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1

Sulfur hexafluoride gas tracer studies in streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas tracers are useful investigative tools in the study of reaeration and the fate of volatile organic contaminants in many natural streams. They enable the direct measurement of a variety of stream parameters, including the gas exchange rates between the stream and the atmosphere, as well as the spreading rate for dissolved pollutants downstream of a discharge point or spill

David E. Hibbs; J. S. Gulliver; K. L. Parkhill

1998-01-01

2

Sulfur hexafluoride gas tracer studies in streams  

SciTech Connect

Gas tracers are useful investigative tools in the study of reaeration and the fate of volatile organic contaminants in many natural streams. They enable the direct measurement of a variety of stream parameters, including the gas exchange rates between the stream and the atmosphere, as well as the spreading rate for dissolved pollutants downstream of a discharge point or spill site. The air-water mass transfer coefficients, dispersion coefficients, and mean residence times in two experimental streams and one natural stream are measured using a variation of the standard volatile tracer-dye technique. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is used as the volatile tracer and rhodamine WT is used as the conservative tracer. The low limit of quantification of SF{sub 6} makes it possible to inject SF{sub 6}-rich water into many streams and avoid complications with dosing a stream with a gaseous tracer. The experimental methods are described in detail. The SF{sub 6} measurements were extremely precise, producing smooth concentration time curves. The SF{sub 6} measurements collected in side-by-side experimental channels yielded similar values of the gas transfer coefficient.

Hibbs, D.E.; Gulliver, J.S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Parkhill, K.L. [Freese and Nichols, Inc., Fort Worth, TX (United States)

1998-08-01

3

Comparison of the optoacoustic and Hg tracer methods for the study of energy-transfer processes in gas mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of energy transfer from vibrationally excited SFâ and pentafluorobenzene to argon in the gas phase have been studied by using the Hg tracer technique and time-resolved optoacoustics. These two techniques which rely on fundamentally different physical principles were found to give equivalent results. The implications for the study of energy-transfer processes in gas mixtures are discussed.

Timothy J. Wallington; Walter Braun; Kenneth M. Beck; Robert J. Gordon

1988-01-01

4

PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.  

SciTech Connect

Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving transport models needed for risk assessment.

SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J.; FLAHERTY, J.E.

2006-05-06

5

A pilot study of the behavior of gas- and particle-phase ETS tracers in residences  

SciTech Connect

Our previous study of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a three-room environmental chamber showed that smoking history significantly influenced inter-room ETS transport, particularly of gas-phase nicotine. We conducted a three-home pilot study where smoking was limited to one room. Single-smoker residences were monitored during five one-week periods while the smoker participated in a smoking cessation program. Nicotine traced ETS particles were detected reliably in the smoking rooms (SRs) and unreliably in the non-smoking rooms (NSRs). On average, the ventilation- and volume-normalized smoking rate, 0.1 Cigarette-h{sup -1} m{sup -3}, added about 17 and 4 {micro}g m{sup -3} of ETS particles into the SR and NSR, while average nicotine concentration increases were 2 and 0.06 {micro}g m{sup -3}, respectively. Thus, nicotine tracers may underestimate ETS particle exposure in a NSR (e.g., a child's bedroom) by a factor of 2 to 8. In other words, ETS exposure predicted from nicotine concentrations could be almost an order of magnitude lower than actual exposure.

Apte, Michael; Gundel, Lara; Dod, Raymond; Chang, Gee-Min; Sextro, Richard

2002-02-01

6

Tracer gas dispersion in ducts—study of a new compact device using arrays of sonic micro jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most feasible ways to measure duct airflows is by tracer gas techniques, especially for complex situations when the duct lengths are short as well as their access, which makes extremely difficult or impossible other methods to be implemented. One problem associated with the implementation of tracer gas technique when the ducts lengths are short is due to

A. Rocha Silva; Clito F. Afonso

2004-01-01

7

Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.  

PubMed

The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in background concentrations to allow for increased sensitivity. PMID:25175285

Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

2014-01-01

8

ANALYSIS OF ESTUARINE TRACER-GAS TRANSPORT AND DESORPTION.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The riverine tracer-gas technique provides a direct, reach-averaged measure of gas exchange, is fairly simple to implement, and is widely accepted for determining reaeration-rate coefficients in rivers. The method, however, is not directly applicable to flows having vertical density gradients. Consequently, studies were undertaken to develop and evaluate methods for obtaining surface-exchange coefficients from estuarine tracer-gas data. Reasonable estimates of the desorption coefficient (within 50 percent of the correct value) were obtained when an analytical solution of the transport equation was compared with data from a numerically simulated continuous release of tracer gas.

Bales, Jerad D.; Holley, Edward R.

1987-01-01

9

Measuring Low Flows in Devonian Shale Gas Wells With a Tracer-Gas Flowmeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a design for a downhole flowmeter that can locate and quantify gas-entry points in a well is presented. The instrument has a gas-tracer injector at its lower end and a tracer detector at its upper end. The authors determine gas flow in the well by injecting tracer gas at a precisely measured rate into the natural gas

Richmond Bennett; Paul Schettler Jr.; Todd Gustafson; Illona Gillette

1991-01-01

10

Field measurements of tracer gas transport by barometric pumping  

SciTech Connect

Vertical gas motions induced by barometric pressure variations can carry radioactive gases out of the rubblized region produced by an underground nuclear explosion, through overburden rock, into the atmosphere. To better quantify transit time and amount of transport, field experiments were conducted at two sites on Pahute Mesa, Kapelli and Tierra, where radioactive gases had been earlier detected in surface cracks. At each site, two tracer gases were injected into the rubblized chimney 300-400 m beneath the surface and their arrival was monitored by concentration measurements in gas samples extracted from shallow collection holes. The first ``active`` tracer was driven by a large quantity of injected air; the second ``passive`` tracer was introduced with minimal gas drive to observe the natural transport by barometric pumping. Kapelli was injected in the fall of 1990, followed by Tierra in the fall of 1991. Data was collected at both sites through the summer of 1993. At both sites, no surface arrival of tracer was observed during the active phase of the experiment despite the injection of several million cubic feet of air, suggesting that cavity pressurization is likely to induce horizontal transport along high permeability layers rather than vertical transport to the surface. In contrast, the vertical pressure gradients associated with barometric pumping brought both tracers to the surface in comparable concentrations within three months at Kapelli, whereas 15 months elapsed before surface arrival at Tierra. At Kapelli, a quasisteady pumping regime was established, with tracer concentrations in effluent gases 1000 times smaller than concentrations thought to exist in the chimney. Tracer concentrations observed at Tierra were typically an order of magnitude smaller. Comparisons with theoretical calculations suggest that the gases are traveling through {approximately}1 millimeter vertical fractures spaced 2 to 4 meters apart. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, San Diego, CA (United States); McKinnis, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Mercury, NV (United States); Hearst, J.R.; Burkhard, N.R.; Smith, C.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-07-28

11

Impact of Salinity on the Air-Water Partition Coefficient of Gas Tracers  

SciTech Connect

The use of a gas partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) has been proposed as a standard approach to the measurement of field-scale vadose zone water saturation fractions. The accuracy of the saturation measurement is largely dependent on the determination of the air-water partitioning coefficient, K, of the tracers; however, in practice, K is also strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the water. In this study, column tests were conducted to investigate the impact of salinity on tracer partitioning coefficients for two promising gas phase candidate tracers, dibromomethane and dimethylether. Sodium thiosulfate was used as a salinity surrogate. The dynamic K values of the two partitioning tracers were measured for sodium thiosulfate concentrations between 0% and 36% by weight. Methane was used as the non-partitioning tracer for all experiments. K values were found to decrease significantly with increasing sodium thiosulfate concentration. Similar correlations between K values and sodium thiosulfate concentration were found for both of the partitioning tracers tested.

Zhong, Lirong; Pope, Gary A.; Evans, John C.; Cameron, Richard J.

2005-09-01

12

Measuring low flows in Devonian shale gas wells with a tracer-gas flowmeter  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a design for a downhole flowmeter that can locate and quantify gas-entry points in a well is presented. The instrument has a gas-tracer injector at its lower end and a tracer detector at its upper end. The authors determine gas flow in the well by injecting tracer gas at a precisely measured rate into the natural gas flow and measuring the concentration with the detector. The result is a wireline log that locates and quantifies natural gas sources from the decrease in measured flow as the wireline instrument passes each source. The new design has been tested against calibrated gas flows in the laboratory and in Devonian shale gas wells in the field. The new flowmeter is compared with spinner, temperature, sonic, and television logs. The instrument provides an expanded flow range compared with spinner logs and furnishes quantitative mass-flow information compared with incomplete and qualitative indications provided by temperature and sonic logs.

Bennett, R. (Columbia Gas System Service Corp. (US)); Schettler, P.D. Jr.; Gustafson, T.D.; Gillette, I.E. (Juniata Coll., Huntingdon, PA (United States))

1991-06-01

13

Evaluating Gas-Phase Transport And Detection Of Noble Gas Signals From Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Chemical Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) involved detonating 1 kiloton of chemical explosive in a subsurface cavity which also contained bottles of tracer gases (ref 1). That experiment provided an improved understanding of transport processes relevant to the detection of noble gas signals at the surface emanating from a clandestine underground nuclear explosion (UNE). As an alternative to performing large chemical detonations to simulate gas transport from UNEs, we have developed a test bed for subsurface gas transport, sampling and detection studies using a former UNE cavity. The test bed site allows for the opportunity to evaluate pathways to the surface created by the UNE as well as possible transport mechanisms including barometric pumping and cavity pressurization (ref 2). With the test bed we have monitored long-term chemical tracers as well as newly injected tracers. In order to perform high temporal resolution tracer gas monitoring, we have also developed a Subsurface Gas Smart Sampler (SGSS) which has application during an actual On Site Inspection (OSI) and is available for deployment in OSI field exercises planned for 2014. Deployment of five SGSS at the remote test bed has provided unparalleled detail concerning relationships involving tracer gas transport to the surface, barometric fluctuations and temporal variations in the natural radon concentration. We anticipate that the results of our tracer experiments will continue to support the development of improved noble gas detection technology for both OSI and International Monitoring System applications. 1. C.R. Carrigan et al., 1996, Nature, 382, p. 528. 2. Y. Sun and C.R. Carrigan, 2012, Pure Appl. Geophys., DOI 10.1007/s00024-012-0514-4.

Carrigan, C. R.; Hunter, S. L.; Sun, Y.; Wagoner, J. L.; Ruddle, D.; Anderson, G.; Felske, D.; Myers, K.; Zucca, J. J.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.; Chipman, V.; Snelson, C. M.

2013-12-01

14

Estimating fracture spacing from natural tracers in shale-gas production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource appraisal and long-term recovery potential of shale gas relies on the characteristics of the fracture networks created within the formation. Both well testing and analysis of micro-seismic data can provide information on fracture characteristics, but approaches that directly utilize observations of gas transport through the fractures are not well-developed. We examine transport of natural tracers and analyze the breakthrough curves (BTC's) of these tracers with a multi-rate mass transfer (MMT) model to elucidate fracture characteristics. The focus here is on numerical simulation studies to determine constraints on the ability to accurately estimate fracture network characteristics as a function of the diffusion coefficients of the natural tracers, the number and timing of observations, the flow rates from the well, and the noise in the observations. Traditional tracer testing approaches for dual-porosity systems analyze the BTC of an injected tracer to obtain fracture spacing considering a single spacing value. An alternative model is the MMT model where diffusive mass transfer occurs simultaneously over a range of matrix block sizes defined by a statistical distribution (e.g., log-normal, gamma, or power-law). The goal of the estimation is defining the parameters of the fracture spacing distribution. The MMT model has not yet been applied to analysis of natural in situ natural tracers. Natural tracers are omnipresent in the subsurface, potentially obviating the needed for introduced tracers, and could be used to improve upon fracture characteristics estimated from pressure transient and decline curve production analysis. Results of this study provide guidance for data collection and analysis of natural tracers in fractured shale formations. Parameter estimation on simulated BTC's will provide guidance on the necessary timing of BTC sampling in field experiments. The MMT model can result in non-unique or nonphysical parameter estimates. We address this with Bayesian estimation approaches that can define uncertainty in estimated parameters as a posterior probability distribution. We will also use Bayesian estimation to examine model identifiability (e.g., selecting between parametric distributions of fracture spacing) from various BTC's. Application of the MMT model to natural tracers and hydraulic fractures in shale will require extension of the model to account for partitioning of the tracers between multiple phases and different mass transfer behavior in mixed gas-liquid (e.g., oil or groundwater rich) systems. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Bauer, S. J.; McKenna, S. A.; Heath, J. E.; Gardner, P.

2012-12-01

15

[Tracer gas evaluations of local exhaust hood performance].  

PubMed

A local exhaust hood is one of the most commonly used controls for harmful contaminants in the working environment. In Japan, the performance of a hood is evaluated by hood velocity measurements, and administrative performance requirements for hoods are provided as control velocities by the Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law. However, it is doubtful whether the control velocity would be the most suitable velocity for any industrial hood since the control velocity is not substantiated by actual measurements of the containment ability of each hood. In order to examine the suitability of the control velocity as a performance requirement, a hood performance test by the tracer gas method, using carbon dioxide (CO(2)), was conducted with an exterior type hood in a laboratory. In this study, as an index of the hood performance, capture efficiency defined as the ratio of contaminant quantity captured by the hood to the total generated contaminant quantity, was determined by measuring the CO(2) concentrations. When the assumptive capture point of the contaminant was located at a point 30 cm from the hood opening, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of less than the current control velocity. Without cross draft, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s (corresponding to 40% of the control velocity) at the capture point. Reduction of the suction velocity to 0.2 m/s caused an 80% decrease in exhaust flow rate. The effect of cross draft, set at 0.3 m/s, on the capture efficiency differed according to its direction. When the direction of the cross draft was normal to the hood centerline, the effect was not recognized and a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s. A cross draft from a worker's back (at an angle of 45 degrees to the hood centerline) did not affect the capture efficiency, either. When the cross draft blew at an angle of 135 degrees to the hood centerline, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.4 m/s. The reduction of suction velocity would beneficially reduce running costs of local exhaust hoods and air conditioning. Effective and economical exhaustion would be achieved if the minimum velocity obtained by the tracer gas method were to be substituted for the excessive control velocity. PMID:17938560

Ojima, Jun

2007-09-01

16

Analysis of volatile phase transport in soils using natural radon gas as a tracer  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted a field study of soil gas transport processes using radon gas as a naturally occurring tracer. The .experiment monitored soil gas radon activity, soil moisture, and soil temperature at three depths in the shallow soil column; barometric pressure, rainfall and wind speed were monitored at the soil surface. Linear and multiple regression analysis of the data sets has shown that the gas phase radon activities under natural environmental conditions are influenced by soil moisture content, barometric pressure variations, soil temperature and soil structure. The effect of wind speed on subsurface radon activities under our field conditions has not been demonstrated.

Chen, C.; Thomas, D.M.

1992-12-31

17

Isotopologues of Dense Gas Tracers in NGC 1068  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of isotopic lines of dense gas tracers toward the nuclear region of nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with the IRAM 30 m telescope and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) 12 m telescope. We detected four isotopic lines (H13CN 1-0, H13CO+ 1-0, HN13C 1-0, and HC18O+ 1-0) at the 3 mm band with the IRAM 30 m telescope and obtained upper limits of other lines. We calculated optical depths of dense gas tracers with the detected isotopic lines of HCN 1-0, HCO+ 1-0, and HNC 1-0. We find that the 14N/15N abundance ratio is greater than 420 if we adopt the upper limit of HC15N(1-0) emission. Combining this with fluxes of 1-0 lines from IRAM 30 m observations and the upper limit of 3-2 lines from APEX 12 m observations, we also estimated the excitation condition of molecular gas in the nuclear region of NGC 1068, which is less dense than that in the extreme starburst regions of galaxies.

Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Qiu, Jianjie; Shi, Yong; Zhang, Jiangshui; Fang, Min

2014-11-01

18

COMPARISON OF MODELLED AND MEASURED TRACER GAS CONCENTRATIONS DURING THE ACROSS NORTH AMERICA TRACER EXPERIMENT (ANATEX)  

EPA Science Inventory

The 24-hour surface concentrations of several perfluorocarbon tracer gases measured during the 1987 Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX) provided a unique continental-scale data set with which to evaluate long-range transport and diffusion models. One such model, a mul...

19

Atmospheric tracer experiments for regional dispersion studies  

SciTech Connect

Tracer experiments are being conducted to verify atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations at distances from tens to hundreds of km from pollutant sources. In one study, a 2 1/2 year sampling program has been carried out at 13 sites located 30 to 140 km from a source of /sup 85/Kr at the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. Average weekly concentrations as well as twice-daily concentrations were obtained. Sampling data and meteorological data, including surface, tower, and rawinsonde observations are available on magnetic tape for model verification studies. Some verification results for the Air Resources Laboratories Atmospheric Transort and Dispersion Model (ARL-ATAD) are shown for averaging periods from one week to two years.

Heffter, J.L.; Ferber, G.J.

1980-01-01

20

Generation of ethylene tracer by noncatalytic pyrolysis of natural gas at elevated pressure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is a critical need within the pipeline gas industry for an inexpensive and reliable technology to generate an identification tag or tracer that can be added to pipeline gas to identify gas that may escape and improve the deliverability and management of gas in underground storage fields. Ethylene is an ideal tracer, because it does not exist naturally in the pipeline gas, and because its physical properties are similar to the pipeline gas components. A pyrolysis process, known as the Tragen process, has been developed to continuously convert the ???2%-4% ethane component present in pipeline gas into ethylene at common pipeline pressures of 800 psi. In our studies of the Tragen process, pyrolysis without steam addition achieved a maximum ethylene yield of 28%-35% at a temperature range of 700-775 ??C, corresponding to an ethylene concentration of 4600-5800 ppm in the product gas. Coke deposition was determined to occur at a significant rate in the pyrolysis reactor without steam addition. The ?? 13C isotopic analysis of gas components showed a ?? 13C value of ethylene similar to ethane in the pipeline gas, indicating that most of the ethylene was generated from decomposition of the ethane in the raw gas. However, ?? 13C isotopic analysis of the deposited coke showed that coke was primarily produced from methane, rather than from ethane or other heavier hydrocarbons. No coke deposition was observed with the addition of steam at concentrations of > 20% by volume. The dilution with steam also improved the ethylene yield. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Lu, Y.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Ruch, R.; Coleman, D.; Benson, L.J.

2005-01-01

21

Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy for conducting gas tracer tests and measuring water saturations in landfills  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy tested for measuring tracer gas in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement errors for tracer gases were 1-3% in landfill gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Background signals from landfill gas result in elevated limits of detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique is much less expensive and easier to use than GC. - Abstract: Gas tracer tests can be used to determine gas flow patterns within landfills, quantify volatile contaminant residence time, and measure water within refuse. While gas chromatography (GC) has been traditionally used to analyze gas tracers in refuse, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) might allow real-time measurements with reduced personnel costs and greater mobility and ease of use. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PAS for conducting gas tracer tests in landfills. Two tracer gases, difluoromethane (DFM) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}), were measured with a commercial PAS instrument. Relative measurement errors were invariant with tracer concentration but influenced by background gas: errors were 1-3% in landfill gas but 4-5% in air. Two partitioning gas tracer tests were conducted in an aerobic landfill, and limits of detection (LODs) were 3-4 times larger for DFM with PAS versus GC due to temporal changes in background signals. While higher LODs can be compensated by injecting larger tracer mass, changes in background signals increased the uncertainty in measured water saturations by up to 25% over comparable GC methods. PAS has distinct advantages over GC with respect to personnel costs and ease of use, although for field applications GC analyses of select samples are recommended to quantify instrument interferences.

Jung, Yoojin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M. Erfan; Chiu, Pei [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yazdani, Ramin [Yolo County Planning and Public Works Department, Division of Integrated Waste Management, Yolo County, 44090 County Rd. 28H, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Imhoff, Paul T., E-mail: imhoff@udel.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

2012-02-15

22

A continuous fast-response dual-tracer analyzer for halogenated atmospheric tracer studies  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for the simultaneous measurement of two tracers, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and a perfluorocarbon compound, is introduced. The new instrument is a modification of a commercially available fast-response, continuous analyzer for single halogenated atmospheric tracer studies. A two-channel flow system was implemented consisting of an alumina cartridge in one channel and a glass beads cartridge of equal flow resistance in the second channel. The alumina passes only sulfur hexafluoride, while the glass beads pass both SF6 and the perfluoroarbon tracer. The SF6 is quantified directly from the electron capture detector (ECD) signal in the alumina channel, and the perfluorocarbon concentration is obtained from the difference of the ECD responses in the two channels. The dual-tracer analyzer is field portable for mobile operations or fixed-location monitoring, has a response time of 1.2 s, and has limits of detection of about 15 pptv for SF6 and 10 pptv for perfluoro-methylcyclohexane, which was the principal perfluorocarbon tracer used in this study. The present instrument configuration, which requires periodic purging of the adsorbent trap, can obtain continuous measurements for a 10-15-min segment in every half hour of operation. Dual-tracer data from a field demonstration test are presented.

Rydock, J.P.; Lamb, B.K. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)] [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

1994-10-01

23

10 CFR 39.45 - Subsurface tracer studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsurface tracer studies. 39.45 Section 39.45 Energy NUCLEAR...SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.45 Subsurface tracer studies. (a) The licensee shall...

2010-01-01

24

ANALYSIS OF A GAS-PHASE PARTITIONING TRACER TEST CONDUCTED THROUGH FRACTURED MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The gas-phase partitioning tracer method was used to estimate non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), water, and air saturations in the vadose zone at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated field site in Tucson, AZ. The tracer test was conducted in a fractured clay system that is the confin...

25

Determination of Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media Using Gas-phase Tracer Tests  

SciTech Connect

Soil desiccation (drying), involving water evaporation induced by dry air injection and extraction, is a potentially robust remediation process to slow migration of inorganic or radionuclide contaminants through the vadose zone. The application of gas-phase partitioning tracer tests has been proposed as a means to estimate initial water volumes and to monitor the progress of the desiccation process at pilot-test and field sites. In this paper, tracer tests have been conducted in porous medium columns with various water saturations using sulfur hexafluoride as the conservative tracer and tricholorofluoromethane and difluoromethane as the water-partitioning tracers. For porous media with minimal silt and/or organic matter fractions, tracer tests provided reasonable saturation estimates for saturations close to zero. However, for sediments with significant silt and/or organic matter fractions, tracer tests only provided satisfactory results when the water saturation was at least 0.1 - 0.2. For dryer conditions, the apparent tracer retardation increases due to air – soil sorption, which is not included in traditional retardation coefficients derived from advection-dispersion equations accounting only for air – water partitioning and water – soil sorption. Based on these results, gas-phase partitioning tracer tests may be used to determine initial water volumes in sediments, provided the initial water saturations are sufficiently large. However, tracer tests are not suitable for quantifying moisture content in desiccated sediments.

Oostrom, Martinus; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.; Dane, Jacob H.

2011-04-15

26

Nitrous oxide as a tracer gas in the ASHRAE 110-1995 Standard.  

PubMed

ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 110 provides a quantitative method for testing the performance of laboratory fume hoods. Through release of a known quantity (4.0 Lpm) of a tracer gas, and subsequent monitoring of the tracer gas concentration in the "breathing zone" of a mannequin positioned in front of the hood, this method allows for evaluation of laboratory hood performance. Standard 110 specifies sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas; however, suitable alternatives are allowed. Through three series of performance tests, this analysis serves to investigate the use of nitrous oxide (N2O) as an alternate tracer gas for hood performance testing. Single gas tests were performed according to ASHRAE Standard 110-1995 with each tracer gas individually. These tests showed identical results using an acceptance criterion of AU 0.1 with the sash half open, nominal 18 inches (0.46m) high, and the face velocity at a nominal 60 fpm (0.3 m/s). Most data collected in these single gas tests, for both tracer gases, were below the minimum detection limit, thus two dual gas tests were developed for simultaneous sampling of both tracer gases. Dual gas dual ejector tests were performed with both tracer gases released simultaneously through two ejectors, and the concentration measured with two detectors using a common sampling probe. Dual gas single ejector tests were performed with both tracer gases released though a single ejector, and the concentration measured in the same manner as the dual gas dual ejector tests. The dual gas dual ejector tests showed excellent correlation, with R typically greater than 0.9. Variance was observed in the resulting regression line for each hood, likely due to non-symmetry between the two challenges caused by variables beyond the control of the investigators. Dual gas single ejector tests resulted in exceptional correlation, with R>0.99 typically for the consolidated data, with a slope of 1.0. These data indicate equivalent results for ASHRAE 110 performance testing using either SF6 or N2O, indicating N2O as an applicable alternate tracer gas. PMID:24283334

Burke, Martin; Wong, Larry; Gonzales, Ben A; Knutson, Gerhard

2014-01-01

27

National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

1995-05-31

28

RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses two tracer gas studies, to quantify the extent to which exhaust gases from indoor radon reduction systems are re-entrained into pitched-roof houses (exposing persons indoors), and the manner in which the exhausts disperse outdoors (exposing persons outside the...

29

RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

30

Interpretation of tracer surface diffusion experiments on UO 2 — roles of gas and solid transport processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spreading of a tracer from an enriched needle source which contacts the surface of a depleted pellet sink is analyzed rigorously. It is shown that volume diffusion in both the needle and the pellet need to be considered because only by this process is sufficient radioactivity accumulated for measurement after the anneal. Parasitic gas phase processes are of two types: evaporative loss of solid if a flowing gas is used, or molecular diffusion from enriched portions of the surface to depleted zones if the couple is in a closed vessel with a stagnant gas. A complete numerical solution including surface diffusion, solid diffusion, evaporative loss and contact resistance is applied to the UO 2 tracer study of Marlowe and Kazanoff at 1915°C. Based upon UO 2 evaporation experiments, the analysis shows that the evaporative loss effect is not important in these experiments. The UO 2 surface diffusion coefficient deduced from analysis of these data is 0.2 ± 0.1 cm 2/s at 1915°C, which is 10 4 times larger than that predicted by extrapolation of values obtained by mass transfer techniques.

Olander, D. R.

1981-02-01

31

Dust as a tracer of gas in galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a sample of 36 galaxies to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H2 + HI). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust-to-gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. When examining these relations as a function of galactocentric radius, we find the same correlations, albeit with a larger scatter, up to radius of r ~ 0.7r 25 (containing most of a galaxy's baryonic mass). The tight relations found for the bulk of the galaxy's baryonic content suggest that total gas masses of disk-like (non-merging/ULIRG) galaxies can be inferred from far-infrared continuum measurements in situations where only the latter are available. This work is to appear in Groves et al. (2014).

Groves, Brent; Schinnerer, Eva

2015-02-01

32

A laboratory study for tracer tomography based on arrival time inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation methods that allow for the characterization of transport subsurface properties, for example, characterization of the continuity of preferential transport paths or the presence of barriers are of great interest for the prediction of solute transport in the subsurface. The conventional way to determine transport parameters are tracer tests. Similar to the concept of hydraulic tomography the significance of tracer test results could be greatly increased with respect to spatial resolution of the estimated transport parameters by injecting and monitoring the tracer at different locations to produce a pattern of crossing transport paths. In this study I propose a tracer tomographic laboratory study performed at hard rocks in three-dimensions. The investigated fractured sandstone sample is characterized by significant matrix permeability. In comparison to low permeable hard rocks such as granite and gneiss, fractured porous media shows significant flow and transport within the matrix. The laboratory transport experiments are conducted using a gas flow and gas tracer technique that enables the generation of various flow field patterns via adjustable boundary conditions. In total 51 gas tracer (helium) tests were performed by changing the injection and monitoring position after each test. For the inversion of the tracer breakthrough curve an existing asymptotic approach based on the transformation of the transport equation into a form of the eikonal equation were applied. The uncertainty was assessed with singular value decomposition of the trajectory density matrix. The applied inversion technique allowed for the three-dimensional reconstruction of the interstitial velocity with a high resolution. The three-dimensional interstitial velocity distribution shows clearly that the transport is dominated by the matrix while the fractures show no evident influence.

Brauchler, R.

