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1

Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

Lee, J. H.

1981-01-01

2

Project SAGE: Solar assisted gas energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans are formulated to: improve solar assisted gas energy (SAGE) technical design and performance; reduce SAGE costs; refine SAGE market assessment; and identify policies to encourage the use of SAGE. Two SAGE water heating systems were installed and tested. One system was retrofit onto an existing apartment building; the other was installed in a new apartment building. Each installation required approximately 1000 square feet of collector area tilted to an angle of 37(0) from the horizontal, and each was designed to supply about 70 percent of the energy for heating water for approximately 32 to 40 units of a typical two-story apartment complex, in Southern California. Construction costs were compiled, and both installations were equipped with performance monitoring equipment. The operating and maintenance requirements of each installation was evaluated by gas company maintenance engineers. Market penetration was assessed by developing a computer simulation program using the technical and economic analysis from the installation experience.

1980-03-01

3

Energy problems - Solar energy and manure gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation of natural or artificial manures and plant byproducts produces a combustible gas composed essentially of methane and carbon dioxide. Techniques for producing this gas under artificial fermentation conditions are explained. The gas production can be controlled to yield fuel which is more efficient than that produced under natural conditions. The gas produced can be used to fuel engines,

M. Isman

1974-01-01

4

Project SAGE: solar assisted gas energy. Interim report number two, CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project SAGE is a four-phased plan to define the equipment design, cost requirements, government policies and initiatives, market requirements, and necessary institutional changes for the successful commercial application of solar assisted gas energy (SAGE) water heating. Project SAGE developed out of a multidisciplinary effort focused on the broad problem of introducing solar energy in the U.S. building industry on a

A. Hirshberg; R. Barbieri; R. Bartera; J. Lingwall; R. Schoen; R. Vault

1976-01-01

5

Solar energy conversions: solar-electric thermophotovoltaic systems and solar-powered gas lasers  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with conversions of solar energy efficiently into electricity and into gas laser radiation. In the first section, a review study of the possibility of a solar-electric thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device has been done. In a proposed extension of the TPV concept, a Cassagranian optical system concentrates solar radiation to heat a blackbody cavity to 2400/sup 0/K. A double-layer solar cell, GaAs and Si, forming the cylindrical surface concentric to the blackbody cavity, receives the blackbody radiation and converts it into electricity efficiently. A cell conversion efficiency of 50% or more would be possible with the TPV system. The second section explores the concept of blackbody radiation pumping of gas laser media as a step toward utilization of solar energy as a laser pumping source. To demonstrate this concept, an experiment was performed in which various gas mixtures of CO/sub 2/ and He were exposed to 1500/sup 0/K thermal radiation for brief periods of time. A gain coefficient of 2.8 x 10/sup -3/cm/sup -1/ has been measured at 10.6..mu.. and 1 Torr of pressure. At 2 Torr and 0.5 Torr, the measured optical gain is less than that at 1 Torr. A simple analytical model was used to describe the rate of change of energy distribution of the vibrational modes of CO/sub 2/ and to predict the gain. There is a good agreement between prediction and experiment.

Yesil, O.

1980-12-01

6

Solar energy system performance evaluation, Washington Natural Gas, Kirkland, Washington. November 1979, February and April 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Washington Natural Gas solar energy site is a single family residence in Kirkland, Washington. It is part of the Natural Solar Data Network. The active solar energy system is designed to supply space heating and hot water. It is equipped with a 591 square foot Solaron flat-plate air-medium collector, underground rock-bed storage, and auxiliary gas heat for space heating

1981-01-01

7

Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model was used to size the system to minimize the annualized cost of hot water. The annualized cost of solar-assisted gas-energy water heating is found to be less expensive than electric water heating but more expensive than gas water heating. The feasibility of a natural gas utility supplying the auxiliary fuel is evaluated. It is estimated that gas-utilizing companies will find it profitable to offer solar water heating as part of a total energy service option or on a lease basis when the price of new base-load supplies of natural gas reaches $2.50-$3.00 per million Btu.

Davis, E. S.

1975-01-01

8

Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

Eaton, William W.

9

A space-based combined thermophotovoltaic electric generator and gas laser solar energy conversion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a spaceborne energy conversion system consisting of a thermophotovoltaic electric generator and a gas laser. As a power source for the converson, the system utilizes an intermediate blackbody cavity heated to a temperature of 2000-2400 K by concentrated solar radiation. A double-layer solar cell of GaAs and Si forms a cylindrical surface concentric to this blackbody cavity, receiving the blackbody radiation and converting it into electricity with cell conversion efficiency of 50 percent or more. If the blackbody cavity encloses a laser medium, the blackbody radiation can also be used to simultaneously pump a lasing gas. The feasibility of blackbody optical pumping at 4.3 microns in a CO2-He gas mixture was experimentally demonstrated.

Yesil, Oktay

1989-01-01

10

Toward the renewables - A natural gas/solar energy transition strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inevitability of an energy transition from today's non-renewable fossil base toward a renewable energy base is considered from the viewpoint of the need for a national transition strategy. Then, one such strategy is offered. Its technological building blocks are described in terms of both energy use and energy supply. The strategy itself is then sketched at four points in its implementation; (1) initiation, (2) early transition, (3) late transition, and (4) completion. The transition is assumed to evolve from a heavily natural gas-dependent energy economy. It then proceeds through its transition toward a balanced, hybrid energy system consisting of both centralized and dispersed energy supply technologies supplying hydrogen and electricity from solar energy. Related institutional, environmental and economic factors are examined briefly.

Hanson, J. A.; Escher, W. J. D.

1979-01-01

11

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

1981-01-01

12

Project SAGE: solar assisted gas energy. Final report and executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The Phase III basic objective was establishment of a technical and economic baseline for proper assessment of the practical potential of solar water heating for apartments. Plans can then be formulated to improve SAGE technical design and performance; reduce SAGE costs; refine SAGE market assessment; and identify policies to encourage the use of SAGE. Two SAGE water heating systems were installed and tested. One system was retrofit onto an existing apartment building; the other was installed in a new apartment building. Each installation required approximately 1000 square feet of collector area tilted to an angle of 37/sup 0/ from the horizontal, and each was designed to supply about 70 percent of the energy for heating water for approximately 32 to 40 units of a typical two-story apartment complex in Southern California. Actual contruction costs were carefully compiled, and both installations were equipped with performance monitoring equipment. In addition, the operating and maintenance requirements of each installation was evaluated by gas company maintenance engineers. Upon completion of the installation analysis, the SAGE installation cost was further refined by obtaining firm SAGE construction bids from two plumbing contractors in Southern California. Market penetration was assessed by developing a computer simulation program using the technical and economic analysis from the installation experience. Also, the project examined the public policies required to encourage SAGE and other solar energy options. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-03-01

13

Solar thermal energy receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

Baker, Karl W. (inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (inventor)

1992-01-01

14

Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 11 of PDF), learners compare the air pressure within a dark and a light bottle both heated by the sun, and discover that solar energy can be collected and stored in many ways. Although this was created as a post-visit activity for a workshop about photosynthesis, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity.

COSI

2009-01-01

15

Alternative Energy: Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of the sun's energy. Topics include the history of solar energy usage and its more recent adaptations. There is also discussion of how the sun produces and radiates energy, what happens when it reaches Earth, types of solar systems, and the most common use of solar energy (heating). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate the effects of color and collection area on the amount of solar energy absorbed by a system. They will use aluminum pie pans of different sizes and colors and compare the relative effect by their ability to heat water placed in them.

John Pratte

16

Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

O'Brien, Alexander

17

Solar energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical nature of solar radiation, some history of direct solar energy conversion, and descriptions of conversion methods are discussed. Several conversion methods are reviewed, including photosynthesis, solar cells, and solar thermal conversion. (SPH)

Maddox

1974-01-01

18

Solar Energy Entrepreneurs  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region May 31, 2012 #12;Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region Meeting Objectives growth · Make our region an increasingly stronger hub for solar power You

Rubloff, Gary W.

19

Alabama solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of solar energy activities and programs in Alabama is reported. The following are included: summary on solar energy in Alabama; state energy-related agencies, programs, and plans; assessment of industrial growth areas; projection of future energy needs; unique energy needs; Alabama energy data; contacts for discussion of industrial growth and energy needs; the potential of solar technologies; local legislation;

1978-01-01

20

Solar energy assessment using remote sensing technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 20% of the final energy consumed in Europe is used in buildings. The active and passive use of solar energy is an approach to reduce the fossil energy consumption and the greenhouse gas emissions originated by buildings. Consideration of solar energy technologies in urban planning demands accurate information of the available solar resources. This can be achieved by the

Annette Hammer; Detlev Heinemann; Carsten Hoyer; Rolf Kuhlemann; Elke Lorenz; Richard Müller; Hans Georg Beyer

2003-01-01

21

Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric-and Nuclear Power: A Life-cycle  

E-print Network

Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric- and Nuclear, photovoltaic, nuclear, life cycle 1 #12;Introduction The production of energy by burning fossil fuels generates, it is envisioned that expanding generation technologies based on nuclear power and renewable energy sources would

22

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

1984-01-01

23

History of Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Solar Center offers this history of Solar Energy. Written by John Perlin, author of "From Space to Earth - The Story of Solar Electricity," the article summarizes three major solar energy subjects -- photovoltaics, solar thermal, and passive solar architecture. Visitors can get a quick overview of "how we have learned to capture sunlight and use it to make electricity, heat water and heat our homes."

24

Gas-grain energy transfer in solar nebula shock waves: Implications for the origin of chondrules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteoritic chondrules provide evidence for the occurrence of rapid transient heating events in the protoplanetary nebula. Astronomical evidence suggests that gas dynamic shock waves are likely to be excited in protostellar accretion disks by processes such as protosolar mass ejections, nonaxisymmetric structures in an evolving disk, and impact on the nebula surface of infalling 'clumps' of circumstellar gas. Previous detailed calculations of gas-grain energy and momentum transfer have supported the possibility that such shock waves could have melted pre-existing chondrule-sized grains. The main requirement for grains to reach melting temperatures in shock waves with plausibly low Mach numbers is that grains existed in dust-rich zones (optical depth greater than 1) where radiative cooling of a given grain can be nearly balanced by radiation from surrounding grains. Localized dust-rich zones also provide a means of explaining the apparent small spatial scale of heating events. For example, the scale size of at least some optically thick dust-rich zones must have been relatively small (less than 10 kilometers) to be consistent with petrologic evidence for accretion of hot material onto cold chondrules. The implied number density of mm-sized grains for these zones would be greater than 30 m(exp -3). In this paper, we make several improvements of our earlier calculations to include radiation self-consistently in the shock jump conditions, and we include heating of grains due to radiation from the shocked gas. In addition, we estimate the importance of momentum feedback of dust concentrations onto the shocked gas which would tend to reduce the efficiency of gas dynamic heating of grains in the center of the dust cloud.

Hood, L. L.; Horanyi, M.

1993-01-01

25

Alternatives in solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

Schueler, D. G.

1978-01-01

26

National Energy Act statutes and solar energy  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

Howard, J.

1980-02-01

27

Incoming Solar Energy Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet plots the incoming solar energy at the top of the atmosphere (no absorption by the atmosphere) for two locations at once. Students will learn how the date, hemisphere, and latitude impact the distribution of solar energy.

Ackerman, Steve; Whittaker, Tom

28

Solar energy recorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serious obstacle to the large scale terrestrial application of solar energy in today's ''energy crisis'' lies in the scarcity of reliable data on the amount of solar energy at candidate converter sites. This paper describes a system designed to monitor and record, automatically, the values of the direct and total (sun and sky) solar radiation which would be seen

R. B. Lollar; R. R. Mandt

1973-01-01

29

[Efficiency of oxidant gas generator cells powered by electric or solar energy].  

PubMed

Diseases caused by microbial contaminants in drinking water continue to be a serious problem in countries like Mexico. Chlorination, using chlorine gas or chlorine compounds, is one of the best ways to treat drinking water. However, difficulties in handling chlorine gas and the inefficiency of hypochlorite solution dosing systems--due to sociopolitical, economic, and cultural factors--have reduced the utility of these chlorination procedures, especially in far-flung and inaccessible rural communities. These problems led to the development of appropriate technologies for the disinfection of water by means of the on-site generation of mixed oxidant gases (chlorine and ozone). This system, called MOGGOD, operates through the electrolysis of a common salt solution. Simulated system evaluation using a hydraulic model allowed partial and total costs to be calculated. When powered by electrical energy from the community power grid, the system had an efficiency of 90%, and in 10 hours it was able to generate enough gases to disinfect about 200 m3 of water at a cost of approximately N$8 (US $1.30). When the electrolytic cell was run on energy supplied through a photoelectric cell, the investment costs were higher. A system fed by photovoltaic cells could be justified in isolated communities that lack electricity but have a gravity-fed water distribution system. PMID:9542448

Brust Carmona, H; Benitez, A; Zarco, J; Sánchez, E; Mascher, I

1998-02-01

30

Solar Energy Technician/Installer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

Moore, Pam

2007-01-01

31

Solar energy emplacement developer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

1991-01-01

32

Solar energy recorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serious obstacle to the large-scale terrestrial application of solar energy lies in the scarcity of reliable data on the amount of solar energy at candidate converter sites. This paper describes a system designed to monitor and record, automatically, the values of the direct and total (sun and sky) solar radiation which would be seen by either tracking or fixed-type

R. B. Lollar; R. R. Mandt

1974-01-01

33

Experimenting with Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

Roman, Harry T.

2004-01-01

34

Solar energy modulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

Hale, R. R. (inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

1984-01-01

35

Solar Energy: Home Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

Knapp, Henry H., III

36

Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

None

2011-01-01

37

Fluid absorption solar energy receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

Bair, Edward J.

1993-01-01

38

Iowa and solar energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are some different ways solar energy is used in our society? This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to five uses for solar energy in the state of Iowa. They include signs by the department of transportation, roof grids, solar cars, thin-film photovoltaics, and tents produced for the U.S. Army. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

39

Gas ionization solar spectral monitor (GISSMO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are currently developing an instrument free from optical components to measure the full-disk solar spectrum in the extreme ultraviolet regime covering wavelengths from 75-500 A. The instrument, which will be launched aboard a NASA Black Brant sounding rocket in September 1992, consists of a windowless noble gas ionization cell followed by a toroidal electrostatic analyzer to spatially disperse photoelectrons as a function of their energies. A microchannel plate based position sensitive detector will be used to detect individual electrons, indirectly returning the solar EUV spectrum.

Vickers, James S.; Cotton, Daniel M.; Cook, Timothy A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

1992-01-01

40

Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy

Buchanan, Marion; And Others

41

Energy Conversion into Hydrogen Gas Using Series Circuit of Organic Thin-Film Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Series circuit of six organic thin-film solar cells (OSCs) consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and PCBM has been fabricated in order to electrolyze water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. The open circuit voltage increases linearly with the number of unit cells and becomes 2.9 V at the six unit cells. On the other hand, the short circuit current, the fill factor and the

Atsushi Aoki; Mitsuru Naruse; Takayuki Abe

2011-01-01

42

Solar energy: principles and possibilities.  

PubMed

As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities. PMID:20222355

Rhodes, Christopher J

2010-01-01

43

Solar energy absorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy absorber module is described comprising a molded substantially rigid top sheet of translucent plastic material and a molded substantially rigid bottom sheet of solar energy absorbing substantially opaque plastic material bonded together by circular bond indentations formed in each of the top sheet and the bottom sheet. The circular bond indentation on each sheet is spaced from

1988-01-01

44

Solar energy for industrial process heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

1979-01-01

45

Florida Solar Energy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An institute of the University of Central Florida, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is the largest and most active state-supported renewable energy and energy efficiency research, training, testing and certification institute in the United States. FSEC's mission is to research and develop energy technologies that enhance Florida's economy and environment, and to educate the public, students and practitioners on the results of the research. Their website contains educational resources for children and adults, including workshops and courses about working with solar energy systems, energy gauge rater training, and building science training and certification. Also available are useful guides about home energy ratings, maximizing energy efficiency in the home, energy efficient home-design tips, and information about solar energy.

2002-04-04

46

Solar Server: Forum for Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Germany, this site provides a forum for news and information regarding all aspects of solar energy. The site provides background information on the technical aspects pertaining to solar energy and photovoltaics. A variety of images and descriptions provide useful background information about photovoltaic roof tiles and their role in solar buildings.

2007-08-28

47

Solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (inventors)

1979-01-01

48

Solar energy in Peru  

SciTech Connect

The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

Pierson, H.

1981-12-01

49

Curriculum Reviews: Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews Solar Energy Education Project (SEEP), a set of 10 curriculum guides emphasizing process skills as well as content for grades K-9. Solar concepts are taught almost exclusively through process activities and, although developed in Australia, the curriculum is easily adaptable to American classrooms. (Author/JN)

Riley, Joseph P.

1982-01-01

50

Solar Energy Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty articles addressing different aspects of solar energy are compiled in this book. They represent the views of different governmental and non-governmental organizations, members of congress, and other individuals including, for example, Barry Commoner and Amory Lovins. Topics discussed include the need for federal support, passive solar

Rose, Harvey, Ed.

51

Solar Energy Project: Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to give both teachers and students the opportunity to review a variety of representative articles on solar energy. Consideration is given to the sun's role in man's past, present, and future. The present state of solar technology is examined theoretically, economically, and comparatively in light of growing need for…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

52

The Solar Energy Notebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

53

Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

2011-03-01

54

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment  

E-print Network

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University..................................................................................................................... 1 2 Solar Resource Assessment ........................................................................................... 2 2.1 Solar Radiation

Brownstone, Rob

55

Energy 101: Solar PV  

SciTech Connect

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

None

2011-01-01

56

Energy 101: Solar PV  

ScienceCinema

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

None

2013-05-29

57

Solar energy in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of the potential use of solar energy in Ireland began shortly after the oil crisis of 1973–74. Subsequently, various EEC programmes were joined, and national programmes established.In solar thermal energy, work has been ongoing involving collector testing, computer modelling, pilot test facilities, and performance monitoring. Individual projects have included ones connected with absorption cooling systems, ultra-high absorptivity spectral selective

I. J. Cowan

1985-01-01

58

Using Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how solar energy can be used to heat water. Learners first discuss energy usage in their daily lives and then divide into pairs to conduct an experiment in which they use the sun to heat water. As an optional extension, learners can follow this activity with a project to design their own alternative energy invention.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

59

Brayton cycle solarized advanced gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is the development of a Brayton Engine/Generator Set for solar thermal to electrical power conversion, authorized under DOE/NASA Contract DEN3-181. The objective was to design, fabricate, assemble, and test a small, hybrid, 20-kW Brayton-engine-powered generator set. The latter, called a power conversion assembly (PCA), is designed to operate with solar energy obtained from a parobolic dish concentrator, 11 meters in diameter, or with fossil energy supplied by burning fuels in a combustor, or by a combination of both (hybrid model). The CPA consists of the Brayton cycle engine, a solar collector, a belt-driven 20-kW generator, and the necessary control systems for automatic operation in solar-only, fuel-only, and hybrid modes to supply electrical power to a utility grid. The original configuration of the generator set used the GTEC Model GTP36-51 gas turbine engine for the PCA prime mover. However, subsequent development of the GTEC Model AGT101 led to its selection as the powersource for the PCA. Performance characteristics of the latter, thermally coupled to a solar collector for operation in the solar mode, are presented. The PCA was successfully demonstrated in the fuel-only mode at the GTEC Phoenix, Arizona, facilities prior to its shipment to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for installation and testing on a test bed concentractor (parabolic dish). Considerations relative to Brayton-engine development using the all-ceramic AGT101 when it becomes available, which would satisfy the DOE heat engine efficiency goal of 35 to 41 percent, are also discussed in the report.

1986-01-01

60

Solar Lakes and Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

POR1 recently described the interesting discovery of a ``solar lake'' on the shores of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, 20 km south of Elat. Such a solar lake is characterized by a very sharp increase of salinity, and, consequently, of density with depth, with the result that a layer of high static stability is produced near the bottom. The

J. Neumann

1968-01-01

61

Solar energy's Sun Day punch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case for increased development of solar power is based on the need for safe energy and employment opportunities. Solar technologies include passive solar construction, water and space heaters, on-site electrical conversion, wind energy systems, and biomass conversion. Many of these have undergone feasibility testing and been found ready for commercial application. The popular appeal of solar energy was demonstrated

1978-01-01

62

The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

Bockris, J. O'M.

1974-01-01

63

Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the possibilities afforded by solar energy as one of the alternative energy sources capable to take the place of the dwindling oil and gas reserves. Solar energy, being a nondepleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. Steps taken toward providing innovative solutions that are economically competitive with other systems are briefly reviewed.

Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

1973-01-01

64

Energy from solar balloons  

SciTech Connect

Solar balloons are hot air balloons in which the air is heated directly by the sun, by means of a black absorber. The lift force of a tethered solar balloon can be used to produce energy by activating a generator during the ascending motion of the balloon. The hot air is then discharged when the balloon reaches a predefined maximum height. A preliminary study is presented, along with an efficiency estimation and some considerations on possible realistic configurations. (author)

Grena, Roberto [C. R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy)

2010-04-15

65

Solar energy unit  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collection device, the present invention provides a transparent housing formed in the shape of a pyramid, a fluid being directed through the interior of the pyramid for absorption of heat energy concentrated within the interior of said pyramid by the walls thereof.

Jones, J.M.

1980-06-03

66

How hot is solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion), one of six solar energy technology options that constituted the original United States solar energy plan is described. OTEC uses the oceans; an intermediate media; as its direct source of energy. The real advantage of OTEC, which is not shared with the other forms of solar energy, is that it can operate 24 hours a

1977-01-01

67

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect

If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces an equally rich future, with nanoscience enabling the discovery of the guiding principles of photonic energy conversion and their use in the development of cost-competitive new technologies.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S. (Materials Science Division); (California Inst. of Tech.)

2008-03-01

68

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling  

SciTech Connect

A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

69

Solar thermal energy systems industrial applications assessment review: presentation summaries  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen presentation summaries consisting mainly of view-graphs and including some brief verbal explanation are compiled. They cover: solar thermal energy applications assessment and planning; industrial sector analysis in the industrial applications branch of SERI; regional assessment studies, an evaluation of solar thermal systems for thermal applications, central receiver market studies; assessment of solar central receiver technology, markets, and industry; industrial solar thermal market assessment; solar industrial process heat market for central receiver technology; solar total energy modularity; parabolic dishes; solar industrial process heat case studies market evaluation; economic potential of solar thermal energy to provide industrial process heat in the US; industrial solar process heat program at the Northeast Solar Energy Center; the Gas Research Institute Program projections of industrial end uses to assist evaluation of solar thermal options; conventional approaches to industrial marketing; solar energy incentives and buyer behavior; and financial aspects for commercialization of central receivers. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-12-01

70

Energy payback and CO{sub 2} gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences  

SciTech Connect

A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

Kulcinski, G.L.

2002-12-01

71

Solar Photovoltaic Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

1979-01-01

72

Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

Cherry, W. R.

1974-01-01

73

Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue] [Purdue

2014-01-21

74

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report presents the results of a thermal performance analysis of the Chester West solar energy system. The analysis covers operation of the system from September 1978 through March 1979. The Chester West solar energy system provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single-family dwelling located in Huntsville, Alabama. Section 2 presents a

Labbe

1979-01-01

75

Solar-pumped gas laser development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of gas properties through detailed kinetic models led to the identification of critical gas parameters for use in choosing appropriate gas combinations for solar pumped lasers. Broadband photoabsorption in the visible or near UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to insure good solar absorption efficiency. The photoexcitation density is independent of the absorption bandwidth. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than 10 A to insure lasing threshold over reasonable gain lengths. The system should show a high degree of chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. Although photoexcitation of electronic vibrational transitions is considered as a possible system if the emission bands sufficiently narrow, it appears that photodissociation into atomic metastables is more likely to result in a successful solar pumped laser system.

Wilson, J. W.

1980-01-01

76

Maximum collectible solar energy by different solar tracking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output energy from any solar energy system depends on the solar energy input to that system. Using different ways to track the solar energy system to follow the sun can increase solar energy input according to the type of the tracker. A practical study was carried out on difference solar tract systems. The layout of these systems are a

N. H. Helwa; A. B. G. Bahgat; A. M. R. El Shafee; E. T. El Shenawy

2000-01-01

77

Solar energy storage using phase change materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the climb in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind efforts to more effectively utilise various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. However, the large-scale utilisation of this form

Murat Kenisarin; Khamid Mahkamov

2007-01-01

78

New Mexico Solar Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Mexico Solar Energy Association provides valuable educational resources for teaching students about solar energy. The site has a variety of student projects, resources, and curricula examples. The resources provided on the site cover solar cell demonstrations, DC electricity, photovoltaics, and sustainability.

79

Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power  

ScienceCinema

From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

None

2013-05-29

80

A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer for solar and planetary observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a prototype spectrometer for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. In this recently developed spectrometer, the energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

Judge, Darrell L.

1994-01-01

81

Solar energy to biofuels.  

