM Location: A265 Bourns Hall Abstract: Low cost energy is critical to our lifestyles

474

Meeting the Energy Needs--Solar Technician Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiates between solar technicians and energy technicians; points out that, with the energy crisis, there has been much activity in the solar energy field, with the result that it could become saturated. Describes a program to train energy technicians that was developed at Cape Cod Community College. (JOW)

Panitz, Theodore

1980-01-01

475

Solar energy scenarios in Brazil, Part one: Resource assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment” (SWERA) project was an international project financed by GEF\\/UNEP, which aimed at providing a consistent and accessible database to foster the insertion of renewable energies on the energy matrix of developing countries. This paper presents the solar energy resource assessment generated during the SWERA project by using the radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR fed

F. R. Martins; E. B. Pereira; S. A. B. Silva; S. L. Abreu; Sergio Colle

2008-01-01

476

Argonne OutLoud presents: The Solar Energy Challenge  

ScienceCinema

To better understand the current and future role of solar energy, Argonne's Seth Darling framed the global energy supply and demand outlook over the next 40 years while examining potential energy sources from a feasibility and sustainability perspective. He also discussed the promise and challenges of solar energy while providing a broad overview of related research taking place at Argonne as well as his group's work on organic solar cells.

Seth Darling

2013-06-05

477

Argonne OutLoud presents: The Solar Energy Challenge  

SciTech Connect

To better understand the current and future role of solar energy, Argonne's Seth Darling framed the global energy supply and demand outlook over the next 40 years while examining potential energy sources from a feasibility and sustainability perspective. He also discussed the promise and challenges of solar energy while providing a broad overview of related research taking place at Argonne as well as his group's work on organic solar cells.

Seth Darling

2012-07-13

478

Energy collector for collecting solar energy and the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector connectable with a fluid-circulating system is contained in a plenum within an insulative housing and has a plurality of generally parallel, heat-absorbing conduits extending between intake and outlet manifolds and confronting the sun or other heat source through a transparent window, each conduit being separated from an adjacent conduit by an intervening slot. Positioned below the

J. M. Bansal; A. Kumar

1978-01-01

479

Mars Solar Balloon Landed Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of atmospheric evolution and past climatic conditions. A Micromission plan is under study where a surface package including a miniaturized GCMS would be delivered to the surface by a solar heated hot air balloon based system. The balloon system would be deployed about 8 km above the surface of Mars, wherein it would rapidly fill with Martian atmosphere and be heated quickly by the sun. The combined buoyancy and parachuting effects of the solar balloon result in a surface package impact of about 5 m/sec. After delivery of the package to the surface, the balloon would ascend to about 4 km altitude, with imaging and magnetometry data being taken for the remainder of the daylight hours as the balloon is blown with the Martian winds. Total atmospheric entry mass of this mission is estimated to be approximately 50 kg, and it can fit as an Ariane 5 piggyback payload. The GCMS would obtain samples directly from the atmosphere at the surface and also from gases evolved from solid phase material collected from well below the surface with a Sample Acquisition and Transport Mechanism (SATM). The experiment envisioned in the Mars Micromission described would obtain samples from a much greater depth of up to one meter below the surface, and would search for organic molecules trapped in ancient stratified layers well below the oxidized surface. Insitu instruments on upcoming NASA missions working in concert with remote sensing measurement techniques have the potential to provide a more detailed investigation of mineralogy and the extent of simple volatiles such as CO2 and H2O in surface and subsurface solid phase materials. Within the context of subsequent mission opportunities such as those provided by the Ariane 5 piggyback payload based Micromissions, it is essential to implement an even broader chemical analysis and to enable a significant extension of previous isotope measurements. Such a development would enhance the presently very active study of questions of atmospheric evolution and loss and past climatic conditions. The method selected to implement this program can be based on well-established mass spectrometry techniques. Sampled gas is chemically and physically processed to separate the gas mixture into components using gas chromatograph and related enrichment techniques. This allows trace species to be identified and reveals isotopic distributions in many cases with improved precision. Samples of interest, such as organic molecules, may lie deep below the highly oxidized surface layer and the suggested program includes enhanced sampling techniques to measure volatiles preserved in solid phase material deep below the surface as well as gas from the well mixed atmosphere.

Mahaffy, P.; Harpold, D.; Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Gorevan, S.; Israel, G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Jones, J.; Owen, T.; Raulin, F.