2012-12-01

33

Estimation of road traffic emission factors from a long term tracer study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road traffic emissions, one of the largest source categories in megacity inventories, are highly uncertain. It is essential to develop methodologies to reduce these uncertainties to manage air quality more effectively. In this paper, we propose a methodology to estimate road traffic emission factors (EFs) from a tracer experiment and from roadside pollutants measurements. We emitted continuously during about 300 non-consecutive hours a passive tracer from a finite line source placed on one site of an urban street. At the same time, we measured continuously the resulting tracer concentrations at the other side of the street with a portable on-line gas chromatograph. We used n-propane contained in commercial liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a passive tracer. Propane offers several advantages to traditional tracers (SF6, N2O, CFCs): low price, easily available, non-reactive, negligible global warming potential, and easy to detect with commercial on-line gas chromatographs. The tracer experiment was carried out from January to March 2007 in a busy street of Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Traffic volume, weather information and pollutant concentrations were also measured at the measurement site. We used the results of the tracer experiment to calculate the dilution factors and afterwards we used these dilution factors, the traffic counts and the pollutant concentrations to estimate the EFs. The proposed method assumes that the finite emission line represents the emission produced by traffic in the full area of the street and therefore there is an error associated to this assumption. We use the Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) model MISKAM to calculate this error and to correct the HCMC EFs. EFs for 15 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NO are reported here. A comparison with available studies reveals that most of the EFs estimated here are within the range of EFs reported in other studies.

Belalcazar, Luis Carlos; Fuhrer, Oliver; Ho, Minh Dung; Zarate, Erika; Clappier, Alain

2009-12-01

34

Estimating the gas and dye quantities for modified tracer technique measurements of stream reaeration coefficients  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measuring the reaeration coefficient of a stream with a modified tracer technique has been accomplished by injecting either ethylene or ethylene and propane together and a rhodamine-WT dye solution into the stream. The movement of the tracers through the stream reach after injection is described by a one-dimensional diffusion equation. The peak concentrations of the tracers at the downstream end of the reach depend on the concentrations of the tracers in the stream at the injection site, the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, the mean water velocity, the length of the reach, and the duration of the injection period. The downstream gas concentrations also depend on the gas desorption coefficients of the reach. The concentrations of the tracer gases in the stream at the injection site depend on the flow rates of the gases through the injection diffusers, the efficiency of the gas absorption process, and the stream discharge. The concentration of dye in the stream at the injection site depends on the flow rate of the dye solution, the concentration of the dye solution, and the stream discharge. Equations for estimating the gas flow rates, the quantities of the gases, the dye concentration, and the quantity of dye together with procedures for determining the variables in these equations are presented. (Woodard-USGS)

Rathbun, R.E.

1979-01-01

35

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas Operations  

E-print Network

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF

Jackson, Robert B.

36

Radon as a natural tracer for gas transport within uranium waste rock piles.  

PubMed

Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been identified as the main cause for outflow of acid water and radioactive/non-radioactive contaminants. AMD encompasses pyrites oxidation when water and oxygen are available. AMD was identified in uranium waste rock piles (WRPs) of Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil-Caldas facility (Brazilian uranium mine), resulting in high costs for water treatment. AMD reduction is the main challenge, and scientific investigation has been conducted to understand oxygen and water transportation within WRPs, where 222Rn is used as natural tracer for oxygen transportation. The study consists of soil radon gas mapping in the top layer of WRP4 using active soil gas pumping, radon adsorption in active charcoal and 222Rn determination using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A sampling network of 71 points was built where samples were collected at a depth of 40 cm. Soil radon gas concentration ranged from 33.7 to 1484.2 kBq m(-3) with mean concentration of 320.7±263.3 kBq m(-3). PMID:24729565

Silva, N C; Chagas, E G L; Abreu, C B; Dias, D C S; Lopez, D; Guerreiro, E T Z; Alberti, H L C; Braz, M L; Branco, O; Fleming, P

2014-07-01

37

Studies of thunderstorm transport processes with aircraft using tracer techniques  

SciTech Connect

Instrumented aircraft can provide in situ measurements of winds and turbulence useful for studying transport and dispersion in clouds. Using inert artificial gases as tracers, and fast response analyzers on aircraft, time-resolved observations of transport and dispersion have been obtained. Examples are shown of these types of observations in and around cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds. 23 refs., 6 figs.

Detwiler, A.G.; Smith, P.L. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Stith, J.L. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1996-10-01

38

TRACER STUDY OF SEDIMENT-WATER INTERACTIONS IN ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Rates of sediment bioturbation and advective exchange of water across the sediment-water interface in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island were studied by radioactive tracer experiments. The 'biological pumping rate' of water across the interface (.7 + or - .3 cc/sq cm day) was calcula...

39

A Tracer Study of Lebanese Upper Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents data arising from a tracer study of 90 terminating Beirut upper secondary school students. Nearly all the students intended to transit to university, about half of them to science and technology programmes, and subsequently did so. Median anticipated earnings upon graduation were realistic, but a lack of information or guidance…

Vlaardingerbroek, Barend; Dallal, Kamel; Rizkallah, George; Rabah, Jihan

2007-01-01

40

Subcutaneous infusion and capillary "finger stick" sampling of stable isotope tracer in metabolic studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Metabolic studies utilizing stable isotope tracer in humans have typically used intravenous tracer infusions and venous blood sampling. These studies explore subcutaneous infusion of isotope and "finger stick" capillary blood sampling to measure glucose turnover. Five subjects received simultaneous ...

41

Assessment of steady-state propane-gas tracer method for determining reaeration coefficients, Chenango River, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A test was conducted in a meandering 9.6-km reach of the Chenango River, New York, to assess the feasibility of a two-dimensional steady-state propane-gas tracer method as a means of estimating in situ reaeration coefficients. It is concluded that the method, which combines an instantaneous release of dye tracer with a long duration release of propane gas tracer, is very feasible for determining gas-desorption coefficients and wind effects in a wide river. However, the method does not appear to be ready for immediate operational applications. (USGS)

Yotsukura, Nobuhiro; Steadfast, D.A.; Jirka, G.H.

1984-01-01

42

ANALYSIS OF A GAS-PHASE PARTITIONING TRACER TEST CONDUCTED IN AN UNSATURATED FRACTURED-CLAY FORMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The gas-phase partitioning tracer method was used to estimate non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), water, and air saturations in the vadose zone at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated field site in Tucson, AZ. The tracer test was conducted in a fractured-clay system that is the confin...

43

The Tracer Gas Method of Determining the Charging Efficiency of Two-stroke-cycle Diesel Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A convenient method has been developed for determining the scavenging efficiency or the charging efficiency of two-stroke-cycle engines. The method consists of introducing a suitable tracer gas into the inlet air of the running engine and measuring chemically its concentration both in the inlet and exhaust gas. Monomethylamine CH(sub 3)NH(sub 2) was found suitable for the purpose as it burns almost completely during combustion, whereas the "short-circuited" portion does not burn at all and can be determined quantitatively in the exhaust. The method was tested both on four-stroke and on two-stroke engines and is considered accurate within 1 percent.

Schweitzer, P H; Deluca, Frank, Jr

1942-01-01

44

Use of tracers in materials-holdup study  

SciTech Connect

Holdup measurements of special nuclear materials in large processing facilities offer considerable challenges to conventional nondestructive-assay techniques. The use of judiciously chosen radioactive tracers offer a unique method of overcoming this difficulty. Three examples involving the use of /sup 46/Sc and fission products from activated uranium in large-scale experimental studies of uranium holdup are discussed. A justification for the method and its advantages along with examples of successful applications of this technique for large-sale experimental studies are presented.

Pillay, K.K.S.

1983-01-01

45

Molecular Gas in Starburts ARP 220 & NGC 6240: Understanding Mergers using High Density Gas Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NGC 6240 and Arp 220 can be considered the founding members of a very active class of objects called Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies or ULIRGs. They are in different stages of mergers and hence are excellent case studies to enhance our knowledge about the merging process. We have imaged the dense star-forming regions of these galaxies at sub-arcsec resolution with ALMA and CARMA. Multi-band imaging allows multilevel excitation analysis of HCN, HCO+ and CS transitions which will constrain the properties of the gas as a function of position and velocity (across line profiles). We are doing an extensive multilevel excitation analysis of the merger as a function of radius which enables in depth understanding of the gas dynamics and gas properties such as temperature and density. This in turn probes the homogeneity of the gas in the merging system and hence the regions that facilitate high star formation rates. This tandem use of CARMA with ALMA to map these systems at different merger stages will assemble a more integrated picture of the merger process. We are probing the distribution and dynamics of star forming gas and star formation activity in the dense disk structures to enable new theoretical understanding of the physics, dynamics, star formation activity and associated feedback in the most active and rapidly evolving galactic nuclei. Here we present our observations of Arp 220 and NGC 6240 from ALMA and CARMA.

Manohar, Swarnima; Scoville, Nicholas; Sheth, Kartik

2015-01-01

46

DISSOCIATION OF SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TRACER GAS IN THE PRESENCE OF AN INDOOR COMBUSTION SOURCE  

EPA Science Inventory

As an odorless, non-toxic, and inert compound, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the most widely used tracer gases in indoor air quality studies in both controlled and uncontrolled environments. This compound may be subject to hydrolysis under elevated temperature to form acidi...

47

Atmospheric noble gases as tracers of biogenic gas dynamics in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric noble gases (NGs) were used to investigate biogenic gas dynamics in a shallow unconfined aquifer impacted by a crude oil spill, near Bemidji, MN. Concentrations of 3,4He, 20,22Ne, 36,40Ar, Kr, and Xe were determined for gas- and aqueous-phase samples collected from the vadose and saturated zones, respectively. Systematic elemental fractionation of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe with respect to air was observed in both of these hydrogeologic zones. Within the vadose zone, relative ratios of Ne and Ar to Kr and Xe revealed distinct process-related trends when compared to corresponding ratios for air. The degree of NG deviation from atmospheric concentrations generally increased with greater atomic mass (i.e., ?Xe > ?Kr > ?Ar > ?Ne), indicating that Kr and Xe are the most sensitive NG tracers in the vadose zone. Reactive transport modeling of the gas data confirms that elemental fractionation can be explained by mass-dependent variations in diffusive fluxes of NGs opposite to a total pressure gradient established between different biogeochemical process zones. Depletion of atmospheric NGs was also observed within a methanogenic zone of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation located below the water table. Solubility normalized NG abundances followed the order Xe > Kr > Ar > Ne, which is indicative of dissolved NG partitioning into the gas phase in response to bubble formation and possibly ebullition. Observed elemental NG ratios of Ne/Kr, Ne/Xe, Ar/Xe, and Kr/Xe and a modeling analysis provide strong evidence that CH4 generation below the water table caused gas exsolution and possibly ebullition and carbon transfer from groundwater to the vadose zone. These results suggest that noble gases provide sensitive tracers in biologically active unconfined aquifers and can assist in identifying carbon cycling and transfer within the vadose zone, the capillary fringe, and below the water table.

Jones, Katherine L.; Lindsay, Matthew B. J.; Kipfer, Rolf; Mayer, K. Ulrich

2014-03-01

48

ISOTOPIC TRACER STUDIES ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF DEOXYRIBOSE IN THE RAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosynthesis of deoxyribose was studied with effect on capillaries. ; (H.H.D.) NaHC28602as a tracer in normal adult, starved adult, norThe ; biosynthesis of deoxyribose was studied with NaHC¹⁴Oâ as a tracer in ; normal adult, starved adult, normal newborn, thiamine-deficient adult and tumor ; bearing rats and in Yoshida ascites-tumor cells. Comparisons of the tracer ; patterns in ribose

D. Ghosh; I. A. Bernstein

1963-01-01

49

GEOMETRIC OFFSETS ACROSS SPIRAL ARMS IN M51: NATURE OF GAS AND STAR FORMATION TRACERS  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of geometric offsets between gas spiral arms and associated star-forming regions in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51. These offsets are a suggested measure of the star formation timescale after the compression of gas at spiral arm entry. A surprising discrepancy, by an order of magnitude, has been reported in recent offset measurements in nearby spiral galaxies. Measurements using CO and H{alpha} emission find large and ordered offsets in M51. On the contrary, small or non-ordered offsets have been found using the H I 21 cm and 24 {mu}m emissions, possible evidence against gas flow through spiral arms, and thus against the conventional density-wave theory with a stationary spiral pattern. The goal of this paper is to understand the cause of this discrepancy. We investigate potential causes by repeating those previous measurements using equivalent data, methods, and parameters. We find offsets consistent with the previous measurements and conclude that the difference of gas tracers, i.e., H I versus CO, is the primary cause. The H I emission is contaminated significantly by the gas photodissociated by recently formed stars and does not necessarily trace the compressed gas, the precursor of star formation. The H I gas and star-forming regions coincide spatially and tend to show small offsets. We find mostly positive offsets with substantial scatter between CO and H{alpha}, suggesting that gas flow through spiral arms (i.e., density wave) though the spiral pattern may not necessarily be stationary.

Louie, Melissa; Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Egusa, Fumi, E-mail: melissa.louie@stonybrook.edu [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)] [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)

2013-02-15

50

A novel 83mKr tracer method for characterizing xenon gas and cryogenic distillation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radioactive isomer 83mKr, has many properties that make it very useful for various applications. Its low energy decay products, like conversion, shake-off and Auger electrons as well as X- and ?-rays are used for calibration purposes in neutrino mass experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments. Thanks to the short half-life of 1.83 h and the decay to the ground state 83Kr, one does not risk contamination of any low-background experiment with long-lived radionuclides. In this paper, we present a new approach, using 83mKr as a radioactive tracer in noble gases. A method of doping 83mKr, into xenon gas and its detection, using special custom-made detectors, based on a photomultiplier tube, is described. Two applications of this method are presented: firstly, it can be used to characterize the particle flow inside of gas routing systems and determine the circulation speed of gas particles inside of a gas purification system for xenon. Secondly, it is used for rapid estimating of the separation performance of a distillation system.

Rosendahl, S.; Bokeloh, K.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, I.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Lebeda, O.; Levy, C.; Murra, M.; Schneider, S.; V'enos, D.; Weinheimer, C.

2014-10-01

51

Radon entry rate analyses using in situ tracer gas method application.  

PubMed

Recently, the role of energy savings in indoor air quality deterioration has been extensively emphasised, predominantly in the context of significant air exchange rate reduction as a result of home energy retrofits. In case of refurbishment of existing buildings, the effect of energy-efficient technologies on indoor radon concentration is considerably complex and has to be carefully evaluated with respect to radon entry rate (RER) and air exchange rate alteration. For the purpose of detailed analysis of radon entry pathways, the unique infiltration experiment has been carried out using the tracer gas (N2O) method application in field conditions. Significant amount of experimental works has been done to provide an independent assessment of RER and air-exchange rate facilitating the analysis of fundamental factors influencing the indoor radon variations (e.g. indoor-outdoor pressure difference induced by wind, stack effect, heating, ventilation and operation of air-conditioning systems). PMID:24736298

Fro?ka, A; Jílek, K

2014-07-01

52

Measuring seasonal variations of moisture in a landfill with the partitioning gas tracer test  

SciTech Connect

Seven pilot-scale partitioning gas tracer tests (PGTTs) were conducted to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of this method for measuring water in municipal solid waste landfills. Tests were conducted in the same location over a 12-month period, and measured moisture conditions ranged from possible dry waste to refuse with a moisture content of 24.7%. The final moisture content of 24.7% was in reasonable agreement with gravimetric measurements of excavated refuse, where the moisture content was 26.5 {+-} 6.0CI%. Laboratory tests were used to assess the utility of the PGTT for measuring water in small pores, water sorbed to solid surfaces, and the influence of dry waste on PGTTs. These experiments indicated that when refuse surfaces are not completely solvated with water, PGTTs may produce misleading results (negative estimates) of water saturation and moisture content.

Han, Byunghyun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, 301 DuPont Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Jafarpour, Behnam [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, 301 DuPont Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Gallagher, Victoria N. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, 301 DuPont Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Imhoff, Paul T. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, 301 DuPont Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: imhoff@udel.edu; Chiu, Pei C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, 301 DuPont Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Fluman, Daniel A. [Delaware Solid Waste Authority, 1128 S. Bradford St. Dover, DE 19903-0455 (United States)

2006-07-01

53

Fructose metabolism in humans – what isotopic tracer studies tell us  

PubMed Central

Fructose consumption and its implications on public health are currently under study. This work reviewed the metabolic fate of dietary fructose based on isotope tracer studies in humans. The mean oxidation rate of dietary fructose was 45.0%?±?10.7 (mean?±?SD) in non-exercising subjects within 3–6?hours and 45.8%?±?7.3 in exercising subjects within 2–3?hours. When fructose was ingested together with glucose, the mean oxidation rate of the mixed sugars increased to 66.0%?±?8.2 in exercising subjects. The mean conversion rate from fructose to glucose was 41%?±?10.5 (mean?±?SD) in 3–6?hours after ingestion. The conversion amount from fructose to glycogen remains to be further clarified. A small percentage of ingested fructose (<1%) appears to be directly converted to plasma TG. However, hyperlipidemic effects of larger amounts of fructose consumption are observed in studies using infused labeled acetate to quantify longer term de novo lipogenesis. While the mechanisms for the hyperlipidemic effect remain controversial, energy source shifting and lipid sparing may play a role in the effect, in addition to de novo lipogenesis. Finally, approximately a quarter of ingested fructose can be converted into lactate within a few of hours. The reviewed data provides a profile of how dietary fructose is utilized in humans. PMID:23031075

2012-01-01

54

Measurement of Odor-Plume Structure in a Wind Tunnel Using a Photoionization Detector and a Tracer Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patterns of stimulus available to moths flying along pheromone plumes in a 3-m-long wind tunnel were characterized using a high frequency photoionization detector in conjunction with an inert tracer gas. Four contrasting flow regimes and source conditions were produced: odor released in pulses from a vertical and horizontal array of four sources, odor released continuously from a point source,

Kristine A. Justus; John Murlis; Chris Jones; Ring T. Cardé

2002-01-01

55

Near-Road Mulltipollutant Profiles: Association between Volatile Organic Compounds and a Tracer Gas Surrogate Near a Busy Highway  

EPA Science Inventory

This research characterizes associations between multiple pollutants in the near-road environment attributed to a roadway line source. It also examines the use of a tracer gas as a surrogate of mobile source pollutants. Air samples were collected in summa canisters along a 300 m ...

56

IAEA-CN-80/66 ISOTOPE TRACERS IN GLOBAL WATER AND CLIMATE STUDIES  

E-print Network

IAEA-CN-80/66 ISOTOPE TRACERS IN GLOBAL WATER AND CLIMATE STUDIES OF THE PAST AND PRESENT T Avenue West, Waterloo ON N2L 3G1, CANADA 1 also: Isotope Hydrology Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, AUSTRIA Abstract ISOTOPE TRACERS IN GLOBAL WATER

Edwards, Thomas W.D.

57

Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

Roozen, K.

1995-02-15

58

13N as a tracer for studying glutamate metabolism  

PubMed Central

This mini-review summarizes studies my associates and I carried out that are relevant to the topic of the present volume [i.e. glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)] using radioactive 13N (t½ 9.96 min) as a biological tracer. These studies revealed the previously unrecognized rapidity with which nitrogen is exchanged among certain metabolites in vivo. For example, our work demonstrated that a) the t½ for conversion of portal vein ammonia to urea in the rat liver is ~10–11 sec, despite the need for five enzyme-catalyzed steps and two mitochondrial transport steps, b) the residence time for ammonia in the blood of anesthetized rats is ?7–8 sec, c) the t½ for incorporation of blood-borne ammonia into glutamine in the normal rat brain is <3 sec, and d) equilibration between glutamate and aspartate nitrogen in rat liver is extremely rapid (seconds), a reflection of the fact that the components of the hepatic aspartate aminotransferase reaction are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Our work emphasizes the importance of the GDH reaction in rat liver as a conduit for dissimilating or assimilating ammonia as needed. In contrast, our work shows that the GDH reaction in rat brain appears to operate mostly in the direction of ammonia production (dissimilation). The importance of the GDH reaction as an endogenous source of ammonia in the brain and the relation of GDH to the brain glutamine cycle is discussed. Finally, our work integrates with the increasing use of positron emission tomography (PET) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study brain ammonia uptake and brain glutamine, respectively, in normal individuals and in patients with liver disease or other diseases associated with hyperammonemia. PMID:21108979

Cooper, Arthur J. L.

2010-01-01

59

Analysis techniques for tracer studies of oxidation. M. S. Thesis Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis techniques to obtain quantitative diffusion data from tracer concentration profiles were developed. Mass balance ideas were applied to determine the mechanism of oxide growth and to separate the fraction of inward and outward growth of oxide scales. The process of inward oxygen diffusion with exchange was theoretically modelled and the effect of lattice diffusivity, grain boundary diffusivity and grain size on the tracer concentration profile was studied. The development of the tracer concentration profile in a growing oxide scale was simulated. The double oxidation technique was applied to a FeCrAl-Zr alloy using 0-18 as a tracer. SIMS was used to obtain the tracer concentration profile. The formation of lacey oxide on the alloy was discussed. Careful consideration was given to the quality of data required to obtain quantitative information.

Basu, S. N.

1984-01-01

60

Study of North Atlantic ventilation using transient tracers. Doctoral Thesis  

SciTech Connect

Tritium, (3)He, and chlorofluorocarbon distributions in the North Atlantic provide constraints on the ventilation time-scales for the thermocline and abyssal water. A new model function based on a factor analysis of the WMO/IAEA precipitation data set is developed for predicting the spatial and temporal patterns of bomb-tritium in precipitation. Model atmospheric and advective tritium inputs to the North Atlantic are compared with the observed bomb-tritium inventories calculated from the 1972 GEOSECS and 1981-1983 TTO data sets. The observed growth of bomb-tritium levels in the deep North Atlantic are used, along with the tracer gradients ((3)H and (3)He) in the Deep Western Boundary Current, to estimate abyssal ventilation rates and boundary current recirculation. The surface boundary conditions for different transient tracers are found to profoundly effect thermocline ventilation rates estimates. Tracers that equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere, such as (3)He and the CFCs, have faster apparent ventilation rates and are more appropriate for estimating oxygen utilization rates than tracers that are reset slowly in the surface ocean (e.g. (3)H and (14)C). The chlorofluorocarbon data for a new section in the eastern North Atlantic are presented and used to illustrate the ventilation time-scales for the major water masses in the region. (Copyright (c) Scott C. Doney, 1991.)

Doney, S.C.

1991-08-01

61

Gas Flow Measurements by 3D Particle Tracking Velocimetry Using Coloured Tracer Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes an original approach for 3D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3D PTV), applicable also for gaseous flows\\u000a and based on tracer particles of different colours. On the images acquired by several cameras, tracer particles are handled\\u000a by colour recognition and 3D localisation. Then, the PTV tracking algorithm rebuilds the trajectories of the tracer particles\\u000a using a criterion of Minimum Acceleration. Theoretical

Dominique Tarlet; Christian Bendicks; Christoph Roloff; Róbert Bordás; Bernd Wunderlich; Bernd Michaelis; Dominique Thévenin

62

Tracer study of diffusion and electromigration in thin tin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive study of lateral self-diffusion and electromigration in evaporated thin Sn films over the temperature range -50 to 198 °C is reported. Sn119m atoms were deposited over a central portion of thin Sn film stripes and the subsequent diffusional spreading and migration of the tracer distribution were evaluated by a high-resolution autoradiographic technique. Activation energies suggestive of grain boundary transport processes were obtained. At low temperatures the ionic drift velocity in grain boundaries Vb is measured to be VbT/j=3.4×10-2 exp[-(8710±360 cal/mol)/RT] cm3 K/A s, while the low-temperature grain boundary diffusivity Db is given by Db=4.9 exp[-(11 700±840 cal/mol)/RT] cm2/s. At higher temperatures (i.e., >80 °C) transport measurements were conducted employing Sn films of two different grain sizes, and apparent drift velocities and diffusivities were obtained. Application of the Hart model enabled the extraction of grain-size independent values of the grain boundary ionic drift velocity and diffusivity given by VbT/j=3.3×10-2 exp[-(8980 cal/mol)/RT] cm3 K/A s and Db=8.3×10-2 exp[-(9790 cal/mol)/RT] cm2/s. The effective valence Z* in the grain boundaries was calculated over the complete temperature range using the Db and VbT/j values obtained in the present investigation. A rapid rise in Z* at low temperatures, similar to that previously reported in Au films, was observed, suggesting that at low temperatures the Z* in the grain boundaries is greater than in the lattice. Electromigration in Sn is anode directed at all temperatures.

Singh, Prabjit; Ohring, Milton

1984-08-01

63

Green River air quality model development: meteorological and tracer data, July/August 1982 field study in Brush Valley, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Meteorological and atmospheric tracer studies were conducted during a 3-week period in July and August of 1982 in the Brush Creek Valley of northwestern Colorado. The objective of the field experiments was to obtain data to evaluate a model, called VALMET, developed at PNL to predict dispersion of air pollutants released from an elevated stack located within a deep mountain valley in the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period. Three tracer experiments were conducted in the valley during the 2-week period. In these experiments, sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) was released from a height of approximately 100 m, beginning before sunrise and continuing until the nocturnal down-valley winds reversed several hours after sunrise. Dispersion of the sulfur hexafluoride after release was evaluated by measuring SF/sub 6/ concentrations in ambient air samples taken from sampling devices operated within the valley up to about 8 km down valley from the source. An instrumented research aircraft was also used to measure concentrations in and above the valley. Tracer samples were collected using a network of radio-controlled bag sampling stations, two manually operated gas chromatographs, a continuous SF/sub 6/ monitor, and a vertical SF/sub 6/ profiler. In addition, basic meteorological data were collected during the tracer experiments. Frequent profiles of vertical wind and temperature structure were obtained with tethered balloons operated at the release site and at a site 7.7 km down the valley from the release site. 10 references, 63 figures, 50 tables.

Whiteman, C.D.; Lee, R.N.; Orgill, M.M.; Zak, B.D.

1984-06-01

64

Characterization of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography for the analysis of gasoline tracers in different microenvironments.  

PubMed

Gasoline tracers were collected on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with photoionization detector (GC/PID). This was part of a larger study to quantify personal exposure to motor vehicle gasoline evaporative and combustive emissions in high-end exposure microenvironments (MEs). The SPME fiber selected for this application was a 75-microm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane. Sequential 10-min samples were collected for measurement of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-, meta-, and para-xylene in different MEs in Atlanta, GA, in summer 2002 and Reno, NV, in spring 2003. Field calibrations were performed with certified gas standards in 1-L Tedlar bags for varying concentrations and exposure times. SPME detection limits were approximately 0.2 ppbv with a precision of 3-17% and accuracy of 30%. A dynamic system was designed for temperature and relative humidity calibrations, with corrections for the effects of these variables performed when necessary. SPME data compared satisfactorily with integrated canister samples, continuous PID, and field portable mass spectrometer data. PMID:17385603

Ceballos, Diana; Zielinska, Barbara; Fujita, Eric; Sagebiel, John

2007-03-01

65

THE NEW YORK CITY URBAN DISPERSION PROGRAM MARCH 2005 FIELD STUDY: TRACER METHODS AND RESULTS.  

SciTech Connect

The Urban Dispersion Program March 2005 Field Study tracer releases, sampling, and analytical methods are described in detail. There were two days where tracer releases and sampling were conducted. A total of 16.0 g of six tracers were released during the first test day or Intensive Observation Period (IOP) 1 and 15.7 g during IOP 2. Three types of sampling instruments were used in this study. Sequential air samplers, or SAS, collected six-minute samples, while Brookhaven atmospheric tracer samplers (BATS) and personal air samplers (PAS) collected thirty-minute samples. There were a total of 1300 samples resulting from the two IOPs. Confidence limits in the sampling and analysis method were 20% as determined from 100 duplicate samples. The sample recovery rate was 84%. The integrally averaged 6-minute samples were compared to the 30-minute samples. The agreement was found to be good in most cases. The validity of using a background tracer to calculate sample volumes was examined and also found to have a confidence level of 20%. Methods for improving sampling and analysis are discussed. The data described in this report are available as Excel files. An additional Excel file of quality assured tracer data for use in model validation efforts is also available. The file consists of extensively quality assured BATS tracer data with background concentrations subtracted.

WATSON, T.B.; HEISER, J.; KALB, P.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; WIESER, R.; VIGNATO, G.