PubMed

In a solar economy, sustainably available biomass holds the potential to be an excellent nonfossil source of high energy density transportation fuel. However, if sustainably available biomass cannot supply the liquid fuel need for the entire transport sector, alternatives must be sought. This article reviews biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes that treat biomass primarily as a carbon source and boost liquid fuel production substantially by using supplementary energy that is recovered from solar energy at much higher efficiencies than the biomass itself. The need to develop technologies for an energy-efficient future sustainable transport sector infrastructure that will use different forms of energy, such as electricity, H(2), and heat, in a synergistic interaction with each other is emphasized. An enabling template for such a future transport infrastructure is presented. An advantage of the use of such a template is that it reduces the land area needed to propel an entire transport sector. Also, some solutions for the transition period that synergistically combine biomass with fossil fuels are briefly discussed. PMID:22432585

Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R

2010-01-01

82

Solar energy applications in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy deficit budget of Pakistan demands for an energy transition from limited fossil fuel reserves to abundant renewable energy sources. With a modest research and development programme for solar energy utilisation, PCSIR and DGNRER concentrated on both solar thermal and PV systems. The achievements as a result of research and development over the last decade has been discussed in

Iftikhar A. Raja; M. G. Dougar; R. S. Abro

1996-01-01

83

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics  

E-print Network

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics Over the last thirty years, hundreds of life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been conducted and published for a variety of residential methods and assumptions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle

84

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power  

E-print Network

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Over the last thirty years, more than 100 life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been conducted and published for a variety of utility and assumptions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA

85

Solar energy: the awakening science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book concerns answers to the questions: (1) is solar energy the key to the future of our energy needs; and (2) what are the facts and true potential of this enormous, still largely unexplored source of renewable power. It reviews the knowledge of solar energy from the mirrors that Archimedes used to set a Roman fleet aflame in 215

D. Behrman

1976-01-01

86

Solar energy for the hospital?  

PubMed

You can't scrap your boiler and expect solar panels to provide steam for process and heating, but solar systems are cost-effective now for domestic hot water generation, according to a leading solar energy engineering/design/build firm. PMID:10249853

1981-01-01

87

Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

1981-01-01

88

Diffusion and adoption of an efficient, integrated alternative energy system: a producer gas-solar greenhouse for farmstead operation. Final technical report, September 1, 1980-October 1983  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy awarded College of the Siskiyous a grant to provide a demonstration project that coordinated a variety of energy-related technologies: a 100-foot, two-podded solar greenhouse, a producer gas generator fired by wood chips, thermal storage devices (fish tanks, water filled drums, hydroponic reservoirs), and a group of related activities: alcohol fuels production with the carbon dioxide by-product being used in one pod of the greenhouse; growing small meat animals who would eat greens from the facility, would provide manure for the gardens, and would put off some heat for the facility; tank fish farming; an eleven acre appropriate technology homestead which would surround the greenhouse. At the time of this report, the greenhouse has been completed though devices (fans, stoves, louvers, shades)to minimize temperature shifts continue to be developed. The producer gas generator has had problems with tar buildup which gum up engines. Rather than running a motor off the unit to produce electricity for the greenhouse, the unit is being used to demonstrate how wood gasification can be used to run motors which in turn can be used to run generators, automobiles, etc. The facility is being used to experiment with a variety of growing periods, conditions, and materials.

Peterson, G.T.

1983-10-10

89

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark  

E-print Network

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-22 #12;Connectable solar air collectors Søren �stergaard Jensen Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre within the project "Connectable solar air collector/PVT collector" (Sammenkoblelig luftsolfanger

90

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark  

E-print Network

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-22 #12;Connectable solar air collectors Søren �stergaard Jensen Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre Package 91 #12;92 #12;93 #12;Appendix B Working drawings for the connectable solar air collectors 94 #12

91

Solar-pumped gas laser development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct conversion of solar radiation into an inverted population for extraction in an optical cavity holds promise as a relatively simple system design. Broad-band photoabsorption in the visible or near-UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to ensure good solar absorption efficiency. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than approximately 10 A. The system should show chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. A search of electronic-vibrational transitions in diatomic molecules satisfying these conditions is now in progress. A photodissociation-pumped atomic iodine laser is now being tested under solar pumping conditions. Photodissociation studies for thallium spin-flip metastable formation will begin in the near future.

Wilson, J. W.

1981-01-01

92

SOLAR ENERGY FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to determine which existing or emerging pollution control processes are best suited to make use of solar energy input and to determine the potential benefits of such applications. Pollution control processes were matched with compatible solar energy systems,...

93

Solar Energy: The Chicago Connection  

SciTech Connect

Utilization of solar energy was significantly advanced with the invention of nonimaging solar concentrators. This has enabled practical uses of solar energy for such purposes as heating and cooling of buildings and power generation without the requirement for complicated tracking. What began as a method for efficiently collecting cerenkov light in high energy physics has become the means for producing from solar energy, high temperature for many societal applications as well as ultra-high temperature for research. This talk will describe the optical principles underlying the technology and illustrate with projects and laboratories from around the world. Examples will be drawn from a number of areas: cooling a commercial building in Sacramento, California, advanced collector development in China, NASA's plans for space propulsion by heating hydrogen, and from our own City of Chicago, a commitment to be a global leader in renewable energy production and manufacturing including solar power.

Roland Winston

2009-05-15

94

Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plans  

E-print Network

Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plans March 2011 #12;2 Why Solar Energy Research at BNL BNL's capabilities can advance solar energy In the Northeast #12;North Array Field South Array Field Variability and Non-Dispatchability · Solar energy varies · Solar generation cannot be dispatched when needed

Homes, Christopher C.

95

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

DOEpatents

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01

96

New and emerging developments in solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy can potentially play a very important role in providing most of the heating, cooling and electricity needs of the world. With the emergence of solar photocatalytic detoxification technology, solar energy also has the potential to solve our environmental problems. However, we do not see widespread commercial use of solar energy. Some of the emerging developments in solar may

D. Y. Goswami; S. Vijayaraghavan; S. Lu; G. Tamm

2004-01-01

97

Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics; (9)…

LaHart, David E.

98

High flux solar energy transformation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

1991-04-09

99

High flux solar energy transformation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

1991-04-09

100

The Geography of Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After learning about two promising techniques for generating electricity--photovoltaic cells and wind energy conversion systems--secondary students analyze two maps of the United States showing solar radiation and available wind power to determine which U.S. regions have potential for these solar electric systems. (RM)

LaHart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

1984-01-01

101

The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)

Whipple, Chris

1980-01-01

102

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stewart-Teele-Mitchell site is a single-family residence in Malta, New York. The home has approximately 1900 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 432 square feet. The array faces south at an

1979-01-01

103

Solar Energy Education. Solar solutions: Reader, Part III  

SciTech Connect

A collection of magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy is presented in this booklet. This is the third of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader books. The articles provide brief discussions on the various applications of solar energy including: heat, photovoltaics; wind, hydro, and biomass. A glossary of terms is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

104

Solar energy systems for industrialization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a presentation given to illustrate a need for solar energy, and to suggest a solution as well as its implementation. Current sources of global energy mainly consist of fossil fuels, which are finite in their supply as well as harmful to the environment. A viable solution is solar energy, which is relatively inexhaustible in supply and available with emerging technology. In addition, a process for energy transmission via wireless power transmission is presented. The benefits of this technology include assisting rural areas of developing countries and aiding those countries' national economies. Implementation methods for this technology on a global scale are also given.

Glaser, Peter E.; Leonard, Raymond S.

105

Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy  

PubMed Central

Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both legacy and non-legacy worlds, and minimally contributes to increasing the anthropogenic level of carbon dioxide. Because PE will be possible only if solar energy is available 24 hours a day, 7 day a week, the key enabler for solar PE is an inexpensive storage mechanism. HX (X = halide or OH?) splitting is a fuel-forming reaction of sufficient energy density for large scale solar storage but the reaction relies on chemical transformations that are not understood at the most basic science level. Critical among these are multielectron transfers that are proton-coupled and involve the activation of bonds in energy poor substrates. The chemistry of these three italicized areas is developed, and from this platform, discovery paths leading to new HX and H2O splitting catalysts are delineated. For the case of the water splitting catalyst, it captures many of the functional elements of photosynthesis. In doing so, a highly manufacturable and inexpensive method has been discovered for solar PE storage. PMID:19775081

Nocera, Daniel G.

2012-01-01

106

Solar Energy Technology Programs: Photovoltaic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main page for the U.S. Department of Energy website on photovoltaics. "The U.S. Department of Energy works to provide clean, reliable, affordable solar electricity for the nation through its research programs in photovoltaic (PV) energy systems. The following pages explain the "how's" and "why's" of PV. Whether you are a student, consumer, engineer, or researcher, there is something here for you. The website includes the following pages: -How PV works -Why PV is important -How and why PV is used -How DOE is supporting research of solar energy -How you, the consumer, can use PV and other solar energy technologies -How students, educators, and trainers can learn more about PV.

107

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664677 Invited article  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664­677 Invited article Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells G. Khrypunova , A. Romeob , F. Kurdesauc , D.L. Ba¨ tznerd , H. Zogge , A Abstract Recent developments in the technology of high vacuum evaporated CdTe solar cells are reviewed

Romeo, Alessandro

108

Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

109

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation: May-August 1978. Florida Gas Company, Single Family Residence, Winter Springs, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief description of the system, which provides thermal energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating for a one story single family dwelling, is given. A performance evaluation of the cooling subsystem is presented for the period May through August, 1978. A comparison of measured climatic data with long term average conditions for the vicinity is

T. D. Lee; W. H. McCumber; L. J. Murphy

1978-01-01

110

Surface meteorology and Solar Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

111

Home landscaping to use solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author explains techniques for land utilization and manipulation that make better use of active and passive solar heating and cooling systems. Fully covered are the sun and energy needs, solar patterns and access, active and passive use of solar energy, site analysis techniques for maximum use of solar energy on any site, and site selection, guidelines, and criteria. The

Robinette

1987-01-01

112

Australia speeds up solar energy research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term projects are concentrared on improving the efficiency and ; reducing the cost of existing types of solar water heaters and solar water-; desalination plants. Larger-term projects include fundamental studies on thermal ; transfer problems energy measurement, heat storage media, and solar-energy ; collectors. An investigation of the distribution of solar energy over the ; continent is being carried out

Scholes

1973-01-01

113

Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role is described that solar energy will play in the heating and cooling of buildings, the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts on the various energy markets and estimated costs of such systems are discussed along with illustrations of some of the processes to accomplish the goals. The conclusions of the NSF/NASA Solar Energy Panel (1972) are given along with the estimated costs to accomplish the 15 year recommended program and also the recent and near future budget appropriations and recommendations are included.

Cherry, W. R.

1974-01-01

114

Thin film solar energy collector  

DOEpatents

A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-11-22

115

Chapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy spectrum  

E-print Network

Solar cell plant #12;Cars powered by photovoltaic devices PHYS5320 Chapter Nine 5 #12;Solar EnergyChapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy Solar Energy? · Clean · Nearly unlimited PHYS5320 Chapter Nine 3 #12;S l ll l t PHYS5320 Chapter Nine 4

Wang, Jianfang

116

Photochemical conversion of solar energy.  

PubMed

Energy is the most important issue of the 21st century. About 85% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, a finite resource unevenly distributed beneath the Earth's surface. Reserves of fossil fuels are progressively decreasing, and their continued use produces harmful effects such as pollution that threatens human health and greenhouse gases associated with global warming. Prompt global action to solve the energy crisis is therefore needed. To pursue such an action, we are urged to save energy and to use energy in more efficient ways, but we are also forced to find alternative energy sources, the most convenient of which is solar energy for several reasons. The sun continuously provides the Earth with a huge amount of energy, fairly distributed all over the world. Its enormous potential as a clean, abundant, and economical energy source, however, cannot be exploited unless it is converted into useful forms of energy. This Review starts with a brief description of the mechanism at the basis of the natural photosynthesis and, then, reports the results obtained so far in the field of photochemical conversion of solar energy. The "grand challenge" for chemists is to find a convenient means for artificial conversion of solar energy into fuels. If chemists succeed to create an artificial photosynthetic process, "... life and civilization will continue as long as the sun shines!", as the Italian scientist Giacomo Ciamician forecast almost one hundred years ago. PMID:18605661

Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

2008-01-01

117

Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

1978-01-01

118

SOLAR ENERGY Andrew Blakers  

E-print Network

. Other problems include oil spills, oil-related warfare (for example, the Gulf wars) and pollution from. These are energy from the sun (in its various forms), nuclear energy (fission and fusion), fossil energy (coal, oil

119

Flatplate Solar Energy Collector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small truck body fabricator in Florida became producer of flatplate solar collectors after having an inexpensive literature search performed by the NASA IAC in Research Triangle Park, NC. The center provided him with 314 abstracts of which he requested 15 full length articles. His total cost, $100.00, was sufficient to launch his new venture OEM Products, Inc. Flatplate collector design incorporates new black paint developed by Dow-Corning Corporation but not yet commercially available.

1976-01-01

120

Chapter 10. SOLAR ENERGY AND ITS BIOLOGICALPHYSICAL INTERACTIONS IN THE SEA  

E-print Network

's history. The angu- lar distribution of radiant energy and the seasonal variations in solar radiation drive401 Chapter 10. SOLAR ENERGY AND ITS BIOLOGICAL­PHYSICAL INTERACTIONS IN THE SEA TOMMY D. DICKEY of solar energy, atmospheric gas composition, and planetary albedo. These processes are inex- tricably

Fabrikant, Sara Irina

121

BEACON SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT (08-AFC-2) Project Title: Beacon Solar Energy Project (Beacon)  

E-print Network

BEACON SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT (08-AFC-2) FACT SHEET Project Title: Beacon Solar Energy Project (Beacon) Sponsor: Beacon Solar, LLC (Beacon Solar), a Delaware limited liability company and wholly owned and operate the Beacon Solar Energy Project (Beacon). Location: The project is located in eastern Kern County

122

Solar Energy for Rural Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

123

Direct solar energy conversion at sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production and delivery from direct solar energy conversion facilities located at sea is treated, assuming the use of a heat engine\\/electricity generation\\/water electrolysis system. The concept of ocean energy is discussed, noting the distinction between direct and indirect solar energy conversion at sea, and direct solar energy conversion is considered within the framework of the seaward advancement of industrial

W. J. D. Escher; T. Ohta

1979-01-01

124

GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSIS OF SOLAR-THERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-thermal electricity generation contributes to climate change because it incurs the emission of greenhouse gases during the provision of services and the production of materials needed for the construction and operation of solar power plants. These greenhouse gas costs (GGC) can be determined using either material inventories in physical units or monetary cost breakdowns. Solar-only plants employing parabolic troughs, central

M. LENZEN

1999-01-01

125

Hydrogen Without Tears: Addressing the Global Energy Crisis via a Solar to Hydrogen Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the dominant scaleable vision is a solar-hydrogen economy, where solar thermal collectors are preferred to solar cells. Also for mobile storage, pure hydrogen (liquid and\\/or gas) is preferred to both electric batteries and hydrogen fuel cells. Placing this form of a solar hydrogen economy as an end vision on our energy policy. Governments profits, as they can

Derek Abbott

2009-01-01

126

Impact of Reflectors on Solar Energy Systems  

E-print Network

Abstract—The paper aims to show that implementing different types of reflectors in solar energy systems, will dramatically improve energy production by means of concentrating and intensifying more sunlight onto a solar cell. The Solar Intensifier unit is designed to increase efficiency and performance of a set of solar panels. The unit was fabricated and tested. The experimental results show good improvement in the performance of the solar energy system. II. SOLAR INTENSIFIER UNIT A flat solar panel can incorporate reflectors at the side. The idea is to increase the sunlight intensity onto the panel by reflecting sunlight that would normally have missed panel.

J. Rizk; M. H. Nagrial

127

Warming up to solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global warming, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.

Biondo, B.

1996-07-01

128

PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report addresses the environmental consequences of three kinds of solar energy utilization: photovoltaic, concentrator (steam electric) and flat plate. The application of solar energy toward central power generating stations is emphasized. Discussions of combined modes and o...

129

Solar-assisted low energy dwellings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zero Energy House Group was formed as a subproject of the CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study in 1974 by seven participating countries experimenting with solar-assisted low-energy dwellings for temperate and northern European climatic conditions. A Zero Energy House is one in which solar energy is used to meet the reduced energy needs of buildings incorporating various thermal energy conservation features. This is the final report of the Zero Energy House Group. It includes brief descriptions of 13 major low-energy dwellings in the participating CCMS countries. An overall assessment of the state-of-the-art in solar-assisted low-energy dwellings is given.

Esbensen, T. V.

1980-02-01

130

Solar energy at Forest Research Solar Power at Alice Holt  

E-print Network

Solar energy at Forest Research Solar Power at Alice Holt research station provides a renewable source of energy reducing reliance on power from the national grid Forest Research, an agency per annum. As part of a programme to improve energy efficiency and meet government targets on carbon

131

Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

2011-08-01

132

Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

Williams, J. R.

1974-01-01

133

Solar energy metering and recording system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete system for detecting and metering solar energy and recording the total integrated energy or power levels over a desired period of time is described. The system emphasizes simplicity of design to achieve: a transducer sensitive to the presence of solar radiance which efficiently absorbs the incident direct energy over the broad solar spectrum or may be filtered to

Morrill

1981-01-01

134

Solar energy tracking structure incorporating wind spoilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a solar energy tracking assembly. The assembly producing reduced torque loading forces due to wind on the rotating portion of the tracking assembly. The solar energy tracking assembly comprised of: a fixed position base having one end securely fixed to the ground and having the second end supporting the remaining tracking assembly components; solar energy collecting means

M. W. Frohardt; K. H. Hartz; P. C. Hardee

1989-01-01

135

Non-tracking solar energy collector system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor to nasa)

1978-01-01

136

Solar energy collector and heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector and heat exchanger for use in a solar energy system that provides space heating and preheating of water for a building or residence is disclosed. The solar collector and heat exchanger comprises a rectangularly shaped, box-like housing. A thermal pane glass panel covers the top of the housing and permits radiant energy to pass therethrough to

Pyle

1979-01-01

137

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect

The Sun provides Earth with a staggering amount of energy - enough to power the great oceanic and atmospheric currents, the cycle of evaporation and condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow, and the typhoons, hurricanes, and tornadoes that so easily destroy the natural and built landscape. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906, with magnitude 7.8, released an estimated 10{sup 17} joules of energy, the amount the Sun delivers to Earth in one second. Earth's ultimate recoverable resource of oil, estimated at 3 trillion barrels, contains 1.7 x 10{sup 22} joules of energy, which the Sun supplies to Earth in 1.5 days. The amount of energy humans use annually, about 4.6 x 10{sup 20} joules, is delivered to Earth by the Sun in one hour. The enormous power that the Sun continuously delivers to Earth, 1.2 x 10{sup 5} terawatts, dwarfs every other energy source, renewable or nonrenewable. It dramatically exceeds the rate at which human civilization produces and uses energy, currently about 13 TW.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.; Materials Science Division; Cal Tech

2007-03-01

138

High-energy solar protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence is presented for a second particle acceleration phase following the explosive phase of a solar flare. Cerenkov and scintillation counters were employed on the Prognoz satellite to detect the arrival of protons with energies greater than 100 MeV or 500 MeV, respectively. Delays of several minutes to several tens of minutes were observed for the arrival of protons from radiobursts in the cm range and X ray bursts during solar flare activity. A similar delay was recorded on the Proton-3 satellite during a burst event of Nov. 22, 1977, using the same measurement techniques. The existence of a second acceleration phase, when protons are accelerated to high energies and electrons up to relativistic energies, is noted to not contradict a model of the explosive phase of the flare as a process of disappearance and break of the current layer in the region of a highly dense plasma

Volodichev, N. N.; Savenko, I. A.

139

Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

Krupka, M. C.

1980-09-01

140

Thermodynamic analysis of solar energy use for reforming fuels to hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method is proposed for reforming fuels to hydrogen using solar energy at distributed locations (industrial sites, residential and commercial buildings fed with natural gas, remote settlements supplied by propane etc). In order to harness solar energy a solar concentrator is used to generate high temperature heat to reform fuels to hydrogen. A typical fuel such as

W. R. Wagar; C. Zamfirescu; I. Dincer

2011-01-01

141

Building Integration Of Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way solar systems are used in buildings is different from what it used to be. Buildings are no longer designed to use just passive solar energy systems, such as windows and sunspaces, or active solar systems, such as solar water collectors. In fact, the words passive and active no longer make sense, as the newer buildings combine several of

Anne Grete Hestnes

1999-01-01

142

Solar Energy Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment demonstrates that energy from the Sun can be collected and stored in a variety of ways. Using plastic bottles painted black and white and capped with balloons, students will see that the black bottle becomes warmer, heating the air inside it and blowing up the balloon.

143

Data acquisition and analyzing of solar energy resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the precondition of exploiting solar energy resource, solar energy resource assessment is the key of solar energy power plant site selection. The main parameters and the testing instrument for solar energy resource assessment were analyzed. Comparing different data for solar energy resource assessment from different areas, solar energy resource of typical area were analyzed based on actual data in

Mingzhi Zhao; Zhizhang Liu; Mingjun Yu

2010-01-01

144

Solar energy collector/storage system  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

1983-05-24

145

History of solar energy applications - Solar energy yesterday, today and tomorrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is safe to assume that solar energy will become increasingly important as the alternative sources of energy approach their inevitable exhaustion. In the present paper, the history of solar energy research and application is reviewed, starting with the lens-type solar furnaces developed by Lavoisier, two hundred years ago, in France, via the silicon solar cell invented in the early

J. I. Yellott

1978-01-01

146

Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS  

SciTech Connect

This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

Nathan Lewis

2010-02-26

147

Optimal energy management for solar car race  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a solar car simulation and race strategy program developed for the University of Illinois Sunrayce 95 solar car race team. The goal is to complete the ten-day race course in the minimum total running time, using solar energy alone. In cloudy weather, even the most competitive cars can become energy-limited. The strategic choice in that case, is

G. S. Wright

1996-01-01

148

SOLAR ENERGY A New York perspective,  

E-print Network

SOLAR ENERGY A New York perspective, Richard Perez & Thomas Thompson (Based upon a manuscript misconception that New York doesn't get enough sun and that solar power is both too expensive and too unreliable the St. Lawrence Seaway to Montauk Point, solar electric PV power can lower the cost of energy in NYS

Perez, Richard R.

149

Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

Munsell, Devon R.

150

PROOF-OF-CONCEPT OF A DUAL-FIRED (SOLAR & NATURAL GAS) GENERATOR  

E-print Network

of the FAR, please visit the EISG program page on the Commission's Web site at: http://www.energy information on the overall PIER Program, please visit the Commission's Web site at http://www.energyPROOF-OF-CONCEPT OF A DUAL-FIRED (SOLAR & NATURAL GAS) GENERATOR FOR USE IN A SPACE-COOLING SYSTEM

151

Life cycle assessment of the conventional and solar thermal production of zinc and synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current industrial productions of zinc and synthesis gas are characterized by their high energy consumption and their concomitant environmental pollution. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) could be reduced substantially by combining both productions and by replacing fossil fuels with concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The extent of such a GHG mitigation has been quantified

Miriam Werder; Aldo Steinfeld

2000-01-01

152

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 13881391 Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1388­1391 Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells A. Romeob,�, G. Khrypunovc , S. Galassinid , H. Zogga , A.N. Tiwaria,e a Thin Film Physics Group We present a different back contact for CdTe solar cell by the application of only a transparent

Romeo, Alessandro

153

A Case for Solar Energy Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describing the need for energy alternatives in the U.S. which consumes 33 percent of the world's petroleum output, this article advocates educational leadership via solar energy education, maintaining that solar energy education can become the catalyst for energy education in our schools because it is fresh, visible, and challenging. (JC)

Goodkind, Thomas

1978-01-01

154

Cocoon drying through solar energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

Kulunk, M.

1983-12-01

155

Solar total energy project Shenandoah  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

None

1980-01-10

156

Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

2009-09-01

157

Solar Energy Development onSolar Energy Development on DoD Installations in the  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Development onSolar Energy Development on DoD Installations in the Mojave & Colorado and Implications fReport is available for download at: http://www.icfi.com/insights/reports/2012/full-report-solar the technical and economic potential to site solar on 9 major DoD installations in the Mojave and Colorado

158

Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

2012-01-01

159

More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

Dustin, M. O.

1987-01-01

160

Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

Not Available

2008-04-01

161

Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

1990-01-01

162

Combined solar collector and energy storage system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

Jensen, R. N. (inventor)

1980-01-01

163

Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

2011-01-01

164

Battle Keeps Solar Energy in Receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mirror structure in solar concentrator reduces heat loss by reflection and reradiation. Baffle reflects entering rays back and forth in solar-concentrator receiver until they reach heat exchanger. Similarly, infrared energy reradiated by heat exchanger is prevented from leaving receiver. Surfaces of baffle and inside wall of receiver are polished and highly reflective at solar and infrared wavelengths.

Mcdougal, A. R.; Hale, R. R.

1982-01-01

165

The Solar Energy Timetable. Worldwatch Paper 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are…

Hayes, Denis

166

Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

Reynolds, John S.