1999-01-01

480

Theoretical study of gas heated in a porous material subjected to a concentrated solar radiation (*)  

E-print Network

423 Theoretical study of gas heated in a porous material subjected to a concentrated solar distribution in the solid (porous material) and the fluid (gas) from a system of adimensional equations per unit volumen of porous material (1 - ç)/1:; A i, A j, aj, Bl, b1 = constants ; Cp - gas specific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

481

Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System  

E-print Network

Management Strategies- a winning approach to meet the challenge; Turn a potential cost of compliance into a new cash flow source; Leveraging Energy Management Systems to optimize savings; Navigating through the new Greenhouse Gas reporting requirements...

Spates, C. N.

2010-01-01

482

Lightweight, low-cost solar energy collector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight solar concentrator of the reflecting parabolic or trough type is realized via a thin reflecting film, an inflatable structural housing and tensioned fibers. The reflector element itself is a thin, flexible, specularly-reflecting sheet or film. The film is maintained in the parabolic trough shape by means of a plurality of identical tensioned fibers arranged to be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the parabola. Fiber ends are terminated in two identical spaced anchorplates, each containing a plurality of holes which lie on the desired parabolic contour. In a preferred embodiment, these fibers are arrayed in pairs with one fiber contacting the front side of the reflecting film and the other contacting the back side of the reflecting film. The reflective surface is thereby slidably captured between arrays of fibers which control the shape and position of the reflective film. Gas pressure in the inflatable housing generates fiber tension to achieve a truer parabolic shape.

Hochberg, Eric B. (Inventor); Costen, Michael K. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

483

Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

1978-01-01

484

78 FR 31997 - Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...500-1] Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp., Order of Suspension...accurate information concerning the securities of Solar Energy Ltd. because it has not filed any periodic...

2013-05-28

485

Solar technology assessment project. Volume I. State of solar energy technology (summary paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview assessment of the state of solar energy technology is presented, including economic considerations, problems\\/needs, and suggested government role. Solar technologies considered are passive heating and cooling; water heating and space heating and cooling; industrial process heat; photovoltaics; heliostat systems; wind; OTEC; and biomass. Also discussed are the solar industry and state and local government actions. Emphasis is placed

1981-01-01

486

Schools Going Solar: A Guide to Schools Enjoying the Power of Solar Energy. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This companion document updates an April 1998 volume on designing schools to use solar energy as a power source. Volume 2 presents numerous case studies of solar installations in new and existing schools across the United States and Europe, updates and presents new examples of solar education programs, and offers an updated resource listing of…

Hitchcock, Susan Tyler

487

Residential Solar Design Review: A Manual on Community Architectural Controls and Solar Energy Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are architectural design issues associated with solar energy use, and procedures for design review committees to consider in examining residential solar installation in light of existing aesthetic goals for their communities. Recommended design review criteria include the type of solar system being used and the ways in which the system…

Jaffe, Martin; Erley, Duncan

488

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 77 (2003) 319330 Structure and photoelectrochemical properties  

E-print Network

, and compared its photoelectrical properties as sensitizer in Gr.atzel-type solar cells with that of N3Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 77 (2003) 319­330 Letters Structure and photoelectrochemical Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Photoelectric conversion; Polypyridyl complex; Sensitization

Huang, Yanyi

489

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline TiO2  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261­271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline Ti; received in revised form 18 April 2001; accepted 30 May 2001 Abstract The photoelectric behavior of a black. A sandwich-type solar cell fabricated by this dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 film generated 6:1 mA cm�2

Huang, Yanyi

490

Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

1997-01-01

491

RESIDUAL ENERGY SPECTRUM OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 yr of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of {sigma}{sub r} = -0.19 and mean Alfven ratio of r{sub A} = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cross helicity were also investigated, showing that globally balanced intervals with small residual energy contain local patches of larger imbalance and larger residual energy at all scales, as expected for nonlinear turbulent interactions.