2005-10-01

66

Optimization of Sampling Positions for Measuring Ventilation Rates in Naturally Ventilated Buildings Using Tracer Gas  

PubMed Central

Finding out the optimal sampling positions for measurement of ventilation rates in a naturally ventilated building using tracer gas is a challenge. Affected by the wind and the opening status, the representative positions inside the building may change dynamically at any time. An optimization procedure using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was conducted. In this method, the concentration field inside the building was estimated by a three-order RSM polynomial model. The experimental sampling positions to develop the model were chosen from the cross-section area of a pitched-roof building. The Optimal Design method which can decrease the bias of the model was adopted to select these sampling positions. Experiments with a scale model building were conducted in a wind tunnel to achieve observed values of those positions. Finally, the models in different cases of opening states and wind conditions were established and the optimum sampling position was obtained with a desirability level up to 92% inside the model building. The optimization was further confirmed by another round of experiments.

Shen, Xiong; Zong, Chao; Zhang, Guoqiang

2012-01-01

67

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Study; Progress report, January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Studies continue on the use of organic acids as tracers in hydrology studies of Yucca Mountain. Work performed during this time period has been concentrated in three main areas: the familiarization with, and optimization of, the LC-MS hardware and data system; the initial development of soil column test procedures, which are used for evaluation of both the columns themselves and the tracer compounds; and continuation of the batch sorption and degradation studies for the potential tracers. All three of these tasks will continue, as the addition of new tracer compounds, analytical information, and equipment will necessitate further evaluation of existing methods and procedures. Also included in this report is the final report on an information system.

Stetzenbach, K.J.

1991-12-31

68

Ammonium transport and reaction in contaminated groundwater: Application of isotope tracers and isotope fractionation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonium (NH4+) is a major constituent of many contaminated groundwaters, but its movement through aquifers is complex and poorly documented. In this study, processes affecting NH4+ movement in a treated wastewater plume were studied by a combination of techniques including large-scale monitoring of NH4+ distribution; isotopic analyses of coexisting aqueous NH4+, NO3-, N2, and sorbed NH4+; and in situ natural gradient 15NH4+ tracer tests with numerical simulations of 15NH4+, 15NO3-, and 15N2 breakthrough data. Combined results indicate that the main mass of NH4+ was moving downgradient at a rate about 0.25 times the groundwater velocity. Retardation factors and groundwater ages indicate that much of the NH4+ in the plume was recharged early in the history of the wastewater disposal. NO3- and excess N2 gas, which were related to each other by denitrification near the plume source, were moving downgradient more rapidly and were largely unrelated to coexisting NH4+. The ?15N data indicate areas of the plume affected by nitrification (substantial isotope fractionation) and sorption (no isotope fractionation). There was no conclusive evidence for NH4+-consuming reactions (nitrification or anammox) in the anoxic core of the plume. Nitrification occurred along the upper boundary of the plume but was limited by a low rate of transverse dispersive mixing of wastewater NH4+ and O2 from overlying uncontaminated groundwater. Without induced vertical mixing or displacement of plume water with oxic groundwater from upgradient sources, the main mass of NH4+ could reach a discharge area without substantial reaction long after the more mobile wastewater constituents are gone. Multiple approaches including in situ isotopic tracers and fractionation studies provided critical information about processes affecting NH4+ movement and N speciation.

BöHlke, J. K.; Smith, Richard L.; Miller, Daniel N.

2006-05-01

69

Ammonium transport and reaction in contaminated groundwater: Application of isotope tracers and isotope fractionation studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ammonium (NH4+) is a major constituent of many contaminated groundwaters, but its movement through aquifers is complex and poorly documented. In this study, processes affecting NH4+ movement in a treated wastewater plume were studied by a combination of techniques including large-scale monitoring of NH4+ distribution; isotopic analyses of coexisting aqueous NH4+, NO3-, N2, and sorbed NH 4+; and in situ natural gradient 15NH 4+ tracer tests with numerical simulations of 15NH4+, 15NO3-, and 15N2 breakthrough data. Combined results indicate that the main mass of NH4+ was moving downgradient at a rate about 0.25 times the groundwater velocity. Retardation factors and groundwater ages indicate that much of the NH4+ in the plume was recharged early in the history of the wastewater disposal. NO3- and excess N2 gas, which were related to each other by denitrification near the plume source, were moving downgradient more rapidly and were largely unrelated to coexisting NH 4+. The ??15N data indicate areas of the plume affected by nitrification (substantial isotope fractionation) and sorption (no isotope fractionation). There was no conclusive evidence for NH 4+-consuming reactions (nitrification or anammox) in the anoxic core of the plume. Nitrification occurred along the upper boundary of the plume but was limited by a low rate of transverse dispersive mixing of wastewater NH4+ and O2 from overlying uncontaminated groundwater. Without induced vertical mixing or displacement of plume water with oxic groundwater from upgradient sources, the main mass of NH4+ could reach a discharge area without substantial reaction long after the more mobile wastewater constituents are gone. Multiple approaches including in situ isotopic tracers and fractionation studies provided critical information about processes affecting NH4+ movement and N speciation.

Böhlke, J.K.; Smith, R.L.; Miller, D.N.

2006-01-01

70

Urban Dispersion Program MSG05 Field Study: Summary of Tracer and Meteorological Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Urban Dispersion Program is a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, to better understand the flow and dispersion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of New York City. The first tracer and meteorological field study was a limited study conducted during March 2005 near the Madison Square Garden in midtown Manhattan. Six safe, inert, gaseous perfluorocarbon tracers were released simultaneously at five street-level locations during two experimental days. In addition to collecting tracer data, meteorological data were also collected. Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted the bulk of the tracer and meteorological field efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Stevens Institute of Technology assisting by measuring the vertical profile of winds. The Environmental Protection Agency worked with Brookhaven National Laboratory in accomplishing the personal exposure component of the study. This report presents some results from this analysis. In general, different release locations showed vastly different plume footprints for tracer materials, and the situation was made very complex with upwind and/or crosswind transport of tracer near street-level for the different release locations. Overall wind speeds and directions upwind and over the city were generally constant throughout each of the two experimental periods.

Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

2006-08-09

71

Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes  

SciTech Connect

Interest in the use of alternative fuels and combustion regimes is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO{sub 2} emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, and higher noise. Noise and PM have traditionally been the obstacles toward consumer acceptance of Diesel passenger cars in North America, while NOx (a key component in photochemical smog) has been more of an engineering challenge. Diesels are lean burning (combustion with excess oxygen) and reducing NOx to N2 in an oxygen rich environment is difficult. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions, but relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K prevents NOx formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NOx threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder (homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NOx and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to validate combustion modeling.

Mack, J H; Flowers, D L; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

2006-02-14

72

Dust Continuum Emission as a Tracer of Gas Mass in Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a sample of 36 galaxies from the KINGFISH (Herschel IR), HERACLES (IRAM CO), and THINGS (Very Large Array H I) surveys to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H2 + H I). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE 500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust to gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. The molecular (H2) gas mass is found to be better correlated with the peak of the IR emission (e.g., PACS160), driven mostly by the correlation of stellar mass and mean dust temperature. When examining these relations as a function of galactocentric radius, we find the same correlations, albeit with a larger scatter, up to a radius of r ~ 0.7 r 25 (containing most of a galaxy's baryonic mass). However, beyond that radius, the same correlations no longer hold, with increasing gas (predominantly H I) mass relative to the infrared emission. The tight relations found for the bulk of the galaxy's baryonic content suggest that total gas masses of disk-like (non-merging/ULIRG) galaxies can be inferred from far-infrared continuum measurements in situations where only the latter are available, e.g., in ALMA continuum observations of high-redshift galaxies.

Groves, Brent A.; Schinnerer, Eva; Leroy, Adam; Galametz, Maud; Walter, Fabian; Bolatto, Alberto; Hunt, Leslie; Dale, Daniel; Calzetti, Daniela; Croxall, Kevin; Kennicutt, Robert, Jr.

2015-01-01

73

Ubiquitous argonium (ArH+) in the diffuse interstellar medium: A molecular tracer of almost purely atomic gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We describe the assignment of a previously unidentified interstellar absorption line to ArH+ and discuss its relevance in the context of hydride absorption in diffuse gas with a low H2 fraction. The confidence of the assignment to ArH+ is discussed, and the column densities are determined toward several lines of sight. The results are then discussed in the framework of chemical models, with the aim of explaining the observed column densities. Methods: We fitted the spectral lines with multiple velocity components, and determined column densities from the line-to-continuum ratio. The column densities of ArH+ were compared to those of other species, tracing interstellar medium (ISM) components with different H2 abundances. We constructed chemical models that take UV radiation and cosmic ray ionization into account. Results: Thanks to the detection of two isotopologues, 36ArH+ and 38ArH+, we are confident about the carrier assignment to ArH+. NeH+ is not detected with a limit of [NeH+]/[ArH+] ? 0.1. The derived column densities agree well with the predictions of chemical models. ArH+ is a unique tracer of gas with a fractional H2 abundance of 10-4 - 10-3 and shows little correlation to H2O+, which traces gas with a fractional H2 abundance of ?0.1. Conclusions: A careful analysis of variations in the ArH+, OH+, H2O+, and HF column densities promises to be a faithful tracer of the distribution of the H2 fractional abundance by providing unique information on a poorly known phase in the cycle of interstellar matter and on its transition from atomic diffuse gas to dense molecular gas traced by CO emission. Abundances of these species put strong observational constraints upon magnetohydrodynamical (MHD)simulations of the interstellar medium, and potentially could evolve into a tool characterizing the ISM. Paradoxically, the ArH+ molecule is a better tracer of almost purely atomic hydrogen gas than Hi itself, since Hi can also be present in gas with a significant molecular content, but ArH+ singles out gas that is >99.9% atomic.

Schilke, P.; Neufeld, D. A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Comito, C.; Bergin, E. A.; Lis, D. C.; Gerin, M.; Black, J. H.; Wolfire, M.; Indriolo, N.; Pearson, J. C.; Menten, K. M.; Winkel, B.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Möller, T.; Godard, B.; Falgarone, E.

2014-06-01

74

Engineering task plan for determining breathing rates in singleshell tanks using tracer gas  

SciTech Connect

The testing of single shell tanks to determine breathing rates. Inert tracer gases helium, and sulfur hexafluoride will be injected into the tanks AX-103, BY-105, C-107 and U-103. Periodic samples will be taken over a three month interval to determine actual headspace breathing rates.

Andersen, J.A.

1997-04-02

75

Simultaneous measurement of ventilation using tracer gas techniques and VOC concentrations in homes, garages and vehicles.  

PubMed

Air exchange rates and interzonal flows are critical ventilation parameters that affect thermal comfort, air migration, and contaminant exposure in buildings and other environments. This paper presents the development of an updated approach to measure these parameters using perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gases, the constant injection rate method, and adsorbent-based sampling of PFT concentrations. The design of miniature PFT sources using hexafluorotoluene and octafluorobenzene tracers, and the development and validation of an analytical GC/MS method for these tracers are described. We show that simultaneous deployment of sources and passive samplers, which is logistically advantageous, will not cause significant errors over multiday measurement periods in building, or over shorter periods in rapidly ventilated spaces like vehicle cabins. Measurement of the tracers over periods of hours to a week may be accomplished using active or passive samplers, and low method detection limits (<0.025 microg m(-3)) and high precisions (<10%) are easily achieved. The method obtains the effective air exchange rate (AER), which is relevant to characterizing long-term exposures, especially when ventilation rates are time-varying. In addition to measuring the PFT tracers, concentrations of other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are simultaneously determined. Pilot tests in three environments (residence, garage, and vehicle cabin) demonstrate the utility of the method. The 4 day effective AER in the house was 0.20 h(-1), the 4 day AER in the attached garage was 0.80 h(-1), and 16% of the ventilation in the house migrated from the garage. The 5 h AER in a vehicle traveling at 100 km h(-1) under a low-to-medium vent condition was 92 h(-1), and this represents the highest speed test found in the literature. The method is attractive in that it simultaneously determines AERs, interzonal flows, and VOC concentrations over long and representative test periods. These measurements are practical, cost-effective, and helpful in indoor air quality and other investigations. PMID:16470256

Batterman, Stuart; Jia, Chunrong; Hatzivasilis, Gina; Godwin, Chris

2006-02-01

76

The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium-22 has been studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with Na-22, which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The Na-22 not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high, but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The Na-22 tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.

Palmer, H. E.; Rieksts, G. A.; Palmer, R. F.; Gillis, M. F.

1979-01-01

77

Using noble gas tracers to estimate residual CO2 saturation in the field: results from the CO2CRC Otway residual saturation and dissolution test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual CO2 saturation is a critically important parameter in CO2 storage as it can have a large impact on the available secure storage volume and post-injection CO2 migration. A suite of single-well tests to measure residual trapping was conducted at the Otway test site in Victoria, Australia during 2011. One or more of these tests could be conducted at a prospective CO2 storage site before large-scale injection. The test involved injection of 150 tonnes of pure carbon dioxide followed by 454 tonnes of CO2-saturated formation water to drive the carbon dioxide to residual saturation. This work presents a brief overview of the full test sequence, followed by the analysis and interpretation of the tests using noble gas tracers. Prior to CO2 injection krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe) tracers were injected and back-produced to characterise the aquifer under single-phase conditions. After CO2 had been driven to residual the two tracers were injected and produced again. The noble gases act as non-partitioning aqueous-phase tracers in the undisturbed aquifer and as partitioning tracers in the presence of residual CO2. To estimate residual saturation from the tracer test data a one-dimensional radial model of the near-well region is used. In the model there are only two independent parameters: the apparent dispersivity of each tracer and the residual CO2 saturation. Independent analysis of the Kr and Xe tracer production curves gives the same estimate of residual saturation to within the accuracy of the method. Furthermore the residual from the noble gas tracer tests is consistent with other measurements in the sequence of tests.

LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

2013-12-01

78

Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods  

SciTech Connect

The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

2013-12-01

79

USING CONTINUOUS MONITORS FOR CONDUCTING TRACER STUDIES IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of online monitors for conducting a distribution system tracer study is proving to be an essential tool to accurately understand the flow dynamics in a distribution system. In a series of field testing sponsored by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Greater ...

80

Potential of electrical resistivity tomography to infer aquifer transport characteristics from tracer studies  

E-print Network

Potential of electrical resistivity tomography to infer aquifer transport characteristics from-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), transport processes in the subsurface can be imaged and monitored of electrical resistivity tomography to infer aquifer transport characteristics from tracer studies: A synthetic

Sailhac, Pascal

81

Tracer-based quantification of individual frac discharge in single-well multiple-frac backflow: sensitivity study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the deep-geothermal research project at GroßSchönebeck in the NE German Basin, targeting volcanic rocks (Lower Rotliegend) and siliciclastics (Upper Rotliegend) in the Lower Permian by means of a well doublet with several screening intervals between 3815 and 4247 m b.s.l., several artificial fractures with different geometric and hydraulic characteristics were created at each well, aiming to increase reservoir performance [1], [2]. It could not be told a priori which of the various fracturing treatments was to prove as most promising in terms of future reservoir productivity. At the intended-production well (GS-4), one large-area waterfrac was created in the low-permeability volcanic rocks, and two gel-proppant fractures in selected sandstone layers. Each fracturing treatment was accompanied by the injection of a water-dissolved tracer slug, followed by a defined volume of tracer-free ('chaser') fluid [3]. Each frac received a different species of a sulfonated aromatic acid salt, as a conservative water tracer. During subsequent backflow tests (either gas-based lifting, or production by means of a downhole submersible pump), each frac can contribute a certain (more or less constant) amount to the measured total discharge (also depending on whether and when each frac 'starts' contributing, and which effective aperture and area it actually 'manifests' during the process). Since these individual-frac discharge amounts cannot be measured directly, it was endeavoured to indirectly determine ('resolve') them from tracer signals as detectable in the overall backflow discharge. Therefore, we need to examine how these tracer signals depend on local discharge values and on local hydrogeologic parameters (matrix porosity, permeability distribution; frac transmissivity, thickness, effective area and aperture), and to what extent hydrogeological uncertainty will impede the inversion of local discharge values. To this end, a parameter sensitivity study was conducted on a simplified flow and tracer transport model (using FEOW and assuming Darcian flow within the matrix, Hagen-Poiseuille flow within the waterfrac, and either D or H-P flow within the gel-proppant fracs), whose main findings are: (1) late tracer signals are almost independent on matrix porosity, permeability distribution, frac area (length), thickness and effective aperture, while being highly sensitive to local discharge values; 'late' means a backflow or production volume at least fivefold the injected chaser volume; (2a) early tracer signals (concentration 'peak' intervals) may exhibit slight 'acceleration' and 'damping' with increasing matrix porosity or increasing frac aperture (a 'paradoxical' behaviour which is not really surprising for single-well 'push-then-backflow' tests, actually owing to flow-field dispersion[4]), and (2b) a non-monotonous response to varying frac area, being almost insensitive to frac area as long as the linear-flow regime prevails against the radial-flow regime (effects of the latter only becoming visible at very low frac areas); (2c) the effects of these various factors on early-time tracer signals are not unambiguously discernible from each other, and this ambiguity would persist even if frac-resolved (in-situ) discharge metering were feasible. For each of the three fracs (k=1,2,3), a 'type-curve' set Ck(Q,t) (parametrized by discharge values Q) can be generated. Since every frac received a different tracer, tracer signals measured within the overall backflow will differ from individual-frac type-curves by mere dilution (no 'superposition'). Type-curve dilution by factor Qk/Qtotal can be compared to measured tracer concentrations in the total discharge, ck(ti), (i = 1, ..., no. of tracer samplings). From a formal point of view, the unknown discharge values Qk can be determined as the solution of a linear optimization task subject to the constraint Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = Qtotal (the latter being a measured value). It is recommendable to perform 'optimization' manually, rather than by resorting to automated solutions provided by some linea

Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

2014-05-01

82

Tracer studies for evaluation of in situ air sparging and in-well aeration system performance at a gasoline-contaminated site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-scale tracer studies were conducted at a gasoline-contaminated site in order to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ air sparging (IAS) and in-well aeration (IWA) in controlling the movement of soil gas and groundwater in the subsurface. The field site was comprised of silty sand (SM) and silty clay (CL), underlain by a clay layer at approximately 7.6m. Depth to

Jennifer S. Berkey; Thomas E. Lachmar; William J. Doucette; R. Ryan Dupont

2003-01-01

83

Temporal and spatial variability of noble gas tracers in the North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal variability in argon saturation is enhanced in the surface oceanThis variability in gas saturation is driven by climate variabilityNeon distributions exhibit a stronger influence from bubble-mediated gas fluxes

Taka Ito; Roberta C. Hamme; Steve Emerson

2011-01-01

84

Radio-tracer techniques for the study of flow in saturated porous materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An experiment was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine the feasibility of using a radioactive substance as a tracer in the study of microscopic flow in a saturated porous solid. A radioactive tracer was chosen in preference to dye or other chemical in order to eliminate effects of the tracer itself on the flow system such as those relating to density, viscosity and surface tension. The porous solid was artificial "sandstone" composed of uniform fine grains of sand bonded together with an epoxy adhesive. The sides of the block thus made were sealed with an epoxy coating compound to insure water-tightness. Because of the chemical inertness of the block it was possible to use radioactive phosphorus (P32). Ion-exchange equilibrium was created between the block and nonradioactive phosphoric acid. Then a tracer tagged with P32 was injected into the block in the desired geometric configuration, in this case, a line source. After equilibrium in isotopic exchange was reached between the block and the line source, the block was rinsed, drained and sawn into slices. It was found that a quantitative analysis of the flow system may be made by assaying the dissected block. ?? 1961.

Skibitzke, H.E.; Chapman, H.T.; Robinson, G.M.; McCullough, R.A.

1961-01-01

85

Measuring SSRI occupancy of SERT using the novel tracer [ 123 I]ADAM: a SPECT validation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Serotonergic brain regions play a crucial role in the modulation of emotion, and serotonergic dysfunction may contribute to several neurological dis- orders. ( 123 I)ADAM is a novel SPECT tracer which binds with high affinity to serotonin transporters (SERT). The ob- jective of this study was to compare different methods for the quantification of tracer binding and to develop

Kjell Erlandsson; Tharani Sivananthan; Dominic Lui; Andrea Spezzi; Caroline E. Townsend; Song Mu; Richard Lucas; Steven Warrington; Peter J. Ell

2005-01-01

86

A novel $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr tracer method for characterizing xenon gas and cryogenic distillation systems  

E-print Network

The radioactive isomer $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr has many properties that make it very useful for various applications. Its low energy decay products, like conversion, shake-off and Auger electrons as well as X- and $\\gamma$-rays are used for calibration purposes in neutrino mass experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments. Thanks to the short half-life of 1.83 h and the decay to the ground state $^{83}$Kr, one does not risk contamination of any low-background experiment with long- lived radionuclides. In this paper, we present two new applications of $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr. It can be used as a radioactive tracer in noble gases to characterize the particle flow inside of gas routing systems. A method of doping $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr into xenon gas and its detection, using special custom-made detectors, based on a photomultiplier tube, is described. This technique has been used to determine the circulation speed of gas particles inside of a gas purification system for xenon. Furthermore, 83m Kr can be used to...

Rosendahl, S; Brown, E; Cristescu, I; Fieguth, A; Huhmann, C; Lebeda, O; Levy, C; Murra, M; Schneider, S; Vénos, D; Weinheimer, C

2014-01-01

87

Sample site selection for tracer studies applying a unidirectional circulatory approach  

SciTech Connect

The optimal arterial or venous sites for infusion and sampling during isotopic tracer studies have not been established. This study determined the relationship of plasma and tissue enrichment (E) when isotopes were infused in an artery and sampled from a vein (av mode) or infused in a vein and sampled from an artery (va mode). Adult dogs were given primed constant infusions of (3-/sup 13/C)lactate, (1-/sup 13/C)leucine, and /sup 14/C-labeled bicarbonate. Simultaneous samples were drawn from the vena cava, aortic arch, and breath. Tissue samples were removed from skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and gut. Breath samples were analyzed for /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by liquid scintillation counting and plasma isotopic enrichments of (/sup 13/C)lactate, (/sup 13/C)leucine, and alpha-(/sup 13/C)ketoisocaproate (KIC) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. By using the va mode, the plasma E for lactate and leucine were 30-40% above tissue E. The av mode provided an accurate reflection of tissue E for lactate, which equilibrates rapidly with tissues, and a reasonable estimate for leucine, which exchanges more slowly. The isotopic enrichment of plasma KIC more directly reflected tissue leucine E than did plasma leucine E, and KIC enrichment was insensitive to sampling site. We also evaluated theoretically a circulatory model that predicts venous isotopic enrichments when the va mode is used. We conclude that the av mode is optimal but that the problems arising from use of the va mode can be overcome by use of a metabolic product (i.e., KIC) or by calculation of venous specific activity with our circulatory mode.

Layman, D.K.; Wolfe, R.R.

1987-08-01

88

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

Luong, E.

1999-05-10

89

Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes  

E-print Network

Model for HCCI Engine Performance and Emissions StudiesOyama, K. , “Performance and Emissions of a DI Diesel EngineEngine Wear Under the Influences of Advanced Combustion System Operation and Lubricant Performance”

Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

2006-01-01

90

TRACER STUDIES OF TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION IN CUMULI  

EPA Science Inventory

The results from a study of the transport and transformation of pollutants are reported. irborne measurements near Champaign, llinois and Milwaukee, Wisconsin were made during the summers of 1990 and 1992. easurements of the aerosol size distribution, wind, turbulence, cloud micr...

91

Radon as a tracer of biogenic gas equilibration and transport from methane-saturated sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data on Rn-222 activity in methane-rich gas bubbles from anoxic coastal sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, were used to determine gas equilibration with pore waters and the rates of ebullitive stripping and transport of gases to overlying waters and the atmosphere. Results showed that, during summer months, the bubble ebullition process strips and transports 1.9-4.8 percent/day of the standing crop of radon (and, by inference, other gases equilibrated with gas bubbles) in surface sediments of Cape Lookout Bight to the troposphere. Thus, the ebullitive mode of gas transport represents an effective mechanism for delivering reduced biogenic gases directly to the atmosphere.

Martens, Christopher S.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

1989-01-01

92

Analysis of the 1987 Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS) sulfur hexafluoride atmospheric tracer data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Eight sets of atmospheric tracer experiment data obtained during the 1987 Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS) are analyzed by mass balance and qualitative agreement with surface winds gathered during the same period. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer releases done near downtown Los Angeles reveal aspects of the complexity of the atmospheric emission transport from the location. The total material release of sulfur hexafluoride can be accounted for by mass balancing. The mass balances are used to examine the residence time of the tracer in the basin. The residence time for the sulfur hexafluoride tracer released from Vernon CA is 10 hours in the summer, and exceeds 24 hours for the fall. The primary exit route of the sulfur hexafluoride tracer during the summer releases was the San Fernando Valley to the northwest of downtown. The surface-level diagnostic wind model (DWM) was made operational on a PC.

Shair, F.H.

1991-10-01

93

Hydrogen behavior near surface regions in Mo and W studied by tritium tracer technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium tracer techniques are applied to observe behavior of hydrogen (tritium (T)) in near surface regions of Mo and W loaded by gaseous absorption (GAS) and a glow discharge (GDC). GDC produces blisters on both Mo and W surfaces and Tritium Auto-RadioGraph (TARG) showed the thickness of blister skins is larger than the escaping depth of T ?-electrons, around 1 ?m. For GAS specimens, T evolution is likely controlled by diffusion giving diffusion coefficients of, D=1.5×10-7exp-{41 kJ/mol}/{RT} m s D=4.3×10-9exp-{38 kJ/mol}/{RT} m s at 273-323 K. GDC specimens show much smaller diffusion coefficients with higher activation energies and T release continues very long, suggesting T release from blisters.

Hoshihira, Takamitsu; Otsuka, Teppei; Wakabayashi, Ryusuke; Tanabe, Tetsuo

2011-10-01

94

A Mathematical Modeling Study of Tracer Mixing in a Continuous Casting Tundish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model based on a water model was developed to study the tracer mixing in a single strand tundish. The mixing behavior of black ink and KCl solution was simulated by a mixed composition fluid model, and the data were validated by water modeling results. In addition, a model that solves the scalar transport equation (STE) without any physical properties of the tracer was studied and the results were compared to predictions using the density-coupled model. Furthermore, the mixing behaviors of different amounts of KCl tracers were investigated. Before the model was established, KCl tracer properties such as the KCl molecule diffusion (KMD), the water molecule self-diffusion (WSD) in KCl solution, and the KCl solution viscosity (KV) were evaluated. The RTD curve of 250 mL KCl for the KMD case was closer to the water modeling results than that of the case implemented with only density. Moreover, the ensemble average deviation of the RTD curves of the cases implemented with KMD + WSD, KMD + KV, and KMD + WSD + KV to the KMD case is less than 0.7 pct. Thus, the water self-diffusion and KV were neglected, while the KCl density and KMD were implemented in the current study. The flow pattern of black ink was similar to the STE result i.e., the fluid flowed upwards toward the top surface and formed a large circulating flow at the outlet nozzle. The flow behavior of the 100, 150, and 250 mL KCl cases exhibited a strong tendency to sink to the tundish bottom, and subsequently flow through the holes in the dam. Thereafter, it propagated toward the outlet nozzle. Regarding the KCl tracer amount, the tracer concentration propagated to the outlet nozzle much faster for the larger amount case than for the smaller amount cases. However, the flow pattern for the 50 mL KCl case was somewhat different. The fluid propagated to the top surface which acted like black ink during the initial injection, and subsequently the fluid flowed throughout the holes at a much slower pace. The breakthrough time and peak concentration of RTD curves of model predictions and water modeling results showed a good agreement (all difference within 12.5 pct) for the 100, 150, and 250 mL KCl cases.