167

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2012-04-01

168

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2013-04-01

169

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2010-04-01

170

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2014-04-01

171

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2011-04-01

172

Energy transport through the solar atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy transport through the solar atmosphere and the source of energy which heats the chromosphere and the solar corona are studied. Wave propagation in the solar atmosphere and in the heating of the solar atmosphere is discussed as a source and transport medium. The source of the waves is thought to be the photospheric short period oscillations. Simultaneous observations from the photosphere to the corona at the solar disk center are reported. Emphasis is on the possible association of aperiodic brightenings high in the atmosphere with specific events in the photosphere.

Harvey, K. L.; Harvey, J. W.

1979-01-01

173

Summary of solar energy technology characterizations  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

None

1980-09-01

174

Energy resource requirements of a solar heating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper addresses the question of the total energy resource use of a solar hot water and space heating system compared to the traditional oil, gas and electric heating options. The methods of energy analysis have been applied to a liquid-based, short-term storage solar space and water heating system for a dwelling in Toronto, and the results indicate that the indirect use of energy resources does not have a major impact on the overall energy conservation characteristics of the system which, being in many respects a worst case, takes 1.0-3.5 years of operation to conserve the energy resources, required to build, operate and maintain the system. Over the assumed 20-year lifetime the solar heating system, sized to provide 50% of the heating requirement to a house, uses between 53 and 62% as many energy resources as a conventional system, heating the same house. The energy-conservation characteristics of the system can be completely negated by the use of thermally generated electricity as backup in a 50% solar heating system which replaces oil or gas heating. The collectors and annual operating energy for the pumps were found to be the two most significant factors in the analysis.

Rogers, D. W. O.

1980-01-01

175

Biomimetic utilization of solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most interesting recent publications dealing with so-called artificial photosynthesis, i.e., the development of photocatalytic converters of solar energy to the chemical bond energy using the fundamental principles of natural oxygenic photosynthesis, are discussed. The key stages of photosynthesis that should be reproduced in the artificial converters include light harvesting and transport of the light quantum to reaction centres where photoinduced charge separation occurs to give elementary reducing agents and oxidants (electrons and holes). The dark catalytic reactions involving the elementary reducing agents and oxidants give stable end products, namely, dioxygen and carbohydrates in the natural photosynthesis or dioxygen and hydrogen in the artificial photosynthesis. The bibliography includes 99 references.

Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, Aleksandr E.

2012-12-01

176

Feasibility of an iodine gas laser pumped by concentrated terrestrial solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

The present work demonstrates the feasibility of a t-C{sub 4}F{sub 9}I iodine gas laser pumped by concentrated terrestrial solar radiation. Iodine gas lasers have advantages when compared to solid-state systems. They pump at low concentration ({approximately}100 suns, as compared to 45,000 suns for the most efficient solid-state lasers; Cooke, 1992), and thus do not require expensive, optical-grade concentration systems. The lasant medium (iodine gas) is easily cooled by flowing the lasant medium, while solid-state lasers require complicated cooling apparatus to avoid crystal fracture from thermal gradients. Finally, a gas laser is easily upsized, as the iodine gas will expand to fill any oscillation cavity. Solid-state lasers are limited by the size of the crystal that can be grown and cooled, and the higher efficiency comes at the cost of the very high solar concentration requirements. The iodine gas under consideration has a smaller overlap with the terrestrial solar spectrum than solid state lasers, and therefore has a lower efficiency. However, comparison of relative efficiencies should also include cost estimates of highly specialized optical equipment (such as sapphire CPC`s), cooling requirements (liquid nitrogen baths), and losses due to blockage of the chopper wheel. Such simplistic comparisons as ratio of power out to solar power in are misleading, as they contain the implicit assumption that solar energy must be purchased, as are fossil fuels. In reality, the solar energy is free, and the true expense is the manufacture and degree of sophistication required of the solar radiation reflection system, and the cooling system.

Terry, C.K.; Peterson, J.E.; Goswami, D.Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-05-01

177

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 15991610 Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1599­1610 Improving solar cell efficiency using efficiency of solar cell devices without using concentrators. r 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved) solar energy conversion systems (or solar cells) are the most widely used power systems. However

Dowling, Jonathan P.

178

Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

Luckett, Rickey D.

179

Solar Technological Progress and Use of Solar Energy in the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy can potentially play a very important role in providing most of the heating, cooling and electricity needs of the world The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. There are a variety of different technologies used in order to take advantage of solar energy. The primary solar

Mustafa Balat

2006-01-01

180

Renewable Energy Living Lab: Smart Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use real-world data to evaluate whether solar power is a viable energy alternative for several cities in different parts of the U.S. Working in small groups, they examine maps and make calculations using NREL/US DOE data from the online Renewable Energy Living Lab. In this exercise, students analyze cost and availability for solar power, and come to conclusions about whether solar power is a good solution for four different locations.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

181

Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar

Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

182

Non-tracking solar energy collector system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1978-01-01

183

Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

1982-01-01

184

Nuclear Processes at Solar Energy  

E-print Network

LUNA, Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at Gran Sasso, is measuring fusion cross sections down to the energy of the nucleosynthesis inside stars. Outstanding results obtained up to now are the cross-section measurements within the Gamow peak of the Sun of $^{3}He(^{3}He,2p)^{4}He$ and the $D(p,\\gamma)^{3}He$. The former plays a big role in the proton-proton chain, largely affecting the calculated solar neutrino luminosity, whereas the latter is the reaction that rules the proto-star life during the pre-main sequence phase. The implications of such measurements will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained last year on the study of $^{14}N(p,\\gamma)^{15}O$, the slowest reaction of the CNO cycle, will also be shown.

Carlo Broggini

2003-08-29

185

Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

Modisette, J. L.

1972-01-01

186

High temperature gas energy transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of a report on high temperature gas energy transfer discusses the following topics: (1) development of a new method called the Diffusion Cloud Method for the study of intermolecular vibrational energy transfer in reacting unimolecular systems; (2) development of the theory and method of a new technique called the Variable Encounter Method for the study of sequential vibrational energy transfer between gas molecules and hot surfaces; (3) a critique of the exact vibrational state computational algorithmn of Beyer-Swinehart-Stein-Rabinovitch was given; (4) a theoretical illustration of a model for V-T,R vibrational energy transfer restricted by angular momentum conservation was given; and (5) theoretical treatment of a Boltzmann strong collision model has led to generalizations on energy transfer efficiency as a function of both molecule size ambient temperature and hot molecule energy level.

Rabinovitch, B. S.

1985-12-01

187

Solar Energy: Progress and Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses many of the economic and policy questions related to the widespread introduction of solar power, presents recent progress in developing solar technologies and advancing their economic feasibility, and reviews some recommendations that have been made for achieving the early introduction and sustained application of solar

Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

188

Solar Thermal Energy: Design a Solar Hot Water Heater System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has students examine a collector and tank for a solar hot water heater and estimate the amount of energy and money saved by replacing the traditional hot water heater. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Bullwinkel, Matt

2013-01-08

189

Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

Bloomfield, H. S.

1979-01-01

190

Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of; cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

Bloomfield, H. S.

1978-01-01

191

Space solar power - An energy alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

Johnson, R. W.

1978-01-01

192

Low cost solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended, curved sawtooth contoured surface covered with a metallized polymeric reflecting material, reflected solar energy to a movably supported collector that was kept at the concentrated line focus of the reflector primary. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy was obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that directed off-angle energy to the absorber pipe.

Miller, C. G.; Stephans, J. B. (inventors)

1977-01-01

193

Solar electric energy supply at high altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-hydrogen systems were analyzed regarding their usability as energy supply system for high altitude platforms. In a first step for an assessment of solar and photovoltaic resources near-ground spectral transmittances of atmosphere were extended with simplified height correction functions to achieve spectral irradiance descriptions versus atmospheric height up to 25 km. The influence of atmospheric height to different solar cell technologies

Werner Knaupp; Eva Mundschau

2004-01-01

194

Antisoiling Coatings for Solar-Energy Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluorocarbons resist formation of adherent deposits. Promising coating materials reduce soiling of solar photovoltaic modules and possibly solar thermal collectors. Contaminating layers of various degrees of adherence form on surfaces of devices, partially blocking incident solar energy, reducing output power. Loose soil deposits during dry periods but washed off by rain. New coatings help prevent formation of more-adherent, chemically and physically bonded layers rain alone cannot wash away.

Cuddihy, E. F.; Willis, P.

1986-01-01

195

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics  

SciTech Connect

Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

196

Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

197

Mini-Optics Solar Energy Concentrator  

E-print Network

This invention deals with the broad general concept for focussing light. A mini-optics tracking and focussing system is presented for solar power conversion that ranges from an individual's portable system to solar conversion of electrical power that can be used in large scale power plants for environmentally clean energy. It can be rolled up, transported, and attached to existing man-made, or natural structures. It allows the solar energy conversion system to be low in capital cost and inexpensive to install as it can be attached to existing structures since it does not require the construction of a superstructure of its own. This novel system is uniquely distinct and different from other solar tracking and focussing processes allowing it to be more economical and practical. Furthermore, in its capacity as a power producer, it can be utilized with far greater safety, simplicity, economy, and efficiency in the conversion of solar energy.

Mark Davidson; Mario Rabinowitz

2003-09-12

198

High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona  

E-print Network

Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

2008-04-16

199

Flexible v-shaped solar tracking concentrating solar energy collector  

SciTech Connect

The present invention comprises a concentrating solar energy collector of multiple v-shaped troughs formed from complementary ridges of inverted v-shape. If the angles and spacing of the ridges are properly chosen, v-troughs of any desired concentration ratio can be constructed. Additionally, if the reflective material of the ridges is provided to be of a flexible nature at specific places, and the support for the ridges is constructed to provide tension on the ridge structure, slippage at its flexible areas, and laterally shifting capability, the axes of the ridges can be pivoted through a unique flexible shape method of pivoting the ridge structures themselves. When controlled by a solar-sensitive aiming device, this pivoting of the ridges provides the solar tracking of the v-trough axes which is necessary if the v-troughs are to accept all the solar radiation incident on them year-round and concentrate it on the absorbers at their bases. Finally, because of energy losses inherent in the v-shaped design, an embodiment of this collector is described incorporating fluid-conducting means within the ridge structures and in thermal contact with the ridge's side walls. If a cool fluid is circulated through these conducting means, energy lost to the ridge side walls by multiple light reflections and from the warm solar absorber can be recirculated to the absorber, thus substantially increasing the efficiency of this collector.

Citron, J.M.

1981-10-20

200

Site planning for solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bibliographic citations are given for 391 works covering site planning considerations that apply to all solar systems, these being energy conservation, solar access, local laws and site integration. Also included are a subject guide, and a list of applicable periodicals, organizations and publishers. (LEW)

McAvin

1981-01-01

201

Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

1982-01-01

202

Heat-Energy Analysis for Solar Receivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat-energy analysis program (HEAP) solves general heat-transfer problems, with some specific features that are "custom made" for analyzing solar receivers. Can be utilized not only to predict receiver performance under varying solar flux, ambient temperature and local heat-transfer rates but also to detect locations of hotspots and metallurgical difficulties and to predict performance sensitivity of neighboring component parameters.

Lansing, F. L.

1982-01-01

203

Reliability engineering in solar energy. Workshop proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A workshop to reveal the scope of reliability related activities in solar energy conversion projects and in nonsolar segments of industry is described. Two reliability programs, one in heating and cooling and one in photovoltaics, are explicated. General suggestions are presented for the establishment of a unified program for reliability, durability, maintainability, and safety in present and future solar projects.

G. Gross

1980-01-01

204

Reliability engineering in solar energy. Workshop proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A workshop to reveal the scope of reliability related activities in solar energy conversion projects and in nonsolar segments of industry is described. Two reliability programs, one in heating and cooling and one in photovoltaics, are explicated. General suggestions are presented for the establishment of a unified program for reliability, durability, maintainability, and safety in present and future solar projects.

Gross, G.

1980-03-01

205

Polymers in solar energy utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser photoacoustic technique (LPAT) has been verified for performing accelerated life testing of outdoor photooxidation of polymeric materials used in solar energy applications. Samples of the material under test are placed in a chamber with a sensitive microphone, then exposed to chopped laser radiation. The sample absorbs the light and converts it to heat by a nonradiative deexcitation process, thereby reducing pressure fluctuations within the cell. The acoustic signal detected by the microphone is directly proportional to the amount of light absorbed by the specimen. Tests were performed with samples of ethylene/methylacrylate copolymer (EMA) reprecipitated from hot cyclohexane, compressed, and molded into thin (25-50 microns) films. The films were exposed outdoors and sampled by LPAT weekly. The linearity of the light absorbed with respect to the acoustic signal was verified.Correlations were established between the photoacoustic behavior of the materials aged outdoors and the same kinds of samples cooled and heated in a controlled environment reactor. The reactor tests were validated for predicting outdoor exosures up to 55 days.

Liang, R. H.; Coulter, D. R.; Dao, C.; Gupta, A.

1983-01-01

206

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any  

E-print Network

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any Type Of System www.CleanEnergyAuthority.com Install Solar Panels Enter Your Zip Code & Connect To Pre-Screened Solar Panel Installers www.ServiceMagic.com Biomass Pumps Reliable metering for apps from microflow to scale-up & pilot plant www.isco.com The Solar

Lovley, Derek

207

INTERACTION OF THE SOLAR WIND WITH THE NEUTRAL COMPONENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is constructed to represent the interaction between the solar wind and the neutral component of the interstellar gas. It is found that the neutral gas has several important effects on the solar-wind expansion beyond the orbit of the earth and that it should be possible to infer the presence of the neutral gas from observations of the solar

Thomas E. Holzer

1972-01-01

208

Solar energy generation in three dimensions  

E-print Network

We formulate, solve computationally and study experimentally the problem of collecting solar energy in three dimensions. We demonstrate that absorbers and reflectors can be combined in the absence of sun tracking to build ...

Bernardi, Marco

209

Evacuated balloon for solar energy collection  

SciTech Connect

A large cylindrically-shaped balloon-like structure having hemispherical ends with fins utilized in conjunction with airflow thereacross based upon Bernoulli's principle for maneuvering and maintaining stability. The balloon is compartmentalized, contains a uniquely designed structural support system, and contains pumps for evacuating the air therein. The structure may be used for any lifting application. In particular solar-energy is collected through a transparent portion of the structure and reflected from shaped surfaces that direct solar energy on energy converting panels. The electrical energy generated is utilized to operate an evacuation system, while the remainder of the electrical energy is beamed by microwaves to a receiving station on earth.

Bliamptis, E. E.

1985-08-13

210

Luminescent solar concentrators for energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is the prominent renewable source of electricity if cheap methods will be designed for its concentration and\\u000a conversion. The geographical, seasonal and spectral distribution of the terrestrial solar energy are described. The concept\\u000a of non-tracking fluorescent concentrators and the mathematical background for collection and concentration of direct and diffuse\\u000a light are discussed. The single plate, multiple stacks and

Renata Reisfeld; Christian K. Jergensen

1982-01-01

211

Review of solar-energy drying systems II: an overview of solar drying technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy

O. V Ekechukwu; B Norton

1999-01-01

212

Emerging NOAA Surface Solar Radiation for Solar Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar power has been growing at an annual rate of 40% in recent years. By 2025 it could grow to 10% of U.S. power needs. Sunlight is the fuel for solar power generation technologies, and as such one needs to know the quality and future availability of the fuel for accurate analysis of system performance. Sunlight (solar radiation) at the surface has been routinely estimated in real time from measurements of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) operated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). The GOES solar radiation data have been made available in the GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP) suite since January 1996 for the contiguous U.S. every daytime hour at a spatial resolution of ~50 km (GSIP-V1). Since April 2009, solar radiation retrievals have been performed at a higher spatial resolution (~14 km) and cover larger areas (GSIP-V2). The GSIP-V1 data have recently been screened for quality, adjusted for changes in calibration, and parameters useful for the solar energy sector have been derived for the period of 1999-2009. In this presentation, we describe the quality control process and various adjustments applied, and provide examples of selected solar energy parameters (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.) and their evaluation. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), one of the flagship instruments of NOAA's new geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. The ABI algorithm, that is quite different from the one applied in GSIP-V1 and V2, uses atmospheric and surface data retrieved from multiple narrow bands using algorithms dedicated to the retrieval of these data. The algorithm is currently run with proxy data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the EOS satellites Terra and Aqua and the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. The ABI algorithm will be explained as well as examples will be shown.

Kondratovich, V.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.

2012-12-01

213

Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers  

E-print Network

Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers SEPTEMBER 2010 Solar Energy: www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx PROCURING SOLAR ENERGY: A GUIDE FOR FEDERAL FACILITY DECISION MAKERS #12;September 2010 3 Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers Blaise

214

The Case for the Large Scale Development of Solar Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of solar energy development. Discusses global effects (temperature, particle and other pollution) of burning fossil fuels. Provides energy balance equations for solar energy distribution and discusses flat plate collectors, solar cells, photochemical and photobiological conversion of solar energy, heat pumps. (CS)

O'Reilly, S. A.

1977-01-01

215

Solar energy to meet the nation's energy needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar energy, being a non-depleting clean source of energy, is shown to be capable of providing energy in all the forms in which it is used today. It can be used to generate electricity, for heating and cooling buildings, and for producing clean renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuel. There is little question of the technical feasibility for utilizing solar energy. The chief problem is rapidly providing innovative solutions that are economically competititive with other systems.

Rom, F. E.; Thomas, R. L.

1973-01-01

216

Solar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does solar energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to solar energy. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and active and passive methods of solar energy. Information is also presented about limitations, geographical considerations of solar power in the United States, and current uses of solar energy around the world. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of solar energy. Articles and information about a solar power plant in the Mohave Desert, the use of solar energy in Iowa, and statistics about solar energy are provided in a sidebar.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

217

Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition  

SciTech Connect

A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-03-01

218

Cathedral Square, Burlington, Vermont: solar-energy-system performance evaluation, January 1982 through April 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cathedral Square solar site is a 10-story multi-unit apartment building in Vermont whose active solar energy system is designed to supply 51% of the hot water load. The system consists of 1798 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 2699 gallon water tank, and two auxiliary natural gas boilers that supply hot water to immersed heat exchanger in the

1982-01-01

219

Solar-processed metals as clean energy carriers and water-splitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-step solar thermochemical cycles and processes for the production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, and synthesis gas are considered. The first step is based on the thermal, electrothermal, or carbothermal reduction of metal oxides, producing metals, metal nitrides, metal carbides, or lower-valence metal oxides. These are hightemperature highly endothermic reactions that can be driven by concentrated solar energy, reducing the consumption of

A. Steinfeld; P. Kuhn; A. Reller; R. Palumbo; Y. Tamaura

1998-01-01

220

Onsite solar energy systems - Economics and system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site solar energy systems are discussed with reference to scale considerations, costs and ownership, costs of competing energy, risk, and net costs to society. A method for evaluating the quantitative worth of solar energy is presented, and attention is given to the design of solar equipment and to basic issues in solar design.

H. C. Kelly

1979-01-01

221

New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV\\/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature

Takumi Takashima; Tadayoshi Tanaka; Takuya Doi; Junji Kamoshida; Tatsuo Tani; Takashi Horigome

1994-01-01

222

Engineer's guide to solar energy. [Book with glossary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive compilation of practical solar energy information that can serve as a learning aid, a training manual, a working tool, or a reference guide is presented. The guide offers information on the following subjects: (1) an overview of the six basic solar technologies, (solar heating and cooling, photovoltaics, wind energy conversion, solar thermal electric conversion, ocean thermal energy conversion,

Y. Howell; J. A. Bereny

1979-01-01

223

Microbial Electrosynthesis Turns Solar Energy into Chemicals May 31, 2010  

E-print Network

Microbial Electrosynthesis Turns Solar Energy into Chemicals May 31, 2010 A new way to make electrosynthesis (ME) process is carbon neutral and uses solar energy more efficiently than plants. In fact, but the technology is primarily designed to be used with solar panels as a source of clean, renewable solar energy

Lovley, Derek

224

Saudi Aramco Gas Operations Energy Efficiency Program  

E-print Network

Saudi Aramco Gas Operations (GO) created energy efficiency strategies for its 5-year business plan (2011-2015), supported by a unique energy efficiency program, to reduce GO energy intensity by 26% by 2015. The program generated an energy savings...

Al-Dossary, F. S.

2012-01-01

225

Solar gas nitriding of Ti6Al4V alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this work was to study the activating effect of concentrated solar energy (CSE) on the high-temperature nitriding of Ti6Al4V alloy. Solar nitriding was conducted using a low-cost solar installation based on a Fresnel lens with a maximum density power of 250 W/cm2 at its focus. Prior to the solar nitriding study, Ti6Al4V was submitted to high-temperature thermochemical treatments using an electrical furnace in a conventional manner. A comparison between the two processes considering the effect of nitriding time and temperature on the hardness, thickness and composition of the nitrided layer is presented. Characterisation of the treated samples by optical and SEM microscopy, microhardness measurements and XRD analysis reveals an important reduction in the nitriding time when concentrated solar energy is used versus the traditional method. The maximum hardness of the solar nitrided samples (2100 HV) was achieved after treatment at 1200 °C for 15 min. This value is similar to that obtained when samples were heated at the same temperature in the electrical furnace for 8 h.

Rodriguez, Gloria P.; Herranz, Gemma; Romero, Ana

2013-10-01

226

Port of Galveston Solar Energy Project  

SciTech Connect

This study on the performance characteristics of existing solar technologies in a maritime environment was funded by an award given to The Port of Galveston (POG) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The study includes research performed by The Center for Advanced Materials at the University of Houston (UH). The UH researchers examined how solar cell efficiencies and life spans can be improved by examining the performance of a variety of antireflective (AR) coatings mounted on the top of one of the POG’s Cruise Terminals. Supplemental supporting research was performed at the UH laboratories. An educational Kiosk was constructed with a 55” display screen providing information about solar energy, the research work UH performed at POG and real time data from the solar panels located on the roof of the Cruise Terminal. The Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) managed the project.

Falcioni, Diane [Project Director, Port of Galveston; Cuclis, Alex [Project Manager, Houston Advanced Research Center; Freundlich, Alex [Principal Investigator, University of Houston

2014-03-31

227

Radiation energy receiver for laser and solar propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of remotely heating a rocket propellant with a high intensity radiant energy flux is especially attractive due to its high specific impulse and large payload mass capabilities. In this paper, a radiation receiver-thruster which is especially suited to the particular thermodynamic and spectral characteristics of highly concentrated solar energy is proposed. In this receiver, radiant energy is volumetrically absorbed within a hydrogen gas seeded with alkali metal vapors. The alkali atoms and molecules absorb the radiant flux and, subsequently, transfer their internal excitation to hydrogen molecules through collisional quenching. It is shown that such a radiation receiver would outperform a blackbody cavity type receiver in both efficiency and maximum operating temperatures. A solar rocket equipped with such a receiver-thruster would deliver thrusts of several hundred newtons at a specific impulse of 1000 seconds.

Rault, D. F. G.; Hertzberg, A.

1983-01-01

228

Greenhouse-gas emissions from solar electric- and nuclear power: A life-cycle study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar- and nuclear-electricity-generation technologies often are deemed “carbon-free” because their operation does not generate any carbon dioxide. However, this is not so when considering their entire lifecycle of energy production; carbon dioxide and other gases are emitted during the extraction, processing, and disposal of associated materials. We determined the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, namely, CO2, CH4, N2O, and chlorofluorocarbons due

Vasilis M. Fthenakis; Hyung Chul Kim

2007-01-01

229

Solar versus nuclear: choosing energy futures  

SciTech Connect

The prospects for replacing the diminishing supplies of fossil fuels with either solar or nuclear energy as the primary future energy source are examined. The comparative advantages and viability of each system are examined from technical, economic, political, and insitutional standpoints and using Sweden for illustration. The findings indicate that there are many factors in the present supply system that would favor nuclear development, but major changes in insitutional policy and organization are proposed to make solar energy an entirely feasible future option. A long-term commitment to either option is advised against, however, in favor of a flexible energy policy. Proposals are made for transitional solutions to reduce fossil fuels dependence during the 1980s while preserving both solar and nuclear options for the future. Such changes will require a strong element of central planning at the same time that renewable alternatives are locally organized. 205 references, 36 figures, 34 tables.

Loennroth, M.; Johansson, T.B.; Steen, P.

1980-01-01

230

Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

THE noble-gas elemental and isotopic composition in the Earth is significantly different from that of the present atmosphere, and provides an important clue to the origin and history of the Earth and its atmosphere. Possible candidates for the noble-gas composition of the primordial Earth include a solar-like component, a planetary-like component (as observed in primitive meteorites) and a component similar in composition to the present atmosphere. In an attempt to identify the contributions of such components, we have measured isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea1-3. We find a systematic enrichment in 20Ne and 21Ne relative to 22Ne, compared with atmospheric neon. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in our samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic and nucleogenic components. These data suggest that the noble-gas isotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solar-like component. We infer that this component was acquired during the formation of the Earth.

Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.