Chen, C. H. K.; Bale, S. D.; Salem, C. S.; Maruca, B. A., E-mail: chen@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-06-20

492

Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuel’s photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MIT’s technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuels—called Hybrisol—can also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

None

2012-01-09

493

Coal gasification with CO 2 in molten salt for solar thermal\\/chemical energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification with CO2 in Na2CO3–K2CO3 molten salt that was used as thermal storage for gas\\/solid heterogeneous reaction was studied to apply this system for solar thermal\\/chemical energy conversion. The reactions were performed at 1173 K under various CO2 flow rates, weights of the molten salt and Na2CO3\\/K2CO3 ratios. The CO2 gas consumption rate increased with increasing CO2 flow rate,

J Matsunami; S Yoshida; Y Oku; O Yokota; Y Tamaura; M Kitamura

2000-01-01

494

Williamson Home, Ipswich, Massachusetts solar-energy-system performance evaluation, November 1981April 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Williamson Home in Massachusetts is a single family residence whose active-solar-energy system is designed to supply 47% of the space heating and 91% of the hot water. The system is equipped with 339 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 240-cubic-foot rock bin for storage, a propane-gas furnace and a 100-gallon propane gas hot water tank for auxiliary heating.

1982-01-01

495

ELEMENTARY ENERGY RELEASE EVENTS IN SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect

Most theoretical investigations of particle acceleration during solar flares cannot be applied to observations for detailed study of the time evolution. We propose a phenomenological model for turbulence evolution and stochastic particle acceleration that links observations to the energy release and particle acceleration through two coefficients characterizing particle interactions with turbulent electromagnetic fields. In the linear regime the particle distribution does not affect the turbulence energy cascade. It is shown that electron acceleration critically depends on the intensity of small-scale turbulence and an impulsive nonthermal component only appears near the peak of the gradually evolving turbulence intensity. The model naturally reproduces the soft-hard-soft pattern of hard X-ray pulses, and we attribute the observed change in flux and spectral index correlation from the rise to decay phase of some pulses to changes in the background plasma. Detailed modeling of well observed individual events will probe the energy release processes.

Liu Siming; Fletcher, Lyndsay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sliu@astro.gla.ac.uk

2009-08-10

496

Solar-energy treatment of ceramic tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 400 kW Advanced Components Test Facility was used to provide a concentrated source of solar energy for firing ceramic wall tile. A domed top cylindrical cavity with a white refractory fiber lining provided diffuse reflection of the concentrated solar beam directly onto the upper surface of the unfired wall tile. The tile were placed directly on the cavity floor in a circular pattern, centered at 450 intervals so that eight tile could be fired at one time. The tile and cavity walls were instrumented with thermocouples, and pyrometric cones were used to determine temperature distribution within the cavity. The glazed and unglazed solar fired titles were tested for flatness, modulus of rupture, water absorption, porosity, bulk density, apparent specific gravity, percent linear thermal expansion and crystalline phases present in the fired bodies. The major problems encountered are: cracking by thermal shock, and uneven shrinkage and glaze maturity across individual tile. The cavity failed to provide even heating at all eight tile positions.

Harris, J. N.; Clayton, M. E.

1981-12-01

497

Solar-Heated Gasifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catalytic coal and biomass gasifer system heated by solar energy. Sunlight from solar concentrator focused through quartz window onto ceramic-honeycomb absorber surface, which raises temperature of reactant steam, fluidizing gas, and reactor walls.

Qader, S. A.

1985-01-01

498

An evaluation of the use of metal hydrides for solar thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic properties of metal hydrides relevant to their application for storing solar thermal energy are reviewed. Several schemes are discussed and evaluated in which the enthalpy of formation of a primary hydride is used to provide heat and a secondary hydride or compressed gas is utilized for hydrogen storage. The results show that, with present technology, a metal hydride-based

G. G. Libowitz; Z. Blank

1976-01-01

499

Toward a Low-CarMunicipal Financing for Energy Efficiency and Solar Power  

E-print Network

Toward a Low-CarMunicipal Financing for Energy Efficiency and Solar Power By Merrian C. Fuller list of municipalities have legislated 70­80 per- cent or higher reductions in their green- house gas of the Inter- governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Thus far much of the effort has been focused

Kammen, Daniel M.

500

A new combined cooling, heating and power system driven by solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system is proposed. This system is driven by solar energy, which is different from the current CCHP systems with gas turbine or engine as prime movers. This system combines a Rankine cycle and an ejector refrigeration cycle, which could produce cooling output, heating output and power output simultaneously. The effects of hour

Jiangfeng Wang; Yiping Dai; Lin Gao; Shaolin Ma

2009-01-01