Chen, Chao; Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar; Tilliander, Anders; Cheng, Guoguang; Jönsson, Pär Göran

2015-02-01

95

Use of a simple model for studying oceanic tracer distributions and the global carbon cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies, based on work of Shaffer and Sarmiento (1992), a model for simulating the transport of CO2 and tracers in the ocean (HILDA, for High-Latitude Exchange\\/Interior Diffusion-Advection Model) that combines features of box models and of the box-diffusion model. Different ways of calibration are compared, and it is found that, in order to reproduce the distributions of natural

U. Siegenthaler; F. Joos

1992-01-01

96

Flow optimization study of a batch microfluidics PET tracer synthesizing device  

PubMed Central

We present numerical modeling and experimental studies of flow optimization inside a batch microfluidic micro-reactor used for synthesis of human-scale doses of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) tracers. Novel techniques are used for mixing within, and eluting liquid out of, the coin-shaped reaction chamber. Numerical solutions of the general incompressible Navier Stokes equations along with time-dependent elution scalar field equation for the three dimensional coin-shaped geometry were obtained and validated using fluorescence imaging analysis techniques. Utilizing the approach presented in this work, we were able to identify optimized geometrical and operational conditions for the micro-reactor in the absence of radioactive material commonly used in PET related tracer production platforms as well as evaluate the designed and fabricated micro-reactor using numerical and experimental validations. PMID:21072595

Elizarov, Arkadij M.; Meinhart, Carl; van Dam, R. Michael; Huang, Jiang; Daridon, Antoine; Heath, James R.; Kolb, Hartmuth C.

2010-01-01

97

STRATEGIES FOR QUANTIFYING PET IMAGING DATA FROM TRACER STUDIES OF BRAIN RECEPTORS AND ENZYMES.  

SciTech Connect

A description of some of the methods used in neuroreceptor imaging to distinguish changes in receptor availability has been presented in this chapter. It is necessary to look beyond regional uptake of the tracer since uptake generally is affected by factors other than the number of receptors for which the tracer has affinity. An exception is the infusion method producing an equilibrium state. The techniques vary in complexity some requiring arterial blood measurements of unmetabolized tracer and multiple time uptake data. Others require only a few plasma and uptake measurements and those based on a reference region require no plasma measurements. We have outlined some of the limitations of the different methods. Laruelle (1999) has pointed out that test/retest studies to which various methods can be applied are crucial in determining the optimal method for a particular study. The choice of method will also depend upon the application. In a clinical setting, methods not involving arterial blood sampling are generally preferred. In the future techniques for externally measuring arterial plasma radioactivity with only a few blood samples for metabolite correction will extend the modeling options of clinical PET. Also since parametric images can provide information beyond that of ROI analysis, improved techniques for generating such images will be important, particularly for ligands requiring more than a one-compartment model. Techniques such as the wavelet transform proposed by Turkheimer et al. (2000) may prove to be important in reducing noise and improving quantitation.

Logan, J.

2001-04-02

98

Mineral imbalances in farm animals and their study and diagnosis with isotopic tracers.  

PubMed

Twenty-two mineral elements are known to be essential for animal life. These are calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, tin, vanadium, fluorine, silicon, nickel and arsenic. Naturally occurring and man-made dietary imbalances of many of these elements and their interactions with other minerals are described and their functions and requirements by farm animals are outlined. The nature and importance of metabolic interactions among the mineral elements are discussed and the important concept stressed that there is no single minimum requirement or safe tolerance of a particular mineral, but a series of such minimum requirements and safe tolerances depending on the extent to which other minerals with which it interacts is present or absent from the diet. Radioactive tracer elements are shown to be of great value in the determination of mineral nutrient availability to the animal and for following mineral metabolic movements in the body. They are also shown to have considerable potential for the diagnosis of mineral imbalances. Various in vivo and in vitro techniques, involving both radioactive and stable tracers developed for the early diagnosis of mineral deficiencies are described and the strengths and weaknesses of such techniques in comparison with standard biochemical tests, are discussed. The need for further critical studies with isotopic tracers in the detection and diagnosis of mineral imbalances is emphasized. The main types of biochemical criteria used in the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and excesses are given, with appropriate examples of their use. PMID:797391

Underwood, E J

1976-12-01

99

Hydrophilic and lipophilic radiopharmaceuticals as tracers in pharmaceutical development: In vitro – In vivo studies  

PubMed Central

Background Scintigraphic studies have been performed to assess the release, both in vitro and in vivo, of radiotracers from tablet formulations. Four different tracers with differing physicochemical characteristics have been evaluated to assess their suitability as models for drug delivery. Methods In-vitro disintegration and dissolution studies have been performed at pH 1, 4 and 7. In-vivo studies have been performed by scintigraphic imaging in healthy volunteers. Two hydrophilic tracers, (99mTc-DTPA) and (99mTc-MDP), and two lipophilic tracers, (99mTc-ECD) and (99mTc-MIBI), were used as drug models. Results Dissolution and disintegration profiles, differed depending on the drug model chosen. In vitro dissolution velocity constants indicated a probable retention of the radiotracer in the formulation. In vivo disintegration velocity constants showed important variability for each radiopharmaceutical. Pearson statistical test showed no correlation between in vitro drug release, and in vivo behaviour, for 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-MIBI. High correlation coefficients were found for 99mTc-MDP not only for in vitro dissolution and disintegration studies but also for in vivo scintigraphic studies. Conclusion Scintigraphic studies have made a significant contribution to the development of drug delivery systems. It is essential, however, to choose the appropriate radiotracers as models of drug behaviour. This study has demonstrated significant differences in release patterns, depending on the model chosen. It is likely that each formulation would require the development of a specific model, rather than being able to use a generic drug model on the basis of its physicochemical characteristics. PMID:16232323

Terán, Mariella; Savio, Eduardo; Paolino, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm

2005-01-01

100

Isotopic analysis and multi tracer tests to study groundwater circulation in a landslide in Southern Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding groundwater circulation in landslides is often necessary to assess their dynamics and forecast movements. Fontana landslide is placed in Canton Ticino, its main body is constituted by gneiss, that is covered by moraine and other deposits related to the mass movements like debris flows and, rock fall. Gneiss that originally has low hydraulic conductivity increases their aquifer properties due to weathering and fracture presence. In fact several springs are present in across the landslide some of them having discharge up to 1 m3 S-1. To study groundwater circulation in the landslide body, a multi tracer test was designed and water samples taken. 3 tracers (Naphtionate, Sulphorhodamine B and Uranine) were injected underground. Injection mass was calculated by using EHTD (EPA, 2003), 2 field fluorimeters were placed in springs considered to be the main water discharge of the system for continuous monitoring. Other springs with smaller discharge scattered along the landslide body were monitored by using charcoal bags. Water samples also were taken for chemical and stable isotopes analysis. The tracers' presence was also monitored in the river crossing the area collecting surface flow from snowmelt and springs. Even if the landslide has a small area, isotopic composition of water from springs shows clear differences. All samples plot close to the local meteoric water line, and an altitude effect is visible. Chemical composition is relatively uniform however some differences can also be seen. Concerning tracers the only that arrived at monitored points was uranine, and it was detected in the charcoal bags. Considering tracer concentration in ppm, in the charcoal and travel times to restitution points was possible to have conceptual model for groundwater flow across the landslide. Circulation is rapid and recharge controlled by snowmelt in spring and precipitation in late spring to autumn. Snow accumulates at the top of the landslide where an elongated topographic basin is present filled by blocks infiltrates and feed the springs located at lower altitude but close to the basin. Those springs not originally considered for discharge monitoring, are draining the water from the basin and could be better correlated to landslide movement, respect to other springs with similar discharge rates but farther from the concentrated infiltration area represented by the topographic basin.

Pera, Sebastian; Marzocchi, Roberto; Bronzini, Simona

2014-05-01

101

The effects of breaking waves on dual-tracer gas exchange experiments  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of air-sea gas fluxes is important in understanding the global ocean carbon cycle, determining the effect of biologically produced gases on remote marine tropospheric aerosol production, and measuring the atmospheric lifetimes of trace gases. Direct measurement of the flux, F, of a sparingly soluble gas through the air-sea interface is extremely difficult in general, and F is often calculated as F = k{sub L}{delta}C where k{sub L} is the transfer velocity of the gas and AC is its air-sea concentration difference. In the absence of bubbles, k{sub L} is a function of the near-surface aqueous-phase turbulence and the molecular diffusivity of the gas. Although direct measurement of {delta}C is relatively simple, oceanic measurements of k{sub L} are problematical. Because of this, k{sub L} is usually estimated from empirical parameterizations for k{sub L} in terms of wind speed, U. The linear relation between F and k{sub L} at a constant {delta}C implies that the accuracy of the parameterization of k{sub L} in terms of U is critical in calculating F. This is especially true when U is large, since experiments in wind tunnels, lakes, and the ocean suggest that k{sub L} increases quadratically with U (Wanninkhof, 1992). With the exact functional form of the relation between U and k{sub L} not definitively known at present, estimation of k{sub L} at high U could be inaccurate. This problem could be resolved with further oceanic measurements of k{sub L} at high U. However, increases in U are also associated with increases in the frequency of wave breaking. Whitecaps are known to generate bubble plumes, and these bubbles could have a significant effect on the measurement of k{sub L}.

Asher, W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Sequim, WA (United States); Wanninkhof, R. [National Oceanic and Atomospheric Administration/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meterological Lab., Miami, FL (United States)

1995-07-01

102

New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.  

PubMed

Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, ?11B, and ?7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), ?11B (25-31‰) and ?7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (?0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF. PMID:25327769

Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

2014-11-01

103

A rapid method for the measurement of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3), and Halon 1211 (CF2ClBr) in hydrologic tracer studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A rapid headspace method for the simultaneous laboratory determination of intentionally introduced hydrologic tracers, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3), Halon 1211 (CF2ClBr), and other halocarbons in water and gases is described. The high sensitivity of the procedure allows for introduction of minimal tracer mass (a few grams) into hydrologic systems with a large dynamic range of analytical detection (dilutions to 1:108). Analysis times by gas chromatography with electron capture detector are less than 1 min for SF6; about 2 min for SF6 and SF5CF3; and 4 min for SF6, SF5CF3, and Halon 1211. Many samples can be rapidly collected, preserved in stoppered septum bottles, and analyzed at a later time in the laboratory. Examples are provided showing the effectiveness of the gas tracer test studies in varied hydrogeological settings.

Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel

2010-01-01

104

Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in anExperimental Atrium: Comparison Between Experiments and CFDPredictions  

SciTech Connect

We compare computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions using a steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model with experimental data on airflow and pollutant dispersion under mixed-convection conditions in a 7 x 9 x 11m high experimental facility. The Rayleigh number, based on height, was O(10{sup 11}) and the atrium was mechanically ventilated. We released tracer gas in the atrium and measured the spatial distribution of concentrations; we then modeled the experiment using four different levels of modeling detail. The four computational models differ in the choice of temperature boundary conditions and the choice of turbulence model. Predictions from a low-Reynolds-number k-{var_epsilon} model with detailed boundary conditions agreed well with the data using three different model-measurement comparison metrics. Results from the same model with a single temperature prescribed for each wall also agreed well with the data. Predictions of a standard k-{var_epsilon} model were about the same as those of an isothermal model; neither performed well. Implications of the results for practical applications are discussed.

Jayaraman, Buvaneswari; Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Sohn, MichaelD.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Price, Phillip N.; Wood, Emily E.; Sextro,Richard G.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

2006-01-01

105

Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique with mass spectrometry is not so common and application to aerosols is novel. The HTGC and HTGC-MS analyses of smoke samples taken by particle filtration from combustion of different species of plants provided the characterization of various classes of HMW compounds reported to occur for the first time in emissions from biomass burning. Among these components are a series of wax esters with up to 58 carbon numbers, aliphatic hydrocarbons, triglycerides, long chain methyl ketones, alkanols and a series of triterpenyl fatty acid esters which have been characterized as novel natural products. Long chain fatty acids with more than 32 carbon numbers are not present in the smoke samples analyzed. The HMW compounds in smoke samples from the burning of plants from Amazonia indicate the input of directly volatilized natural products in the original plants during their combustion. However, the major organic compounds extracted from smoke consist of a series of lower molecular weight polar components, which are not natural products but the result of the thermal breakdown of cellulose and lignin. In contrast, the HMW natural products may be suitable tracers for specific sources of vegetation combustion because they are emitted as particles without thermal alternation in the smoke and can thus be related directly to the original plant material.

Elias, V.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Pereira, A.S.; Cardoso, J.N. (Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)); Cabral, J.A. (Inst. de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Amazonas (Brazil))

1999-07-15

106

Using trees to remediate tritium contaminated groundwater: a modeling and tracer study.  

SciTech Connect

Rebel, Karin, T. 2004. Using trees to remediate tritium contaminated groundwater: a modeling and tracer study. Ph.D Dissertation. Cotnell University. Ithaca, New York. 174 pp. Abstract: We have developed a spatially explicit model of water and tritium fluxes in the vadose zone in order to simulate water uptake and subsurface lateral movement in coniferous and mixed hardwood - coniferous forests on Coastal Plain soils of the southern United States. These Coastal Plain soils are characteristically sand overlying slowly permeable clays found at depths of 30 to 200 cm, and can form temporarily saturated, unconfined aquifers. Ten hectares of the modeled watershed was periodically irrigated with tritium enriched water. We used the tritium enriched water as a tracer to validate the model. The model was used to optimize irrigation, to evaluate the amount of tritium entering the atmosphere due to evapotranspiration and to quantify water and tritium fluxes in texture contrast soils. Using tritium as a tracer, we have studied how tree species and canopy position effect water and solutes uptake from different parts of the soil profile. We clipped branches to obtain leaf water from over-and understory laurel oak (Quercus Laurifolia) and over- and understory pine (Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda), which was then analyzed for tritium. We found that for early successional trees (Pinus spp.) and trees in the overstory proportionally more water was taken up from deeper in the soil compared to the hardwoods or trees in the understory, which took up proportionally more water from the soil surface. These differences are important for understanding competition for resources within a forest and in predicting the hydrologic response to forest management practices such as thinning.

Rebel, Karin, Theodora

2004-01-01

107

SF6 Tracer Release Study: A Contaminant Fate Study in Newtown Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newtown Creek is a 5.5km creek that discharges into the East River, a 25km strait connecting Long Island Sound to the north and the New York Harbor to the south. Surface runoff dominates the freshwater input into the creek, for natural tributaries no longer exist. The areas directly adjacent to the creek are highly industrialized, and New York City's largest Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) discharges directly into creek. In August 2004, we injected sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) into Newtown creek to study the fate of oil seeping into the creek from an underground oil spill and the fate of nutrient rich effluent from the WPCP. We monitored SF6 in Newtown Creek, the East River, and the Upper Bay of New York Harbor for 7 consecutive days following the injection in order to investigate the spreading patterns and transport mechanics of waters exiting the creek, and to determine the ultimate fate of the contaminants/solutes originating in Newtown Creek. Dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements were collected simultaneously with SF6 measurements. A strong DO gradient exists in the creek, where waters in the upper reaches are anoxic. We use SF6 data to calculate mean residence times for Newtown Creek waters. SF6 was detected above background concentrations approximately 15km to the south of the creek at the Verrazano Bridge only 1 day after the tracer injection. By combining the movements of the SF6 distribution, the position of the oxygen gradient, and the residence time of Newtown Creek water, we can determine a lower boundary for oxygen consumption rates.

Schmieder, P. J.; Ho, D. T.; Peter, S.; Simpson, H. J.; Flores, S.; Dugan, W. A.

2004-12-01

108

Sulfur Hexafluoride Tracer Dispersion within Cherry Orchard  

E-print Network

Sulfur Hexafluoride Tracer Dispersion within Cherry Orchard Zeyuan Chen, S. Edburg, and B. Lamb the correspondence between tracer gas concentration and atmospheric stability. Within the Tukey Cherry Orchard, we

Collins, Gary S.

109

URCHIN: Reverse ray tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

URCHIN is a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) reverse ray tracer (i.e. from particles to sources). It calculates the amount of shielding from a uniform background that each particle experiences. Preservation of the adaptive density field resolution present in many gas dynamics codes and uniform sampling of gas resolution elements with rays are two of the benefits of URCHIN; it also offers preservation of Galilean invariance, high spectral resolution, and preservation of the standard uniform UV background in optically thin gas.

Altay, Gabriel; Theuns, Tom

2014-12-01

110

The use of a 18 O tracer and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to study the oxidation mechanism of NiAl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation mechanism of NiAl was investigated in the temperature range between 1170 K and 1420 K. Oxidation was performed by alternating exposure of the samples to natural oxygen and oxygen gas enriched with 18O. The 18O tracer was profiled by using the reaction with 800 keV protons, 18O(p,?)15N. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry of 2 MeV 4He+ was used to check

E. W. A. Young; J. H. W. De Wit

1985-01-01

111

Separation of Emitted and Photochemical Formaldehyde in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a Statistical Analysis and a New Pair of Gas-phase Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In urban air, the presence of formaldehyde (HCHO) is the result of direct emissions from mobile sources (primary HCHO) and of its production by photochemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere (secondary HCHO). HCHO is a known carcinogen, and is further capable to jump-start photochemical smog formation. Pollution control strategies require deconvolution of the amounts of HCHO formed from primary and secondary sources. To separate primary, secondary and background HCHO, a statistical regression analysis of the time series of HCHO from pairs of gas-phase tracer molecules was undertaken. Carbon monoxide (CO) was used as tracer for primary sources; Two different species were compared as tracers for secondary HCHO: glyoxal (CHOCHO) and ozone (O3). These time series were measured at the field campaign supersite located at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (CENICA) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA-2003 campaign. In addition, background HCHO measurements were performed outside the city. Correlation coefficients were highest for the CHOCHO-CO tracer pair, indicating that CHOCHO is a better tracer for secondary sources than O3, used previously for this purpose. Results of the analysis are presented for the pre-Easter, Easter week and post-Easter periods. Further, the effect of temperature on the primary and secondary HCHO sources is assessed. On a 24-hour average basis, secondary sources dominate over primary sources. However, during sunrise, when HCHO acts as a radical source to jump-start photochemistry, a significant amount of the HCHO is associated with primary emissions.

Garcia, A.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Samuelsson, J.; Mellqvist, J.; Galle, B.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C. E.

2004-12-01

112

Controls on Hyporheic Nitrate Removal: Assessing Transport and Substrate Limitations with 15N Tracer Studies (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined transport time and substrate controls on hyporheic (HZ) nitrification and denitrification in an upland agricultural stream with a series of 15N tracer studies - whole-stream and in situ well-to-well steady-state 15NO3- and conservative tracer (Cl-) addition experiments. For the whole-stream experiment, we measured relevant solute, 15N isotope, and hydraulic transport conditions of the reach and along HZ flowpaths of an instrumented gravel bar. HZ exchange was observed across the entire gravel bar with flowpath lengths up to 4.2m and corresponding median residence times greater than 28.5h. The HZ transitioned from a net nitrification environment at its head (small residence times, <6.9h) to a net denitrification environment at its tail (large residence times, 6.9-28.5h). HZ denitrification was confirmed as 15N2 was produced across the entire gravel bar. Production of 15N2 across all observed flowpaths and residence times indicated that denitrification microsites are present even where net nitrification occurred. At large residence times, the rate of denitrification decreased despite persistent anoxic conditions, indicating substrate (NO3- and carbon) limitations. Consequently, we conducted in situ 15NO3-, conservative tracers (Cl- and Br), and acetate injection experiments to determine how the availability of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as acetate influences microbial denitrification in the HZ, especially along anoxic flowpaths with large residence times. The acetate addition to the HZ stimulated significant increases in 15N2 production by factors of 2.7 to 26.1 in all receiving wells, and significant decreases of NO3- and DOC aromaticity in the wells most hydrologically connected to the injection. Further, 100% of acetate was retained in the HZ, a portion of which is due to biological consumption. These studies demonstrate that: 1. the HZ is an active nitrogen sink in this study system, 2. the distinction between net nitrification and denitrification in the HZ is a function of residence time and exhibits threshold behavior, and 3. microbial denitrification in anaerobic portions of the HZ can be limited by labile DOC supply.

Zarnetske, J. P.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.; Baker, M. A.

2010-12-01

113

A tracer study of ventilation in the Japan/East Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Circulation Research in East Asian Marginal Seas (CREAMS) summer cruises in 1999, a suite of samples was collected for tracer analysis. Oxygen isotopes combined with tritium-helium ventilation timescales and noble gas measurements give unique insights into the ventilation of water masses in the Japan/East Sea (JES). In particular, noble gases and oxygen isotopes are indicators of brine rejection, which may assist in explaining the recent changes observed in the ventilation of the JES. Oxygen isotope data presented here indicate that both thermally driven convection and brine rejection have played significant roles in deep-water formation but that brine rejection is unlikely to be a significant contributor at the moment. A 6-box ventilation model of the JES, calibrated with tritium and helium-3 measurements, performed better when a significant decrease of dense-water formation rates in the mid-1960s was incorporated. However, the model calculations suggest that Japan Sea Intermediate Water formation is still occurring. Subduction of sea-ice melt water may be a significant ventilation mechanism for this water mass, based on an argon saturation minimum at the recently ventilated salinity minimum in the northwestern sector of the JES. The salinity and oxygen isotope budgets imply a potential bottom-water formation rate of 3.97±0.89×10 12 m 3 yr -1 due to brine rejection, which could account for a time averaged fraction of between 25% and 35% of the ventilation of subsurface water formation in the JES.

Postlethwaite, C. F.; Rohling, E. J.; Jenkins, W. J.; Walker, C. F.

2005-06-01

114

Hydrological Tracer Studies at a DOE IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research activities at the Department of Energy Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado, have demonstrated that uranium can successfully be removed from groundwater through stimulation of indigenous metal-reducing bacteria, such as members of the Geobacteraceae. While such removal strategies may be effective over short timescales, the large inventory of uranium sorbed to aquifer sediments contributes to a diffuse and widespread contaminant plume at the Rifle site, leading to persistent uranium contamination of groundwater. Complicating the long-term plume behavior are seasonal changes in aquifer properties (e.g. fluctuating water levels, variations in dissolved oxygen and organic carbon, etc.) that accompany snowmelt and elevated river stage in the Colorado River. As the impact of such changes on contaminant behavior at Rifle is poorly understood, development of novel methods, such as isotopic techniques, is warranted to better constrain aquifer flow properties and resolve surface water-groundwater interactions that may influence long-term uranium mobility. In addition to floodplain scale (ca. 10 hectare) studies of uranium mobility, ongoing research at Rifle is investigating coupled approaches to desorb and reductively immobilize pools of sorbed and aqueous uranium. Performed as part of the “Super 8” field experiment (2010), a variety of conservative and non-conservative chemical compounds were injected into the Rifle aquifer to assess transport properties and quantify rates of reductive immobilization of uranium under different alkalinity conditions. Conservative tracers included sodium bromide (20mM), deuterium (500‰), and O-18 (25‰), whereas reactive amendments included sodium bicarbonate (50mM) and sodium acetate (6mM); the latter two were designed to enhance desorption of uranium from sediments and stimulate the activity of uranium-reducing microorganisms, respectively. The need to introduce the reactive amendments at different times and locations necessitated the use of distinct conservative tracers to delineate the spatial distribution of the injected plumes within the aquifer as a function time. Here we report on the field measurements of groundwater stable isotopes and bromide concentrations during the injection experiments. The data indicate differences in groundwater transport pathways as a function of injection and highlight the value of using multiple conservation tracers to resolve overlapping injection source terms.

Gupta, M.; Williams, K. H.; Berman, E. S.; Conrad, M. E.

2010-12-01

115

Tracer diffusion in colloidal gels  

E-print Network

Computer simulations were done of the mean square displacement (MSD) of tracer particles in colloidal gels formed by diffusion or reaction limited aggregation of hard spheres. The diffusion coefficient was found to be determined by the volume fraction accessible to the spherical tracers ($\\phi_a$) independent of the gel structure or the tracer size. In all cases, critical slowing down was observed at $\\phi_a\\approx 0.03$ and was characterized by the same scaling laws reported earlier for tracer diffusion in a Lorentz gas. Strong heterogeneity of the MSD was observed at small $\\phi_a$ and was related to the size distribution of pores.

Sujin Babu; Jean Christophe Gimel; Taco Nicolai

2007-05-09

116

Tracer diffusion in colloidal gels.  

PubMed

Computer simulations were done of the mean square displacement (MSD) of tracer particles in colloidal gels formed by diffusion or reaction limited aggregation of hard spheres. The diffusion coefficient was found to be determined by the volume fraction accessible to the spherical tracers (phi a) independent of the gel structure or the tracer size. In all cases, critical slowing down was observed at phi a approximately 0.03 and was characterized by the same scaling laws reported earlier for tracer diffusion in a Lorentz gas. Strong heterogeneity of the MSD was observed at small phi a and was related to the size distribution of pores. PMID:18171042

Babu, Sujin; Gimel, Jean Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

2008-01-24

117

OTEC gas desorption studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on deaeration in packed columns and barometric intake systems, and with hydraulic air compression for open-cycle OTEC systems are reported. A gas desorption test loop consisting of water storage tanks, a vacuum system, a liquid recirculating system, an air supply, a column test section, and two barometric leg test sections was used to perform the tests. The aerated water was directed through columns filled with either ceramic Raschig rings or plastic pall rings, and the system vacuum pressure, which drives the deaeration process, was found to be dependent on water velocity and intake pipe height. The addition of a barometric intake pipe increased the deaeration effect 10%, and further tests were run with lengths of PVC pipe as potential means for noncondensibles disposal through hydraulic air compression. Using the kinetic energy from the effluent flow to condense steam in the noncondensible stream improved the system efficiency.

Chen, F. C.; Golshani, A.

1982-02-01

118

Predictive value of tracer studies for /sup 131/I treatment in hyperthyroid cats  

SciTech Connect

In 76 cats with hyperthyroidism, peak thyroidal radioiodine (/sup 131/I) uptakes and effective half-lives were determined after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I. In 6 additional hyperthyroid cats, only peak thyroidal uptakes after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I were determined. Good correlation was found between peak thyroidal uptakes of tracer and therapeutic /sup 131/I; however, only fair correlation was observed between effective half-lives. In 79% of the cats, the effective half-life for therapeutic /sup 131/I was longer than that for tracer /sup 131/I. After administration of therapeutic activity of /sup 131/I, monoexponential and biphasic decay curves were observed in 51 and 16 cats, respectively. Using therapeutic kinetic data, radiation doses to the thyroid gland were calculated retrospectively on the basis of 2 methods for determining the activity of /sup 131/I administered: (1) actual administration of tracer-compensated activity and (2) hypothetic administration of uniform activity (3 mCi). Because of the good predictive ability of tracer kinetic data for the therapeutic kinetic data, the tracer-compensated radiation doses came significantly (P = 0.008) closer to the therapeutic goal than did the uniform-activity doses. In addition, the use of tracer kinetic information reduced the extent of the tendency for consistently high uniform-activity doses. A manual method for acquiring tracer kinetic data was developed and was an acceptable alternative to computerized techniques. Adoption of this method gives individuals and institutions with limited finances the opportunity to characterize the iodine kinetics in cats before proceeding with administration of therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I.

Broome, M.R.; Turrel, J.M.; Hays, M.T.