1991-01-01

231

Mathematics and Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module for use with junior high school students offers some basic career awareness in the energy field while covering some basic principles and aspects of energy use, such as vocabulary, basic electricity, energy efficiency, and home utility meter reading. Math problems are offered in volume and surface area, energy efficiency,…

Humer, Barbara

232

Iron disulfide for solar energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrite (Eg = 0.95 eV) is being developed as a solar energy material due to its environmental compatibility and its very high light absorption coefficient. A compilation of material, electronic and interfacial chemical properties is presented, which is considered relevant for quantum energy conversion. In spite of intricate problems existing within material chemistry, high quantum efficiencies for photocurrent generation (Eta

A ENNAOUI; S FIECHTER; C PETTENKOFER; N ALONSOVANTE; K BUKER; M BRONOLD; C HOPFNER; H TRIBUTSCH

1993-01-01

233

Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

234

Using Solar Energy to Desalinate Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Material presented is adapted from Desalination with Solar Energy, a paper presented before the International Symposium on Energy Sources and Development, held in Spain in 1977. Desalination systems energized by the sun, conditions governing their efficiency, and their costs are discussed. (HM)

Tabor, Harry Z.

1978-01-01

235

Solar versus nuclear: choosing energy futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospects for replacing the diminishing supplies of fossil fuels with either solar or nuclear energy as the primary future energy source are examined. The comparative advantages and viability of each system are examined from technical, economic, political, and insitutional standpoints and using Sweden for illustration. The findings indicate that there are many factors in the present supply system that

M. Loennroth; T. B. Johansson; P. Steen

1980-01-01

236

SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

SciTech Connect

Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities; and at LBL projects are in progress which span that range of activities. To assess various solar applications it is important to quantify the solar resource. In one project, LBL is cooperating with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in the implementation and operation of a solar radiation data collection network in northern California. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure the solar and circumsolar (around the sun) radiation. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs which use focusing collectors (mirrors or lenses) to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts are being made to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology. DOE's San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) has been given technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. The installation of a solar hot water and space heating system on an LBL building established model techniques and procedures as part of the DOE Facilities Solar Demonstration Program. Technical support is also provided for SAN in a DOE small scale technology pilot program in which grants are awarded to individuals and organizations to develop and demonstrate solar technologies appropriate to small scale use. In the near future it is expected that research will exert a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. An absorption air conditioner is being developed that is air cooled yet suitable for use with temperatures available from flat plate collectors. With inexpensive but sophisticated micro-electronics to control their operation, the performance of many-component solar heating and cooling systems may be improved, and work is under way to develop such a controller and to evaluate commercially available units. Research is continuing on 'passive' approaches to solar heating and cooling where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed in a collaborative project with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. These models will be incorporated into public domain building energy analysis computer programs to be used in systems studies and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, then provide 'coolness' to the building. The laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the 'shape-memory' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources such as solar heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central receiver system or a parabolic dish. The conversion of the concentrated sunlight to thermal energy would be accomplished by the absorption of the light by a dispersion of very small particles suspended in a gas. Work continued this year on chemical storage processes (such as 2SO

Authors, Various

1980-10-01

237

External Photoevaporation of the Solar Nebula: Jupiter's Noble Gas Enrichments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model explaining the elemental enrichments in Jupiter's atmosphere, particularly the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe. While He, Ne, and O are depleted, seven other elements show similar enrichments (~3 times solar, relative to H). Being volatile, Ar is difficult to fractionate from H2. We argue that external photoevaporation by far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby massive stars removed H2, He, and Ne from the solar nebula, but Ar and other species were retained because photoevaporation occurred at large heliocentric distances where temperatures were cold enough (lsim 30 K) to trap them in amorphous water ice. As the solar nebula lost H, it became relatively and uniformly enriched in other species. Our model improves on the similar model of Guillot & Hueso. We recognize that cold temperatures alone do not trap volatiles; continuous water vapor production is also necessary. We demonstrate that FUV fluxes that photoevaporated the disk generated sufficient water vapor in regions <~ 30 K to trap gas-phase species in amorphous water ice in solar proportions. We find more efficient chemical fractionation in the outer disk: whereas the model of Guillot & Hueso predicts a factor of three enrichment when only <2% of the disk mass remains, we find the same enrichments when 30% of the disk mass remains. Finally, we predict the presence of ~0.1 M ? of water vapor in the outer solar nebula and protoplanetary disks in H II regions.

Monga, Nikhil; Desch, Steven

2015-01-01

238

Zero energy homes: Combining energy efficiency and solar energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

In a typical Florida house, air-conditioning accounts for about 35% of all the electricity the home uses. As the largest single source of energy consumption in Florida, a home's air-conditioning load represents the biggest energy challenge facing Florida residents. The Florida Solar Energy Center designed a project to meet this challenge. Two homes were built with the same floor plan on near-by lots. The difference was that one (the control home) conformed to local residential building practices, and the other (the Zero Energy home) was designed with energy efficiency in mind and a solar technology system on the roof. The homes were then monitored carefully for energy use. The projects designers were looked to answer two questions: (1) could a home in a climate such as central Florida be engineered and built so efficiently that a relatively small PV system would serve the majority of its cooling needs--and even some of its daytime electrical needs; and (2) would that home be as comfortable and appealing as the conventional model built alongside it? The answer was yes, even though it was conducted in the summer of 1998--one of the hottest summers on record in Florida.

NREL

2000-03-09

239

Solar America: A Solar Energy Tour of the United States (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This CDROM contains nearly 500 photos and captions of solar energy technologies at work throughout the United States. Every state of the union is represented, as well as Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia, and U.S. outposts in Antarctica. The technologies represented are photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar hot water, and concentrating solar power. The CD promotes solar energy as a wise energy choice for America's present and future.

Not Available

2003-06-01

240

Solar America: A Solar Energy Tour of the United States (CD-ROM)  

SciTech Connect

This CDROM contains nearly 500 photos and captions of solar energy technologies at work throughout the United States. Every state of the union is represented, as well as Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia, and U.S. outposts in Antarctica. The technologies represented are photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar hot water, and concentrating solar power. The CD promotes solar energy as a wise energy choice for America's present and future.

Not Available

2001-12-01

241

Computation of the solar energy captured by different solar tracking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many ways to maximize solar energy input to solar collectors. A theoretical study was carried out for different solar tracking systems. This study was based on calculations of solar radiation energy collected by different systems using measured global and diffuse radiation on a horizontal surface and measure beam radiation. The layouts of these systems are a fixed system

N. H. Helwa; A. B. G. Bahgat; A. M. R. El Shafee; E. T. El Shenawy

2000-01-01

242

Low energy synthesis gas systems - New technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas steam reforming today covers more than 70% of synthesis gas production. The gas specific consumption has been largely improved during the last thirty years. It has now reached 32 GJ\\/metric ton of NHâ on HHV, from 45 in the sixties. Ammonia is still the major user of synthesis gas. The successive improvements are: thermal energy recovery from the

V. Julemont; J. Ribesse

1988-01-01

243

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-01-01

244

Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

245

Manufacture of silicon carbide using solar energy  

DOEpatents

A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using solar energy. The method is efficient and avoids the need for use of electrical energy to heat the reactants. Finely divided silica and carbon are admixed and placed in a solar-heated reaction chamber for a time sufficient to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

1992-01-01

246

Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

Loferski, J. J.

1976-01-01

247

Gas-rich meteorites: Probes for particle environment and dynamical processes in the inner solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery in the early sixties of precompaction solar wind irradiation records in the gas-rich meteorites opened up the possibility of studying the solar activity at different epochs in the distant past. Subsequent studies in several meteorites have led to the discovery of the precompaction records of irradiation of constituent grains by solar wind, solar flare and galactic cosmic ray

J. N. Goswami; D. Lal; L. L. Wilkening

1984-01-01

248

Solar energy mapping by using cloud images received from GMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy maps that indicate the wide-ranging spatial distribution of solar irradiation are required by the researchers of the solar power systems. However, the irradiation measurement networks at ground level are not enough to obtain reliable information of the solar energy distribution in the world. On the other hand, geostationary meteorological satellites (GMS) have provided the images of cloud fields

Kenji Otani; Tadashi Saitoh; I. Tsuda; K. Kurokawa

1994-01-01

249

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.

250

Sestar Technologies, LLC Revolutionar y Solar Energy Products  

E-print Network

, $100 million for Solar Fabrics and $100 million for High Efficiency Transparent Electrodes. Strategy grass, adopt solar energy, or both. California offers a plan to add solar power to one million homesSestar Technologies, LLC Revolutionar y Solar Energy Products Sestar Technologies, LLC (SESTAR

Jawitz, James W.

251

Solar Energy Employment and Requirements, 1978-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on data collected from a mailed survey of 2800 employers engaged in solar energy activities, a study identified the characteristics of establishments engaged in solar work and the number and occupational distribution of persons working in solar energy activities in 1978, and projected solar labor requirements through 1983. The scope of the…

Levy, Girard W.; Field, Jennifer

252

Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in

R. H. Barbieri; D. S. Pivirotto

1978-01-01

253

Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-05-01

254

Modulation of solar flare particles and track density profiles in gas-rich meteorite grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution is presented to the problem concerning the time-averaged solar flare particle flux as a function of kinetic energy and distance from the sun for a given particle injection spectrum at the sun within the framework of standard diffusion-convection-adiabatic deceleration theory with the diffusion coefficient independent of distance from the sun. Results of the calculations which give best agreement with observations at 1 AU are presented and discussed, with particular reference to their implications for gas-rich meteorites. Normalization at the orbit of earth is achieved via observed track density versus depth profiles in lunar vug crystals. It is shown that if gas-rich meteorite grains were irradiated in the asteroid belt and if source and modulation parameters have changed little since irradiation, the track density should be 'harder' than the lunar vug profile by about 0.2-0.3 in the index. Quantitative estimation of solar flare particle exposure ages is discussed.

Lee, M. A.

1976-01-01

255

Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility  

SciTech Connect

SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR DEVICE FABRICATION LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT The space allocated for this laboratory was �¢����shell space�¢��� that required an upfit in order to accommodate nano-fabrication equipment in a quasi-clean room environment. This construction project (cost $279,736) met the non-federal cost share requirement of $250,000 for this award. The central element of the fabrication laboratory is a new $400,000+ stand-alone system, funded by other sources, for fabricating and characterizing photovoltaic devices, in a state-of-the-art nanofabrication environment. This congressionally directed project also included the purchase of an energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) detector for a pre-existing transmission electron microscope (TEM). This detector allows elemental analysis and elemental mapping of materials used to fabricate solar energy devices which is a key priority for our research center. TASK 2: SOLAR ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT (INSTRUMENTATION) This laboratory provides access to modern spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation for characterizing devices, materials and components on time scales ranging from femtoseconds to seconds and for elucidating mechanisms. The goals of this congressionally directed project included the purchase and installation of spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation that would substantially and meaningfully enhance the capabilities of this laboratory. Some changes were made to the list of equipment proposed in the original budget. These changes did not represent a change in scope, approach or aims of this project. All of the capabilities and experiments represented in the original budget were maintained. The outcome of this Congressionally Directed Project has been the development of world-class fabrication and spectroscopy user facilities for solar fuels research at UNC-CH. This award has provided a significant augmentation of our pre-existing instrumentation capabilities which were funded by earlier UNC SERC projects, including the Energy Frontier

Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

2011-11-11

256

Solar Energy Directory: A Directory of Domestic and International Firms Involved in Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory is intended to provide a link between suppliers of solar energy technology and information and potential users of these products. Included are over 1400 national and international entries. These listings include architects, associations, education sources, wind power technology and information sources, solar research organizations,…

Centerline Co., Phoenix, AZ.

257

A management strategy for solar panel — battery — super capacitor hybrid energy system in solar car  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of solar energy - battery - super-capacitor hybrid energy storage system in solar electric vehicles. The key point is the proposed energy management control algorithm. The entire system consists of a solar panel, a boost converter, a battery, a super capacitor, a bi-directional DC\\/DC converter, and a brushless DC motor. This paper gives the details

Bin Wu; Fang Zhuo; Fei Long; Weiwei Gu; Yang Qing; YanQin Liu

2011-01-01

258

Solar box cookers and geothermal energy  

SciTech Connect

A major amount of world-wide forest depletion is caused by harvesting cooking wood. Solar box cookers can help to ameliorate this situation in that they use solar energy instead of wood to cook food. Usable year-round in the tropics and for 6 to 8 months of the year in most sunny areas of the world, the cookers can cook almost anything if there is 15 minutes of sunshine every hour. Developed in 1976 solar box cookers represent a major advance over early solar cookers. Solar box cookers are about the size of an ice chest, easily constructed by the users themselves and inexpensive. The cookers are made of cardboard or wood, and aluminum foil. Each box is topped with a sheet of glass above which an adjustable reflective lid is positioned to angle in sunlight. The food cooks in covered, dark-colored pans. One cooker can cook 10-15 pounds of food in three to five hours. Fruits, vegetables, meats, and any baked goods can be prepared, and water and milk pasteurized in them. The coking food does not have to be stirred and will not burn. The developer is also looking for ways the geothermal community could interface with solar box cookers.

Not Available

1988-12-01

259

Energy release in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of energy release in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free energy storage, and the fragmentation of energy release in time and space.

Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.

1994-01-01

260

Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plansgy  

E-print Network

Field LIPA Substation South Array Field LIPA Substation #12;#12;#12;BNL is developing a solar energy be dispatched when needed Grid Integration · Grid is not designed for two-way power flowpower flow · Distributed in the Northeast are not readily availableare not readily available · LISF data will help system designers 11 #12

Homes, Christopher C.

261

Solar Energy Experiment for Beginning Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment illustrating how such chemical concepts as light absorption, thermodynamics, and solid-state photovoltaics can be incorporated into solar energy education. Completed in a three-hour period, the experiment requires about two hours for data collections with the remaining hour devoted to calculations and comparison of results.…

Davis, Clyde E.

1983-01-01

262

The upper limit to solar energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petela carried out research to determine the maximum ideal theoretical work output obtainable from BR independent of any conversion device. However, omnicolor conversion is considered by many to be the ideal theoretical process for solar energy conversion. Petela's result for blackbody radiation (BR) exergy is often thought to be of little importance because it appears to neglect fundamental theoretical issues

Sean E. Wright; David S. Scott; James B. Haddow; Marc A. Rosen

2000-01-01

263

Integrated solar reforming for thermochemical energy transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents a design study of two reforming processes as applied to the concept of solar thermochemical energy transport. Conceptual designs were carried out for steam-methane and CO2-methane reforming plants. A solar central receiver reformer was designed as an integrated reactor with the chemical reaction tubes placed inside the receiver cavity. The two plant designs were compared for their energy efficiency and capital cost. The CO2 reforming plant design results in higher energy efficiency but requires a catalyst which is still in an experimental stage of development. A third design was performed as a modification of the steam reforming plant utilizing a Direct Contact system, in which the process steam is generated by utilizing the heat of condensation. This system resulted in the highest energy efficiency. A comparison of the capital cost of these three plant designs shows them to be equivalent within the estimation accuracy of 25 percent.

Rozenman, T.

1987-12-01

264

Thermodynamic and design considerations of organic Rankine cycles in combined application with a solar thermal gas turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies are considered to provide a significant contribution for the electric power production in the future. Different kinds of technologies are presently in operation or under development, e.g. parabolic troughs, central receivers, solar dish systems and Fresnel reflectors. This paper takes the focus on central receiver technologies, where the solar radiation is concentrated by a field of heliostats in a receiver on the top of a tall tower. To get this CSP technology ready for the future, the system costs have to reduce significantly. The main cost driver in such kind of CSP technologies are the huge amount of heliostats. To reduce the amount of heliostats, and so the investment costs, the efficiency of the energy conversion cycle becomes an important issue. An increase in the cycle efficiency results in a decrease of the solar heliostat field and thus, in a significant cost reduction. The paper presents the results of a thermodynamic model of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for combined cycle application together with a solar thermal gas turbine. The gas turbine cycle is modeled with an additional intercooler and recuperator and is based on a typical industrial gas turbine in the 2 MW class. The gas turbine has a two stage radial compressor and a three stage axial turbine. The compressed air is preheated within a solar receiver to 950°C before entering the combustor. A hybrid operation of the gas turbine is considered. In order to achieve a further increase of the overall efficiency, the combined operation of the gas turbine and an Organic Rankine Cycle is considered. Therefore an ORC has been set up, which is thermally connected to the gas turbine cycle at two positions. The ORC can be coupled to the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle at the intercooler and after the recuperator. Thus, waste heat from different cycle positions can be transferred to the ORC for additional production of electricity. Within this investigation different working fluids and ORC conditions have been analyzed in order to evaluate the best configuration. The investigations have been performed by application of improved thermodynamic and process analysis tools, which consider the real gas behavior of the analyzed fluids. The results show that by combined operation of the solar thermal gas turbine and the ORC, the combined cycle efficiency is approximately 4%-points higher than in the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle.

Braun, R.; Kusterer, K.; Sugimoto, T.; Tanimura, K.; Bohn, D.

2013-12-01

265

Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context  

SciTech Connect

The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

Hawkins, D.

1980-04-01

266

Optimization of the solar energy collection in tracking and non-tracking photovoltaic solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical analysis is made of the conditions of collection of solar radiation in solar tracking system without concentration, and in ooo-trackiug system with standard and bifacial photovoltaic solar panel. For the experiments with solar tracking, an original Sun tracker was developed. The tracking effect calculated and measured shows an increase in energy collection around 30 - 40 %a;

P. Yu. Vorobiev; J. Gonzalez-Hernandez; Yuri V. Vorobiev

2004-01-01

267

* Corresponding author. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 58 (1999) 209}218  

E-print Network

* Corresponding author. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 58 (1999) 209}218 A highly e$cient and stable CdTe/CdS thin "lm solar cell N. Romeo, A. Bosio, R. Tedeschi*, A. Romeo, V. Canevari Dipartimento$cient and stable CdTe/CdS thin "lm solar cells. Our cells are prepared in three subsequent phases. Firstly, we

Romeo, Alessandro

268

Thermal performance of the ARATEX Services, Inc. solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Business Machines Corporation is contributing to the National Solar Data Program of the Department of Energy by monitoring, evaluating, and reporting the performance of designated solar-energy systems. The ARATEX Services, Inc. solar-energy system for preheating process water in an industrial laundry in Fresno, CA, and its modes of operation are briefly described, and a performance evaluation of the

1978-01-01

269

The solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling and magnetospheric disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere is examined and the influence of this coupling on magnetospheric disturbances is discussed. Following a review of the components of the total energy production rate of the magnetosphere and progress in the study of solar wind-magnetosphere correlations, the derivation of the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function, which has been found to

S.-I. Akasofu

1980-01-01

270

The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission  

E-print Network

The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission R. P. fla B. Dennis, G mission is to investigate the physics of particle acceleration and energy release in solar flares, through-ray/gamma-ray spectroscopy 1. INTRODUCTION The primary scientific objective of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar

California at Berkeley, University of

271

Short-Term Solar Energy Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Short-Term Solar Energy Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Networks Stefan Achleitner, Tao Liu an advantage for output power prediction. Solar Energy Prediction System Our prediction model is based variability of more then 100 kW per minute. For practical usage of solar energy, predicting times of high

Cerpa, Alberto E.

272

Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy  

E-print Network

Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy Thursday 22nd March prospects for inorganic thin film photovoltaic solar cells for large scale energy generation 2:55 Dr Emyr:50 Professor James Durrant (Imperial College London, England) Photochemical approaches to solar energy

Martin, Ralph R.

273

Solar Energy Status and Perspectives Peter Ahm, Director  

E-print Network

Solar Energy ­ Status and Perspectives Peter Ahm, Director PA Energy A/S (Ltd.) Snovdrupvej 16, DK-8340 Malling Phone: +45 86 93 33 33; Fax: +45 86 93 36 05; e-mail: ahm@paenergy.dk Abstract Solar energy in terms of thermal Solar Hot Water systems and electricity producing Photovoltaics contribute

274

Solar energy for agriculture: review of research. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews research underway on solar energy use in various agricultural applications: grain drying, heating and cooling of greenhouses and rural residences, heating livestock shelters, drying crops other than grain, food processing, and irrigation. Solar energy systems for agriculture are in an early stage of development; this study makes an exploratory economic assessment of current and prospective solar energy

W. K. Trotter; W. G. Jr. Heid; R. G. McElroy

1979-01-01

275

Assessment of solar and wind energy resources in Ethiopia. I. Solar energy  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how data from a variety of sources are merged to present new countrywide maps of the solar energy distribution over Ethiopia. The spatial coverage of stations with radiation data was found to be unsatisfactory for the purpose of a countrywide solar energy assessment exercise. Therefore, radiation had to be predicted from sunshine hours by employing empirical models. Using data from seven stations in Ethiopia, linear and quadratic correlation relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and sunshine hours per day have been developed. These regional models show a distinct improvement over previously employed countrywide models. To produce a national solar-energy distribution profile, a spatial extension of the radiation/sunshine relationships had to be carried out. To do this, the intercepts(a) and slopes(b) of each of the seven linear regression equations and another six from previous studies, completed in neighbouring Sudan, Kenya and Yemen, were used to interpolate the corresponding values to areas between them. Subsequent to these procedures, 142 stations providing only sunshine data were assigned their `appropriate` a and b values to estimate the amount of solar radiation received, which was then used to produce annual and monthly solar radiation distribution maps for Ethiopia. The results show that in all regions solar energy is an abundant resource. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Drake, F.; Mulugetta, Y. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

1996-09-01

276

Quasi-energy-independent solar neutrino transitions  

E-print Network

Current solar, atmospheric, and reactor neutrino data still allow oscillation scenarios where the squared mass differences are all close to 10^-3 eV^2, rather than being hierarchically separated. For solar neutrinos, this situation (realized in the upper part of the so-called large-mixing angle solution) implies adiabatic transitions which depend weakly on the neutrino energy and on the matter density, as well as on the ``atmospheric'' squared mass difference. In such a regime of ``quasi-energy-independent'' (QEI) transitions, intermediate between the more familiar ``Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein'' (MSW) and energy-independent (EI) regimes, we first perform analytical calculations of the solar nu_e survival probability at first order in the matter density, beyond the usual hierarchical approximations. We then provide accurate, generalized expressions for the solar neutrino mixing angles in matter, which reduce to those valid in the MSW, QEI and EI regimes in appropriate limits. Finally, a representative QEI scenario is discussed in some detail.

G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Palazzo

2002-02-06

277

Renewable and Solar Energy Technologies: Energy and Environmental Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical need exists to investigate various renewable and solar energy technologies and examine the energy and environmental\\u000a issues associated with these various technologies. The various renewable energy technologies will not be able to replace all\\u000a current 102 quads (quad = 1015 BTU) of U.S. energy consumption (USCB 2007). A gross estimate of land and water resources is needed, as

David Pimentel

278

Harnessing surface plasmons for solar energy conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA research on the feasibility of solar-energy conversion using surface plasmons is reviewed, with a focus on inelastic-tunnel-diode techniques for power extraction. The need for more efficient solar converters for planned space missions is indicated, and it is shown that a device with 50-percent efficiency could cost up to 40 times as much per sq cm as current Si cells and still be competitive. The parallel-processing approach using broadband carriers and tunable diodes is explained, and the physics of surface plasmons on metal surfaces is outlined. Technical problems being addressed include phase-matching sunlight to surface plasmons, minimizing ohmic losses and reradiation in energy transport, coupling into the tunnels by mode conversion, and gaining an understanding of the tunnel-diode energy-conversion process. Diagrams illustrating the design concepts are provided.

Anderson, L. M.

1983-01-01

279

Relaxation and Transport of ENAs produced in Interaction between the Interstellar Gas and Solar Wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate parameters of the momentum-energy relaxation and transport of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) in the local interstellar medium have been determined. To evaluate the rates of collision energy losses and to describe the ENA propagation in the interstellar gas, the angular and energy dependent cross sections have been computed using ab initio interaction potentials and quantum mechanical treatment of collision processes. Detailed analysis has been carried out for nascent keV hydrogen and helium ENAs, originating from the stellar/solar wind charge exchange processes, as they interact with the thermal interstellar gas and plasma. With the computed collision parameters, the momentum-energy transfer and energy relaxation rates of fast neutral H, He, and O atoms have been calculated for the local interstellar medium, consisting of both warm dense interstellar clouds and hot dilute plasma. Key parameters of He and H ENAs in the interstellar medium, such as energy and spatial distributions of the steady state ENA fluxes, averaged thermalization times and characteristic thermalization lengths, the reflection and transmission coefficients for ENAs interacting with the interstellar gas, have been determined through Monte Carlo simulations with accurate angular and energy dependent collision cross sections.

Kharchenko, V. A.; Lewkow, N.

2013-12-01

280

Solar energy conversion using surface plasmons for broadband energy transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new strategy for efficient solar energy conversion based on parallel processing with surface plasmons is introduced. The approach is unique in identifying: (1) a broadband carrier with suitable range for energy transport, and (2) a technique to extract more energy from the more energetic photons, without sequential losses or unique materials for each frequency band. The aim is to overcome the fundamental losses associated with the broad solar spectrum and to achieve a higher level of spectrum splitting than has been possible in semiconductor systems.

Anderson, L. M.

1982-01-01

281

Affordable Solar Energy Solar Powder is a solar-energy company that has developed an innovative technology that will set a new  

E-print Network

and distribute high-efficiency, high yield, low cost solar panels. The company is making green energy more and selenium. CIGS was chosen because of its high cell efficiency, high energy yield, and now with Solar Powder its balance sheet to offer bankable solar panels for use in their solar-power generating parks

Jawitz, James W.