1988-02-01

119

Effects of solute breakthrough curve tail truncation on residence time estimates: A synthesis of solute tracer injection studies  

E-print Network

Effects of solute breakthrough curve tail truncation on residence time estimates: A synthesis and the larger groundwater system. Observed in-stream breakthrough curves have most commonly been modeled with in-injection studies to investigate the information content of tracer breakthrough curves. We found that breakthrough

Covino, Tim

120

The Experience of Receiving and Then Losing a Scholarship: A Tracer Study of Secondary School Scholarship Recipients in Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports findings of a tracer that investigated differences in the profile and subsequent experiences of scholarship recipients in Uganda who were able to complete the lower secondary school cycle (O level) without interruption (N = 174) and those that dropped out before completing their O-level cycle (N = 51), thereby losing their…

Watson, Cathy; Chapman, David W.; Okurut, Charles Opolot

2014-01-01

121

Effects of resolution and model physics on tracer transports in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the dependency of general circulation model tracer transports on model physics and horizontal and vertical resolution. We use NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Model E at 4° × 5° with 20 and 23 layers and the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model 3 at 4° × 5° with 23 and 53 layers and at 2° ×

D. Rind; J. Lerner; J. Jonas; C. McLinden

2007-01-01

122

The Voices of Their Childhood: Families and Early Years' Practitioners Developing Emancipatory Methodologies through a Tracer Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pen Green Tracer Study questions the difference we may or may not have made to children's lives. An initial cohort of young people, now aged between 11-20, revisited their nursery in 2010. Their stories prompted discussion on parental involvement and advocacy within the education system, key worker attachment, and children's sense of self. Our…

Whalley, Margy; Arnold, Cath; Lawrence, Penny; Peerless, Sally

2012-01-01

123

Basin-wide circulation and ventilation study in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) using chlorofluorocarbon tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-synoptic basin-wide distributions of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) tracers were observed during the summer of 1999 in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) to study its circulation and ventilation. The CFCs penetrate throughout the water column, and the bottom water (BW) CFC concentrations have increased over measurements made in 1995 and 1996, indicating a continuous weak renewal of deep waters in

Dong-Ha Min; Mark J. Warner

2005-01-01

124

A comparison of selected organic tracers for quantitative scalar imaging in the gas phase via laser-induced fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares three of the tracers most commonly used for laser-induced fluorescence in gaseous flows, toluene, naphthalene, and acetone. Additionally, anisole (methoxybenzene, CH3OC6H5) is included in the comparison. Each tracer is employed to image the scalar field in the same nonreacting transient impinging turbulent jet. The jet fluid is seeded with tracer vapor in a bubbler, excitation is at 266 nm, and both air and nitrogen are used as bath gases. Measured signals are compared to theoretical predictions based on fluorescence quantum yield, absorption cross-section, and vapor pressure. We find that anisole shows the highest total signal intensity of all investigated species, while naphthalene features the highest signal per molecule. Acetone has the advantage of being insensitive to quenching by oxygen and that its fluorescence is partly at visible wavelengths. In addition to this volatility-limited scenario at room temperature, we also compare the expected relative signals for elevated temperatures and for a hypothetical case in which the amount of admissible tracer seeding is limited.

Faust, Stephan; Goschütz, Martin; Kaiser, Sebastian A.; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof

2014-10-01

125

Validation studies of iodine-123-iodoamphetamine as a cerebral blood flow tracer using emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

We studied the radioisotope iodine-123-iodoamphetamine (({sup 123}I)IMP) and its performance in single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF). In seven normal volunteers, IMP/SPECT CBF measurements were calculated using a two-compartment model and were compared with the results of CBF measurements utilizing (O15)-H{sub 2}O and positron emission tomography (PET). Calculated mean PET CBF was 57.6 ml/100 g/min while the SPECT CBF value was 47.3 ml/100 g/min. The response of IMP/SPECT CBF to alterations in arterial PaCO{sub 2} was studied in hypo-, eu- and hypercarbic subjects. SPECT CBF values showed a reactivity of 1.03 ml/100 g/min per mmHg PaCO{sub 2} change. These results show that the IMP/SPECT CBF technique may be used for quantitative imaging of CBF in man. They provide further support for IMP as a CBF tracer.

Greenberg, J.H.; Kushner, M.; Rango, M.; Alavi, A.; Reivich, M. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

1990-08-01

126

Quantifying uncertainties in tracer-based hydrograph separations: a case study for two-, three- and five-component hydrograph separations in a mountainous catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrograph separation technique using natural tracers, in which different runoff components are quantified according to their chemical signature, is a widely used method for investigating runoff generation processes at the catchment scale. The first objective of this study is to demonstrate a modified methodology for separating three and five runoff components using 18O and dissolved silica as tracers. The

Stefan Uhlenbrook; Simon Hoeg

2003-01-01

127

Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers. Second technical annual progress report, October 1991--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

This second annual report on innovative uses of tracers for reservoir characterization contains four sections each describing a novel use of oilfield tracers. The first section describes and illustrates the use of a new single-well tracer test to estimate wettability. This test consists of the injection of brine containing tracers followed by oil containing tracers, a shut-in period to allow some of the tracers to react, and then production of the tracers. The inclusion of the oil injection slug with tracers is unique to this test, and this is what makes the test work. We adapted our chemical simulator, UTCHEM, to enable us to study this tracer method and made an extensive simulation study to evaluate the effects of wettability based upon characteristic curves for relative permeability and capillary pressure for differing wetting states typical of oil reservoirs. The second section of this report describes a new method for analyzing interwell tracer data based upon a type-curve approach. Theoretical frequency response functions were used to build type curves of ``transfer function`` and ``phase spectrum`` that have dimensionless heterogeneity index as a parameter to characterize a stochastic permeability field. We illustrate this method by analyzing field tracer data. The third section of this report describes a new theory for interpreting interwell tracer data in terms of channeling and dispersive behavior for reservoirs. Once again, a stochastic approach to reservoir description is taken. The fourth section of this report describes our simulation of perfluorocarbon gas tracers. This new tracer technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being tested at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California. We report preliminary simulations made of these tracers in one of the oil reservoirs under evaluation with these tracers in this field. Our compostional simulator (UTCOMP) was used for this simulation study.

Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

1992-12-31

128

Sinks for nitrogen inputs in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis of 15N tracer field studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to store carbon (C) depend in part on the amount of N retained in the system and its partitioning among plant and soil pools. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies at 48 sites across four continents that used enriched 15N isotope tracers in order to synthesize information about total ecosystem N retention (i.e., total ecosystem 15N recovery in plant and soil pools) across natural systems and N partitioning among ecosystem pools. The greatest recoveries of ecosystem 15N tracer occurred in shrublands (mean, 89.5%) and wetlands (84.8%) followed by forests (74.9%) and grasslands (51.8%). In the short term (15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N recovery was negatively correlated with fine-root and soil 15N natural abundance, and organic soil C and N concentration but was positively correlated with mean annual temperature and mineral soil C:N. In the longer term (3–18 months after 15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N retention was negatively correlated with foliar natural-abundance 15N but was positively correlated with mineral soil C and N concentration and C: N, showing that plant and soil natural-abundance 15N and soil C:N are good indicators of total ecosystem N retention. Foliar N concentration was not significantly related to ecosystem 15N tracer recovery, suggesting that plant N status is not a good predictor of total ecosystem N retention. Because the largest ecosystem sinks for 15N tracer were below ground in forests, shrublands, and grasslands, we conclude that growth enhancement and potential for increased C storage in aboveground biomass from atmospheric N deposition is likely to be modest in these ecosystems. Total ecosystem 15N recovery decreased with N fertilization, with an apparent threshold fertilization rate of 46 kg N·ha-1·yr-1 above which most ecosystems showed net losses of applied 15N tracer in response to N fertilizer addition.

Templer, P.H.; Mack, M.C.; Chapin, F. S., III; Christenson, L.M.; Compton, J.E.; Crook, H.D.; Currie, W.S.; Curtis, C.J.; Dail, D.B.; D'Antonio, C. M.; Emmett, B.A.; Epstein, H.E.; Goodale, C.L.; Gundersen, P.; Hobbie, S.E.; Holland, K.; Hooper, D.U.; Hungate, B.A.; Lamontagne, S.; Nadelhoffer, K.J.; Osenberg, C.W.; Perakis, S.S.; Schleppi, P.; Schimel, J.; Schmidt, I.K.; Sommerkorn, M.; Spoelstra, J.; Tietema, A.; Wessel, W.W.; Zak, D.R.

2012-01-01

129

Sinks for nitrogen inputs in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis of 15N tracer field studies.  

PubMed

Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to store carbon (C) depend in part on the amount of N retained in the system and its partitioning among plant and soil pools. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies at 48 sites across four continents that used enriched 15N isotope tracers in order to synthesize information about total ecosystem N retention (i.e., total ecosystem 15N recovery in plant and soil pools) across natural systems and N partitioning among ecosystem pools. The greatest recoveries of ecosystem 15N tracer occurred in shrublands (mean, 89.5%) and wetlands (84.8%) followed by forests (74.9%) and grasslands (51.8%). In the short term (< 1 week after 15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N recovery was negatively correlated with fine-root and soil 15N natural abundance, and organic soil C and N concentration but was positively correlated with mean annual temperature and mineral soil C:N. In the longer term (3-18 months after 15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N retention was negatively correlated with foliar natural-abundance 15N but was positively correlated with mineral soil C and N concentration and C:N, showing that plant and soil natural-abundance 15N and soil C:N are good indicators of total ecosystem N retention. Foliar N concentration was not significantly related to ecosystem 15N tracer recovery, suggesting that plant N status is not a good predictor of total ecosystem N retention. Because the largest ecosystem sinks for 15N tracer were below ground in forests, shrublands, and grasslands, we conclude that growth enhancement and potential for increased C storage in aboveground biomass from atmospheric N deposition is likely to be modest in these ecosystems. Total ecosystem 15N recovery decreased with N fertilization, with an apparent threshold fertilization rate of 46 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1) above which most ecosystems showed net losses of applied 15N tracer in response to N fertilizer addition. PMID:22928411

Templer, P H; Mack, M C; Chapin, F S; Christenson, L M; Compton, J E; Crook, H D; Currie, W S; Curtis, C J; Dail, D B; D'Antonio, C M; Emmett, B A; Epstein, H E; Goodale, C L; Gundersen, P; Hobbie, S E; Holland, K; Hooper, D U; Hungate, B A; Lamontagne, S; Nadelhoffer, K J; Osenberg, C W; Perakis, S S; Schleppi, P; Schimel, J; Schmidt, I K; Sommerkorn, M; Spoelstra, J; Tietema, A; Wessel, W W; Zak, D R

2012-08-01

130

The Santa Monica Basin Tracer Experiment - A study of diapycnal and isopycnal mixing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cross isopycnal (diapycnal) and lateral mixing and stirring below the sill of Santa Monica Basin were studied by releasing two tracers, sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorodecalin, as close as possible to an isopycnal surface and measuring their subsequent dispersion. The target for the release was a potential temperature surface at about 790 m depth, roughly 100 m above the bottom and 50 m below the sill. Three surveys, performed immediately after, about 7 weeks after, and about 6 months after the release, showed that the time scales for lateral stirring and mixing in the basin were between 2 and 5 months. The diapycnal diffusivity for the whole period was found to be 0.29 + or - 0.06 sq cm/s near the injection surface, where the buoyancy frequency was about 1.1 cph. This estimate may include some mixing in the turbulent boundary layer near the walls of the basin. The best estimate for the diapycnal diffusivity in the basin interior is 0.25 + or - 0.08 sq cm/s.

Ledwell, James R.; Watson, Andrew J.

1991-01-01

131

Dual-tracer scintigraphy and subtraction studies in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Dual tracer scintigraphy (DTS) (technetium 99m (/sup 99m/Tc) sulfur colloid and gallium 67 citrate (67-gallium citrate)) of the liver and computer subtraction studies (SS) were performed in 26 patients subsequently proven to have hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 32 patients with cirrhosis and focal defects on the colloid scan, with no evidence for HCC after a complete evaluation and a 2-year follow-up period. Both DTS and SS had a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 90.6% for HCC. There were three false positive cases (9.4%), two of which were occult abscesses. The predictive value of a positive test was 89% and that of a negative test was 97%. The smallest tumor detected measured 2 cm in diameter and was only visualized with the SS. In the clinical setting, when HCC is suspected (a situation in which tumors are usually larger than 2 cm and the pretest probability of disease is between 20% and 60%) the DTS and SS is an excellent test for the diagnosis or exclusion of HCC. It does not appear to have a role in screening programs.

Sostre, S.; Villagra, D.; Morales, N.E.; Rivera, J.V.

1988-02-15

132

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

1996-06-01

133

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site characterization study; Progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report is in two parts one for the fluorinated benzoic acids and one for the fluorinated aliphatic acids. The assumptions made in the report regarding the amount of tracer that will be used, dilution of the tracer during the test and the length of exposure (if any) to individuals drinking the water were made by the authors. These assumptions must really come from the USGS hydrologists in charge of the c-well tracer testing program. Accurate estimates of dilution of the tracer during the test are also important because of solubility limitations of some of the tracers. Three of the difluorobenzoic acids have relatively low solubilities and may not be usable if the dilution estimates are large. The toxicologist that reviewed the document agreed with our conclusion that the fluorinated benzoic and toluic acids do not represent a health hazard if used under the conditions as outlined in the report. We are currently testing 15 of these compounds, and if even if three difluorobenzoic acids cannot be used because of solubility limitations we will still have 12 tracers. The toxicologist felt that the aliphatic fluorinated acids potentially present more of a health risk than the aromatic. This assessment was based on the fact of a known allergic response to halothane anesthetic. This risk, although minimal, is known and he felt that was enough reason to recommend against their use. The authors feel that the toxicologists interpretation of this risk was overly conservative, however, we will not go against his recommendation at this time for the following reasons. First, without the aliphatic compounds we still have 12 to 15 fluorinated aromatic acids which, should be enough for the c-well tests. Second, to get a permit to use aliphatic compounds would undoubtedly require a hearing which could be quite lengthy.

Dombrowski, T.; Stetzenbach, K.

1993-08-01

134

Development of a membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor - 1 - Gas phase back-mixing and bubble-to-emulsion phase mass transfer using tracer injection and ultrasound experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small laboratory-scale membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor (MAFBR) was constructed in order to experimentally demonstrate the benefits of this reactor concept, especially the enhanced bubble-to-emulsion phase mass transfer and the reduced overall axial gas phase back-mixing, due to the presence of the membranes and permeation of gas through the membranes. With steady-state tracer gas injection experiments, it was demonstrated that

S. A. R. K. Deshmukh; J. A. Laverman; A. H. G. Cents; Sint Annaland van M; J. A. M. Kuipers

2005-01-01

135

A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gas–solid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gas–solid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gas–solid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gas–solid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.

Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris

2012-03-01

136

Collisional decoherence of a tracer particle moving in one dimension  

SciTech Connect

We study decoherence of the external degree of freedom of a tracer particle moving in a one-dimensional dilute Boltzmann gas. We find that phase averaging is the dominant decoherence effect, rather than information exchange between tracer and gas particles. While a coherent superposition of two wave packets with different mean positions quickly turns into a mixed state, it is demonstrated that such superpositions of different momenta are robust to phase averaging, until the two wave packets acquire a different position due to the different velocity of each wave packet.

Kamleitner, Ingo [Institut fuer Theory der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany) and Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, Physics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109 (Australia)

2010-11-15

137

Comparison of [11C]cocaine binding at tracer and pharmacological doses of baboon brain: A PET study  

SciTech Connect

In vitro studies have shown that cocaine (C) binds to both high and low affinity sites on the dopamine transporter (DAT). We have previously characterized the binding of tracer doses of [{sup 11}C]cocaine (C*)to a high affinity site on the DAT. To assess if in vivo C also binds to low affinity sites we used PET to compare binding of tracer doses (17.8{plus_minus}12.2 {mu}g C) of C* to pharmacological doses (8 mg of C coadministered with C*). Sixteen paired studies were done to assess test/retest variability, specific versus non specific binding and to characterize binding profile. Dynamic scans were started immediately after injection of C* (5-8 mCi) for 50 min on the CTI-931 (6 x 6 x 6.5 mm FWHM). Time activity curves for tissue concentration and for unchanged tracer in plasma were used to calculate the transport constant between plasma and tissue (K1) and to obtain the distribution volume (DV). The ratio of the DV in striatum (ST) to that in cerebellum (CB) (which corresponds to Bmax/Kd-1) was used as model parameter. Peak brain uptake of C* was significantly higher for tracer than for pharmacological doses (0.041 versus 0.033 % dose/cc), as were the values for K1 (1.07{plus_minus}0.21 versus 0.68{plus_minus}0.26 (t=3.0 p<0.01)). Repeated measures were reproducible for tracer ({plus_minus}2%) and pharmacological doses of C* ({plus_minus}4%). Tracer dose C* showed highest binding and slowest clearance in ST which was reduced by C (0.5-2.0 mg/kg iv, -25 to -30%) and by drugs that inhibit DAT (2mg/kg nomifensine - 21%, 0.5 mg/kg methylphenidate -12%) and was increased by serotonin transporter inhibitors (5HT-Ti) (2 mg/kg citalopram +11%, 0.5 mg/kg fluoxetine +6%) and not changed by NE transporter inhibitors (0.5 mg/kg desipramine or 2 mg/kg tomoxetine). The increase with (5HT-Ti) may reflect neurotransmitter interactions or changes in bioavailability. At pharmacological doses C* showed homogeneous distribution and was not changed by C nor by any of the above drugs.

Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-05-01

138

Electrogenic Cl ? absorption by Amphiuma small intestine: Dependence on serosal Na + from tracer and Cl ? microelectrode studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Na+ requirement for active, electrogenic Cl? absorption byAmphiuma small intestine was studied by tracer techniques and double-barreled Cl?-sensitive microelectrodes. Addition of Cl? to a Cl?-free medium bathingin vitro intestinal segments produced a saturable (Km=5.4mm) increase in shortcircuit current (Isc) which was inhibitable by 1mm SITS. The selectivity sequence for the anion-evoked current was Cl?=Br?>SCN?>NO3?>F?=I?. Current evoked by Cl?

John F. White; Dorothy Ellingsen; Kevin Burnup

1984-01-01

139

SEDIMENT REWORKING AND TRANSPORT IN EASTERN LAKE SUPERIOR: IN SITU RARE EARTH ELEMENT TRACER STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A rare earth element (REE) tracer pellet was deployed at the floor of the Ile Parisienne basin of eastern Lake Superior to measure representative sediment reworking and transport processes in the benthic boundary layer of the prnfundal Great Lakes. Samarium oxide, a high neutron-...

140

Tracer airflow measurement system (TRAMS)  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for measuring fluid flow in a duct is disclosed. The invention uses a novel high velocity tracer injector system, an optional insertable folding mixing fan for homogenizing the tracer within the duct bulk fluid flow, and a perforated hose sampling system. A preferred embodiment uses CO.sub.2 as a tracer gas for measuring air flow in commercial and/or residential ducts. In extant commercial buildings, ducts not readily accessible by hanging ceilings may be drilled with readily plugged small diameter holes to allow for injection, optional mixing where desired using a novel insertable foldable mixing fan, and sampling hose.

Wang, Duo (Albany, CA)

2007-04-24

141

Integration of stable carbon isotope, microbial community, dissolved hydrogen gas, and ²HH?O tracer data to assess bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethene degradation in fractured rocks.  

PubMed

An in situ bioaugmentation (BA) experiment was conducted to understand processes controlling microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. In the BA experiment, an electron donor (emulsified vegetable oil and sodium lactate) and a chloro-respiring microbial consortium were injected into a well in fractured mudstone of Triassic age. Water enriched in ²H was also injected as a tracer of the BA solution, to monitor advective transport processes. The changes in concentration and the ?¹³C of TCE, cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC); the ?²H of water; changes in the abundance of the microbial communities; and the concentration of dissolved H? gas compared to pre- test conditions, provided multiple lines of evidence that enhanced biodegradation occurred in the injection well and in two downgradient wells. For those wells where the biodegradation was stimulated intensively, the sum of the molar chlorinated ethene (CE) concentrations in post-BA water was higher than that of the sum of the pre-BA background molar CE concentrations. The concentration ratios of TCE/(cis-DCE+VC) indicated that the increase in molar CE concentration may result from additional TCE mobilized from the rock matrix in response to the oil injection or due to desorption/diffusion. The stable carbon isotope mass-balance calculations show that the weighted average ¹³C isotope of the CEs was enriched for around a year compared to the background value in a two year monitoring period, an effective indication that dechlorination of VC was occurring. Insights gained from this study can be applied to efforts to use BA in other fractured rock systems. The study demonstrates that a BA approach can substantially enhance in situ bioremediation not only in fractures connected to the injection well, but also in the rock matrix around the well due to processes such as diffusion and desorption. Because the effect of the BA was intensive only in wells where an amendment was distributed during injection, it is necessary to adequately distribute the amendments throughout the fractured rock to achieve substantial bioremediation. The slowdown in BA effect after a year is due to some extend to the decrease abundant of appropriate microbes, but more likely the decreased concentration of electron donor. PMID:24270158

Révész, Kinga M; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Kirshtein, Julie D; Tiedeman, Claire R; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E; Goode, Daniel J; Shapiro, Allen M; Voytek, Mary A; Lacombe, Pierre J; Busenberg, Eurybiades

2014-01-01

142

Integration of stable carbon isotope, microbial community, dissolved hydrogen gas, and 2HH2O tracer data to assess bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethene degradation in fractured rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in situ bioaugmentation (BA) experiment was conducted to understand processes controlling microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. In the BA experiment, an electron donor (emulsified vegetable oil and sodium lactate) and a chloro-respiring microbial consortium were injected into a well in fractured mudstone of Triassic age. Water enriched in 2H was also injected as a tracer of the BA solution, to monitor advective transport processes. The changes in concentration and the ?13C of TCE, cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC); the ?2H of water; changes in the abundance of the microbial communities; and the concentration of dissolved H2 gas compared to pre- test conditions, provided multiple lines of evidence that enhanced biodegradation occurred in the injection well and in two downgradient wells. For those wells where the biodegradation was stimulated intensively, the sum of the molar chlorinated ethene (CE) concentrations in post-BA water was higher than that of the sum of the pre-BA background molar CE concentrations. The concentration ratios of TCE/(cis-DCE + VC) indicated that the increase in molar CE concentration may result from additional TCE mobilized from the rock matrix in response to the oil injection or due to desorption/diffusion. The stable carbon isotope mass-balance calculations show that the weighted average 13C isotope of the CEs was enriched for around a year compared to the background value in a two year monitoring period, an effective indication that dechlorination of VC was occurring. Insights gained from this study can be applied to efforts to use BA in other fractured rock systems. The study demonstrates that a BA approach can substantially enhance in situ bioremediation not only in fractures connected to the injection well, but also in the rock matrix around the well due to processes such as diffusion and desorption. Because the effect of the BA was intensive only in wells where an amendment was distributed during injection, it is necessary to adequately distribute the amendments throughout the fractured rock to achieve substantial bioremediation. The slowdown in BA effect after a year is due to some extend to the decrease abundant of appropriate microbes, but more likely the decreased concentration of electron donor.

Révész, Kinga M.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Tiedeman, Claire R.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Goode, Daniel J.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

2014-01-01

143

Exploring Hydrofluorocarbons as Groundwater Age Tracers (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater dating tracers are an essential tool for analyzing hydrologic conditions in groundwater systems. Commonly used tracers for dating post-1940's groundwater include sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 3H-3He, and other isotopic tracers (85Kr, ?2H and ?18O isotopes, etc.). Each tracer carries a corresponding set of advantages and limitations imposed by field, analytical, and interpretive methods. Increasing the number available tracers is appealing, particularly if they possess inert chemical properties and unique temporal emission histories from other tracers. Atmospherically derived halogenated trace gases continue to hold untapped potential for new tracers, as they are generally inert and their emission histories are well documented. SF5CF3, and CFC-13 were previously shown to have application as dating tracers, though their low mixing ratios and low solubility require large amounts of water to be degassed for their quantification. Two related groups of compounds, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are hypothesized to be potential age tracers, having similar mixing ratios to the CFCs and relatively high solubility. However, these compounds yield gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) responses that are 10-2 -10-5 less than CFC-12, making purge and trap or field stripping GC-ECD approaches impractical. Therefore, in order to use dissolved HCFCs and HFCs as age tracers, different approaches are needed. To solve this problem, we developed an analytical method that uses an atomic emission detector (GC-AED) in place of an ECD to detect fluorinated compounds. In contrast to the ECD, the AED is a universally sensitive, highly linear, elementally specific detector. The new GC-AED system is being used to measure chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), and other fluorinated compounds in one liter water samples to study their potential as age dating tracers. HCFC-22 is a refrigerant introduced in the 1940's, with atmospheric mixing ratios increasing through the 1990s to the present value of ?230 pptv. HFC-134a is typically is used as a chlorine-free replacement for CFC-12, finding use in air-condition systems and as an inert aerosol blowing agent, with a mixing ratio that has increased from <1 in 1994 to ?75 pptv at present (2013). Their unique atmospheric histories and chemistry compared to CFCs makes these compounds interesting age tracer candidates, particularly in situations where multiple tracers enhance interpretive value. For instance, inclusion in lumped parameter mixing models and in situations where SF6 or the CFCs are present in elevated concentrations from non-atmospheric sources such that they cannot be used for dating purposes. Analysis of standards, air equilibrated water, and blanks suggests the GC-AED system is capable of detecting concentrations ?200 fM (HCFC-22) and ?100 fM (HFC-134a), corresponding to piston flow ages of 54 and 18 yr, respectively, with a typical uncertainty of ?1 yr. Preliminary comparisons with CFC and SF6 analyses show general agreement between the techniques (within a few years), and ongoing intercomparison studies will be discussed.

Haase, K. B.; Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L. N.; Casile, G.; Sanford, W. E.

2013-12-01

144

Compartmental Modeling and Dosimetry of in Vivo Metabolic Studies of Leucine and Three Secretory Proteins in Humans Using Radioactive Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and mathematical models provide a systematic means of looking at biological systems. Radioactive tracer kinetic studies open a unique window to study complex tracee systems such as protein metabolism in humans. This research deals with compartmental modeling of tracer kinetic data on leucine and apolipoprotein metabolism obtained using an endogenous tritiated leucine tracer administered as a bolus, and application of compartmental modeling techniques for dosimetric evaluation of metabolic studies of radioiodinated apolipoproteins. Dr. Waldo R. Fisher, Department of Medicine, was the coordinating research supervisor and the work was carried out in his laboratory. A compartmental model for leucine kinetics in humans has been developed that emphasizes its recycling pathways which were examined over two weeks. This model builds on a previously published model of Cobelli et al, that analyzed leucine kinetic data up to only eight hours. The proposed model includes different routes for re-entry of leucine from protein breakdown into plasma accounting for proteins which turn over at different rates. This new model successfully incorporates published models of three secretory proteins: albumin, apoA-I, and VLDL apoB, in toto thus increasing its validity and utility. The published model of apoA-I, based on an exogenous radioiodinated tracer, was examined with data obtained using an endogenous leucine tracer using compartmental techniques. The analysis concludes that the major portion of apoA-I enters plasma by a fast pathway but the major fraction of apoA-I in plasma resides with a second slow pathway; further the study is suggestive of a precursor-product relationship between the two plasma apoA-I pools. The possible relevance of the latter suggestion to the aberrant kinetics of apoA-I in Tangier disease is discussed. The analysis of apoA-II data resulted in similar conclusions. A methodology for evaluating the dosimetry of radioiodinated apolipoproteins by combining kinetic models of iodine and apolipoprotein metabolism has been developed. Residence times for source organs, whole body, thyroid, bladder, and red bone marrow obtained with this analysis, were used to calculate the cumulated activities and thus doses arising from these organs. The influence of the duration of the thyroid blocking period using stable iodine on the dose to the thyroid has been demonstrated.

Venkatakrishnan, Vaidehi

1995-01-01

145

Study of solid and liquid behavior in large copper flotation cells (130 m2) using radioactive tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of the solid and liquid phases, in large flotation cells, was characterized by means of the radioactive tracer technique. The use of radioactive tracers enabled the identification of the Residence Time Distribution, of floatable and non-floatable solid, from continuous (on-line) measuring at the output streams of the flotation cells. For this study, the proper radioactive tracers were selected and applied in order to characterize the different phases; i.e. for liquid phase Br-82 as Ammonium Bromide, for floatable solid recovered in the concentrate Cu-64, and for non-floatable solid in three particle size classes (coarse: >150 ?m, intermediate: <150 ?m and >45 ?m, and fine: <45 ?m), Na-24. The experimental results confirmed the strong effect of particle size on the Residence Time Distribution, and mean residence time of solids in larger flotation cells, and consequently in flotation hydrodynamics. From a hydrodynamic point of view, the experimental data confirmed that a single mechanical flotation cells, of large size, can deviate significantly from perfect mixing. The experimental work was developed in a 130 m3 industrial flotation cell of the rougher circuit at El Teniente Division, Codelco-Chile.

Díaz, F.; Jiménez, O.; Yianatos, J.; Contreras, F.

2013-05-01

146

H 21cm emission as a tracer of gas during the evolution from protoplanetary to debris disks  

E-print Network

We present models for the HI 21 cm emission from circumstellar disks and use them to convert observed upper limits on the HI 21 cm flux to limits on the total disk gas mass. The upper limits we use come from earlier Australia Telescope Compact Array observations of the debris disk around beta Pictoris as well as fresh Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope observations of HD135344, LkCa 15 and HD163296. Our observations and models span a range of disk types, from young proto-planetary disks to old debris disks. The models self-consistently calculate the gas chemistry (H/H2 balance) and the thermal structure of UV irradiated disks. Atomic hydrogen production is dominated by UV irradiation in transition phase objects as well as debris disks, but for very young disks, HI production by stellar X-rays (which we do not account for) is important. We use a simple radiative transfer approach to convert the model disk parameters into predicted HI 21 cm line maps and spectral profiles. This allows a direct comparison of the observations to the model. We find that the HI traces the disk surface layers, and that the Hi emission, if detected, could be used to study the e ects of irradiation and evaporation, in addition to the kinematics of the disk. Our models cover massive protoplanetary disks, transition phase disks and dusty debris disks. In massive protoplanetary disks, UV produced HI constitutes less than 0.5% of the total disk mass, while X-rays clearly dominate the chemistry and thus the HI production. For the two such disks that we have observed, viz. those around LkCa 15 and HD163296, the predicted 21 cm flux is below the current detection limit. On the other hand, transition phase disks at distances of 100 pc have predicted 21 cm fluxes that are close to the detection limit.... (abstract abbreviated)

I. Kamp; W. Freudling; J. N. Chengalur

2007-01-09

147

Preliminary Results from a Gas Tracer Injection Experiment in the Upper Oceanic Crust on the Eastern Flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results from a gas tracer injection experiment in the ocean crust on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an area of vigorous hydrothermal circulation. A mixture of tracers was injected in Hole 1362B in 2010, during IODP Expedition 327, as part of a 24-hour pumping experiment. Fluid samples were subsequently collected from this hole and three additional holes (1026B, 1362A, and 1301A), located 300 to 500 m away. The array of holes is located on 3.5 M.y. old seafloor, and oriented N20°E, subparallel to the Endeavor Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge, 100 km to the west. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was injected at a concentration of 0.0192 mol/min, with fluid pumping rate of 6.7 L/s for 20.2 h, resulting in a mean concentration of 47.6 ?M and 23.3 mol of SF6 being added to crustal fluids. Borehole fluid samples were collected in copper coils using osmotic pumps attached to the wellheads of several long-term, subseafloor observatories (CORKs). These samples were recovered from the seafloor using a remotely-operated vehicle in 2011 and 2013. Analyses of SF6 concentrations in samples recovered in 2011 indicate the first arrival of SF6 in Hole 1301A, 550 m south of the injection Hole 1362B, ~265 days after injection. This suggests that the most rapid lateral transport of gas (at the leading edge of the plume) occurred at ~2 m/day. Samples recovered in 2013 should provide a more complete breakthrough curve, allowing assessment of the mean lateral transport rate. Additional insights will come from analysis of metal salts and particle tracers injected contemporaneously with the SF6, the cross-hole pressure response to injection and a two-year fluid discharge experiment. Additional wellhead samples will be collected in Summer 2014, as will downhole osmosamplers deployed in perforated casing within the upper ocean crust in Holes 1362A and 1362B.

Neira, N. M.; Clark, J. F.; Fisher, A. T.; Wheat, C. G.

2013-12-01

148

3, 24372471, 2006 Chalk tracer test  

E-print Network

HESSD 3, 2437­2471, 2006 Chalk tracer test study S. A. Mathias et al. Title Page Abstract study of two chalk tracer tests S. A. Mathias1 , A. P. Butler1 , T. C. Atkinson 2,3 , S. Kachi3 (simon.mathias@imperial.ac.uk) 2437 #12;HESSD 3, 2437­2471, 2006 Chalk tracer test study S. A. Mathias et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

149

A radiogenic isotope tracer study of transatlantic dust transport from Africa to the Caribbean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many studies have suggested that long-range transport of African desert dusts across the Atlantic Ocean occurs, delivering key nutrients and contributing to fertilization of the Amazon rainforest. Here we utilize radiogenic isotope tracers – Sr, Nd and Pb – to derive the provenance, local or remote, and pathways of dust transport from Africa to the Caribbean. Atmospheric total suspended particulate (TSP) matter was collected in 2008 on quartz fibre filters, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean at three different locations: in Mali (12.6°N, 8.0°W; 555 m a.s.l.), Tobago (11.3°N, 60.5°W; 329 m a.s.l.) and the U.S. Virgin Islands (17.7°N, 64.6°W; 27 m a.s.l.). Both the labile phase, representative of the anthropogenic signal, and the refractory detrital silicate fraction were analysed. Dust deposits and soils from around the sampling sites were measured as well to assess the potential contribution from local sources to the mineral dust collected. The contribution from anthropogenic sources of Pb was predominant in the labile, leachate phase. The overall similarity in Pb isotope signatures found in the leachates is attributed to a common African source of anthropogenic Pb, with minor inputs from other sources, such as from Central and South America. The Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in the silicate fraction were found to be systematically more radiogenic than those in the corresponding labile phases. In contrast, Nd and Sr isotopic compositions from Mali, Tobago, and the Virgin Islands are virtually identical in both leachates and residues. Comparison with existing literature data on Saharan and Sahelian sources constrains the origin of summer dust transported to the Caribbean to mainly originate from the Sahel region, with some contribution from northern Saharan sources. The source regions derived from the isotope data are consistent with 7-day back-trajectory analyses, demonstrating the usefulness of radiogenic isotopes in tracing dust provenance and atmospheric transport.

Kumar, A.; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S.J.G.; Garrison, V.H.; Williams, E.; Andreae, M.O.

2014-01-01

150

AIR INFILTRATION MEASUREMENTS USING TRACER GASES: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature review of air filtration measurements using tracer gases, including sulfur hexafluoride, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and radioactive argon and krypton. Sulfur hexafluoride is the commonest tracer gas of choice...

151

Labile Dissolved Organic Carbon Availability Controls Hyporheic Denitrification: a 15N Tracer Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used an in situ 15N-labeled nitrate (15NO3-) and acetate injection experiment to determine how the availability of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as acetate influences microbial denitrification in the hyporheic zone (HZ) of an upland (3rd-order) agricultural stream. A 48 h steady-state injection of a conservative tracer, chloride, and 15NO3- was used to quantify ambient HZ denitrification via 15N2 production. Following ambient plateau measurements of denitrification during the first 24 h, a second conservative tracer, bromide, and labile DOC source, acetate, were co-injected for an additional 24 h to measure HZ denitrification under increased DOC supply. Conservative tracers were observed at 4 of the 6 down gradient wells. Receiving wells represented HZ median residence times of 7.0 to 13.1 h, nominal flowpath lengths of 0.7 to 3.7 m, and hypoxic conditions (7.5 to 9.3 mg-O2 L-1 deficit). All 4 receiving wells demonstrated 15N2 production during ambient conditions indicating that the HZ was an active denitrification environment. Acetate addition stimulated significant increases in 15N2 production by factors of 2.7 to 26.1 in all receiving wells, and significant decreases of NO3- and DOC aromaticity (via SUVA254) in the two wells most hydrologically connected to the injection. In all receiving wells, increases of bromide and 15N2 production occurred without concurrent increases in acetate indicating that 100% of acetate was retained in the HZ, a portion of which is due to biological consumption. These results support our hypothesis that microbial denitrification in anaerobic portions of the hyporheic zone is limited by labile DOC supply.

Zarnetske, J. P.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.; Baker, M. A.

2009-12-01

152

Radioisotope tracer studies in the NASA Skylab ethothermic brazing experiment M-552  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first use of radioisotope tracer for mapping flow patterns during brazing of metal components in a space environment (near-zero gravity) proved successful. A nickel ferrule was brazed to a nickel tube with Lithobraze BT (71.8% Ag, 28% Cu, 0.2% Li) which contained a trace amount of radioactive Ag-110. Mapping of the flow of the braze alloy in the annulus formed between the tube and the concentric ferrule was determined by counting the radiation intensity as a function of position in the braze joint. Significant information concerning the thermal history of the braze was determined.

Braski, D. N.; Adair, H. L.; Kobisk, E. H.

1974-01-01

153

Using dissolved noble gas and isotopic tracers to evaluate the vulnerability of groundwater resources in a small, high elevation catchment to predicted climate changes  

SciTech Connect

We use noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers in groundwater and stream water in a small high elevation catchment to provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge; and to determine subsurface residence times of different groundwater components. They identify three sources that contribute to groundwater flow: (1) seasonal groundwater recharge with short travel times, (2) water from bedrock aquifers that have elevated radiogenic {sup 4}He, and (3) upwelling of deep fluids that have 'mantle' helium and hydrothermal carbon isotope signatures. Although a bimodal distribution in apparent groundwater age indicates that groundwater storage times range from less than a year to several decades, water that recharges seasonally is the largest likely contributor to stream baseflow. Under climate change scnearios with earlier snowmelt, the groundwater that moves through the alluvial aquifer seasonally will be depleted earlier, providing less baseflow and possible extreme low flows in the creek during summer and fall. Dissolved noble gas measurements indciate recharge temperatures are 5 to 11 degrees higher than would be expected for direct influx of snowmelt, and that excess air concentrations are lower than would be expected for recharge through bedrock fractures. Instead, recharge likely occurs over diffuse vegetated areas, as indicated by {delta}{sup 13}C-DIC values that are consistent with incorporation of CO{sub 2} from soil respiration. Recharge temperatures are close to or slightly higher than mean annual air temperature, and are consistent with recharge during May and June, when snowpack melting occurs.

Singleton, M J; Moran, J E

2009-10-02

154

Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 × 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 20–30% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

Wells, Arthur W.; Diehl, J. Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R.; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C.

2012-05-01

155

Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in key largo, Florida.  

PubMed

Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys. PMID:16535046

Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Brown, J; Shinn, E A; Miller, S; Farrah, S R

1995-06-01

156

PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Integrin Expression: Tracers in Clinical Studies and Recent Developments  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive determination of integrin expression has become an interesting approach in nuclear medicine. Since the discovery of the first 18F-labeled cyclic RGD peptide as radiotracer for imaging integrin ?v?3 expression in vivo, there have been carried out enormous efforts to develop RGD peptides for PET imaging. Moreover, in recent years, additional integrins, including ?5?1 and ?v?6, came into the focus of pharmaceutical radiochemistry. This review will discuss the tracers already evaluated in clinical trials and summarize the preliminary outcome. It will also give an overview on recent developments to further optimize the first-generation compounds such as [18F]Galacto-RGD. This includes recently developed 18F-labeling strategies and also new approaches in 68Ga-complex chemistry. Furthermore, the approaches to develop radiopharmaceuticals targeting integrin ?5?1 and ?v?6 will be summarized and discussed. PMID:25013808

Maschauer, Simone

2014-01-01

157

Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor Studies  

E-print Network

Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor Studies Richard Killmeyer, Kurt Rothenberger, and Bret Howard US" unfavorable equilibrium to produce more H2 #12;Equilibrium Conversion for the Water Gas Shift Reaction [CO]0 the Consideration of Reaction Kinetics and Mass Transport Phenomena - Forward Water-Gas Shift Kinetics - Reverse

158

Feasibility study of silver iodide smoke as an atmospheric dispersion tracer for Rocky Flats Plant site, July 1983-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

At Rocky Flats Plant, we developed a technique that employs the release of silver iodide (AgI) smoke as a very economical tracer for air dispersion around the Plant. In an emergency, the AgI smoke would trace a contaminant plume over long distances, in real time, to guide emergency response. To test this technique, we experimented with first releasing AgI smoke particles, then tracking them up to 50 km from the Plant by vehicle and aircraft under various typical weather conditions. Able to detect single AgI particles as small as 0.01 ..mu..m in real time, a portable cloud chamber operated on either a pickup truck or a small aircraft. For both procedures, a simple smoke generator operating unattended produced up to 1 x 10/sup 15/ particles/g of AgI. Ground tracking of the smoke (1) showed the influence on dispersion by the midday shift from downslope to upslope flow during stable conditions and (2) provided an interesting case study of a nearby thunderstorm as a transient effect. Aerial tracking during eight flights covered a wide range of meteorological conditions. Convective flow often lofted the smoke completely off the ground before it left the Plant boundary. During inversion conditions, the tracer remained within 100 m of the ground.

Langer, G.

1986-09-22

159

Diffusive partitioning tracer test for the quantification of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in the vadose zone: Performance evaluation for heterogeneous NAPL distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A partitioning tracer test based on gas-phase diffusion in the vadose zone yields estimates of the residual nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) saturation. The present paper investigates this technique further by studying diffusive tracer breakthrough curves in the vadose zone for a heterogeneous NAPL distribution. Tracer experiments were performed in a lysimeter with a horizontal layer of artificial kerosene embedded in unsaturated sand. Tracer disappearance curves at the injection point and tracer breakthrough curves at some distance from the injection point were measured inside and outside of the NAPL layer. A numerical code was used to generate independent model predictions based on the physicochemical sand, NAPL, and tracer properties. The measured and modeled tracer breakthrough curves were in good agreement confirming the validity of important modeling assumptions such as negligible sorption of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) tracers to the uncontaminated sand and their fast reversible partitioning between the soil air and the NAPL phase. Subsequently, the model was used to investigate different configurations of NAPL contamination. The experimental and model results show that the tracer disappearance curves of a single-well diffusive partitioning tracer test (DPTT) are dominated by the near-field presence of NAPL around the tip of the soil gas probe. In contrast, breakthrough curves of inter-well tracer tests reflect the NAPL saturation in between the probes, although there is no unique interpretation of the tracer signals if the NAPL distribution is heterogeneous. Numerical modeling is useful for the planning of a DPTT application. Simulations suggest that several cubic meters of soil can be investigated with a single inter-well partitioning tracer test of 24-hour duration by placing the injection point in the center of the investigated soil volume and probes at up to 1 m distance for the monitoring of gaseous tracers.

Werner, David; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Höhener, Patrick

2009-08-01

160

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01

161

Radioisotope tracer studies of inorganic carbon and Ca in microbially derived CaCO3  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Microbial calcification significantly impacts the cycling and deposition of inorganic carbon. This research employs 45Ca and 14C techniques as radioisotopic tracers to examine the role of cellular cycling of Ca2+ and inorganic carbon in CaCO3 precipitation by the unicellular green alga Nannochloris atomus. Implications of the effects of these physiological aspects on CaCO3 precipitation and the effects of microbial calcification on CaCO3 ?13C ratios are discussed. Results from pulse/chase experiments indicate that intracellular Ca2+ is incorporated into extracellular CaCO3. Intracellular inorganic carbon leaks from cells within 10 to 12 s after injection of unlabelled NaHCO3, providing a source of inorganic carbon for extracellular CaCO3. Cellular expulsion of calcium plays a key role in increasing the CaCO3 saturation state at the site of calcification. The ?13C ratios of microbial carbonates may vary depending on the amount of photorespiratory CO2 incorporated.

Yates, Kimberly K.; Robbins, Lisa L.

1999-01-01

162

VOXEL-LEVEL MAPPING OF TRACER KINETICS IN PET STUDIES: A STATISTICAL APPROACH EMPHASIZING TISSUE LIFE TABLES1  

PubMed Central

Most radiotracers used in dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scanning act in a linear time-invariant fashion so that the measured time-course data are a convolution between the time course of the tracer in the arterial supply and the local tissue impulse response, known as the tissue residue function. In statistical terms the residue is a life table for the transit time of injected radiotracer atoms. The residue provides a description of the tracer kinetic information measurable by a dynamic PET scan. Decomposition of the residue function allows separation of rapid vascular kinetics from slower blood-tissue exchanges and tissue retention. For voxel-level analysis, we propose that residues be modeled by mixtures of nonparametrically derived basis residues obtained by segmentation of the full data volume. Spatial and temporal aspects of diagnostics associated with voxel-level model fitting are emphasized. Illustrative examples, some involving cancer imaging studies, are presented. Data from cerebral PET scanning with 18F fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 15O water (H2O) in normal subjects is used to evaluate the approach. Cross-validation is used to make regional comparisons between residues estimated using adaptive mixture models with more conventional compartmental modeling techniques. Simulations studies are used to theoretically examine mean square error performance and to explore the benefit of voxel-level analysis when the primary interest is a statistical summary of regional kinetics. The work highlights the contribution that multivariate analysis tools and life-table concepts can make in the recovery of local metabolic information from dynamic PET studies, particularly ones in which the assumptions of compartmental-like models, with residues that are sums of exponentials, might not be certain. PMID:25392718

O’Sullivan, Finbarr; Muzi, Mark; Mankoff, David A.; Eary, Janet F.; Spence, Alexander M.; Krohn, Kenneth A.

2014-01-01

163

Determination of stream reaeration coefficients by use of tracers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream reaeration is the physical absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere by a flowing stream. This is the primary process by which a stream replenishes the oxygen consumed in the biodegradation of organic wastes. Prior to 1965, reaeration rate coefficients could be estimated only by indirect methods. In 1965, a direct method of measuring stream reaeration coefficients was developed in which a radioactive tracer gas was injected into a stream--the tracer gas being desorbed from the stream inversely to how oxygen would be absorbed. The technique has since been modified by substituting hydrocarbon gases for the radioactive tracer gas. The slug-injection and constant-rate injection methods of performing gas tracer desorption measurements are described. Emphasis is on the use of rhodamine WT dye as a relatively conservative tracer and propane as the nonconservative gas tracer, on planning field tests, methods of injection, sampling and analysis, and computational techniques to compute desorption and reaeration coefficients. (Author 's abstract)

Kilpatrick, F.A.; Rathbun, R.E.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro; Parker, G.W.; DeLong, L.L.

1987-01-01

164

O-18 tracer studies of Al2O3 scale formation on NiCrAl alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusion processes in Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl + Zr alloys were studied by the proton activation technique employing the O-18 isotope as a tracer. The O-18 profiles identified a zone of oxide penetration beneath the external scale. Both this subscale formation and the outer Al2O3 scale thickness were shown by this technique to increase with Zr content in the alloy. Estimated kp's from scale thicknesses were in agreement with gravimetric measurements for various Zr levels. Alternate exposures in O-16 and O-18 revealed that oxygen inward transport was the primary growth mechanism. A qualitative analysis of these O-18 profiles indicated that the oxygen transport was primarily via short-circuit paths, such as grain boundaries.

Reddy, K. P. R.; Cooper, A. R.; Smialek, J. L.

1982-01-01

165

A pilot study of the feasibility of long-term human bone balance during perimenopause using a 41Ca tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms governing calcium fluxes during bone remodeling processes in perimenopausal women are poorly known. Despite higher, albeit erratic, estradiol levels in perimenopause, spine bone loss is greater than during the first five years past the final menstrual flow when estradiol becomes low. Understanding changes during this dynamic transition are important to prevent fragility fractures in midlife and older women. The exploration of long-lived 41Ca ( T1/2 = 1.04 × 10 5 yrs) tracer measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) leads to the possibility of monitoring bone remodeling balance. With this new technology, we explored a pilot long-term feasibility study of bone health by measuring the 41Ca trace element in urine for six years from premenopausal to later perimenopausal phases in one midlife woman. We measured bone mineral density in parallel.

Hui, S. K.; Prior, J.; Gelbart, Z.; Johnson, R. R.; Lentle, B. C.; Paul, M.

2007-06-01

166

Kinetic measurements of bone mineral metabolism: The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium-22 was studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with (22)Na which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The (22)Na which is not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The (22)Na tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.

Palmer, H. E.

1978-01-01

167

Microanalytical isotope ratio measurements and elemental mapping using laser ablation ICP-MS for tissue thin sections: zinc tracer studies in rats.  

PubMed

The kinetics of zinc absorption, metabolism and excretion is extensively studied by nutritionists. Stable isotopes of zinc can be used to identify body zinc compartments that have different turnover kinetics. Since the compartments might belong to physiological subsections of different organs, there is a need for microsampling analysis to determine isotope ratios of the trace element zinc in tissue samples. Here, we study the feasibility to use laser ablation coupled to quadrupole ICP-MS for the determination of zinc tracers given to rats at different time points with the aim to generate isotope ratio bioimages of heart tissue. A double tracer ((70)Zn and (67)Zn) experiment with rats was designed to label the exchangeable zinc pool as well as the stable zinc pool. The isotope ratios determined by laser ablation ICP-MS were evaluated by additional measurements of tissue digests. Accumulated tracers which made up more than 0.1% of total zinc could be identified in the tissues of the treated rats. It was established that at least 50 measurements from the microsampling were necessary to distinguish between controls and a tracer treated rat resulting in reduced resolution of the bioimage. With the parameters used, features in the tissue thin sections of at least 250 ?m(2) in size are necessary to detect the incorporation of a tracer. When different time points have to be measured, higher precisions are required and therefore a larger area needs to be ablated (1 mm(2)). Using the bioimages and pool measurements from one physiological feature, it was possible to show that the aorta cell walls incorporate the zinc tracer at the different time points. PMID:22006243

Urgast, Dagmar S; Ou, Ou; Gordon, Margaret-Jane; Raab, Andrea; Nixon, Graeme F; Kwun, In-Sook; Beattie, John H; Feldmann, Jörg

2012-01-01

168

GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT: METEOROGICAL AND TRACER DATA-FIELD STUDY IN BRUSH VALLEY, COLORADO, JULY-AUGUST, 1982  

EPA Science Inventory

Special meteorological and atmospheric tracer studies were conducted during a three-week period in July and August of 1982 in the Brush Creek Valley of northwestern Colorado. The experiments were conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as p...

169

Tracer tests in geothermal resource management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinjection boreholes. A simple and efficient method of tracer test interpretation, assuming specific flow channels connecting reinjection and production boreholes, is available. It simulates tracer return profiles and estimates properties of the flow channels, which are consequently used for predicting the production borehole cooling. Numerous examples are available worldwide on the successful application of tracer tests in geothermal management, many involving the application of this interpretation technique. Tracer tests are also used for general subsurface hydrological studies in geothermal systems and for flow rate measurements in two-phase geothermal pipelines. The tracers most commonly used in geothermal applications are fluorescent dyes, chemical substances and radioactive isotopes. New temperature-resistant tracers have also been introduced and high-tech tracers are being considered.

Axelsson, G.

2013-05-01

170

The effect of wind and currents on gas exchange in an estuarine system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives were to develop a non-volatile tracer to use in gas exchange experiments in laterally unconfined systems and to study applications of deliberate tracers in limnology and oceanography. Progress was made on both fronts but work on the development of the non-volatile tracer proved to be more difficult and labor intensive that anticipated so no field experiments using non-volatile tracers was performed as yet. In the search for a suitable non-volatile tracer for an ocean scale gas exchange experiment a tracer was discovered which does not have the required sensitivity for a large scale experiment, but is very easy to analyze and will be well suited for smaller experiments such as gas exchange determinations on rivers and streams. Sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, was used successfully as a volatile tracer along with tritium as a non-volatile tracer to study gas exchange rates from a primary stream. This is the first gas exchange experiment in which gas exchange rates were determined on a head water stream where significant groundwater input occurs along the reach. In conjunction with SF6, Radon-222 measurements were performed on the groundwater and in the stream. The feasibility of using a combination of SF6 and radon is being studied to determine groundwater inputs and gas exchange of rates in streams with significant groundwater input without using a non-volatile tracer.

Broecker, W. S.; Ledwell, J. R.; Bopp, R.

1987-01-01

171

Results from air-injection and tracer testing in the Upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves of the Exploratory Studies Facility, August 1994 through July 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) scientific study to evaluate the potential for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste in an unsaturated-zone desert environment. The US Geological Survey (USGS) has been conducting geologic and hydrologic studies of the potential repository site for the DOE. These studies are to quantify the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of Yucca Mountain and to conceptualize and model gas and liquid flow at the potential repository site. Single-hole and cross-hole air-injection and tracer testing was conducted in alcoves located in the underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) to quantify the permeability and porosity values of the fractured and unfractured volcanic rocks (tuff). The permeability and porosity of these tuffs control the movement of fluids in Yucca Mountain. Study of these parameters provides an understanding of fluid flow in the unsaturated zone, and the parameters can be used in unsaturated-zone numerical modeling to estimate fluid flux through the mountain. This report presents the results from air-injection and tracer testing conducted in the upper Tiva Canyon alcove (UTCA), the Bow Ridge Fault alcove (BRFA), and the upper Paintbrush contact alcove (UPCA) by the USGS from August 1994 through July 1996. The locations of the alcoves and their relations to the potential repository are shown in a figure.

LeCain, G.D.

1998-09-01

172

Fate of nitrogen in riparian forest soils and trees: an 15N tracer study simulating salmon decay.  

PubMed

We introduced an 15N-NH4+ tracer to the riparian forest of a salmon-bearing stream (Kennedy Creek, Washington, USA) to quantify the cycling and fate of a late-season pulse of salmon N and, ultimately, mechanisms regulating potential links between salmon abundance and tree growth. The 15N tracer simulated deposition of 7.25 kg of salmon (fresh) to four 50-m2 plots. We added NH4+ (the initial product of salmon carcass decay) and other important nutrients provided by carcasses (P, S, K, Mg, Ca) to soils in late October 2003, coincident with local salmon spawning. We followed the 15N tracer through soil and tree pools for one year. Biological uptake of the 15N tracer occurred quickly: 64% of the 15N tracer was bound in soil microbiota within 14 days, and roots of the dominant riparian tree, western red cedar (Thuja plicata), began to take up 15N tracer within seven days. Root uptake continued through the winter. The 15N tracer content of soil organic matter reached a maximum of approximately 52%, five weeks after the application, and a relative equilibrium of approximately 40% within five months. Six months after the addition, in spring 2004, at least 37% of the 15N tracer was found in tree tissues: approximately 23% in foliage, approximately 11% in roots, and approximately 3% in stems. Within the stems, xylem and phloem sap contained approximately 96% of the tracer N, and approximately 4% was in structural xylem N. After one year, at least 28% of the 15N tracer was still found in trees, and loss from the plots was only approximately 20%. The large portion of tracer N taken up in the fall and reallocated to leaves and stems the following spring provides mechanistic evidence for a one-year-lagged tree-growth response to salmon nutrients. Salmon nutrients have been deposited in the Kennedy Creek system each fall for centuries, but the system shows no evidence of nutrient saturation. Rates of N uptake and retention are a function of site history and disturbance and also may be the result of a legacy effect, in which annual salmon nutrient addition may lead to increased efficiency of nutrient uptake and use. PMID:16761604

Drake, Deanne C; Naiman, I Robert J; Bechtold, J Scott

2006-05-01

173

Role of Environmental Tracers for Hydrologic Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of trace substances including natural and anthropogenic isotopes have been developed to routine tools for hydrologic studies. The application of these tracers can be divided into several classes: (1) Transient tracers studies. In these studies the penetration of large-scale anthropogenic signals into natural water bodies is studied in a fashion that is similar to dye experiments. Some of the most frequently used transient tracers are chlorofluorocarbons (CFC 11, CFC 12, CFC 113), tritium, tritiogenic 3He, and SF6. (2) Use of tracers as `radioactive clocks'. These tracers include 14C, tritium/3He, or U/4He. They cover a wide range of time scales from several months to millions of years. (3) Deliberately released tracers. Deliberately released tracers are analogues to dyes and can be applied to aquifers and surface waters. A recently developed tracer is SF6. We discuss the use of these tracers on the basis of case studies including bank infiltration from the Danube River, groundwater flow underneath a landfill at Winthrop, Maine, deep groundwater circulation in the Great Hungarian Plain, and tidal flow in the Hudson River.

Schlosser, P.; Schlosser, P.; Schlosser, P.; Stute, M.; Stute, M.; Stute, M.; Ho, D. T.; Smethie, W. M.