282

Performance Analysis of Two-Stage Thermal Energy Storage System of Solar Power Tower Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the principles of mass, energy conservation and state equation for ideal gas, operation performance of two-stage thermal energy storage system of the first 1MW solar tower power plant in China was calculated and analyzed using numerical simulation method. The results indicated that the pressure of nitrogen in oil tanks slightly changes as a function of temperature and volume

Jiayan Zhuang; Fengwu Bai; Ershu Xu

2011-01-01

283

Engineered biomimicry for harvesting solar energy: a bird's eye view  

Microsoft Academic Search

All three methodologies of engineered biomimicry – bioinspiration, biomimetics, and bioreplication – are represented in current research on harvesting solar energy. Both processes and porous surfaces inspired by plants and certain marine animals, respectively, are being investigated for solar cells. Whereas dye-sensitized solar cells deploy artificial photosynthesis, bioinspired nanostructuring of materials in solar cells improves performance. Biomimetically textured coatings for

Raúl J. Martín-Palma; Akhlesh Lakhtakia

2012-01-01

284

Energy 101: Solar Photovoltaic (PV)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, from the US Department of Energy, shows the basics of how a PV panel converts light radiated from the sun into usable power, whether on the electric grid or off, and without emissions or the use of fossil fuels.

Department of Energy

285

Pulsed Gas Feeding for Stoichiometric Operation of a Gas-Solid Vortex Flow Solar Chemical Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc and synthesis gas ~syngas!, besides being important mate- rial commodities, are attractive as energy carriers. Zinc finds ap- plications in Zn\\/air fuel cells and batteries, and it can also be reacted with water to form hydrogen that can be further processed for heat and electricity. Syngas can be used to fuel high-efficient gas turbines and is also the building

Stefan Kra?upl; Aldo Steinfeld

2001-01-01

286

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Investigating Renewable Energy Data from Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Panels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using renewable sources of energy benefits the environment and contributes to more sustainable energy use. The burning of fossil fuels generates air pollution and increased CO2 in the atmosphere. CO2 is the major greenhouse gas warming our planet. Using more renewable sources of energy not only reduces pollution, but also conserves the current limited supply of fossil fuels. This chapter looks at how much solar energy is generated using photovoltaic panels on rooftops or exposed ground locations at installations around the U.S. The focus is on three different websites that monitor and report solar energy production from panels at a few hundred locations.

287

Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

Anderson, L. M. (inventor)

1984-01-01

288

Solar Energy Forecast System Development and Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecast systems for predicting real-time solar energy generation are being developed along similar lines to those of more established wind forecast systems, but the challenges and constraints are different. Clouds and aerosols play a large role, and for tilted photovoltaic panels and solar concentrating plants, the direct beam irradiance, which typically has much larger forecast errors than global horizontal irradiance, must be utilized. At MDA Information Systems, we are developing a forecast system based on first principles, with the well-validated REST2 clear sky model (Gueymard, 2008) at its backbone. In tuning the model and addressing aerosol scattering and surface albedo, etc., we relied upon the wealth of public data sources including AERONET (aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths), Suominet (GPS integrated water vapor), NREL MIDC solar monitoring stations, SURFRAD (includes upwelling shortwave), and MODIS (albedo in different wavelength bands), among others. The forecast itself utilizes a blend of NWP model output, which must be brought down to finer time resolution based on the diurnal cycle rather than simple interpolation. Many models currently do not output the direct beam irradiance, and one that does appears to have a bias relative to its global horizontal irradiance, with equally good performance attained by utilizing REST2 and the model global radiation to estimate the direct component. We will present a detailed assessment of various NWP solar energy products, evaluating forecast skill at a range of photovoltaic installations.

Jascourt, S. D.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Cassidy, C.

2012-12-01

289

The SolarWiki Solar energy is the only inexhaustible energy source abundant enough to satisfy all the energy needs of our planet, but  

E-print Network

The SolarWiki Solar energy is the only inexhaustible energy source abundant enough to satisfy all the energy needs of our planet, but is only practical if an extensive solar-based infrastructure can of this infrastructure that efficiently harnesses solar energy is one of the greatest scientific, technological, economic

290

Solar Thermal Energy: An Overview of One-Sun Solar Thermal Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides an introduction to solar thermal energy. The presentation includes descriptions of solar basics, technology and future solar technology systems. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Burch, Jay

2013-01-03

291

National Solar Energy Convention, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India, November 29December 1, 1976, Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains extended abstracts of papers devoted to various aspects of solar energy research, applications, and technology, covering such areas as national solar energy programs, solar collectors and storage systems, solar energy conversion techniques, and solar power plant systems. Specific topics include prospects for harnessing solar energy as a power source, measurements of global and diffuse solar radiation, a

A. R. Saha

1976-01-01

292

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science  

SciTech Connect

Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

293

Danish Energy Authority Poland -Electricity and gas  

E-print Network

Danish Energy Authority Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU Funds Electricity sector analyses December 2004 #12;Danish Energy Authority Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU Funds Electricity sector

294

Liquid hydrogen as energy source - Economic considerations through a comparison with imported liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of liquefaction, transport, and distribution of natural gas, regarded as achieved technologies, are used as a basis for comparing the corresponding processes for liquid hydrogen. The main factor in the economic picture is the fact that the minimum energy per unit mass required for hydrogen liquefaction is about 13 times higher than that for natural gas liquefaction. Solar

G. Kandler

1977-01-01

295

Solar energy, conservation, and rental housing  

SciTech Connect

Renters must pay the majority of energy costs either directly or in their rents. They have limited financial and legal abilities to make improvements necessary to increase substantially the energy efficiency of rental housing. This report discusses the problem of how to increase investments in energy conservation and solar energy devices for rental housing, which constitutes over one-third of US housing. As background, this report characterizes the rental-housing market, including owners' decision-making criteria. Federal, state, and local policies that affect energy-related investments in rental housing are described. Programs are divided into five major categories: (1) programs for tenants, (2) financial incentives for owners, (3) leasing of solar energy equipment, (4) mediation between tenants and landlords, and (5) regulation. The report concludes that energy and conservation programs aimed at the residential sector must disaggregate owner-occupied housing from rental housing for maximum effect. No one program is advocated since local rental-housing markets differ substantially. For improvements greater than no-cost or low-cost items, programs must be directed at rental-housing owners and not only at tenants.

Levine, A.; Raab, J.

1981-03-01

296

Operational Experience from Solar Thermal Energy Projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

Cameron, C. P.

1984-01-01

297

Luminescent solar concentrators for energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description is given on the geographical, seasonal, and spectral distribution of terrestrial solar energy. The concept of nontracking fluorescent concentrators is discussed, together with the mathematical background for the collection and concentration of direct and diffuse light. Attention is also given to single plates, multiple stacks, and thin films doped by one or more colorants. An analysis is presented of the differences between inorganic and organic materials. In addition, suggestions are made for new hybrid systems.

Reisfeld, R.; Jorgensen, C. K.

1982-10-01

298

Solar energy conversion with fluorescent collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new principle for solar energy conversion is proposed and evaluated theoretically. Collection and concentration of direct\\u000a and diffuse radiation is possible by the use of a stack of transparent sheets of material doped with fluorescent dyes. High\\u000a efficiency of light collection can be achieved by light guiding and special design of collectors. The optical path length\\u000a in a triangular

A. Goetzberger; W. Greubel

1977-01-01

299

Modular tubular solar energy collector apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosure relates to a modular form of solar energy collector apparatus in which several double-wall glass tube collectors, each with vacuum jacket, depend from opposite sides of an elongated manifold. The manifold includes split halves of foamed polymer insulation and rigid fiberglass reinforced skin thereon, assembled about closed-looped, serpentine liquid carrying tubes preferably of metal or glass in U-tube

Nugent

1978-01-01

300

Stationary type solar energy collector apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid collector for collecting solar energy is disclosed comprised of a plurality of parabolic reflectors cooperating with tube\\/fin type fluid carrying collector elements, selective ones of which are arranged at the focal points of the parabolas. Additional tube\\/fin elements are positioned at a spaced distance above the boundary line between adjacent parabolic reflectors. The exterior surfaces of the tube\\/fin

1979-01-01

301

The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1994 review  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on DOE`s Solar Industrial Program. The topics of the report include an overview of the program, it`s participants and it`s objectives; solar detoxification--using solar energy to destroy environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil; solar process heat--generating industrial quantities of hot water, steam, and hot air from solar energy; and advanced processes--using concentrated solar energy to manufacture high-technology materials and develop new industrial processes.

NONE

1995-03-01

302

Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context  

SciTech Connect

The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

Shea, C.A.

1980-12-01

303

SERI Solar Energy Storage Program: FY 1984  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities of the Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Energy Storage Program during its sixth year are summarized. During FY 1984 a study was conducted to identify the most promising high-temperature containment concepts considering corrosion resistance, material strength at high temperature, reliability of performance, and cost. Of the two generic types of high-temperature thermal storage concepts, the single-tank system was selected using a two-medium approach to the thermocline maintenance. This concept promises low costs, but further research is required. A conceptual design for a sand-to-air direct-contact heat exchanger was developed using dual-lock hoppers to introduce the sand into the fluidized-bed exchanger, and using cyclones to remove sand particles from the output air stream. Preliminary cost estimates indicate heat exchanger subsystem annual levelized costs of about $4/GJ with compressor costs of an additional $0.75/GJ. An economic analysis comparing sensible and latent heat storage for nitrate and carbonate salts with solely sensible heat storage showed 3%-21% cost savings with combined sensible and latent heat storage.

Luft, W.; Bohn, M.; Copeland, R. J.; Kreith, F.; Nix, R. G.

1985-02-01

304

Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

2010-01-01

305

Saddle Hill Trust Lot 73, Medway, Massachusetts: solar energy system performance evaluation, January 1980December 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saddle Hill Trust Lot 73 site is a single family residence in Medway, Massachusetts. The solar energy system is designed to supply 54% of the 18.70 million BTU hot water load. It is equipped with 45 square feet of solar collection area, an 80-gallon preheat storage tank, and a gas-fired, 40-gallon auxiliary domestic hot water tank. Problems with the

Brauch

1980-01-01

306

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California solar energy system performance evaluation, July 1980June 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory site is an office building in California with an active solar energy system designed to supply from 23 to 33% of the space heating load and part of the hot water load. The solar heating system is equipped with 1428 square feet of flat-plate collectors, a 2000-gallon water storage tank, and two gas-fired boilers to supply

1981-01-01

307

Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials  

E-print Network

Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

Lenert, Andrej

2014-01-01

308

Solar: A Clean Energy Source for Utilities (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts with utilities to remove the technical, regulatory, and market challenges they face in deploying solar technologies.

Not Available

2010-09-01

309

Review of solar thermoelectric energy conversion and analysis of a two cover flat-plate solar collector  

E-print Network

The process of solar thermoelectric energy conversion was explored through a review of thermoelectric energy generation and solar collectors. Existing forms of flat plate collectors and solar concentrators were surveyed. ...

Hasan, Atiya

2007-01-01

310

National Solar Energy Convention, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India, November 29December 1, 1976, Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy research in India is examined. Most of the papers are concerned with equipment and techniques and are listed under the following headings: solar concentrator, photovoltaics, thermoelectric, photo, and biochemical conversion, instrumentation and environment, solar heating, solar collector, and solar distillation and cooling. Future solar energy use and costs are estimated. Industrial, domestic, and agricultural applications of solar energy

S. Deb

1977-01-01

311

Energy and exergy analyses of solar drying process of pistachio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the energy and exergy analyses of the drying process of shelled and unshelled pistachios using a solar drying cabinet. Using the first law of thermodynamics, energy analysis was carried to estimate the amounts of energy gained from solar air collectors and the ratios of energy utilization. However, exergy analysis was accomplished to determine the location,

A. Midilli; H. Kucuk

2003-01-01

312

Solar energy scenarios in Brazil, Part one: Resource assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment” (SWERA) project was an international project financed by GEF\\/UNEP, which aimed at providing a consistent and accessible database to foster the insertion of renewable energies on the energy matrix of developing countries. This paper presents the solar energy resource assessment generated during the SWERA project by using the radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR fed

F. R. Martins; E. B. Pereira; S. A. B. Silva; S. L. Abreu; Sergio Colle

2008-01-01

313

Comparative efficiencies of solar energy collectors Laboratoire de Technologie Optique  

E-print Network

57 Comparative efficiencies of solar energy collectors M. Duban Laboratoire de Technologie Optique the solar energy during a day or a year, independant of their dimensions, the amount of energy collected as a unit of energy. We have considered five fundamental types : 2014 a sun-tracking collector, 2014 a flat

Boyer, Edmond

314

Central receiver solar energy system for an oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a central receiver solar energy system that will provide practical and effective use of solar energy for an oil refinery currently being designed by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation for the Provident Energy Company is discussed. The refinery will be built 25 miles southwest of Phoenix, Arizona, and is scheduled to be in operation by 1983. The

R. E. Sommerlad; R. Raghavan; R. A. Pichnarcik

1980-01-01

315

Energy resources of the developing countries and some priority markets for the use of solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy consumption for the developed and non-developed world is expressed as a function of GNP. An almost straight-line graph results when energy consumption statistics are treated in this manner. The richest countries consume the most energy, and the poorest countries the least. It therefore follows that greater energy production in the developing countries (leading to greater energy consumption) will contribute to their economic growth. Energy resources in the developing countries are compared, including: solid fossil fuels, crude oil, natural gas, oil shale, and uranium. Mention is also made of the potential of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, in the underdeveloped world; and it is these resources which offer the greatest possibilities for economic improvement if the money is forthcoming, i.e., from the world bank, to fund the necessary technology.

Siddiqi, T. A.; Hein, G. F.

1977-01-01

316

Argonne OutLoud presents: The Solar Energy Challenge  

SciTech Connect

To better understand the current and future role of solar energy, Argonne's Seth Darling framed the global energy supply and demand outlook over the next 40 years while examining potential energy sources from a feasibility and sustainability perspective. He also discussed the promise and challenges of solar energy while providing a broad overview of related research taking place at Argonne as well as his group's work on organic solar cells.

Seth Darling

2012-07-13

317

Argonne OutLoud presents: The Solar Energy Challenge  

ScienceCinema

To better understand the current and future role of solar energy, Argonne's Seth Darling framed the global energy supply and demand outlook over the next 40 years while examining potential energy sources from a feasibility and sustainability perspective. He also discussed the promise and challenges of solar energy while providing a broad overview of related research taking place at Argonne as well as his group's work on organic solar cells.

Seth Darling

2013-06-05

318

Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

Denholm, P.

2007-03-01

319

78 FR 31997 - Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...500-1] Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp., Order of Suspension...accurate information concerning the securities of Solar Energy Ltd. because it has not filed any periodic...

2013-05-28

320

Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

By combining picosecond optical experiments and detailed statistical mechanics theory we continue to increase our understanding of the complex interplay of structure and dynamics in important energy transfer situations. A number of different types of problems will be focused on experimentally and theoretically. They are excitation transport among chromophores attached to finite size polymer coils; excitation transport among chromophores in monolayers, bilayers, and finite and infinite stacks of layers; excitation transport in large vesicle systems; and photoinduced electron transfer in glasses and liquids, focusing particularly on the back transfer of the electron from the photogenerated radical anion to the radical cation. 33 refs., 13 figs.

Fayer, M.D.

1986-11-01

321

Solar Ovens-Understanding Energy Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers the concept of solar ovens. In this lesson, students will learn how "thermal energy flows from the hot air to the cold water via conduction and will indicate that this would continue to happen until the water sample reaches the same temperature as the oven air. The students will also answer questions about how heat could be lost in the oven through conduction and convection, as well as how to get more solar radiation into the oven." Additionally, this experiment will prompt students to examine the relationships between conduction, convection, and radiation. Teacher and Student guides for parts one and two are included. 

2014-07-25

322

The heating of the solar wind by the interstellar neutral gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar wind heating by ionization and assimilation of the interstellar neutral wind is investigated using a numerical model of the interaction. The model is a time-dependent, one-dimensional, spherically symmetric, one-fluid code which includes mass, momentum, and energy sources due to the efficient incorporation of ionized interstellar hydrogen. Solar wind data at 1 AU from October 12, 1978 to February 25, 1980 were input to the inner boundary of the model and propagated out to 10 AU. Then, 52-day averages of proton temperature as functions of radius were produced for three values of the interstellar hydrogen density: 0.0, 0.03, and 0.1 per cu cm. It is concluded that, within the context of the model, the observations of solar wind proton temperatures at Voyager 1 and Pioneer 11 are consistent with heating of the solar wind by an interaction with inflowing interstellar neutral hydrogen. The density of this inflowing gas is near 0.03/cu cm.

Isenberg, P. A.; Chih, P. P.; Fisk, L. A.

1985-01-01

323

Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

1978-01-01

324

Use of solar energy to produce process heat for industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of solar energy in supplying heat and hot water to residential and commerical buildings is familiar. On the other hand, the role that solar energy may play in displacing imported energy supplies in the industrial and utility sectors often goes unrecognized. The versatility of solar technology lends itself well to applications in industry; particulary to the supplemental supply for process heat. The status of solar thermal technology for industrial process heat applications, including a description of current costs and operating histories is surveyed. The most important objectives to be met in improving system performance, reducing cost, and identifying markets for solar industrial process heat are outlined.

Brown, K.

1980-04-01

325

The role of solar energy in solar heating, cooling and hot water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, world-wide attention has been focused on solar heating, cooling, and hot water supply for residential houses, schools, and commercial buildings both for experimental and demonstration purposes. The guidelines for these projects are based on energy conservation and research and development on alternative sources of energy especially directed to solar energy. Multinational as well as bilateral cooperation on

T. Noguchi

1977-01-01

326

Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System  

E-print Network

an integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System that allows companies to reduce energy and carbon intensity at the same time all the while bolstering bottom line performance. Reducing energy use and greenhouse gases is not an option but a necessity...

Spates, C. N.

2010-01-01

327

RESIDUAL ENERGY SPECTRUM OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE  

SciTech Connect

It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 yr of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of {sigma}{sub r} = -0.19 and mean Alfven ratio of r{sub A} = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cross helicity were also investigated, showing that globally balanced intervals with small residual energy contain local patches of larger imbalance and larger residual energy at all scales, as expected for nonlinear turbulent interactions.

Chen, C. H. K.; Bale, S. D.; Salem, C. S.; Maruca, B. A., E-mail: chen@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-06-20

328

Exchange energy of an inhomogeneous electron gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions for the exchange-energy density of an inhomogeneous electron gas are obtained which describe the Hund rule in an atom and a modified Hund rule in a crystal. The expressions are used to analyze the properties of an electron gas in the 3d subshells of various transition metals, including Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The

S. A. Beznosiuk; Iu. A. Khon; V. M. Kuznetsov; V. P. Fadin

1977-01-01

329

Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuel’s photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MIT’s technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuels—called Hybrisol—can also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

None

2012-01-09

330

The solar wind charge-transfer X-ray emission in the 1/4 keV energy range: inferences on Local Bubble hot gas at low Z  

E-print Network

We present calculations of the heliospheric SWCX emission spectra and their contributions in the ROSAT 1/4 keV band. We compare our results with the soft X-ray diffuse background (SXRB) emission detected in front of 378 identified shadowing regions during the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (Snowden et al. 2000). This foreground component is principally attributed to the hot gas of the so-called Local Bubble (LB), an irregularly shaped cavity of ~50-150 pc around the Sun, which is supposed to contain ~10^6 K plasma. Our results suggest that the SWCX emission from the heliosphere is bright enough to account for most of the foreground emission towards the majority of low galactic latitude directions, where the LB is the least extended. In a large part of directions with galactic latitude above 30deg the heliospheric SWCX intensity is significantly smaller than the measured one. However, the SWCX R2/R1 band ratio differs slightly from the data in the galactic center direction, and more significantly in the galactic anti-centre direction where the observed ratio is the smallest. Assuming that both SWCX and hot gas emission are present and their relative contributions vary with direction, we tested a series of thermal plasma spectra for temperatures ranging from 10^5 to 10^6.5 K and searched for a combination of SWCX spectra and thermal emission matching the observed intensities and band ratios, while simultaneously being compatible with O VI emission measurements. In the frame of collisional equilibrium models and for solar abundances, the range we derive for hot gas temperature and emission measure cannot reproduce the Wisconsin C/B band ratio. We emphasize the need for additional atomic data, describing consistently EUV and X-ray photon spectra of the charge-exchange emission of heavier solar wind ions.

D. Koutroumpa; R. Lallement; J. C. Raymond; V. Kharchenko

2008-12-19

331

Lightweight, low-cost solar energy collector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight solar concentrator of the reflecting parabolic or trough type is realized via a thin reflecting film, an inflatable structural housing and tensioned fibers. The reflector element itself is a thin, flexible, specularly-reflecting sheet or film. The film is maintained in the parabolic trough shape by means of a plurality of identical tensioned fibers arranged to be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the parabola. Fiber ends are terminated in two identical spaced anchorplates, each containing a plurality of holes which lie on the desired parabolic contour. In a preferred embodiment, these fibers are arrayed in pairs with one fiber contacting the front side of the reflecting film and the other contacting the back side of the reflecting film. The reflective surface is thereby slidably captured between arrays of fibers which control the shape and position of the reflective film. Gas pressure in the inflatable housing generates fiber tension to achieve a truer parabolic shape.

Hochberg, Eric B. (Inventor); Costen, Michael K. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

332

Analysis of PURPA and solar energy  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) is designed to promote energy conservation, the efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates. PURPA specifically directs the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to encourage small power production from renewable resources (and also cogeneration of electric energy as well as heat) by setting standards under which facilities qualify for interconnection, and guidelines for sales between utilities and independent facilities. The way FERC carries out this mandate may critically affect the development of solar alternatives to electric power production from fossil and nuclear resources. This report comments on proposed FERC regulations and suggests ways to encourage small power production within the PURPA mandate. In addition, some internal strains within PURPA are analyzed that seem to limit the effectiveness with which FERC can encourage independent facilities, and possible modifications to PURPA are suggested. 255 references.

Rice, M.

1980-03-01

333

Solar Total Energy Project final test report  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP), a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Georgia Power Company (GPC) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, has undergone several design modifications based on experience from previous operations and test programs. The experiences encountered were discussed in detail in the Solar Total Energy Project Summary Report'' completed in 1987 for DOE. Most of the proposed changes discussed in this report were installed and tested in 1987 as part of two 15-day test programs (SNL Contract No. 06-3049). However, several of the suggested changes were not completed before 1988. These plant modifications include a new distributed control system for the balance of plant (BOP), a fiber a optical communications ring for the field control system, and new control configuration reflecting the new operational procedures caused by the plant modifications. These modifications were tested during a non-consecutive day test, and a 60-day field test conducted during the autumn of 1989. These test were partially funded by SNL under Contract No. 42-4859, dated June 22, 1989. Results of these tests and preliminary analysis are presented in this test summary report. 9 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

Nelson, R.F.; Abney, L.O.; Towner, M.L. (Georgia Power Co., Shenandoah, GA (USA))

1990-09-01

334

Solar-energy treatment of ceramic tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 400 kW Advanced Components Test Facility was used to provide a concentrated source of solar energy for firing ceramic wall tile. A domed top cylindrical cavity with a white refractory fiber lining provided diffuse reflection of the concentrated solar beam directly onto the upper surface of the unfired wall tile. The tile were placed directly on the cavity floor in a circular pattern, centered at 450 intervals so that eight tile could be fired at one time. The tile and cavity walls were instrumented with thermocouples, and pyrometric cones were used to determine temperature distribution within the cavity. The glazed and unglazed solar fired titles were tested for flatness, modulus of rupture, water absorption, porosity, bulk density, apparent specific gravity, percent linear thermal expansion and crystalline phases present in the fired bodies. The major problems encountered are: cracking by thermal shock, and uneven shrinkage and glaze maturity across individual tile. The cavity failed to provide even heating at all eight tile positions.

Harris, J. N.; Clayton, M. E.

1981-12-01

335

Mars Solar Balloon Landed Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of atmospheric evolution and past climatic conditions. A Micromission plan is under study where a surface package including a miniaturized GCMS would be delivered to the surface by a solar heated hot air balloon based system. The balloon system would be deployed about 8 km above the surface of Mars, wherein it would rapidly fill with Martian atmosphere and be heated quickly by the sun. The combined buoyancy and parachuting effects of the solar balloon result in a surface package impact of about 5 m/sec. After delivery of the package to the surface, the balloon would ascend to about 4 km altitude, with imaging and magnetometry data being taken for the remainder of the daylight hours as the balloon is blown with the Martian winds. Total atmospheric entry mass of this mission is estimated to be approximately 50 kg, and it can fit as an Ariane 5 piggyback payload. The GCMS would obtain samples directly from the atmosphere at the surface and also from gases evolved from solid phase material collected from well below the surface with a Sample Acquisition and Transport Mechanism (SATM). The experiment envisioned in the Mars Micromission described would obtain samples from a much greater depth of up to one meter below the surface, and would search for organic molecules trapped in ancient stratified layers well below the oxidized surface. Insitu instruments on upcoming NASA missions working in concert with remote sensing measurement techniques have the potential to provide a more detailed investigation of mineralogy and the extent of simple volatiles such as CO2 and H2O in surface and subsurface solid phase materials. Within the context of subsequent mission opportunities such as those provided by the Ariane 5 piggyback payload based Micromissions, it is essential to implement an even broader chemical analysis and to enable a significant extension of previous isotope measurements. Such a development would enhance the presently very active study of questions of atmospheric evolution and loss and past climatic conditions. The method selected to implement this program can be based on well-established mass spectrometry techniques. Sampled gas is chemically and physically processed to separate the gas mixture into components using gas chromatograph and related enrichment techniques. This allows trace species to be identified and reveals isotopic distributions in many cases with improved precision. Samples of interest, such as organic molecules, may lie deep below the highly oxidized surface layer and the suggested program includes enhanced sampling techniques to measure volatiles preserved in solid phase material deep below the surface as well as gas from the well mixed atmosphere.

Mahaffy, P.; Harpold, D.; Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Gorevan, S.; Israel, G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Jones, J.; Owen, T.; Raulin, F.

1999-01-01

336

Solar-Heated Gasifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catalytic coal and biomass gasifer system heated by solar energy. Sunlight from solar concentrator focused through quartz window onto ceramic-honeycomb absorber surface, which raises temperature of reactant steam, fluidizing gas, and reactor walls.

Qader, S. A.

1985-01-01

337

Solar Workshop: Terawatt Challenge!!? Sponsored by UD Energy Institute  

E-print Network

Solar Workshop: Terawatt Challenge!!? Sponsored by UD Energy Institute February 28, 2014 Clayton as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion Joshua Zide University of Delaware #12; Hall Conference Center - University of Delaware www.energy.udel.edu Time Title of Presentation Speaker

Firestone, Jeremy

338

Thermodynamic Inefficiency of Conversion of Solar Energy to Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the thermodynamic limitation to the efficiency with which light energy can be converted into work, indicating that no single chemical system converting solar energy into useful work can be very efficient. Also indicates that if solar energy is absorbed as heat for heating purposes, it is almost completely used. (JN)

Adamson, Arthur W.; And Others

1984-01-01

339

Upper limits on the total radiant energy of solar flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

We establish limits on the total radiant energy of solar flares during the period 1980 February – November, using the solar-constant monitor (ACRIM) on board the Solar Maximum Mission. Typical limits amount to 6 × 1029 erg\\/s for a 32-second integration time, with 5s statistical significance, for an impulsive emission; for a gradual component, about 4 × 1032 ergs total

H. S. Hudson; R. C. Willson

1983-01-01

340

A status report on the USAFA solar energy program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the initial performance of the first retrofit constructed solar-heated facility in the United States Air Force, the Solar Test House at the United States Air Force Academy. The project involves applying solar energy in a retrofit mode unlike the new construction applications in the private sector. This work is necessary because the Air Force's real property assets

J. M. Davis; M. W. Nay Jr.; R. L. Schmiesing; W. A. Tolbert

1976-01-01

341

The potential of solar energy use in desiccant cooling cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of heat produced by solar thermal collectors is an interesting option for thermal driven air conditioning processes. A thermal driven cooling technique which fits well to non-tracking solar collectors is the desiccant cooling technique. Recently several projects have been carried out which focus on the connection of desiccant cooling systems with solar thermal energy for regeneration of the

H-M Henning; T Erpenbeck; C Hindenburg; I. S Santamaria

2001-01-01

342

Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition  

SciTech Connect

In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-02-01

343

Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

Glaser, P. E.

1974-01-01

344

Solar energy system performance evaluation-seasonal report for Elcam San Diego, San Diego, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy system, Elcam San Diego, was designed to supply domestic hot water heating for a single family residence located in Encinitas, California. System description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, maintenance, and conclusions are presented. The system is a 'Sunspot' two tank cascade type, where solar energy is supplied to either a 66 gallon preheat tank (solar storage) or a 40 gallon domestic hot water tank. Water is pumped directly from one of the two tanks, through the 65 square feet collector array and back into the same tank. Freeze protection is provided by automatically circulating hot water from the hot water tank through the collectors and exposed plumbing when freezing conditions exist. Auxiliary energy is supplied by natural gas. Analysis is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for one full season of operation.

1980-01-01

345

Analysis on Correlation Relationship Between Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emission and Life Cycle Cost of Electricity Generation System for Energy Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this work, we analysed correlations between life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and life cycle cost of energy resources.\\u000a Energy resources studied in this paper include coal, natural gas, nuclear power, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind power,\\u000a solar thermal energy, and solar photovoltaic energy, and all of them are used to generate electricity. We calculated the mean\\u000a values, ranges of

Heetae Kim; Tae Kyu Ahn

346

Bidirectional control system for energy flow in solar powered flywheel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An energy storage system for a spacecraft is provided which employs a solar powered flywheel arrangement including a motor/generator which, in different operating modes, drives the flywheel and is driven thereby. A control circuit, including a threshold comparator, senses the output of a solar energy converter, and when a threshold voltage is exceeded thereby indicating the availability of solar power for the spacecraft loads, activates a speed control loop including the motor/generator so as to accelerate the flywheel to a constant speed and thereby store mechanical energy, while also supplying energy from the solar converter to the loads. Under circumstances where solar energy is not available and thus the threshold voltage is not exceeded, the control circuit deactivates the speed control loop and activates a voltage control loop that provides for operation of the motor as a generator so that mechanical energy from the flywheel is converted into electrical energy for supply to the spacecraft loads.

Nola, Frank J. (inventor)

1987-01-01

347

Office of Educational Programs Solar Energy Lab  

E-print Network

more efficient. #12;Solar Panel Efficiency Students use color filters over the solar panels to isolate actual versus theoretical power output of solar panels, as well as optimum grid integration techniques. #12;Solar Panel Output Students are challenged to power this car! Criteria: 1) Students can

Homes, Christopher C.

348

How Solar Energy Can Work for You  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of solar heated homes looks bright. The increase in availability of solar hardware and information along with tax credits point to an increase in both solar water and space heating. Solar systems can add to the value of a house. (BB)

Iker, Sam

1978-01-01

349

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 511522 In situ Raman spectroscopy of the  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 511­522 In situ Raman spectroscopy with the partial reduction of the WO3-framework, resulting in W5+ species in a background of W6+ sites. In this situation, a low energy excitation (e.g. visible light) is needed to excite an electron to a neighboring

Nabben, Reinhard

350

Spectrophotometric method of determining the transmission of solar energy in salt gradient solar ponds. Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to predict the thermal efficiency of a solar pond it is necessary to know total average solar energy reaching the storage layer. One method for determining this energy for water containing dissolved colored species is based upon spectral transmission measurements using a laboratory spectrophotometer. This method is examined and some of the theoretical ground work needed to discuss

Giulianelli

1984-01-01

351

The spectrophotometric method of determining the transmission of solar energy in salt gradient solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to predict the thermal efficiency of a solar pond it is necessary to know total average solar energy reaching the storage layer. One method for determining this energy for water containing dissolved colored species is based upon spectral transmission measurements using a laboratory spectrophotometer. This method is examined and some of the theoretical ground work needed to discuss

J. Giulianelli

1984-01-01

352

Solar energy utilisation and evacuated tubular solar collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors have been constructed and their performance evaluated. The characteristics of the collectors are then compared and their design strengths assessed. One of the designs, a flat absorber with a single glass cover using glass to metal seals was found to have the best performance among the four designs which included a dewar vessel type collector, a heat pipe collector and a black liquid collector with an optical efficiency of 87.7 pct. and an overall heat loss coefficient of 12.3 Wm(exp -2)/C. The performance of the dewar vessel type and black liquid collectors was found to be comparable to the glass to metal seal collector. A detailed analysis of the optical and thermal processes in evacuated tubular collectors was made. On the basis of this analysis a computer simulation model using a finite difference technique has been developed to predict the performance of evacuated tubular collectors. The computer simulation results are then compared with the test results. For the majority of the tests the discrepancy between the simulation and the test results was within the error band of the test results (maximum 12 pct.). For the published test results the maximum discrepancy for operating temperature below 100 C was found to be 6 pct. The computer simulation model was compared with other published models and its advantages and disadvantages discussed. In some analytical and semi-analytical simulation models the energy absorbed by the glass cover and the heat loss from joints and supports has to be ignored. The present model has none of these deficiencies and more complex designs can be simulated. The developed computer simulation program might be used as an aid in the design of evacuated tubular collectors. Using the computer simulation, a parametric study of the three commmercially available collectors was made. The results are discussed and the areas of improvement are identified.

Parand, Foroutan

353

Solar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting Questionnaire As someone who is familiar with solar energy issues, we hope that you will tak  

E-print Network

Page 1 Solar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting Questionnaire As someone who is familiar with solar energy issues, we hope that you will take a few moments to answer this short survey

Islam, M. Saif

354

Solar flares, the lunar surface, and gas rich meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations on the Fe-group nuclei track density vs depth in lunar rocks and Surveyor 3 TV camera filter glass were critically examined considering more factors than previously. The analysis gives a firmer basis to the observation of the preferential leakage of low energy Fe nuclei from the accelerating region of the sun. The track density gradients in lunar rock 12022 and filter glass are used to determine the lunar erosion rate of 3 angstroms/yr. Track gradients are less steep than predicted from energy spectrum observed in the Surveyor glass, perhaps due to sputtering. High densities of etchable tracks were found at all depths down to 60 cm in fines from Apollo cores and also in thin sections of the Pesjanoe, Pantar, and Fayetteville gas-rich meteorites. It is felt unlikely that suprathermal heavy ions were responsible for the high track densities.

Barber, D. J.; Cowsik, R.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Price, P. B.; Rajan, R. S.

1972-01-01

355

Overview of solar energy programs and activities in the Southeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic factors, heating and cooling programs, test and research sites, and advanced solar energy technologies are discussed. Attention is given to costs, industrial factors, and industrial and commercialization factors. The longer-term and more sophisticated solar energy technologies, such as wind, ocean-thermal, solar-thermal, and photovoltaics are evaluated. One of the largest wind machines will be installed in the North Carolina mountains.

D. L. Christensen

1978-01-01

356

High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

Cameron, C.P.

1993-07-01

357

High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW\\/m2. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

Christopher P. Cameron

1993-01-01

358

Solar-assisted heat pump systems and energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental solar-assisted heat pump system with solar energy storage in encapsulated phase change material (PCM) packings at the Karadeniz Technical University in Trabzon, Turkey is described. It includes 30 m² solar collectors, a latent-heat thermal energy storage tank filled with PCM, a heat exchanger, a heat pump with double evaporators and condenser, and a conventional air conditioning channel. The

K. Kaygusuz; Oe. Comakli; T. Ahyan

1991-01-01

359

International Solar Centre, Berlin - A Comprehensive Energy Design  

E-print Network

ESL-IC-10/05-06 1 INTERNATIONAL SOLAR CENTRE BERLIN - A COMPREHENSIVE ENERGY DESIGN Robert Himmler M. Norbert Fisch Technical University Braunschweig Institute of Building and Solar Technology (IGS) Mühlenpfordtstr. 23 38106 Braunschweig... / Germany ABSTRACT The International Solar Centre is a unique development in Berlin, combining a historic building and contemporary architecture to create 20 700 m˛ of customised office workspace. The building promotes a sustainable energy economy...

Fisch, M. N.; Himmler, R.

2005-01-01

360

Impact of solar-energy development. The aggregate impact on basic economic objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative programs are presented. Short run and long run impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing rock are distinguished. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficienty, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense.

Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

361

Energy Saving and GHG Emission Reduction in a Micro-CCHP System by Use of Solar Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and the energy saving by integrating solar collectors and photovoltaic panels in a Stirling engine based microcombined cooling, heating and power (mCCHP) system are studied. The mCCHP system consists of a natural gas Stirling CHP and an adsorber chiller. When the thermal outputs of the Stirling CHP and solar collectors are not sufficient to cover the heat demand for domestic hot water (DHW), heating/cooling, an auxiliary heating boiler starts to operate. The energy saving by using solar energy varies from 13.35% in December to 59.62% in April, in the case of solar collectors usage and from 7.47% in December to 28.27% in July, in the case of photovoltaic panels usage. By using solar energy the annual GHG emission decreases by 31.98% and the fuel cost reduction varies from 12.73% in December to 49.78% in June.

Ion, Ion V.; Ciocea, Gheorghe; Popescu, Florin

2012-12-01

362

MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

2010-09-01

363

CAST solar axion search with 3^He buffer gas: Closing the hot dark matter gap  

E-print Network

The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has finished its search for solar axions with 3^He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of g_a, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope IAXO.

M. Arik; S. Aune; K. Barth; A. Belov; S. Borghi; H. Brauninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; E. Da Riva; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; P. Friedrich; J. Galan; J. A. Garcia; A. Gardikiotis; J. G. Garza; E. N. Gazis; T. Geralis; E. Georgiopoulou; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; H. Gomez; M. Gomez Marzoa; E. Gruber; T. Guthorl; R. Hartmann; S. Hauf; F. Haug; M. D. Hasinoff; D. H. H. Hoffmann; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakovcic; M. Karuza; K. Konigsmann; R. Kotthaus; M. Krcmar; M. Kuster; B. Lakic; P. M. Lang; J. M. Laurent; A. Liolios; A. Ljubicic; V. Lozza; G. Luzon; S. Neff; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; A. Rodriguez; M. Rosu; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; I. Shilon; P. S. Silva; S. K. Solanki; L. Stewart; A. Tomas; M. Tsagri; K. van Bibber; T. Vafeiadis; J. Villar; J. K. Vogel; S. C. Yildiz; K. Zioutas

2014-09-15

364

Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine  

E-print Network

Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine Dr. Fletcher Miller SDSU Department of Mechanical Engineering Abstract Solar thermal power for electricity for the California desert and in other appro- priate regions worldwide. Current technology relies on steam Rankine

Ponce, V. Miguel

365

Solar energy for industrial processes - A simplified design method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model is developed to predict the long-term thermal output of solar energy systems for industrial applications. The systems are assumed to use liquids as energy transfers and storage media and flat plate collectors. The mathematical model accounts for the collectors, heat exchangers, circulating pumps, and pump controllers. Measurements of dry bulb temperature and total and diffusive solar radiation

F. Butera; G. Cannistraro; G. Silvestrini

1978-01-01

366

Some preliminary considerations on photovoltaic conversion of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tentative calculations on the feasibility, cost effectiveness, and overall reliability of solar energy via photovoltaic conversion are carried out. It is estimated that the cost of solar energy conversion will have to be cut by factors of 100 to 200 for it to become competitive with other sources of large-scale power in the foreseeable future. The importance of exploitation of

A. Egidi; G. V. Pallottino

1976-01-01

367

Application of solar energy to air-conditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of survey of application of solar energy to air-conditioning systems are summarized in report. Survey reviewed air-conditioning techniques that are most likely to find residential applications and that are compatible with solar-energy systems being developed.

Harstad, A. J.; Nash, J. M.

1978-01-01

368

Solar Energy: The State of the Art, Part 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bioconversion to fuels, ocean thermal-gradient power conversion, and energy systems are discussed in this last article of a three-part series on solar energy. It is noted that solar research has near-term and long-term implications for the housing industry, manufacturers of components designed for homes, and the public in general, and that…

Miller, Charles D.; Pinelli, Tomas E.

1976-01-01

369

Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

2005-01-01

370

SURVEY OF EPA FACILITIES FOR SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was done to assess the feasibility of applying solar thermal energy systems to EPA facilities. A survey was conducted to determine those EPA facilities where solar energy could best be used. These systems were optimized for each specific application and the system/facilit...

371

Theoretical investigation of solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis  

E-print Network

Solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis are two great scientific and engineering challenges that will play pivotal roles in a future sustainable energy economy. In this work, I apply electronic structure ...

Wang, Lee-Ping

2011-01-01

372

Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

Carter, Luther J.

1974-01-01

373

Singlet exciton fission : applications to solar energy harvesting  

E-print Network

Singlet exciton fission transforms a single molecular excited state into two excited states of half the energy. When used in solar cells it can double the photocurrent from high energy photons increasing the maximum ...

Thompson, Nicholas John

2014-01-01

374

Technology for Bayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated 38 000 hr. Tests of improved components show that these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32, a value twice that demonstrated by any alternate concept. Because of this high efficiency, solar Brayton cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants using present technology for silicon solar cells. The technologies for solar mirrors and heat receivers are reviewed and assessed. This Brayton technology for solar powerplants is equally suitable for use with the nuclear reactors. The available long time creep data on the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811C show that such Brayton cycles can evolve to cycle peak temperatures of 1500 K (2240 F). And this same technology can be extended to generate 10 to 100 MW in space by exploiting existing technology for terrestrial gas turbines in the fields of both aircraft propulsion and stationary power generation.

English, R. E.

1986-01-01

375

Application of solar thermal energy to buildings and industry  

SciTech Connect

Flat plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors are described, as are parabolic troughs, Fresnel lenses, and compound parabolic concentrators. Use of solar energy for domestic hot water and for space heating and cooling are discussed. Some useful references and methods of system design and sizing are given. This includes mention of the importance of economic analysis. The suitability of solar energy for industrial use is discussed, and solar ponds, point-focus receivers and central receivers are briefly described. The use of solar energy for process hot water, drying and dehydration, and process steam are examined, industrial process heat field tests by the Department of Energy are discussed, and a solar total energy system in Shenandoah, GA is briefly described. (LEW)

Kutscher, C. F.

1981-05-01

376

Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 5: Conclusions and recomendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air pollution resulting from the use of fossil fuels is discussed. Phenomena relating to the emission of CO2 such as the greenhouse effect and multiplier effect are explored. Particulate release is also discussed. The following recommendations are made for the elimination of fossil fuel combustion products in the United States: development of nuclear breeder reactors, use of solar energy systems, exploration of energy alternatives such as geothermal and fusion, and the substitution of coal for gas and oil use.

Williams, J. R.

1974-01-01

377

National solar energy education directory. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

The information contained in this directory is derived from responses to a national survey of educational institutions and organizations involved in solar energy educational activities beyond the secondary school level. Phone calls and follow-up mail requests were used to gather additional information when necessary. Every survey instrument was read, coded, and edited before entry into the data base from which this directory was produced. The Directory is organized alphabetically by state. Institutions and organizations within each state are categorized according to type (Colleges and Universities, Junior/Community Colleges, Vocational/Technical Schools, and Other Educational Institutions and Organizations) and listed alphabetically within these categories. Within each institutional listing the amount of information provided will vary according to the completeness of the survey response received from that institution. (MHR)

Corcoleotes, G; Cronin, S; Kramer, K; O'Connor, K

1980-01-01

378

78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...obligated airports to construct solar energy systems on airport property. FAA is adopting...ocular impact of proposed solar energy systems which are effective upon publication...henceforth referred to as solar energy systems) are designed to absorb...

2013-10-23

379

77 FR 44267 - Notice of Availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...identified the solar energy development program alternative (referred to...utility-scale solar energy development. The program alternative emphasizes and...The program alternative also establishes...utility-scale solar energy development...

2012-07-27

380

Bio-inspired constructs for solar energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy input to the biosphere is about 10^24 joules\\/year. This makes human needs of even a projected 10^21 joules\\/year a deceptively achievable goal. One key to global-scale use of solar energy is the synthesis of energy-rich fuel materials such as hydrogen and reduced carbon compounds. The latter have the almost inestimable advantage that the energy infrastructure for distribution and

Thomas Moore

2006-01-01

381

DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

Not Available

2006-03-01

382

DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

Not Available

2008-07-01

383

DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

Not Available

2007-07-01

384

DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

Not Available

2005-10-01

385

Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs Solar Photovoltaic and Demand Response  

E-print Network

Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs Solar Photovoltaic and Demand Response October 10, 2012 ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS OVERVIEW ?Program rules and guidelines established by Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) ?All Texas investor... to be administered by transmission-distribution utilities ?Programs are implemented by Energy Efficiency Services Providers and Retail Electric Providers 1 WHY DOES ONCOR DO SOLAR PV? ?Helps meet our energy efficiency goals ?Helps customers reduce...

Tyra, K.; Hanel, J.

2012-01-01

386

Exploring new models of solar energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The era of the highly centralized systems such as our current electricity grid may be coming to an end. It's time for citizens to get familiar with new concepts like ''community solar'' and ''solar safety net''. (author)

Asmus

2008-01-01

387

78 FR 45268 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final Environmental Impact Statement...Gas & Electric (SDG&E) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California...ADDRESSES: Copies of the Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final EIS/Proposed CDCA...

2013-07-26

388

77 FR 28618 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement...Gas & Electric (SDG&E) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California...comments related to the SDG&E Ocotillo Sol Solar Project by any of the following...

2012-05-15

389

ABOUT THE SOLAR DECATHLON The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon is an award-winning program  

E-print Network

ABOUT THE SOLAR DECATHLON The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon is an award-winning program that challenges collegiate teams to design, build and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy products that are available today. The Solar Decathlon also provides participating students with hands

Sze, Lawrence

390

A Solar-Gas\\/Electrical Solid Sorption Refrigerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Refrigeration technologies have been critical in the evolution of the production and distribution systems a long period of\\u000a time. The concept of solar-powered refrigeration cycles is known at least two decades and several refrigerators operating\\u000a on this principle are commercially available. Cohen and Cosar [1], have analyzed solar powered refrigeration. Guilleminot [2] demonstrated solar sorption refrigeration with cycle day\\/night to

L. L. Vasiliev; D. A. Mishkinis; A. A. Antukh

391

Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems  

SciTech Connect

A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues.

Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [Institute for Energy Research, Joanneum Research, Graz, (Austria)

1994-12-31

392

Proceedings of the ninth biennial congress of the International Solar Energy Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference on solar energy. Topics considered at the conference included solar thermal power plants, central receivers, heliostat flux measurement, ocean thermal power plants, solar ponds, photovoltaic power supplies, silicon solar cells, solar concentrators, heat storage, wind turbines, hybrid systems, economics, energy policy, hydroelectric power plants, meteorology, the measurement of solar insolation, financing,

E. Bilgen; K. G. T. Hollands

1985-01-01

393

Energy collection efficiency of holographic planar solar concentrators.  

PubMed

We analyze the energy collection properties of holographic planar concentrator systems. The effects of solar variation on daily and annual energy collection are evaluated. Hologram diffraction efficiency, polarization, crosstalk in cascaded elements, and constraints imposed by the radiance theorem, as well as solar illumination characteristics, are considered. A planar holographic solar concentrator configuration is designed and modeled to maximize energy collection efficiency during the course of a year without the need for tracking. Results indicated that nearly 50% of the available energy illuminating hologram areas can be collected by photovoltaic cells without the need of tracking. PMID:20154753

Castro, Jose M; Zhang, Deming; Myer, Brian; Kostuk, Raymond K

2010-02-10

394

Low energy particle composition. [cosmic rays produced in solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is given of current knowledge of low-energy cosmic ray particles produced in the solar system. It is argued that the notion that the sun alone can accelerate particles in the solar system must be abandoned in light of evidence that Jupiter and earth may be sources of observed low-energy particles. Measurements of the composition and energy spectra of low-energy particles during quiet times are examined, emphasizing the abundance of protons and helium and of anomalous N, O, and Ne. The abundance of heavy particles (B, C, N, O, Ne, Ca and Fe) of unknown origin in the earth magnetosphere is examined. Reported observations of Jovian electrons are discussed and solar particle events with anomalous compositions (He-3 rich events and Fe rich events) are treated in detail. Nuclear abundances of solar particles, emphasizing their temporal and spatial variations are considered together with the nature of nuclear reaction products in solar flares.

Gloeckler, G.

1975-01-01

395

EVAPORATION OF CAI LIQUIDS INTO SOLAR GAS. A. V. , L. Grossman1,2  

E-print Network

EVAPORATION OF CAI LIQUIDS INTO SOLAR GAS. A. V. Fedkin1 , L. Grossman1,2 and S. B. Simon1 , 1 chemical compositions of hypothetical high-temperature condensate assemblages upon melting and evaporation-like liquids evaporating into more general gas compositions. In this work, we assume that a CAI precursor

Grossman, Lawrence

396

Solar energy system performance evaluation. Seasonal report for Fern Lansing, Lansing, Michigan  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy System was designed by Fern Engineering Company, Bourne, Massachusetts to provide space heating and domestic hot water preheating for a 1300 square foot single-family residence located in Lansing, Michigan. The Solar Energy System consists of a 278 square foot flat-plate air collector subsystem, a three 120-gallon tank storage subsystem, a 40 gallon domestic hot water tank subsystem, a liquid/air heat exchanger, an energy transport module, pumps, controls and heat transfer medium lines. Natural gas provides the auxiliary energy for the space heating (100,000 Btu/h) and hot water (70,000 Btu/h) subsystems. The system is shown schematically and has five modes of operation. Typical system operation, system operating sequence, performance assessment, system performance, subsystems performance (collector array, storage, hot water, space heating), operating energy, energy savings, and maintenance are discussed. A brief summary of all pertinent parameters is presented.