2001-12-01

174

Plant uptake of cations under nutrient limitation: An environmental tracer study using Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular plant growth builds soils and ecosystem nutrient capital by sequestering and partitioning atmospheric CO2 into organic matter and continental runoff and driving terrestrial water and energy balances. Plant root-system functions, e.g. nutrient mobilization and uptake, are altered by environmental stress. However, the stress-response relationships are poorly understood. Chemical tracers have potential for assessing contributions of nutrients from various nutrient pools. Our objective is to quantitatively study how varying degrees of nutrient limitation (and corresponding needs to extract base cations from mineral sources) influence Ca and K uptake functions in a plant-root-mineral system. We are studying plant-driven mineral weathering in column experiments with red pine (Pinus resinosa) seedlings. The columns contain quartz sand amended with anorthite and biotite that constitute the sole mineral sources of Ca and K. These minerals also contain known amounts of Sr and Rb, which exhibit chemical behavior similar to Ca and K, respectively. The solution source of Ca and K was varied by adding 0% (no dissolved Ca and K), 10%, 30%, or 100% of a full strength Ca and K nutrient solution through irrigation water in which both Sr and Rb concentrations were negligible. Selected columns were destructively sampled at 3, 6 and 9 months to harvest biomass and measure plant uptake of cations. We used Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratio results to estimate the contributions of Ca and K from mineral and solution sources. For the 0% nutrient treatment, the Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratios in total biomass at 3 months, compared with those in the mineral phases, suggested preferential uptake of Ca and K over Sr and Rb, respectively, and allowed us to determine uptake discrimination factors for both cations. The K/Rb ratios in total biomass increased with greater K availability in the solution source, as expected, but Ca/Sr ratios did not show any dependence on Ca availability in the solution source. Using a tracer mass balance model, we computed the fraction of K from the mineral source in the total biomass, which decreased with longer growth time and more K supply from the solution source. For Ca, the model results suggested that the mineral was the major source of Ca in the plants throughout the experiment. Comparison of results for above- and below-ground biomass showed significantly higher Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratios above ground, indicating strong fractionation of Ca and K during transport within the tree. Our results highlight the potential importance of species-specific and temporal variations in cation uptake that may require consideration as we work to understand water and nutrient cycles in aggrading forest ecosystems.

Shi, Z.; Keller, C. K.; Stacks, D.; Grant, M.; Harsh, J. B.; Letourneau, M.; Gill, R. A.; Balogh-Brunstad, Z.; Thomashow, L.; Dohnalkova, A.

2012-12-01

175

Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines  

SciTech Connect

The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

2005-12-30

176

Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones  

SciTech Connect

Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references.

Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

1989-05-01

177

Analysis of the Summer 2004 ozone budget over the United States using Intercontinental Transport Experiment Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS) observations and Model of Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART4) simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of ozone over the summertime contiguous United States during summer 2004 was examined using the Intercontinental Transport Experiment (INTEX-A) Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS-04) over North America. We estimate the budget using the global chemistry transport Model of Ozone and Related Tracers version 4 (MOZART-4) with synthetic tracers that keep track of the ozone produced from selected NOx sources

G. G. Pfister; L. K. Emmons; P. G. Hess; J.-F. Lamarque; A. M. Thompson; J. E. Yorks

2008-01-01

178

Analysis of the Summer 2004 ozone budget over the United States using Intercontinental Transport Experiment Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS) observations and Model of Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART4) simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of ozone over the summertime contiguous United States during summer 2004 was examined using the Intercontinental Transport Experiment (INTEX-A) Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS-04) over North America. We estimate the budget using the global chemistry transport Model of Ozone and Related Tracers version 4 (MOZART-4) with synthetic tracers that keep track of the ozone produced from selected NO x

G. G. Pfister; L. K. Emmons; P. G. Hess; J.-F. Lamarque; A. M. Thompson; J. E. Yorks

2008-01-01

179

NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

2003-03-01

180

Determination of traveltimes in the lower San Joaquin River basin, California, from dye-tracer studies during 1994-1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dye-tracer studies were done in the lower San Joaquin River Basin in February 1994, June 1994, and February 1995. Dye releases were made in the Merced River (February 1994), Salt Slough (June 1994), Tuolumne River (February 1995), and Dry Creek (February 1995). The traveltimes determined in the studies aided the interpretation of pesticide data collected during storm sampling and guided sample collection during a Lagrangian pesticide study. All three studies used rhodamine WT 20-percent dye solution, which was released as a slug in midstream. The mean traveltime determined in the dye studies were compared to estimates based on regression equations of mean stream velocity as a function of streamflow. Dye recovery, the ratio of the calculated dye load at downstream sites to the initial amount of dye released, was determined for the 1994 studies and a dye-dosage formula was evaluated for all studies. In the February 1994 study, mean traveltime from the Merced River at River Road to the San Joaquin River near Vernalis (46.8 river miles) was 38.5 hours, and to the Delta-Mendota Canal at Tracy pumps (84.3 river miles) was 90.4 hours. In the June 1994 study, mean traveltime from Salt Slough at Highway 165 to Vernalis (64.0 river miles) was 80.1 hours. In the February 1995 study, the mean traveltime from the Tuolumne River at Roberts Ferry to Vernalis (51.5 river miles) was 35.8 hours. For the 1994 studies, the regression equations provided suitable estimates of travel-time, with ratios of estimated traveltime to mean dye traveltime of 0.94 to 1.08. However, for the 1995 dye studies, the equations considerably underestimated traveltime, with ratios of 0.49 to 0.73.In the February 1994 study, 70 percent of the dye released was recovered at Vernalis and 35percent was recovered at the Delta-Mendota Canal at Tracy pumps. In the June 1994 study, recovery was 61 percent at Patterson, 43 percent just upstream of the Tuolumne River confluence, and 37 percent at Vernalis. The dye-dosage formula overestimated the dye required for a given downstream concentration for the 1994 studies by ratios of 1.07 to 2.12. The ratios for the February 1995 studies were 0.67 to 0.95 for the Tuolumne River and 1.21 for Dry Creek. In all studies, the estimates improved with length of dye study.

Kratzer, Charles R.; Biagtan, Rhoda N.

1997-01-01

181

20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Arterial blood-gas studies. 718...Evidence § 718.105 Arterial blood-gas studies. (a...primarily as a fall in arterial oxygen tension either...during exercise. No blood-gas study shall...

2010-04-01

182

Ammonium transport and reaction in contaminated groundwater: Application of isotope tracers and isotope fractionation studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonium (NH4 +) is a major constituent of many contaminated groundwaters, but its movement through aquifers is complex and poorly documented. In this study, processes affecting NH4 + movement in a treated wastewater plume were studied by a combination of techniques including large-scale monitoring...

183

Application of the tracer-aerosol gradient interpretive technique to sulfur attribution for the big bend regional aerosol and visibility observational study.  

PubMed

A simple data analysis method called the Tracer-Aerosol Gradient Interpretive Technique (TAGIT) is used to attribute particulate S and SO2 at Big Bend National Park in Texas and nearby areas to local and regional sources. Particulate S at Big Bend is of concern because of its effects on atmospheric visibility. The analysis used particulate S, SO2, and perfluorocarbon tracer data from six 6-hr sampling sites in and near Big Bend National Park. The data were collected in support of the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study; the field portion was conducted from July through October 1999. Perfluorocarbon tracer was released continuously from a tower at Eagle Pass, TX, approximately 25 km northeast of two large coal-fired power plants (Carbon I and II) in Coahuila, Mexico, and approximately 270 km east-southeast of Big Bend National Park. The perfluorocarbon tracer did not properly represent the location of the emissions from the Carbon power plants for individual 6-hr sampling periods and attributed only 3% of the particulate S and 27% of the SO2 at the 6-hr sites in and near Big Bend to sources represented by the tracer. An alternative approach using SO2 to tag "local" sources such as the Carbon plants attributed 10% of the particulate S and 75% of the SO2 at the 6-hr sites to local sources. Based on these two approaches, most of the regional (65-86%) and a small fraction (19-31%) of the local SO2 was converted to particulate S. The analysis implies that substantial reductions in particulate S at Big Bend National Park cannot be achieved by only reducing emissions from the Carbon power plants; reduction of emissions from many sources over a regional area would be necessary. PMID:12774992

Green, Mark; Kuhns, Hampden; Pitchford, Marc; Dietz, Russell; Ashbaugh, Lowell; Watson, Tom

2003-05-01

184

The Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chemistry Tracers of Diesel Exhaust Emissions and Measurements of Trace gas and Aerosol properties.  

E-print Network

The Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chemistry Tracers of Diesel Exhaust the use of a technique referred to as the Dynamic Dilution System. The use of a Proton Transfer ReactionL/hr) Thermometers (Centigrade) Ionicon Analytik Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) Procedure The N2

Collins, Gary S.

185

Fundamental study on gas monitoring in celss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mass spectrometer and computer system was developed for conducting a fundamental study on gas monitoring in CELSS. Respiration and metabolism of the hamster and photosynthesis of the Spirulina were measured in a combination system consisting of a hamster chamber and a Spirulina cultivator. They are connected through a membrane gas exchanger. Some technical problems were examined. In the mass spectrometric gas monitoring, a simultaneous multi-sample measurement was developed by employing a rotating exchange valve. Long term precise measurement was obtained by employing an automatic calibration system. The membrane gas sampling probe proved to be useful for long term measurement. The cultivation rate of the Spirulina was effectively changed by controlling CO2 and light supply. The experimental results are helpful for improving the hamster-spirulina system.

Nishi, I.; Tateishi, T.; Tomizawa, G.; Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.

186

Fundamental study on gas monitoring in CELSS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass spectrometer and computer system was developed for conducting a fundamental study on gas monitoring in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Respiration and metabolism of the hamster and photosynthesis of the Spirulina were measured in a combination system consisting of a hamster chamber and a Spirulina cultivator. They are connected through a membrane gas exchanger. Some technical problems were examined. In the mass spectrometric gas monitoring, a simultaneous multisample measurement was developed by employing a rotating exchange valve. Long term precise measurement was obtained by employing an automatic calibration system. The membrane gas sampling probe proved to be useful for long term measurement. The cultivation rate of the Spirulina was effectively changed by controlling CO2 and light supply. The experimental results are helpful for improving the hamster-spirulina system.

Nishi, I.; Tateishi, T.; Tomizawa, G.; Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.

1987-01-01

187

AIRBORNE LIDAR TRACKING OF FLUORESCENT TRACERS FOR ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Development and validation of transport models for the study of regional acid deposition require improved observations of pollutant transport and dispersion processes. Current methods for tracking air-parcel is limited to constant density surfaces using tetroons or by gaseous tra...

188

Study of runoff generation onhillslopes using tracer experiments and a physically based numericalhillslope model  

E-print Network

the following flow processes: surface flow, return flow, matrix flow, macropore flow and pipe flow. For this study, macropore flow is defined as water movement under small capillary forces vertically, while pipe vertical macropore system, resulting in bypass flow, and as the major contributing region for surface flow

Weiler, Markus

189

Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...

190

Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using 81mKr tracer experiments.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of heat exchangers on duty with respect to flow mal-distributions needs the development of non-intrusive inlet-outlet experimental techniques in order to perform an online fault diagnosis. Tracer experiments are an example of such techniques. They can be applied to mono-phase heat exchangers but also to multi-phase ones. In this case, the tracer experiments are more difficult to perform. In order to check for the capabilities of tracer experiments to be used for the flow mal-distribution diagnosis in the case of multi-phase heat exchangers, we present here a preliminary study on the simplest possible system: two-phase flows in a horizontal tube. (81m)Kr is used as gas tracer and properly collimated NaI (TI) crystal scintillators as detectors. The specific shape of the tracer response allows two-phase flow regimes to be characterized. Signal analysis allows the estimation of the gas phase real average velocity and consequently of the liquid phase real average velocity as well as of the volumetric void fraction. These results are compared successfully to those obtained with liquid phase tracer experiments previously presented by Oriol et al. 2007. Characterization of the two-phase flow regimes and liquid dispersion in horizontal and vertical tubes using coloured tracer and no intrusive optical detector. Chem. Eng. Sci. 63(1), 24-34, as well as to those given by correlations from literature. PMID:18487056

Oriol, Jean; Leclerc, Jean Pierre; Berne, Philippe; Gousseau, Georges; Jallut, Christian; Tochon, Patrice; Clement, Patrice

2008-10-01

191

Simultaneous determination of glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis  

SciTech Connect

We have developed and validated a new method to measure simultaneously glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human, in steady and non-steady states, using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and GC-MS analysis. The method is based on the concomitant infusion and dilution of D-(2,3,4,6,6-2H5)glucose and L-(1,2,3-13C3)alanine. The choice of the tracers was done on the basis of a minimal overlap between the ions of interest and those arising from natural isotopic abundances. Alanine was chosen as the gluconeogenic substrate because it is the major gluconeogenic amino acid extracted by the liver and, with lactate, constitutes the bulk of the gluconeogenic precursors. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained during simultaneous infusion of trace amounts of both stable isotope labeled compounds with the radioactive tracers (D-(3-3H)glucose and L-(1,2,3-14C3)alanine) in a normal and a diabetic subject; the radiolabeled tracers were used as the accepted reference procedure. A slight overestimation of glucose turnover (7.3 versus 6.8 in normal and 10.8 versus 9.2 mumol/kg min in diabetic subject) was noticed when the stable isotope-labeled tracers were used. For the basal turnover rate of alanine, similar values were obtained with both methods (6.2 mumol/kg min). For gluconeogenesis, higher values were observed in the basal state with the stable isotopes (0.42 versus 0.21 mumol/kg min); however, these differences disappeared in the postprandial period after the ingestion of a mixed meal. Despite those minor differences, the overall correlation with the reference method was excellent for glucose turnover (r = 0.87) and gluconeogenesis (r = 0.86).

Martineau, A.; Lecavalier, L.; Falardeau, P.; Chiasson, J.L.

1985-12-01

192

An airborne perfluorocarbon tracer system and its first application for a Lagrangian experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A perfluorocarbon tracer system (PERTRAS), specifically designed for Lagrangian aircraft experiments, has been developed by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR). It consists of three main parts: a tracer release unit (RU), an adsorption tube sampler (ATS), and a tracer analytical system. The RU was designed for airborne tracer release experiments; meanwhile, it can be used on various platforms for different experimental purposes (here research vessel). PERTRAS was for the first time applied in the field campaign Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) in November 2011. An amount of 8.8 kg perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP) was released aboard the research vessel Sonne (RV Sonne) near the operational site of this campaign, Miri, Malaysia, on 21 November. The tracer samples collected using the ATS onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon were analyzed in the laboratory using a thermal desorber-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) system. Guided by forecasts calculated with the Lagrangian model Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT), 64 tracer samples were collected onboard the Falcon approximately 5 and 25 h after the release, mostly with a time resolution of 1 min. Enhanced PMCP concentrations relative to ambient PMCP background values (mean: 6.62 fmol mol-1) were detected during three intersects of the fresh tracer plume (age 5 h), with a maximum value of 301.33 fmol mol-1. This indicates that the fresh tracer plume was successfully intercepted at the forecast position. During the second flight, 25 h after the release, the center of tracer plume was not detected by the sampling system due to a faster advection of the plume than forecast. The newly developed PERTRAS system has been successfully deployed for the first time. The instrumental setup and comparisons between the measurements and HYSPLIT simulations are presented in this study.

Ren, Y.; Baumann, R.; Schlager, H.

2015-01-01

193

Field Characterization of Reservoir Flow Paths Using Miscible and Immiscible Tracer Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Injection of supercritical CO2 into deep, brine-filled reservoirs may be used to slow the effect that greenhouse gas emissions have on global warming. During injection, the large contrast in fluid densities and viscosities causes immiscible displacement of the brine by CO2, resulting in a two-phase system. We performed a series of tracer tests during the Frio CO2 sequestration pilot program to study immiscible and miscible fluid displacement through the Frio sandstone, a deep saline reservoir located beneath the Gulf Coast Region of Texas. A two-well tracer test was initially performed to evaluate miscible fluid displacement in the single-phase, brine-filled reservoir. A dipole flow field was first established by pumping brine from a well penetrating the reservoir and then injecting it back into the same formation using a second well. A tracer, added to the injected water and monitored at the pumping well, allowed us to evaluate interwell travel times and tracer-breakthrough curves. These results are compared to CO2 travel times and gas-tracer-breakthrough curves obtained from immiscible displacement of brine by CO2, collected during a subsequent single-well CO2 flood (radial divergence test). CO2 breakthrough was faster than model predictions, and sweep efficiencies were relatively small, suggesting that gas movement occurred along preferential pathways. Estimates of formation dispersivity, porosity-thickness products and brine saturation provide further insight into the nature of these pathways.

Trautz, R. C.; Freifeld, B. M.; Doughty, C.; Benson, S. M.; Phelps, T. J.; McCallum, S. D.

2005-12-01

194

An oil to gas conversion study  

SciTech Connect

Early in 1992, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, an electric utility serving upstate New york, sought ways to reduce fuel costs and improve emissions at several of its oil-fired generating units. One method that was considered was to switch from oil to natural gas, either alone or co-firing with oil, specifically at its Oswego Station Units 5 and 6. To assist in the analysis of this conversion process, Niagara Mohawk with guidance from their architect engineering (A/E) firm and Performance Engineering, Inc., used a computer model of the boilers previously developed by Performance Engineering for analyzing the units` design. Two studies were performed: (1) 75% MCR (Maximum Continuous Rating) with all natural gas firing, and (2) 100% MCR with 70% oil and 30% natural gas. Results show that gas provides an alternative to oil, although not always a cost-effective alternative. As a definite benefit, emissions of sulfur compounds are reduced using all gas or a mixture of gas and oil.

Kettenacker, W.C. [Performance Engineering, Inc., Arlington, TX (United States); Marko, R.P.; Sheikh, I.A. [Niagara Mohawk power Corporation, Syracuse, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

195

Isotope Tracer Studies of Diffusion in Sillicates and of Geological Transport Processes Using Actinide Elements  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were directed toward understanding the transport of chemical species in nature, with particular emphasis on aqueous transport in solution, in colloids, and on particles. Major improvements in measuring ultra-low concentrations of rare elements were achieved. We focused on two areas of studies: (1) Field, laboratory, and theoretical studies of the transport and deposition of U, Th isotopes and their daughter products in natural systems; and (2) Study of calcium isotope fractionation effects in marine carbonates and in carbonates precipitated in the laboratory, under controlled temperature, pH, and rates of precipitation. A major study of isotopic fractionation of Ca during calcite growth from solution has been completed and published. It was found that the isotopic shifts widely reported in the literature and attributed to biological processes are in fact due to a small equilibrium fractionation factor that is suppressed by supersaturation of the solution. These effects were demonstrated in the laboratory and with consideration of the solution conditions in natural systems, where [Ca{sup 2+}] >> [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] + [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}]. The controlling rate is not the diffusion of Ca, as was earlier proposed, but rather the rate of supply of [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] ions to the interface. This now opens the issues of isotopic fractionation of many elements to a more physical-chemical approach. The isotopic composition of Ca {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) in calcite crystals has been determined relative to that in the parent solutions by TIMS using a double spike. Solutions were exposed to an atmosphere of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, provided by the decomposition of (NH4)2CO3. Alkalinity, pH, and concentrations of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, and CO{sub 2} in solution were determined. The procedures permitted us to determine {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) over a range of pH conditions, with the associated ranges of alkalinity. Two solutions with greatly different Ca concentrations were used, but, in all cases, the condition [Ca] >> [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] was met. A wide range in {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) was found for the calcite crystals, extending from 0.04 {+-} 0.13 to -1.34 {+-} 0.15 {per_thousand}, generally anticorrelating with the amount of Ca removed from the solution. The results show that {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) is a linear function of the saturation state of the solution with respect to calcite ({Omega}). The two parameters are very well correlated over a wide range in {Omega} for each solution with a given [Ca]. Solutions, which were vigorously stirred, showed a much smaller range in {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) and gave values of -0.42 {+-} 0.14 {per_thousand}, with the largest effect at low {Omega}. It is concluded that the diffusive flow of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} into the immediate neighborhood of the crystal-solution interface is the rate-controlling mechanism and that diffusive transport of Ca{sup 2+} is not a significant factor. The data are simply explained by the assumptions that: (a) the immediate interface of the crystal and the solution is at equilibrium with {Delta}({sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca) {approx} -1.5 {+-} 0.25 {per_thousand}, and (b) diffusive inflow of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} causes supersaturation, thus precipitating Ca from the regions, exterior to the narrow zone of equilibrium. We consider this model to be a plausible explanation of the available data reported in the literature. The well-resolved but small and regular isotope fractionation shifts in Ca are thus not related to the diffusion of very large hydrated Ca complexes, but rather due to the ready availability of Ca in the general neighborhood of the crystal solution interface. The largest isotopic shift which occurs is a small equilibrium effect which is then subdued by supersaturation precipitation for solutions where [Ca{sup 2+}] >> [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] + [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}]. It is shown that there is a clear temperature dependence of the net isotopic shifts, which is simply due to changes in {Omega}

Wasserburg, Gerald J

2008-07-31

196

C2H as a PDR tracer: a case study toward the Orion Bar  

E-print Network

We study the spatial distribution and abundance of C2H in the prototypical high UV-illumination PDR, the Orion Bar. We analyse Herschel/HIFI maps of C2H, CH, and HCO+, and a NANTEN map of [CI]. We interpret the observed C2H emission using the combination of Herschel/HIFI and NANTEN data with radiative transfer and PDR models. Five rotational transitions of C2H (from N=6-5 up to N=10-9) have been detected in the HIFI frequency range toward the CO+ peak of the Orion Bar. Based on the five detected C2H transitions, a rotation diagram analysis gives a rotation temperature of 67 K and a C2H column density of 5x10^13 cm^-2. A non-LTE radiative transfer model with a C2H column density of 10^14 cm^-2, an H2 volume density of 10^6 cm^-3, a kinetic temperature of 400 K, and an electron density of 10 cm^-3 is required to fit the two highest rotational transitions of C2H. This model gives a reasonable fit to the lower-N transitions as well, however, the N=6-5,...,8-7 transitions are more consistent with lower kinetic tem...

Nagy, Z; Van der Tak, F F S; Faure, A; Makai, Z; Bergin, E A

2014-01-01

197

Constraining North Atlantic circulation with transient tracer observations  

E-print Network

The capability of transient tracers to constrain the ocean circulation in the North Atlantic is explored. Study of an idealized tracer shows that inferences of circulation properties from transient state distributions are ...

Li, Xingwen, 1968-

2003-01-01

198

THE ADSORPTION OF TRACERS ON MINERAL PARTICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the process of radioactivation of particles by ; adsorption of tracers from solutions. Applications are discussed in the ; development of procedures for the concentration and recovery of minerals from ; ores. Methods used for tagging the mineral particles are reviewed. Special ; problems are considered which are encountered in the use of tracers in

G. G. Eichholz; W. N. Roberts

1959-01-01

199

Stream velocity and dispersion characteristics determined by dye-tracer studies on selected stream reaches in the Willamette River basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dye-tracer analyses were done in the Willamette River and nine tributaries of the Willamette River during low to medium stream-discharge conditions, from April 1992 to July 1993, to determine velocity and dispersion. These analyses helped answer questions regarding time of arrival, peak concentra- tions, and persistence of constituents dissolved in the flow for various stream discharges. The time of travel of the peak and leading and trailing edge of the dye cloud was determined for each stream segment studied, and was related to discharge at an index location for each stream. An equation was developed, based on the dye-tracer measurements, to estimate the velocity of the peak of a solute cloud for unmeasured streams. The results of the dye-tracer study on the Willamette River from river mile 161.2 to river mile 138.3 were compared with results from a previous study of the same river reach, and the results indicated that the velocity regime in the low and medium flow range has not changed since 1968. To identify the dispersion characteristics of a conservative solute in each stream segment, a relation was developed between the elapsed time from injection to the peak concentration measured at each sampling location. A general equation was developed to estimate the unit-peak concentration for a given elapsed time after a solute was introduced to the stream.

Lee, K.K.

1995-01-01

200

Combined use of tracer approach and numerical simulation to estimate groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system: A case study of Nasunogahara area, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system in the Nasunogahara area of Japan. Natural stable isotopes (18O, D) were considered as additional calibration targets in a numerical model. The reliability of the model outputs was further validated by comparing the results from the numerical simulation and an independent tracer approach. The results indicated that the calibrated model can effectively simulate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the contribution ratios of recharge sources to groundwater in the Nasunogahara area. However, the tracer approach (i.e., end member mixing analysis) provided more reliable results at point scale, particularly for the estimated contribution ratios of paddy field water. The precipitation in the Nasunogahara area is the major recharge source; its mean contribution ratio is 58% for a one-year period over the entire alluvial fan. River seepage is significant in the upstream area of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of river waters along the river channels in the upstream area increases during the wet season. Paddy field water is a highly important recharge source in the midstream and downstream areas of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of paddy field water obviously increases from dry season to wet season because of irrigation. This study demonstrates that combined use of the tracer approach and numerical simulation with stable isotopes as additional calibration targets can eliminate their respective limitations and can assist in better understanding the groundwater recharge mechanism in alluvial aquifer systems.

Liu, Yaping; Yamanaka, Tsutomu; Zhou, Xun; Tian, Fuqiang; Ma, Wenchao

2014-11-01

201

Gas Cylinders and Safety A Case Study in Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study, developed for an introductory chemistry course as part of a two-year dental hygiene curriculum, teaches students how to apply gas properties and gas storage identification systems to identify a mishandled or mislabeled gas cylinder.

Melinda Box

2006-01-01

202

Effect of wind and currents on gas exchange in an estuarine system. Final technical report, 1 August 1986-31 July 1987  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were to develop a non-volatile tracer to use in gas exchange experiments in laterally unconfined systems and to study applications of deliberate tracers in limnology and oceanography. Progress was made on both fronts but work on the development of the non-volatile tracer proved to be more difficult and labor intensive that anticipated so no field experiments using non-volatile tracers was performed as yet. In the search for a suitable non-volatile tracer for an ocean scale gas exchange experiment a tracer was discovered which does not have the required sensitivity for a large scale experiment, but is very easy to analyze and will be well suited for smaller experiments such as gas exchange determinations on rivers and streams. Sulfur hexafluoride, SF/sub 6/, was used successfully as a volatile tracer along with tritium as a non-volatile tracer to study gas exchange rates from a primary stream. This is the first gas exchange experiment in which gas exchange rates were determined on a head water stream where significant groundwater input occurs along the reach. In conjunction with SF/sub 6/, Radon-222 measurements were performed on the groundwater and in the stream. The feasibility of using a combination of SF/sub 6/ and radon is being studied to determine groundwater inputs and gas exchange of rates in streams with significant groundwater input without using a non-volatile tracer.

Broecker, W.S.; Ledwell, J.R.; Bopp, R.

1987-11-01

203

Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (<10,000 ppm TDS) waters. These modified procedures have been successfully tested in our laboratory and have proven effective in greatly reducing interfering monovalent and divalent cation concentrations (e.g. Ba) and enriching the REE up to 100X for analysis. The procedures are straightforward, inexpensive, and require little infrastructure, using only single chromatography columns with inexpensive, reusable, commercially available resins and wash chemicals. The procedures have been tested with synthetic brines and waters (up to 250,000 ppm TDS) and field water samples (up to 5,000 ppm TDS). Testing has produced data with REE capture efficiency exceeding 95%, while reducing interfering elements by more than 93%. Further method development and testing continues in preparation for brine analysis of waters from the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership's Kevin Dome Pilot Study and the University of Wyoming's Carbon Institutes Rock Springs Uplift.

Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.

2013-12-01

204

Application of water chemistry as a hydrological tracer in a volcano catchment area: A case study of the Tatun Volcano Group, North Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, water chemistry is successfully applied to elucidate hydrological processes through the use of natural tracers in a hydrological system. The concept of a natural tracer is principally based on water-rock interaction. In this case, a volcanic watershed in the Tatun Volcano Group is examined with the hydrochemistry of the Peihuang Creek system analyzed in terms of acidic hydrothermal water. The application of principal component analysis demonstrates that the hydrochemistry of Peihuang Creek is dominated by mixing among three end members, Lujiaoken seep water, Matsao seep water and shallow circulated water. Conservative ions, such as halogens, reveal that recharge of shallow circulated water with low ionic concentration is dominant in the mountain area and gradually becomes insignificant in the plains area. Rare earth elements also confirm this derivation. In addition, rare earth elements demonstrate parallel pattern along the tributaries, which implies that the fractionation of rare earth elements is not considerable and dilution is the major factor attenuating the concentrations of rare earth elements. Therefore, the constant slope of REE pattern allows for semi-quantitative estimation of mixing proportion of the two major tributaries. The results show that Lujiaoken Creek supplies about 50% of waters to the downstream Peihuang Creek. Comparing commonly used nature tracers, such as Cl- and environmental isotopes, this study demonstrates that rare earth elements have the advantage of very low background concentrations and easily defined sources if fractionation is not considerable. Under this circumstance, the calculation of water mixing is applicable.