Not Available

1980-06-01

397

Solar models with enhanced energy transport in the core  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discrepancy between the observed and computed flux of solar neutrinos can be eliminated if the temperature gradient in the core of the model, and hence its central temperature, is reduced. This could in principle be accomplished by reducing the core opacity; alternatively, it has been proposed that a fraction of the energy transport in the solar core results from the motion of hypothetical particles (the so-called WIMPs). The resulting changes in solar structure have measurable effects on the frequencies of the solar 5-minute oscillations. Here, models are considered where the opacity in the solar core has been decreased in a manner which roughly simulates the effects of the WIMPs. The analysis of the models and their frequencies provides insight into the consequences of modifications to the physics of solar models. In particular, it is found that models with the observed neutrino flux are inconsistent with observations of low-degree solar oscillations.

Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

1992-01-01

398

Exotic Solutions to the Solar Neutrino Problem and Some Implications for Low Energy Solar Neutrino Experiments  

E-print Network

In this talk, I review, from the phenomenological point of view, solutions to the solar neutrino problem, which are not provided by the conventional neutrino oscillation induced by mass and flavor mixing, and show that they can provide a good fit to the observed data. I also consider some simple implications for low energy solar neutrino experiments.

H. Nunokawa

2001-05-03

399

Solar energy in a volume and efficiency in solar power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar power received on the surface of any object on the earth could be considered as the power absorbed in the entire volume of that object and hence measured in Watts per unit volume. In this paper, effectiveness of measuring power and energy per unit volume and the impact of height in system efficiency is analyzed. Variations in solar radiation

M. Yahyavi; M. Vaziri; S. Vadhva

2010-01-01

400

FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

401

24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Hamburg, Germany, Sept. 2009 THE BURIED EMITTER SOLAR CELL CONCEPT  

E-print Network

24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Hamburg, Germany, Sept. 2009 1 THE BURIED­efficient #12;24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Hamburg, Germany, Sept. 2009 2 industrial

402

Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982  

SciTech Connect

Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

None

1981-01-01

403

Augmentation of thermal power stations with solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept of integration of a solar concentrator field with a modern thermal power station is proposed. Such a configuration\\u000a would utilise the existing equipment and infrastructure as a base load facility and solar energy to reduce the fuel consumption\\u000a during periods of insolation. The methodology suggested involves feed water heating using a solar concentrator field and consequent\\u000a reduction

BR Pai

1991-01-01

404

Output Characteristics of Solar-Power-Driven Thermionic Energy Converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar-power-driven thermionic energy converter abbreviated as Solar TEC is operated by illumination of solar light condensed by a large-scale Fresnel lens 105 cm in length and 70 cm in width. It was found that an output current takes large peaks at the lower emitter temperature because the emitter work function closely related to the thermionic electron emission decreases at

Akihisa Ogino; Toshiya Muramatsu; Masashi Kando

2004-01-01

405

Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

1976-01-01

406

The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

407

Subsurface energy storage and transport for solar-powered geysers on Triton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The location of active geyser-like eruptions and related features close to the current subsolar latitude on Triton suggests a solar energy source for these phenomena. Solid-state greenhouse calculations have shown that sunlight can generate substantially elevated subsurface temperatures. A variety of models for the storage of solar energy in a subgreenhouse layer and for the supply of gas and energy to a geyser are examined. 'Leaky greenhouse' models with only vertical gas transport are inconsistent with the observed upper limit on geyser radius of about 1.5 km. However, lateral transport of energy by gas flow in a porous N2 layer with a block size on the order of a meter can supply the required amount of gas to a source region about 1 km in radius. The decline of gas output to steady state may occur over a period comparable with the inferred active geyser lifetime of 5 earth years. The required subsurface permeability may be maintained by thermal fracturing of the residual N2 polar cap. A lower limit on geyser source radius of about 50 to 100 m predicted by a theory of negatively buoyant jets is not readily attained.

Kirk, Randolph L.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Brown, Robert H.

1990-01-01

408

The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and

Alberto Ortega; Rodrigo Escobar; Sergio Colle; Samuel Luna de Abreu

2010-01-01

409

SC-RISE LECTURE SERIES BRIGHT HORIZONS IN SOLAR ENERGY  

E-print Network

sources. In an attempt to address many of these concerns, a wide range of sustainable energy sourcesSC-RISE LECTURE SERIES BRIGHT HORIZONS IN SOLAR ENERGY Sustainable Energy Opportunities, Options availability can present important challenges to meeting our expectations from these energy sources. As one

410

Solar wind flow about the terrestrial planets. II - Comparison with gas dynamic theory and implications for solar-planetary interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bow shock models are employed to determine and compare the solar wind flows about Venus, Mars, and the earth. Initially, gas dynamic theory predictions are compared with the large data base available for the near-earth environment. The observed shape and location of the magnetopause proved sufficient for predicting the average dayside bow shock position to within 2% error. Use of the same gas dynamics theory produced highly disparate results for the flows past Venus and Mars. A variation of 510-1000 km altitude (high) for the solar wind-obstacle interface was found for Mars, thus requiring the presence of an effective magnetic moment of within 0.6 of 1.4 x 10 to the 22nd G/cu cm in the Martian magnetosphere, consistent with Viking data. The Venus bow wave was calculated to be closer to the planet than possible with a purely ionospheric interaction, indicating that solar wind-neutral atmosphere interactions in the lower ionosheath must necessarily be included in a gas dynamic modeling of the Venus obstacle to the solar wind.

Slavin, J. A.; Holzer, R. E.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.; Chaussee, D. S.

1983-01-01

411

Solar energy utilization and microcomputer control in the greenhouse builk curing and drying solar system  

SciTech Connect

Three agricultural applications in a specially designed greenhouse solar system functioning as a multi-purpose solar air collector for crop production and curing/drying processes are examined. An automated hydroponic crop production system is proposed for the greenhouse solar system. Design criteria of the proposed system and its utilization of solar energy for root-zone warming are presented and discussed. Based upon limited testing of the hydroponic system considered, hydroponic production of greenhouse crops is believed reasonable to complement the year-round use of the greenhouse solar system. The hardware/software design features of a microcomputer-based control system applied in the greenhouse solar barn are presented and discussed. On-line management and utilization of incident solar energy by the microcomputer system are investigated for both the greenhouse and tobacco curing/drying modes of operation. The design approach considered for the microcomputer control system is believed suitable for regulating solar energy collection and utilization for crop production applications in greenhouse systems.

Nassar, A.N.H.

1987-01-01

412

Solar energy system case study, Oakmead Industries, Santa Clara, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of a solar energy system for space heating and domestic hot water loads. The Renault and Handley Building, referred to as Oakmead Industries site, is a commercial office and manufacturing facility located in Santa Clara, California. The building has approximately 60,000 square feet of floor area. The solar system has 2622 square feet of liquid flat-plate

Rossi

1984-01-01

413

PASTEURIZATION USING A LENS AND SOLAR ENERGY (PULSE) METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Water pasteurization using Fresnel lenses and preexisting solar disinfection methods will be evaluated. Preliminary tests were conducted using two types of Fresnel lenses: spot and linear, which concentrate solar energy onto a point and a line respectively on a water contai...

414

On Solar Energy Disposition: A Perspective from Observation and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy disposition (SED) concerns the amount of solar radiation reflected to space, absorbed in the atmosphere, and absorbed at the surface. The state of knowledge on SED is examined by comparing eight datasets from surface and satellite observation and modeling by general circulation models. The discrepancies among these contemporary estimates of SED are so large that wisdom on conventional

Zhanqing Li; Louis Moreau; Albert Arking

1997-01-01

415

SOLAR THERMAL HEATING SYSTEM FOR A ZERO ENERGY HOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Technical Challenge to Sustainability: The inter-disciplinary team, Pittsburgh Synergy, plans to design and build an 800sf home powered by site-based solar energy systems for the 2005 Solar Decathlon. The house employs a home-based business and related transportation needs,...

416

SURVEILLANCE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS USING METEOSAT DERIVED IRRADIANCES  

E-print Network

SURVEILLANCE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS USING METEOSAT DERIVED IRRADIANCES Annette Hammer Utrecht ABSTRACT In this paper, we describe a surveillance procedure for grid connected photovoltaic (PV of a year offering 90 % of the annual solar irradiation. 1 INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic (PV) Systems generate

Heinemann, Detlev

417

Role of the vapor compression cycle in solar energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vapor compression cycle lends itself to solar energy utilization in two important ways. Its ability to utilize a relatively low temperature heat supply to produce space heating via heat pumps allows the use of solar input to the evaporator to provide potential coefficients of performance which are 2 to 3 times higher than present electric driven heat pumps, and

E. A. Kush Jr.; E. A. Jr

1978-01-01

418

Sensitized energy transfer for organic solar cells, optical solar concentrators, and solar pumped lasers  

E-print Network

The separation of chromophore absorption and excitonic processes, such as singlet exciton fission and photoluminescence, offers several advantages to the design of organic solar cells and luminescent solar concentrators ...

Reusswig, Philip David

2014-01-01

419

Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an overview of research conducted on solar energy technologies and their implementation in the ObjECTS framework. The topics covered include financing assumptions and selected issues related to the integration of concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics PV technologies into the electric grid. A review of methodologies for calculating the levelized energy cost of capital-intensive technologies is presented, along with sensitivity tests illustrating how the cost of a solar plant would vary depending on financing assumptions. An analysis of the integration of a hybrid concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) system into the electric system is conducted. Finally a failure statistics analysis for PV plants illustrates the central role of solar irradiance uncertainty in determining PV grid integration characteristics.

Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

2007-08-16

420

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 88 (2005) 6573 Investigation of pulsed non-melt laser annealing  

E-print Network

at selected laser energy density in the range 20­60 mJ/cm2 and pulse number in the range 5­20 pulses. XRD peakSolar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 88 (2005) 65­73 Investigation of pulsed non-melt laser Available online 15 December 2004 Abstract Pulsed non-melt laser annealing (NLA) has been used for the first

Anderson, Timothy J.

421

A hybrid thermal energy storage system for managing simultaneously solar and electric energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid thermal energy storage system (HTESS) is proposed for managing simultaneously the storage of heat from solar and electric energy. Solar energy is stored during sunny days and released later during cloudy days or at night, and to smooth power demands, electric energy is stored during off peak periods and later used during peak periods. A heat transfer model

Zouhair Ait Hammou; Marcel Lacroix

2006-01-01

422

Synthesis Gas Production by Rapid Solar Thermal Gasification of Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

Biomass resources hold great promise as renewable fuel sources for the future, and there exists great interest in thermochemical methods of converting these resources into useful fuels. The novel approach taken by the authors uses concentrated solar energy to efficiently achieve temperatures where conversion and selectivity of gasification are high. Use of solar energy removes the need for a combustion fuel and upgrades the heating value of the biomass products. The syngas product of the gasification can be transformed into a variety of fuels useable with today?s infrastructure. Gasification in an aerosol reactor allows for rapid kinetics, allowing efficient utilization of the incident solar radiation and high solar efficiency.

Perkins, C. M.; Woodruff, B.; Andrews, L.; Lichty, P.; Lancaster, B.; Weimer, A. W.; Bingham, C.

2008-03-01

423

Full Spectrum Diffused and Beamed Solar Energy Application Using Optical Fibre  

E-print Network

Existing solar energy application systems use small fraction of full spectrum of solar energy. So attempts are made to show how full spectrum solar energy can be used for diffused and beamed form of incident solar energy. Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) principle with optical fibre in diffused sun light and dielectric mirror separation technique with optical fibre in beamed form are discussed. Comparison of both the cases are done. Keywords: full spectrum, solar photonics, diffused solar energy, beamed solar energy, LSC, dielectric mirror, optical fibre, Photo-Voltaic

Dutta Majumdar, M R

2007-01-01

424

Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

Jaffe, L. D.

1987-01-01

425

High-energy particles associated with solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-energy particles, the so-called solar cosmic rays, are often generated in association with solar flares, and then emitted into interplanetary space. These particles, consisting of electrons, protons, and other heavier nuclei, including the iron-group, are accelerated in the vicinity of the flare. By studying the temporal and spatial varation of these particles near the earth's orbit, their storage and release mechanisms in the solar corona and their propagation mechanism can be understood. The details of the nuclear composition and the rigidity spectrum for each nuclear component of the solar cosmic rays are important for investigating the acceleration mechanism in solar flares. The timing and efficiency of the acceleration process can also be investigated by using this information. These problems are described in some detail by using observational results on solar cosmic rays and associated phenomena.

Sakurai, K.; Klimas, A. J.

1974-01-01

426

The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1995 review  

SciTech Connect

During 1995, the Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial (SI) Program worked to bring the benefits of solar energy to America`s industrial sector. Scientists and engineers within the program continued the basic research, applied engineering, and economic analyses that have been at the heart of the Program`s success since its inception in 1989. In 1995, all three of the SI Program`s primary areas of research and development--solar detoxification, advanced solar processes, and solar process heat--succeeded in increasing the contribution made by renewable and energy-efficient technologies to American industry`s sustainable energy future. The Solar Detoxification Program develops solar-based pollution control technologies for destroying hazardous environmental contaminants. The Advanced Solar Processes Program investigates industrial uses of highly concentrated solar energy. The Solar Process Heat Program conducts the investigations and analyses that help energy planners determine when solar heating technologies--like those that produce industrial-scale quantities of hot water, hot air, and steam--can be applied cost effectively. The remainder of this report highlights the research and development conducted within in each of these subprograms during 1995.

NONE

1996-04-01

427

Using landfill gas for energy: Projects that pay  

SciTech Connect

Pending Environmental Protection Agency regulations will require 500 to 700 landfills to control gas emissions resulting from decomposing garbage. Conversion of landfill gas to energy not only meets regulations, but also creates energy and revenue for local governments.

NONE

1995-02-01

428

UNL Astronomy ClassAction: Sun and Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of questions and resources covers the sun and solar energy. The questions are designed to be used for in-class student engagement activities. Topics include nuclear energy, thermal transport, hydrostatic equilibrium, solar activity, differential rotation and charged particles in magnetic fields. This is part of a larger collection of similar astronomy modules from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. This entire collection covers most of the topics found in most undergraduate introductory astronomy courses.

Lee, Kevin M.

2009-03-31

429

Organic Solar Cells with Graded Exciton-dissociation Interfaces.................................................................................................................EN.1 Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-harvesting in Displays ........  

E-print Network

Energy Organic Solar Cells with Graded Exciton-dissociation Interfaces.................................................................................................................EN.1 Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Energy-harvesting in Displays ...................................................................................EN.3 Nano-engineered Organic Solar-energy-harvesting System

Reif, Rafael

430

Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana solar energy system performance evaluation, February 1981 - June 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Loyola University site is a student dormitory in New Orleans, Louisiana whose active solar energy system is designed to supply 52% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 4590 square feet of flat-plate collectors, a 5000-gallon water tank, auxiliary water supplied at high temperature and pressure from a central heating plant with a gas-fired boiler, and

K. M. Welch

1981-01-01

431

Lake Valley Firehouse, south Lake Tahoe, California solar energy system performance evaluation, March 1981-Jun 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lake Valley Firehouse is a small fire station in California whose active solar energy system is equipped with 572 square feet of liquid flat-plate collectors, a 1200-gallon storage tank, and an auxiliary propane-gas hydronic boiler. The system is designed to supply 50% of the heating and 50% of the hot water, but was found to supply 49% of the

Eck

1981-01-01

432

Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program  

SciTech Connect

Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy`s Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.

Not Available

1998-04-01

433

ECE 461 FUNDAMENTALS OF SOLAR ENERGY Time/Day: TBA Room: TBA  

E-print Network

1 ECE 461 FUNDAMENTALS OF SOLAR ENERGY Time/Day: TBA Room: TBA Instructor: Rajendra Singh Topics Covered Topic Hours Course Overview 1 Solar Energy: Introduction 2 Importance of Solar Energy as Clean & Sustainable Energy 3 Fundamentals & Technology of Solar Thermal Systems 3 Fundamentals

Bolding, M. Chad

434

Is the solar neutrino deficit energy-dependent?  

E-print Network

All existing measurements of the solar neutrino flux are compared with the predictions of the most recent solar model by Bahcall and Pinsonneault, modified by introducing the hypothesis of neutrino oscillations with mass differences large enough to render energy-independent any quantity observable on earth. It is concluded that the data are consistent with this hypothesis and that, at least for the time being, any energy-dependence of the solar neutrino deficit must be regarded as just an attractive theoretical possibility, but not as a compelling reality.

G. Conforto; A. Marchionni; F. Martelli; F. Vetrano

1997-08-11

435

The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

1976-01-01

436

Recovering Flare Gas Energy - A Different Approach  

E-print Network

RECOVERING FLARE GAS ENERGY - A DIFFERENT APPROACH \\ WALTER BRENNER Process Engineer SunOlin Chemical Co. Claymont, Delaware AUSTRACT Most petrochemical complexes and oil re fineries have systems to collect and dispose of waste gases.... Usually this is done by burning in a flare. Some installations recover these gases by compressing them into their fuel system. Because SunOlin shares its flare system with a neighboring oil refinery, changes to the flare system operation could have...

Brenner, W.

437

A review on highly ordered, vertically oriented TiO 2 nanotube arrays: Fabrication, material properties, and solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the fabrication, properties, and solar energy applications of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays made by anodic oxidation of titanium in fluoride-based electrolytes. The material architecture has proven to be of great interest for use in water photoelectrolysis, photocatalysis, heterojunction solar cells, and gas sensing. We examine the ability to fabricate nanotube arrays of different shape (cylindrical, tapered), pore

Gopal K. Mor; Oomman K. Varghese; Maggie Paulose; Karthik Shankar; Craig A. Grimes

2006-01-01

438

Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal  

E-print Network

Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal 21st August - 2nd September 2011 Energie Institute for Heterogeneous Materials Systems Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin Helmholtz ZĂĽrcher Hochschule fĂĽr Angewandte Wissenschaften Institute of Energy Systems and Fluid

439

Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. II. Solar  

Microsoft Academic Search

No energy technology is risk free when all aspects of its utilization are taken into account. Every energy technology has some attendant direct and indirect health and safety concerns. Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For

E. L. Etnier; A. P. Watson

1981-01-01

440

Hydro, Solar, Wind The Future of Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

Hydro, Solar, Wind The Future of Renewable Energy Joseph Flocco David Lath Department of Electrical. Hydropower Water has grown in previous years to become the most widely used form of renewable energy across years to come from Hydropower. It is considered to be a renewable energy source because it uses

Lavaei, Javad

441

Energy Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Module Production in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to evaluate the energy consumption in solar photovoltaic (SPV) module production in India and examine its implications for large-scale introduction of SPV plants in the country. Data on energy used in SPV production were collected from existing manufacturing facilities in the country. The energy payback period turns out to be approximately 4 years. This

RAVI PRAKASH; N. K. BANSAL

1995-01-01

442

External Photoevaporation of the Solar Nebula: Jupiter's Noble Gas Enrichments  

E-print Network

We present a model explaining elemental enrichments in Jupiter's atmosphere, particularly the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe. While He, Ne and O are depleted, seven other elements show similar enrichments ($\\sim$3 times solar, relative to H). Being volatile, Ar is difficult to fractionate from ${\\rm H}_{2}$. We argue that external photoevaporation by far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby massive stars removed ${\\rm H}_{2}$, He, and Ne from the solar nebula, but Ar and other species were retained because photoevaporation occurred at large heliocentric distances where temperatures were cold enough ($\\lt 30$ K) to trap them in amorphous water ice. As the solar nebula lost H it became relatively and uniformly enriched in other species. Our model improves on the similar model of Guillot \\& Hueso (2006). We recognize that cold temperatures alone do not trap volatiles; continuous water vapor production also is necessary. We demonstrate that FUV fluxes that photoevaporated the disk generated sufficient water va...

Monga, Nikhil

2014-01-01

443

Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels  

E-print Network

at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

Tora, Eman

2012-02-14

444

77 FR 13121 - Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice of Petition for Rulemaking  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM12-10-000] Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice...notice that on February 16, 2012, Solar Energy Industries Association,...

2012-03-05

445

Semiconductor Grade, Solar Silicon Purification Project. [photovoltaic solar energy conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low cost by-product, SiF4, is reacted with mg silicon to form SiF2 gas which is polymerized. The (SiF2)x polymer is heated forming volatile SixFy homologues which disproportionate on a silicon particle bed forming silicon and SiF4. The silicon analysis procedure relied heavily on mass spectroscopic and emission spectroscopic analysis. These analyses demonstrated that major purification had occured and some samples were indistinguishable from semiconductor grade silicon (except possibly for phosphorus). However, electrical analysis via crystal growth reveal that the product contains compensated phosphorus and boron.

Ingle, W. M.; Rosler, R. S.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E.

1979-01-01

446

Potential and Prospects of Solar Energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy can meet a large variety of the small-scale decentralized energy needs of a region. The design of solar devices depends on the global and diffuse solar radiation data. Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa.

T. V. RAMACHANDRA; D. K. SUBRAMANIAN

1997-01-01

447

Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

Lindmayer, J.

1977-01-01

448

Solar energy concentrating and collecting arrangement  

SciTech Connect

A multiple reflector solar energy reflecting arrangement is described which consists of: first, second and third concavely arcuate through-shaped reflectors each of which has opposite substantially straight lateral edge zones on each side of a longitudinal through-shaped reflection zone thereof, constructed for side-by-side interlocking relation adjacent respective the substantially straight lateral edge zones thereof, adjacent the substantially straight edge zones of the reflectors having respective male and female interfitting connectors thereon, the interfitting connectors being located at opposite upper edges of each of the concave reflectors, the connector on one of the opposite upper edges of each of the reflectors being a male connector unit, the connector on the other one of the opposite upper edges of each of the reflectors being a female connector unit, the female connector unit having an upper laterally extending concavely downwardly facing hook lip section and a lower laterally extending vertical support lip section, the male connector unit having a laterally then upwardly extending upper section and a laterally extending lower lip section for interfitting within the female hook lip and female connector unit support lip, whereby the reflectors may be securely interfitted by upwardly tilted insertion into the subsequent downwardly tilting movement of the male connector unit in the female connector unit for male-female laterally hooked and vertically supporting relationship, the lower lip section of the male connector unit and the lower lip section of the female connector unit engaging in vertical securing relation with one another and being mutually freely engageable and disengageable by relative angular tilting motion of the units about a longitudinal pivot axis formed by the female unit hook lip section and the male unit upwardly convexly extending upper section.

Barr, I.R.

1986-07-29

449

Theoretical efficiency of solar thermoelectric energy generators  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the theoretical efficiency of solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). A model is established including thermal concentration in addition to optical concentration. Based on the model, the maximum ...

Chen, Gang

450

Passive and Hybrid Solar Energy Program  

SciTech Connect

The background and scope of the program is presented in general terms. The Program Plan is summarized describing how individual projects are categorized into mission-oriented tasks according to market sector categories. The individual projects funded by DOE are presented as follows: residential buildings, commercial buildings, solar products, solar cities and towns, and agricultural buildings. A summary list of projects by institution (contractors) and indexed by market application area is included. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-11-01

451

Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa  

SciTech Connect

This analysis explores the technical potential of photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP) to address energy poverty in Africa through a geographic information system (GIS) screening of solar resource data developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

2008-01-01

452

Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on solar energy gain. The study was done for days with a high contrail persistence and looking at situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish eye camera, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV) modules were performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m a.s.l.) during a period of one year with a time resolution of one minute. Our results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. A statistic of contrail persistence and influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may even be critical under some circumstances for PV system performance.

Weihs, P.; Rennhofer, M.; Baumgartner, D.; Gadermaier, J.; Wagner, J.; Laube, W.

2014-08-01

453

Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

2010-02-01

454

NCTCOG Solar Ready II Project: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency November 20, 2014 NCTCOG Solar Ready II Project Lori Clark Principal Air Quality Planner ESL-KT-14-11-12 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 U.S. Department of Energy Sun...Shot Initiative Rooftop Solar Challenge 2 ESL-KT-14-11-12 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national...

Clark,L.

2014-01-01

455

76 FR 78021 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...construct a 150 megawatt (MW) solar concentrating thermal project...that makes up the concentrating solar thermal electrical generation...an integrated thermal storage system using molten salt as the heat...thermal energy storage that allows solar energy to be captured...

2011-12-15

456

Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and 287 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

2012-12-01

457

Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor  

PubMed Central

Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g?1 at 0.5 A g?1 and 287 F g?1 at 1 A g?1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application. PMID:23248745

Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

2012-01-01

458

Scientific Approach to Renewable Energy Through Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy is increasingly viewed as critically important globally. Solar cells convert the energy of the sun into electricity. The method of converting solar energy to electricity is pollution free, and appears a good practical solution to the global energy problems. Energy policies have pushed for different technologies to decrease pollutant emissions and reduce global climate change. Photovoltaic technology, which utilizes sunlight to generate energy, is an attractive alternate energy source because it is renewable, harmless and domestically secure. Transparent conducting metal oxides, being n-type were used extensively in the production of heterojunction cells using p-type Cu2O. The long held consensus is that the best approach to improve cell efficiency in Cu2O-based photovoltaic devices is to achieve both p- and n-type Cu2O and thus p-n homojunction of Cu2O solar cells. Silicon, which, next to oxygen, is the most represented element in the earth's crust, is used for the production of monocrystalline silicon solar cells. Silicon is easily obtained and processed and it is not toxic and does not form compounds that would be environmentally harmful. In contemporary electronic industry silicon is the main semiconducting element. Thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells are the basis of a significant technology with major commercial impact on solar energy production. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells such as CuInSe2 (CIS), Cu (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe compound semiconductors are important for terrestrial applications because of their high efficiency, long-term stable performance and potential for low-cost production. Highest record efficiencies of 19.2% for CIGS and 16.5% for CdTe have been achieved.

Rao, M. C.

459

A field gas chromatograph using technology developed for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace gas analysis is an integral part of biospheric studies. Analytical instruments, primarily gas chromatographs (GC), are capable of measuring gases and volatiles to the ppb-level in real time. Trace gases significant in the study of biocycles include nitrous oxide, hydrogen sulfide, other nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as methane and ethylene. The concept of a field gas chromatograph is derived from technology being pursued in the design of ultra-compact instruments for solar system exploration. The instrument breadboard incorporates the specialized porous column packings and the highly sensitive metastable ionization detector developed by the Solar System Exploration Office. These parts ensure a broad capability for which the analysis of ambient N2O is one example. A commercial, portable gas chromatograph is currently being extensively modified to incorporate analytical concepts and components derived from flight GC technology. Data storage devices suitable for field use are presently being studied.

Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. E.; Carle, Glenn C.

1985-01-01

460

Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida solar energy center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. The system was designed to supply approximately 70 percent of the annual cooling and 100 percent of the heating load. The project provides unique high temperature, nonimaging, nontracking, evacuated tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection. Information is provided on the system's acceptance test results operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings.

1980-01-01

461

Solar energy research at Princeton University Universities today bear the same responsibility to confront environmental challenges  

E-print Network

Solar energy research at Princeton University Universities today bear the same responsibility, including ground-source heat pumps ("geothermal"), biofuels for the central power plant, and solar electric

462

Proceedings of the American Solar Energy Society Solar 2000 Conference. 2000. Madison, WI (June): 81-85  

E-print Network

several times higher than that of conventional electricity. 1 Japan's history of R & D in renewable energy conservation and alternative energy development. 2 New Energy Development Organization (NEDO), a governmentProceedings of the American Solar Energy Society Solar 2000 Conference. 2000. Madison, WI (June

Delaware, University of

463

Radiolytic Gas-Driven Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water ices in surface crusts of Europa, Enceladus, Saturn's main rings, and Kuiper Belt Objects can become heavily oxidized from radiolytic chemical alteration of near-surface water ice by space environment irradiation. Oxidant accumulations and gas production are manifested in part through observed H2O2 on Europa. tentatively also on Enceladus, and found elsewhere in gaseous or condensed phases at moons and rings of Jupiter and Saturn. On subsequent chemical contact in sub-surface environments with significant concentrations of primordially abundant reductants such as NH3 and CH4, oxidants of radiolytic origin can react exothermically to power gas-driven cryovolcanism. The gas-piston effect enormously amplifies the mass flow output in the case of gas formation at basal thermal margins of incompressible fluid reservoirs. Surface irradiation, H2O2 production, NH3 oxidation, and resultant heat, gas, and gas-driven mass flow rates are computed in the fluid reservoir case for selected bodies. At Enceladus the oxidant power inputs are comparable to limits on nonthermal kinetic power for the south polar plumes. Total heat output and plume gas abundance may be accounted for at Enceladus if plume activity is cyclic in high and low "Old Faithful" phases, so that oxidants can accumulate during low activity phases. Interior upwelling of primordially abundant NH3 and CH4 hydrates is assumed to resupply the reductant fuels. Much lower irradiation fluxes on Kuiper Belt Objects require correspondingly larger times for accumulation of oxidants to produce comparable resurfacing, but brightness and surface composition of some objects suggest that such activity may be ongoing.

Cooper, John F.; Cooper, Paul D.; Sittler, Edward C.; Sturner, Steven J.; Rymer, Abigail M.; Hill, Matthew E.

2007-01-01

464

Modeling of Daily Solar Energy on a Horizontal Surface for Five Main Sites in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents models for global and diffuse solar energy on a horizontal surface for main five sites in Malaysia. The global solar energy is modeled using linear, nonlinear, fuzzy logic, and artificial neural network (ANN) models, while the diffuse solar energy is modeled using linear, nonlinear, and ANN models. Three statistical values are used to evaluate the developed solar

Tamer Khatib; Azah Mohamed; Marwan Mahmoud; K. Sopian

2011-01-01

465

Toward a Low-CarMunicipal Financing for Energy Efficiency and Solar Power  

E-print Network

Toward a Low-CarMunicipal Financing for Energy Efficiency and Solar Power By Merrian C. Fuller Berkeley to address this barrier by making financing for solar power installations and energy-efficiency, such as improving energy efficiency and add- ing solar photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal systems to buildings

Kammen, Daniel M.

466

Identification of incentives for the use of solar energy technology in the MASEC region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings of a survey of the content, history and effectiveness of solar energy incentives in the 12-state region of the Mid-American Solar Energy Center are reported. The purpose of the survey is to: compile a current catalogue of solar incentives in the MASEC region, assess the effectiveness of those incentives in promoting the use of solar energy, develop a

T. R. Martineau; M. T. Smith; A. L. White

1978-01-01

467

Photochemical conversion of solar energy in the environment. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

Past research on photochemistry in the environment has focused on gas phase reactions in the atmosphere. Recently, however, environmentally significant photoreactions have been discovered in natural waters (i.e., the sea, lakes, and rivers), on soil surfaces, and in atmospheric condensed phases. These new investigations have been stimulated in part by interest in developing a scientific understanding of the role of photochemical processes in the biogeochemical cycles of various elements. In addition, other studies have explored the role of natural photochemical processes in cleansing the environemnt of various waste materials or, in some cases, in converting the wastes to more toxic substances. In the paper, current research results on the photochemical conversion of solar energy in aquatic environments and on soil and metal oxide surfaces are presented. Rate equations and products for selected homogeneous and heterogeneous photoreactions that occur in these systems are described. Data are presented for direct and sensitized photoreactions and for sunlight-initiated free radical reactions. (Copyright (c) 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

Zepp, R.G.

1991-01-01

468

DAPHNE: Energy Generation and storage, using Solar Sails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space travel is still in it's adolescent stages. Having embarked beyond the limit of our atmosphere for a mere 50 years, it is easy to imagine how much is yet to be discovered, in other solar systems and our own. One of the main factors that slow us down is the need for Energy. Long distance space travel requires a lot of energy, both for propulsion and operations alike. The principle of solar sails shows that the momentum of solar energy can be used beneficially, as can be seen in NASA's Sun-Jammer project. So, why not generate energy from this system? The DAPHNE system will utilize the simple principle of wind mills that is used here on Earth; using the force created by Solar wind to rotate an axle that in turn, generates energy. And this mill can be used to recharge spacecraft that need to fly further than it's own initial energy system will allow. Another benefit to developing this system is the fact that it is an alternative to nuclear energy generation for space, that a lot of modern research is being done on. The DAPHNE system can be considered a solution to long term propellant storage in space for interplanetary and interstellar travel. This paper proposes the design of an energy recharge technology, we called DAPHNE, which will utilize Nanotechnology, using solar sails to generate and store energy for future long-distance space craft to dock with, recharge and continue on their journey/mission. Examples of spacecraft in development that might benefit from a recharging station are the LISA Pathfinder, terrestrial exploration missions and eventually, the long interstellar missions that will be launched in the distant future. Thereby, allowing mankind to push the boundaries of our solar system and accelerate our ability to know what's out there. This technology would help the future generations of Space researchers move further than we can.

Argelagós Palau, Ana Maria; Savio Bradford, Brandon

469

Could Building Energy Codes Mandate Rooftop Solar in the Future?  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores existing requirements and compliance options for both commercial and residential code structures. Common alternative compliance options are discussed including Renewable Energy Credits (RECs), green-power purchasing programs, shared solar programs and other community-based renewable energy investments. Compliance options are analyzed to consider building lifespan, cost-effectiveness, energy trade-offs, enforcement concerns and future code development. Existing onsite renewable energy codes are highlighted as case studies for the code development process.

Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williams, Jeremiah

2012-08-01

470

Electron energy transport in the solar wind: Ulysses observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electron heat flux in the solar wind has been measured by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment in the ecliptic from 1 to 5 AU and out of the ecliptic during the recently completed pass over the solar south pole and the ongoing pass over the solar north pole. Although the electron heat flux contains only a fraction of the kinetic energy of the solar wind. the available energy is sufficient to account for the non-adiabatic expansion of the solar wind electrons. The Ulysses measurements indicate that the electron heat flux is actively dissipated in the solar wind. The exact mechanism or mechanisms is unknown. but a model based on the whistler heat flux instability predicts radial gradients for the electron heat flux in good agreement with the data. We will present measurements of the correlation between wave activity measured by the unified radio and plasma experiment (URAP) and the electron heat flux throughout the Ulysses mission. The goal is to determine if whistler waves are a good candidate for the observed electron heat flux dissipation. The latitudinal gradients of the electron heat flux. wave activity. and electron pressure will be discussed in light of the changes in the magnetic field geometry from equator to poles.

Scime, Earl; Gary, S. Peter; Phillips, J. L.; Corniileau-Wehrlin, N.; Solomon, J.

1995-01-01

471

Detection of low energy solar neutrinos with HPGermanium  

E-print Network

The potential of the GENIUS proposal to measure the spectrum of low energy solar neutrinos in real time is studied. The detection reaction is elastic neutrino-electron scattering. The energy resolution for detecting the recoil electrons is about 0.3 %, the energy threshold is a few keV. The expected number of events for a target of one ton of natural germanium is 3.6 events/day for pp-neutrinos and 1.3 events/day for 7Be-neutrinos, calculated in the standard solar model (BP98). It should be feasible to achieve a background low enough to measure the low energy solar neutrino spectrum.

L. Baudis; H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus

1999-06-30

472

Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

1980-09-01

473

Design considerations for a Mars solar energy system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The supply, collection and demand for solar power needed for a ten person base on Mars are examined. A detailed discussion is presented for the estimation of the amount of usable solar energy than can reach the surface of Mars. The irradiance is determined for high, middle and low latitudes. In general it was found that the variation of dust in the Martian atmosphere affected the optimal choice for solar power collection mechanisms. Sun tracking systems worked best under clearer conditions and basic horizontal collectors performed best under cloud/hazy conditions.

Atkinson, David H.; Gwynne, Owen

1992-01-01

474

Proposed reference irradiance spectra for solar energy systems testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) adopted consensus standard solar terrestrial spectra (ASTM E891-82, E892-82) to provide standard spectra for photovoltaic (PV) performance applications. These spectra have been also used for other applications such as solar energy systems, fenestration, and materials degradation. These reference spectra were recomputed and the standards revised in 1987. The International Standards

C. A. Gueymard; D. Myers; K. Emery

2002-01-01

475

Gas dynamic heating of chondrule precursor grains in the solar nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation of solar nebula gasdynamic processes which may account for the melting of chondrule precursor grains, both drag heating due to grain relative motion and heating due to collisions with gas molecules in thermal motion are considered in conjunction with the effect of thermally emitted radiation on grain heating and cooling. The melting of chondrule-sized grains is

L. L. Hood; M. Horanyi

1991-01-01

476

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility?scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta?analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for

John J. Burkhardt III; Garvin Heath; Elliot Cohen

2012-01-01

477

Energy Management Method for solar race car design and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy management method for designing a solar-cell supplied electrical vehicle is described and its implementation on Istanbul Technical University (ITU) race cars is discussed. The effectiveness of the method has been tested and proved during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 races organized by the Scientific and Technical Council of Turkey. The ldquoenergy management model (EMS)rdquo, which computes the energy

O. Ustun; M. Yilmaz; C. Gokce; U. Karakaya; R. N. Tuncay

2009-01-01

478

SOLAR THERMAL ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the paper is to study the feasibility of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) driven by solar thermal energy as a renewable energy option for small and medium sized commercial usage, power generation of less than 10MW. ORC is principally a conventional Rankine Cycle that uses organic compound as the working fluid instead of water and it is

Cheng Eng Cong; Sanjayan Velautham; Amer Nordin Darus

2005-01-01

479

Transparent conductors as solar energy materials: A panoramic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent conductors (TCs) have a multitude of applications for solar energy utilization and for energy savings, especially in buildings. The largest of these applications, in terms of area, make use of the fact that the TCs have low infrared emittance and hence can be used to improve the thermal properties of modern fenestration. Depending on whether the TCs are reflecting

Claes G. Granqvist

2007-01-01

480

Energy coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes in detail how we are led to the first approximation expression for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function ?, which correlates well with the total energy consumption rate UTof the magnetosphere. It is shown that ? is the primary factor which controls the time development of magnetospheric substorms and storms. The finding of this particular expression ?

S.-I. Akasofu

1981-01-01

481

Solar Energy Education Bibliography: Books, Films & Slides. Expanded Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory offers a comprehensive listing of resources, including films, for energy education. The document is divided into three sections: (1) Publications according to elementary, secondary, and college level; (2) Audiovisuals; and (3) Periodicals. Specific energy topics covered include solar, wind, and biomass technologies. (RE)

Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

482

Energy parameters of a solar car for Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

All parameters related to car energy were investigated in this work, and the power basics of a car design powered by solar energy are laid down. Year-round weather conditions, car weight, road roughness and road inclination were taken as variable parameters used to calculate the car speed and working hours (year round). Fixed parameters taken for the design were: a

M. Hammad; T. Khatib

1996-01-01

483

Status report on the Sandia Laboratories solar total energy program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility study of a combination of solar energy collection and total or cascaded energy systems has been underway at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, since the summer of 1972. Results of the systems analysis effort have been previously reported. Systems analyses and hardware design have continued. This paper summarizes results of the program through June 1975 by providing systems

R STROMBERG

1975-01-01

484

Energy: A continuing bibliography with indexes, February 1975. [solar energy, energy conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system from July 1, 1974 through September 30, 1974 are cited. Regional, national, and international energy systems; research and development on fuels and other sources of energy; energy conversion, transport, transmission, distribution, and storage, with emphasis on the use of hydrogen and solar energy are included along with methods of locating or using new energy resources. Emphasis is placed on energy for heating, lighting, and powering aircraft, surface vehicles, or other machinery.

1975-01-01

485

Modular High-Energy Systems for Solar Power Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular High-Energy Systems are Stepping Stones to provide capabilities for energy-rich infrastructure located in space to support a variety of exploration scenarios as well as provide a supplemental source of energy during peak demands to ground grid systems. Abundant renewable energy at lunar or other locations could support propellant production and storage in refueling scenarios that enable affordable exploration. Renewable energy platforms in geosynchronous Earth orbits can collect and transmit power to satellites, or to Earth-surface locations. Energy-rich space technologies also enable the use of electric-powered propulsion systems that could efficiently deliver cargo and exploration facilities to remote locations. A first step to an energy-rich space infrastructure is a 100-kWe class solar-powered platform in Earth orbit. The platform would utilize advanced technologies in solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, thermal management, electric propulsion, wireless avionics, autonomous in space rendezvous and docking, servicing, and robotic assembly. It would also provide an energy-rich free-flying platform to demonstrate in space a portfolio of technology flight experiments. This paper summary a preliminary design concept for a 100-kWe solar-powered satellite system to demonstrate in-flight a variety of advanced technologies, each as a separate payload. These technologies include, but are not limited to state-of-the-art solar concentrators, highly efficient multi-junction solar cells, integrated thermal management on the arrays, and innovative deployable structure design and packaging to enable the 100-kW satellite feasible to launch on one existing launch vehicle. Higher voltage arrays and power distribution systems (PDS) reduce or eliminate the need for massive power converters, and could enable direct-drive of high-voltage solar electric thrusters.

Howell, Joe T.; Carrington, Connie K.; Marzwell, Neville I.; Mankins, John C.

2006-01-01

486

Pump efficiency in solar-energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data. Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented.

1978-01-01

487

Controller for solar-energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes operation and testing of computerized control unit for solar-heating and cooling systems. Unit includes electronics and 'plumbing'. Components are modular. Microprocessor with ROM and RAM operates fans, pumps, and valves, and retains selected data for 32 hours.

Hankins, J. D.

1980-01-01

488

Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode.  

PubMed

The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cells is the pH membrane gradient which reduces cell voltage and power output. This problem is caused by acid production at the anode, alkaline production at the cathode, and the nonspecific proton exchange through the membrane. Here we report a solution for a new kind of solar energy powered microbial fuel cell via development of a reversible bioelectrode responsible for both biocatalyzed anodic and cathodic electron transfer. Anodic produced protons were used for the cathodic reduction reaction which held the formation of a pH membrane gradient. The microbial fuel cell continuously generated electricity and repeatedly reversed polarity dependent on aeration or solar energy exposure. Identified organisms within biocatalyzing biofilm of the reversible bioelectrode were algae, (cyano)bacteria and protozoa. These results encourage application of solar energy powered microbial fuel cells. PMID:19961218

Strik, David P B T B; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

2010-01-01

489

Support and maneuvering apparatus for solar energy receivers  

DOEpatents

A support and maneuvering apparatus is disclosed for a solar energy receiving device adpated for receiving and concentrating solar energy and having a central axis extending through the center thereof. The apparatus includes a frame for mounting the perimeter of said solar energy receiving device. A support member extends along the central axis of the receiving device and has a base end passing through the center of the receiving device and an outer distal end adapted for carrying a solar energy receiving and conversion mechanism. A variable tension mechanism interconnects the support member with the frame to provide stiffening for the support member and the frame and to assist in the alignment of the frame to optimize the optical efficiency of the solar energy receiving device. A rotatable base is provided, and connecting members extend from the base for pivotable attachment to the frame at spaced positions therealong. Finally, an elevation assembly is connected to the receiving device for selectively pivoting the receiving device about an axis defined between the attachment positions of the connecting members on the frame.

Murphy, Lawrence M. (Littleton, CO)

1989-01-01

490

Support and maneuvering apparatus for solar energy receivers  

DOEpatents

A support and maneuvering apparatus is disclosed for a solar energy receiving device adapted for receiving and concentrating solar energy and having a central axis extending through the center thereof. The apparatus includes a frame for mounting the perimeter of said solar energy receiving device. A support member extends along the central axis of the receiving device and has a base end passing through the center of the receiving device and an outer distal end adapted for carrying a solar energy receiving and conversion mechanism. A variable tension mechanism interconnects the support member with the frame to provide stiffening for the support member and the frame and to assist in the alignment of the frame to optimize the optical efficiency of the solar energy receiving device. A rotatable base is provided, and connecting members extend from the base for pivotable attachment to the frame at spaced positions therealong. Finally, an elevation assembly is connected to the receiving device for selectively pivoting the receiving about an axis defined between the attachment positions of the connecting members on the frame. 4 figs.

Murphy, L.M.

1988-07-28

491

Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use  

SciTech Connect

The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

1980-01-01

492

Magnetic tornadoes as energy channels into the solar corona.  

PubMed

Heating the outer layers of the magnetically quiet solar atmosphere to more than one million kelvin and accelerating the solar wind requires an energy flux of approximately 100 to 300?watts per square metre, but how this energy is transferred and dissipated there is a puzzle and several alternative solutions have been proposed. Braiding and twisting of magnetic field structures, which is caused by the convective flows at the solar surface, was suggested as an efficient mechanism for atmospheric heating. Convectively driven vortex flows that harbour magnetic fields are observed to be abundant in the photosphere (the visible surface of the Sun). Recently, corresponding swirling motions have been discovered in the chromosphere, the atmospheric layer sandwiched between the photosphere and the corona. Here we report the imprints of these chromospheric swirls in the transition region and low corona, and identify them as observational signatures of rapidly rotating magnetic structures. These ubiquitous structures, which resemble super-tornadoes under solar conditions, reach from the convection zone into the upper solar atmosphere and provide an alternative mechanism for channelling energy from the lower into the upper solar atmosphere. PMID:22739314

Wedemeyer-Böhm, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Steiner, Oskar; van der Voort, Luc Rouppe; de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime; Fedun, Viktor; Erdélyi, Robert

2012-06-28

493

Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition  

SciTech Connect

Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1982-01-01

494

A note on the systematics of noble gas abundance ratios in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is demonstrated that there is a general regularity in all noble gas elemental patterns in the atmospheres of the planets. A number of models are proposed to explain this, and these models are examined and judged. In order to explain the observed elemental gas ratios, it is proposed that they may have resulted from selective loss of noble gas from the initial atmospheres of the terrestrial or other planets; that they may be due to solar wind irradiation of the planets and their small precursor bodies; or the noble gases were imported by carrier grains with their peculiar abundance ratio already fixed.

Shukolyukov, Yu. A.

1991-04-01

495

Flexible hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies.  

PubMed

We report the first flexible hybrid energy cell that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies to power some electronic devices. For having both the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based nanogenerator (NG) was used to harvest thermal and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on the flexible polyester (PET) substrate, a ZnO-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) heterojunction solar cell was designed for harvesting solar energy. By integrating the NGs and the solar cells, a hybrid energy cell was fabricated to simultaneously harvest three different types of energies. With the use of a Li-ion battery as the energy storage, the harvested energy can drive four red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). PMID:23199138

Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Zhu, Guang; Lee, Sangmin; Lin, Zong-Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

2013-01-22

496

An energy perspective on landfill gas  

SciTech Connect

Globally, one billion metric tons of organic waste in the form of municipal solid waste are placed into solid-waste containment facilities every year. Complete biodegradation of this waste can generate approximately 2.8x10[sup 11] m[sup 3] (9.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) or 1.98x10[sup 8] metric tons) of biogas. Biogas consists of approximately equal proportions of methane and carbon dioxide; thus a year's worth of waste can potentially generate 1.4x10[sup 11] m[sup 3] (5 Tcf or 9.9x10[sup 7] metric tons) of methane. If we assume that landfill-biogas generation began only 20 years ago and has proceeded at a steady rate, then we can estimate that it can contribute 5x10[sup 10] m[sup 3] (1.8 Tcf or 36x10[sup 6] metric tons) of methane to the global atmospheric budget every year. Landfill gas is difficult to recover and use. Exploitation of biogas includes use as a raw product for heat energy, dehydration to produce electric generator fuel, refinement for commercial transportation, and use as a chemical feedstock. Controlled-reactor landfills, called [open quotes]biofills,[close quotes] are designed for optimum methane generation to ensure a steady and consistent rate of gas generation. Biofill mechanisms used to improve gas production include physical and chemical modifications to the modern landfill design. These methods can reduce the gas-generation time from 80 years to 5 years, can reduce the waste mass, and can reduce negative effects on the environment. 134 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Hutchinson, P.J. (Hutchinson Group, Ltd., Murrysville, PA (United States))

1993-01-01

497

Artificial photosynthesis: biomimetic approaches to solar energy conversion and storage.  

PubMed

Using sun as the energy source, natural photosynthesis carries out a number of useful reactions such as oxidation of water to molecular oxygen and fixation of CO(2) in the form of sugars. These are achieved through a series of light-induced multi-electron-transfer reactions involving chlorophylls in a special arrangement and several other species including specific enzymes. Artificial photosynthesis attempts to reconstruct these key processes in simpler model systems such that solar energy and abundant natural resources can be used to generate high energy fuels and restrict the amount of CO(2) in the atmosphere. Details of few model catalytic systems that lead to clean oxidation of water to H(2) and O(2), photoelectrochemical solar cells for the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, solar cells for total decomposition of water and catalytic systems for fixation of CO(2) to fuels such as methanol and methane are reviewed here. PMID:20439158

Kalyanasundaram, K; Graetzel, M

2010-06-01

498

Upper limits on the total radiant energy of solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limits on the total radiant energy of solar flares during the period February-November 1980 are established using data collected by the solar-constant monitor (ACRIM) on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. Results show typical limits of 6 x 10 to the 29th erg/sec for a 32-second integration time, with 5-sigma statistical significance, for an impulsive emission. For a gradual component, about 4 x 10 to the 32nd ergs total radiant energy is found. The limits are determined to lie about an order of magnitude higher than the total radiant energy estimated from the various known emission components, which indicates the presence of a heretofore unknown dominant component of flare radiation.

Hudson, H. S.; Willson, R. C.

1983-01-01

499

A low cost high temperature sun tracking solar energy collector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and economic evaluation of a low cost high temperature two-axis, sun tracking solar energy collector is described. The collector design was specifically intended for solar energy use with the freedom of motion about its two control axes limited only to the amplitude required to track the sun. An examination of the performance criteria required in order to track the sun and perform the desired solar energy conversion was used as the starting point and guide to the design. This factor, along with its general configuration and structural aspect ratios, was the significant contributor to achieving low cost. The unique mechanical design allowed the control system to counter wide tolerances specified for the fabrication of the azimuth frame and to perform within a small tracking error.

Perkins, G. S.

1977-01-01

500

A low cost high temperature sun tracking solar energy collector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and economic evaluation of a low cost high temperature two axis sun tracking solar energy collector are described. The collector design is specifically intended for solar energy use with the freedom of motion about its two control axes being limited only to the amplitude required to track the sun. An examination of the performance criteria required in order to track the sun and perform the desired solar energy conversion is used as the starting point and guide to the design. This factor, along with its general configuration and structural aspect ratios, is the significant contributor to achieving low cost. The unique mechanical design allows the control system to counter wide tolerances that will be specified for the fabrication of the azimuth frame and perform within a small tracking error.

Perkins, G. S.

1977-01-01