Lu, Hsueh-Yu

2014-04-01

205

Achievements and opportunities from ESF Research Networking Programme: Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes, and COST Action 639: Greenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate and land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the activities of the European Science Foundation (ESF, www.esf.org) is developing European scale Research Networking Programmes (RNPs). RNPs lay the foundation for nationally funded research groups to address major scientific and research infrastructure issues, in order to advance the frontiers of existing science. MOLTER (www.esf.org/molter or www.molter.no) is such an RNP. MOLTER stands for "Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes" aims at stimulating the use of isotopic and organic chemistry to study carbon stabilization and biogeochemistry in terrestrial ecosystems and soils in particular. The understanding of the formation, stabilization and decomposition of complex organic compounds in the environment is currently being revolutionized by advanced techniques in identification, quantification, and origin tracing of functional groups and individual molecules. MOLTER focuses on five major research themes: - Molecular composition and turnover time of soil organic matter; - Plant molecular structures as drivers of C stabilisation in soils; - Fire transformations of plant and soil molecular structures - Molecular markers in soils; - Dissolved organic molecules in soils: origin, functionality and transport. These research themes are covered via the following activities: - Organisation of international conferences; - Organisation of specific topical workshops; - Organisation of summer schools for PhD students; - Short- and long-term exchange grants for scientists. MOLTER is supported by research funding or performing agencies from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The ESF is also the implementing agency of COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology, www.cost.esf.org), one of the longest-running European instruments supporting cooperation among scientists and researchers across Europe. COST Action 639 "Greenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate and land use" (BurnOut) (www.cost.esf.org/domains_actions/essem/Actions/changing_climate or bfw.ac.at/rz/bfwcms.web?dok=5906) BurnOut aims at improving the management of greenhouse gas emissions from European soils under different regimes of ecosystem disturbances and land-use change. This will allow the identification of soil and site conditions (hot spots) that are vulnerable to greenhouse gas emissions. The specific objectives are: - Identification of hot spots of greenhouse gas emissions from soils; - Identification of soil and site conditions that are vulnerable to GHG emissions; - Development of an advanced greenhouse gas reporting concept across different of land forms, land use and land use changes; - Communication of policy relevant GHG reporting concepts; Burnout covers the following activities: - Organisation of specific topical workshops; - Short-term scientific visits for scientists. Participating countries in BurnOut are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, Russian Federation, and Bosnia Herzegovina. During this oral presentation, possible lines of cooperation, opportunities and recent achievements will be exemplified and the audience will be invited to contribute their views on these initiatives.

Boeckx, P.; Rasse, D.; Jandl, R.

2009-04-01

206

Experimental morphology of insect olfaction: tracer studies, X-ray microanalysis, autoradiography, and immunocytochemistry with silkmoth antennae.  

PubMed

The general morphology and methodological peculiarities of insect sensilla are briefly reviewed. The stimulus conducting pore-tubule systems of pheromone-sensitive sensilla of the silkmoths Bombyx mori and Antheraea polyphemus are described. Lipophilic tracers readily enter the hair lumen, while hydrophilic tracers do so only after prolonged extraction with lipid solvents and/or pronase. X-ray microanalysis demonstrates a high potassium content of the sensillum lymph; calcium was only found in the haemolymph above detection limit. Auxiliary cells rapidly take up radioactive leucine administered via the haemolymph. Antibodies against pheromone-binding protein of Antheraea polyphemus label the sensillum lymph of sensilla trichodea, but not of sensilla basiconica in A. polyphemus as well as in B. mori. The cytoplasm of auxiliary cells of the sensilla trichodea is also labelled. The results are discussed in context with present hypotheses on the role of sensillum lymph in stimulus transport and inactivation. PMID:1392064

Steinbrecht, R A

1992-09-01

207

Solvent Extraction Behavior of Astatine and Radioiodine at Tracer Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent extraction behavior of radioioine and astatine has been investigated under various conditions in order to compare the extraction behavior of astatine with radioiodine at tracer concentration. In this study, basic tracer solutions of astatine and radioiodine were extracted into the CS2 solution under various conditions. Astatine existed as a pure species in the tracer solution and formed cationic

M. S. Sultana; A. Toyoshima; A. Mito; N. Takahashi; H. Baba; H. Watarai

2000-01-01

208

Transfer rates of dissolved tracers through estuaries based on 228Ra: A study of Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 228Ra (half-life = 5.7 y) we have determined the transfer rate of water as the carrier of tracers (dissolved substances) into Long Island Sound from its western boundary. The primary sampling was done in the summer of 1991, with additional sampling of surface waters in the winter and summer of 1992 and the summer of 1993. The (228Ra\\/226Ra) activity

K. K. Turekian; N. Tanaka; V. C. Turekian; T. Torgersen; E. C. Deangelo

1996-01-01

209

Tracer Partitioning in Two-Phase Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration distributions of geochemical tracers in a subsurface reservoir can be used as an indication of the reservoir flow paths and constituent fluid origin. In this case, we are motivated by the origin of marked geochemical gradients in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir in northeastern New Mexico. This reservoir contains 99% CO2 with various trace noble gas components and overlies the formation brine in a sloping aquifer. It is thought that magmatic CO2 entered the reservoir, and displaced the brine. This displacement created gradients in the concentrations of the noble gases. Two models to explain noble gas partitioning in two-phase flow are presented here. The first model assumes that the noble gases act as tracers and uses a first order non-linear partial differential equation to compute the volume fraction of each phase along the displament path. A one-way coupled partial differential equation determines the tracer concentration, which has no effect on the overall flow or phase saturations. The second model treats each noble gas as a regular component resulting in a three-component, two-phase system. As the noble gas injection concentration goes to zero, we see the three-component system behave like the one-way coupled system of the first model. Both the analytical and numerical solutions are presented for these models. For the process of a gas displacing a liquid, we see that a noble gas tracer with greater preference for the gas phase, such as Helium, will move more quickly along the flowpath than a heavier tracer that will more easily enter the liquid phase, such as Argon. When we include partial miscibility of both the major and trace components, these differences in speed are shown in a bank of the tracer at the saturation front. In the three component model, the noble gas bank has finite width and concentration. In the limit where the noble gas is treated as a tracer, the width of the bank is zero and the concentration increases linearly with time.

Sathaye, K.; Hesse, M. A.

2012-12-01

210

Gas recycling studies on the TFR tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas recycling has been studied in a large number of tokamaks for several years. On TFR, a previous experiment with an inconel limiter has shown that, after many discharges in hydrogen, when we change the working gas to deuterium the wall adsorbed isotope accounts for less than 5% after a few shots. In order to improve our better knowledge of the gas recycling we have performed similar experiments with two different limiters — an inconel limiter and a graphite limiter — at room temperature and with hot walls (250 ° C < T< 300 ° C). With the graphite limiter, when the filling gas is changed from 100% H 2 to 100% D 2, the isotopic ration {H}/{(H + D)} is between 25 and 30% after five shots and reaches the limit of 12% after ten shots. This ratio decreases more rapidly with hot walls but the lower limit is higher: 10 and 20% with inconel and graphite limiters respectively, instead of 5% and 12% at room temperature. This recycling coefficient is always higher with hot walls; this consequently should reduce the plasma edge temperature. The sputtering and the thermal load on the wall and the limiters might then also decrease.

TFR Group

1982-12-01

211

Selection of Actinide Chemical Analogues for WIPP Tests: Potential Nonradioactive Sorbing and Nonsorbing Tracers for Study of Ion Transport in the Environment  

SciTech Connect

Chemical characteristics of the actinides (Th, U, Np, Pu, Am) have been studied relative to nonradioactive chemical elements that have similar characteristics in an attempt to identify a group of actinide chemical analogues that are nonradioactive. In general, the chemistries of the actinides, especially U, Np, Pu, and Am, are very complex and attempts to identify a single chemical analogue for each oxidation state were not successful. However, the rationale for selecting a group of chemical analogues that would mimic the actinides as a group is provided. The categorization of possible chemical analogues (tracers) with similar chemical properties was based on the following criteria. Categorization was studied according.

Dale Spall; Robert Villarreal

1998-08-01

212

Characterization of organic compounds and molecular tracers from biomass burning smoke in South China I: Broad-leaf trees and shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass burning smoke constituents are worthy of concern due to its influence on climate and human health. The organic constituents and distributions of molecular tracers emitted from burning smoke of six natural vegetations including monsoon evergreen broad-leaf trees and shrubs in South China were determined in this study. The gas and particle samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass

Zhenzhen Wang; Xinhui Bi; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu

2009-01-01

213

Experimental study of the effect of test-well arrangement for partitioning interwell tracer test on the estimation of NAPL saturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) is a method to quantify and qualify a contaminated site with NAPLs through a degree of retardation of partitioning tracers compared to a conservative one. Although PITT is known to be a more effective method to measure the saturation of spatially-distributed NAPL contaminant than the point investigation method, the saturation estimation from PITT is reported to be underestimated due to various factors including heterogeneity of the media, adsorption, source zone NAPL architecture, and long tailing in breakthrough curves of partitioning tracers. Analytical description of PITT assumes that the injection-pumping well pair is on the line of ambient groundwater flow direction, but the test-well pair could easily be off the line in the field site, which could be another erroneous factor in analyzing PITT data. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of the angle of the test-well pair to ambient groundwater flow direction based on the result from PITT. The experiments were conducted in a small-scale 3D sandbox with dimensions of 0.5 m × 0.4 m × 0.15 m (LWH) of stainless steel. The surface is covered and sealed with a plexiglass plate to make the physical model a confined aquifer. Eight full-screened wells of Teflon material were installed along the perimeter of a 50 mm circle with 45 degree intervals in the middle of the physical model. Both ends of the sand box are connected to constant head reservoirs. The physical model was wet-packed with sieved and washed sand. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and bromide were used as the contaminant and the conservative tracer, respectively. Hexanol, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol and 6-methyl-2-heptanol were used as partitioning tracers. Before the injection of TCE, a PITT was conducted to measure adsorption coefficient of partitioning tracers to the sand material. TCE of 4.5 mL, dyed with Sudan IV, was injected into the inner part of the circle of the wells. PITTs using the test-well pair parallel and with angles of 45 and 90 degrees to ambient flow direction were performed. Another PITT was conducted at an increased pumping rate with the test-well pair at a 45 degree angle to examine the effect of pumping rate. From the experiments, it was found that as the angles of the test-well pair to ambient groundwater flow direction increased, the estimated NAPL saturation decreased. Although the increase in pumping rate in this experiment reduces the effect of the obliqueness of the test-well arrangement, the effect of rate-limited transfer of partitioning tracers due to the increased pumping rate on the PITT should be examined in the interpretation. The results of these experiments revealed that the arrangement of the test-well pair is another controlling factor in performing and interpreting PITT in the field, in addition to the factors such as heterogeneity, source zone architecture, and tailing. Key words: PITT, test-well arrangement, ambient groundwater flow direction, NAPL saturation Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Basic Research Project of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea. 11-3414

Kim, B.; Kim, Y.; Yeo, I.; Yongcheol Kim, In Wook Yeo

2011-12-01

214

Single-well tracer test sensitivity w. r. to hydrofrac and matrix parameters (case study for the Horstberg site in the N-German Sedimentary Basin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the geothermal pilot site Horstberg in the N-German Sedimentary Basin, a complex field experiment program was conducted (2003-2007) by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) together with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA), aimed at evaluating the performance of innovative technologies for heat extraction, for direct use, from a single geothermal well[1],[2]. The envisaged single-well operation schemes comprised inter-layer circulation through a large-area hydrofrac (whose successful creation could thus be demonstrated), and single-screen 'huff-puff' in suitable (stimulated) layers, seated in sandstone-claystone formations in 3-4 km depth, with temperatures exceeding 160 ° C. Relying on Horstberg tracer-test data, we analyze heat and solute tracer transport in three characteristic hydraulic settings: (A) single-screen, multi-layer push-pull, with spiking and sampling at lower well-screen in low-permeability sandstone layer ('Detfurth'), from which hydrofrac propagation (through several adjacent layers) was initiated; (B) single-screen, single-layer push-pull, with spiking and sampling at upper well-screen within a more permeable sandstone layer ('Solling'); (C) inter-layer vertical push through above-mentioned hydrofrac, with spiking at well-screen of A, and sampling at well-screen of B. Owing to drill-hole deviation, the hydraulically-induced frac will, in its vertical propagation, reach the upper sandstone layer in a certain horizontal distance X from the upper well-screen, whose value turns out to be the major controlling parameter for the system's thermal lifetime under operation scheme C (values of X below ~8 m leading to premature thermal breakthrough, with the minimum-target rate of fluid turnover; however, the injection pressure required for maintaining the target outflow rate will also increase with X, which renders scheme C uneconomical, or technically-infeasible, when X exceeds ~15 m). Tracer signals in C are, as well, sensitive w. r. to X, but the effects of increasing X, upon tracer signals, are largely indistinguishable from those of increasing Solling porosity. Further numerical simulations of heat and solute tracer transport in above-named test settings reveal significant disparities between parameter sensitivities attainable in the same kind of test (A, B) conducted at different layers, as well as between solute concentration and temperature signal sensitivities w. r. to transport parameters in one and the same test (C). Why? - Test A features fracture flow, and dual-continuum transport, whereas test B features single-continuum flow and transport (within the host rock, with negligible losses to the hydrofrac). Flow is rapid in test A (being fracture-dominated), but slow in test B (being confined to the host rock). In test C, fluid first flows through the hydrofrac mainly, next it 'must' flow through the upper sandstone; heat transport is dominated by matrix diffusion across the hydrofrac (along which it thus experiences strong retardation), whereas solute transport is dominated by matrix micro-fissure and intra-particle diffusion within the upper sandstone (where it experiences strong retardation). We examine the implications of these findings upon the inversion of transport-effective hydrofrac parameters from measured tracer signals, and upon the tracer-based predictability of the system's thermal lifetime under different operation schemes. [1]http://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/SGW/2005/jung.pdf [2]http://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/WGC/2010/2272.pdf Acknowledgement: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task units 'G6' and 'G7' of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' (Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling).

Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Holzbecher, E.; Jung, R.; Sauter, M.; Tischner, T.

2012-04-01

215

Asian Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project: Draft Field Work Plan for the Asian Long-Range Tracer Experiment  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an experimental plan for a proposed Asian long-range tracer study as part of the international Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project. The TEAM partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the United States. Optimal times of year to conduct the study, meteorological measurements needed, proposed tracer release locations, proposed tracer sampling locations and the proposed durations of tracer releases and subsequent sampling are given. Also given are the activities necessary to prepare for the study and the schedule for completing the preparation activities leading to conducting the actual field operations. This report is intended to provide the TEAM members with the information necessary for planning and conducting the Asian long-range tracer study. The experimental plan is proposed, at this time, to describe the efforts necessary to conduct the Asian long-range tracer study, and the plan will undoubtedly be revised and refined as the planning goes forward over the next year.

Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

2007-08-01

216

Tracer attenuation in groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

Cvetkovic, Vladimir

2011-12-01

217

Gas Gun Studies of Interface Wear Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of interface wear were studied by performing gas gun experiments at velocities up to 1km/s. The approach involved developing coefficients of constitutive strength models for Al 6061 and OFHC-Cu, then using those to design die geometry for interface wear gas gun experiments. Taylor rod-on-anvil impact experiments were performed to obtain coefficients of the Johnson-Cook constitutive strength model by correlating experimentally obtained deformed states of impacted samples with those predicted using ANSYS AUTODYN hydrocode. Simulations were used with validated strength models to design geometry involving acceleration of Al rods through a copper concentric cylindrical angular extrusion die. Experiments were conducted using 7.62mm and 80mm diameter gas guns. Differences in the microstructure of the interface layer and microhardness values illustrate that stress-strain conditions produced during acceleration of Al through the hollow concentric copper die, at velocities less than 800m/s, result in formation of a layer via solid state alloying due to severe plastic deformation, while higher velocities produce an interface layer consisting of melted and re-solidified aluminum.

Jackson, Tyler; Kennedy, Greg; Thadhani, Naresh

2011-06-01

218

Dating of young groundwater using tritium and gaseous tracers (SF6, SF5CF3, CFC-12, H-1301): case study from southern Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an important source of potable water in many countries. While it covers ca. 50% of the global drinking water needs, in Europe this share is even higher, reaching approximately 70%. Nowadays, this strategic resource is at risk due to anthropogenic pollutants of various nature entering shallow aquifers. Proper management of groundwater resources requires thorough understanding of groundwater dynamics on time scales characteristic for the history of pollutant input to groundwater. The bomb-tritium has been used for several decades now as a tracer of choice to detect recent recharge and to quantify groundwater residence times on time scales extending from several years to several decades. The lumped-parameter modeling was the most often employed approach in this context. Since nowadays atmospheric concentrations of tritium are approaching natural levels in most parts of the world, the usage of this tracer has become more problematic. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alternative indicators of groundwater age in shallow aquifers. Anthropogenic trace gases present in the atmosphere, such as freons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), have been applied in numerous case studies as substitutes of tritium. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study aimed at quantifying mean residence time of groundwater in the recharge area of porous sandy aquifer system located in the southern Poland. The principal economic role of the aquifer, consisting of two water-bearing strata, is to provide potable water for public and private users. The yield of the aquifer is insufficient to meet all the needs and, as a consequence, licensing conflicts arise between water supply companies and industry on the amount of water available for safe exploitation. To quantify residence time distribution (RTD) functions of water parcels arriving at the production wells located in the recharge area of the aquifer, tritium along with several gaseous tracers was employed. Apart of well-established tracers such as SF6 and CFC-12, also other trace gases present in the atmosphere (SF5CF3 and H-1301) were tested as age indicators of young groundwater. Time series of tracer concentrations in the sampled boreholes were interpreted with the aid of lumped-parameter models. In parallel, the arrival times of tracers to the selected wells were calculated with the aid of 3D flow and transport model available for the studied groundwater system and compared with the RTD functions obtained from lumped-parameter modeling. Acknowledgements. Partial financial support of this work through GENESIS project (http:/www.thegenesisproject.eu) funded by the European Commission 7FP contract 226536 and through the funds from the Polish Ministry of Science and High Education (projects Nr. N N525 362637 and 11.11.220.01) is kindly acknowledged.

Rozanski, Kazimierz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Dulinski, Marek; Kuc, Tadeusz; Sliwka, Ireneusz; Mochalski, Pawel; Kania, Jaroslaw; Witczak, Stanislaw

2013-04-01

219

New physical Lagrangian tracer  

SciTech Connect

A physical Lagrangian tracer will be operational and available for use within the near future. The tracer is an adjustable buoyancy constant volume balloon with an onboard microprocessor to serve an appropriate array of sensors, and to control buoyancy. Tracking and data reporting is to be accomplished via the ARGOS satellite-borne data system, yielding both a local and a world-wide capability. 5 references, 1 figure.

Zak, B.D.

1984-01-01

220

Tracer Tomography: Design Concepts and Field Experiments Using Heat as a Tracer.  

PubMed

Numerical and laboratory studies have provided evidence that combining hydraulic tomography with tomographic tracer tests could improve the estimation of hydraulic conductivity compared with using hydraulic data alone. Field demonstrations, however, have been lacking so far, which we attribute to experimental difficulties. In this study, we present a conceptual design and experimental applications of tracer tomography at the field scale using heat as a tracer. In our experimental design, we improve active heat tracer testing by minimizing possible effects of heat losses, buoyancy, viscosity, and changing boundary conditions. We also utilize a cost-effective approach of measuring temperature changes in situ at high resolution. We apply the presented method to the 8?m thick heterogeneous, sandy gravel, alluvial aquifer at the Lauswiesen Hydrogeological Research Site in Tübingen, Germany. Results of our tomographic heat-tracer experiments are in line with earlier work on characterizing the aquifer at the test site. We demonstrate from the experimental perspective that tracer tomography is applicable and suitable at the field scale using heat as a tracer. The experimental results also demonstrate the potential of heat-tracer tomography as a cost-effective means for characterizing aquifer heterogeneity. PMID:25393211

Doro, Kennedy O; Cirpka, Olaf A; Leven, Carsten

2014-11-13

221

CO, NOx and 13CO2 as tracers for fossil fuel CO2: results from a pilot study in Paris during winter 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the mole fraction of the CO2 and its isotopes were performed in Paris during the MEGAPOLI winter campaign (January-February 2010). Radiocarbon (14CO2) measurements were used to identify the relative contributions of 77% CO2 from fossil fuel consumption (CO2ff from liquid and gas combustion) and 23% from biospheric CO2 (CO2 from the use of biofuels and from human and plant respiration: CO2bio). These percentages correspond to average mole fractions of 26.4 ppm and 8.2 ppm for CO2ff and CO2bio, respectively. The 13CO2 analysis indicated that gas and liquid fuel contributed 70% and 30%, respectively, of the CO2 emission from fossil fuel use. Continuous measurements of CO and NOx and the ratios CO/CO2ff and NOx/CO2ff derived from radiocarbon measurements during four days make it possible to estimate the fossil fuel CO2 contribution over the entire campaign. The ratios CO/CO2ff and NOx/CO2ff are functions of air mass origin and exhibited daily ranges of 7.9 to 14.5 ppb ppm-1 and 1.1 to 4.3 ppb ppm-1, respectively. These ratios are consistent with different emission inventories given the uncertainties of the different approaches. By using both tracers to derive the fossil fuel CO2, we observed similar diurnal cycles with two maxima during rush hour traffic.

Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Delmotte, M.; Colomb, A.; Gros, V.; Janssen, C.; Lehman, S. J.; Mondelain, D.; Perrussel, O.; Ramonet, M.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Bousquet, P.

2013-08-01

222

Quantifying uncertainties in tracer-based hydrograph separations: a case study for two-, three- and five-component hydrograph separations in a mountainous catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrograph separation technique using natural tracers, in which different runoff components are quantified according to their chemical signature, is a widely used method for investigating runoff generation processes at the catchment scale. The first objective of this study is to demonstrate a modified methodology for separating three and five runoff components using 18O and dissolved silica as tracers. The second is to evaluate, with an uncertainty propagation technique using Gaussian error estimators, the hydrograph separation uncertainties that arise due to different error effects.During four summer storm events, an interaction among three main runoff components having distinct dissolved silica concentrations was demonstrated for the mountainous Zastler catchment (18·4 km2, southern Black Forest Mountains, southwest Germany). The three main runoff components are surface storage (low silica, saturated and impermeable areas), shallow ground water (medium silica, periglacial and glacial drift cover), and deep ground water (high silica, crystalline detritus and hard rock aquifer). Together with the event and pre-event water fractions of surface runoff and shallow ground water runoff, five runoff components are considered in all. Pre-event water from shallow ground water storage dominated the total discharge during floods and was also important during low flows. Event water from shallow ground water was detectable only during the falling limb of a larger flood with high antecedent moisture conditions and during the peaks of three events with low antecedent moisture conditions. Runoff from surface storage is only significant during floods and can be composed of event and pre-event water. The latter reacts later and is important only during the peak of the large event with high antecedent moisture conditions. Runoff from the deeper ground water behaves quite consistently (pure pre-event water).It is demonstrated that large relative uncertainties must be considered for the quantification of runoff components. Uncertainties are caused by: (i) tracer analysis and discharge measurement; (ii) intra-storm variability of 18O; (iii) elevation effect of 18O and silica; (iv) solution of minerals during runoff formation; and (v) general spatial heterogeneity of tracer concentrations. The last source of error was the most significant. The error structure was analysed in detail and showed varying error significance within an event and for different events. It is shown that, for the meso-scale catchment investigated, only qualitative results of the contribution of a runoff component can be obtained by the hydrograph separation technique. The importance of reducing errors that have the largest impact is clearly demonstrated; therefore, a targeted sampling strategy is required.

Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Hoeg, Simon

2003-02-01

223

Synthesis of a novel polyamidoamine dendrimer conjugating with alkali blue as a lymphatic tracer and study on the lymphatic targeting in vivo.  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, a novel lymphatic tracer polyamidoamin-alkali blue (PAMAM-AB) was synthesized in order to evaluate the intra-lymphatic targeting ability and lymphatic tropism of PAMAM-AB after subcutaneous administration. UV-Vis, FT-IR, NMR and HPLC characterization were performed to prove the successful synthesis of PAMAM-AB. The calculated AB payload of PAMAM-AB conjugate was seven per dendrimer molecule (27.16% by weight). Hydrolysis stability of PAMAM-AB in vitro was evaluated, which was stable in PBS and human plasma. Lymphatic tracing were studied to determine the blue-stained intensity of PAMAM-AB in right popliteral lymph nodes (PLNs), iliac lymph nodes (ILNs) and para-aortic lymph nodes (PALNs) after subcutaneous administration. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of PAMAM-AB in mice were investigated. PLNs, ILNs and PALNs could be obviously blue-stained within 10?min after PAMAM-AB administration, and displayed a more rapid lymphatic absorption, a higher AUC value in lymph nodes and a longer lymph nodes residence time compared with methylene blue solution (MB-S), MB water-in-oil microemulsion (MB-ME), MB multiple microemulsion (MB-MME). Enhanced lymphatic drainage from the injection site and uptake into lymph of PAMAM-AB indicated that PAMAM-AB possesses the double function of lymphatic tracing and lymphatic targeting, and suggested the potential for the development of lymphatic targeting vectors or as a lymphatic tracer in its own right. PMID:25406493

Yang, Rui; Xia, Suxia; Ye, Tiantian; Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Ruizhi; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Siling

2014-11-19

224

Detection and analysis of tracers in experimental drowning.  

PubMed

In animal experiments, studies on the mechanisms involved in drowning were carried out using latex and gold tracers of defined size and concentration. The tracers were detectable by fluorescence microscopy (latex tracers) and by electron microscopy (gold tracers) in the lungs, kidneys and lymph nodes and were analysed further by X-ray microanalysis using a transmission scanning electron microscope. Tracers with small diameters were shown to penetrate intercellular gaps of the alveolar epithelium and the larger tracers were incorporated into the epithelial and endothelial cells by active pinocytotic mechanisms thus passing through the air-blood barrier. The detection and analysis of tracers in organs of the systemic circulation originating from the immersion fluid can assist in understanding the pathophysiology of drowning and in some selected cases, in making a more definitive diagnosis. PMID:9541851

Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B; Stefanec, A M; Barckhaus, R H; Fechner, G

1998-01-01

225

Comparison of /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance and /sup 14/C tracer studies of hepatic metabolism. [Rats and mice  

SciTech Connect

The gluconeogenic pathway from /sup 13/C-labeled substrates, each of which contained the /sup 14/C-labeled counterpart at a tracer level, has been followed in isolated rat liver cells and in isolated perfused mouse liver. The gluconeogenic flux from glycerol, the synthesis of glycogen, the synthesis of glycogen, the stimulation of glycogenolysis by glucagon, the recycling of triacylglycerol, and an increase in pentose cycle activity under the influence of phenazine methosulfate were all observed directly in the /sup 13/C NMR spectra of perfused liver or isolated hepatocytes. The relative concentrations of /sup 13/C label at specific carbons measured by the NMR spectra under these conditions agreed closely with /sup 14/C isotopic distributions measured in extracts of the same doubly labeled samples for specific activities of greater than or equal to 3%. The label distributions measured by both methods were the same to within the experimental errors, which ranged from +-2% to +-7% in these experiments.

Cohen, S.M. (Merck Inst. for Therapeutic Research, Rathway, NJ); Rognstad, R.; Shulman, R.G.; Katz, J.

1981-04-10

226

Hydrochemistry and boron isotopes as natural tracers in the study of groundwaters from North Chianan Plain, Taiwan.  

PubMed

In this paper, hydrochemistry and boron isotopes are successfully applied to elucidate hydrogeological processes by the use of natural tracers. The hydrochemical analysis identifies four end-members in the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater from the North Chianan plain groundwater district. A few groundwater contain extraordinary chlorine concentrations of up to 48,000 mg l(-1). However, the hydrochemistry of groundwater only reveals that high saline water is a dominant factor in groundwater hydrochemistry. It is thought that these groundwater experienced precipitation of carbonates during seawater evaporation that did not involve the precipitation of gypsum. Boron isotopes are very efficient tracers in determining the source of salinisation. The boron isotopes reveal the results of mixing of evaporated seawater and water-sediment interaction. In general, the boron isotope ratio of the groundwater is controlled by a two-end-member mixing system, which is composed of evaporated seawater (isotopically heavy) and fresh surface water (isotopically light). Due to a long lagoonal period in the coastal plain, the groundwaters in the downstream area generally have high Cl/B ratios and relatively heavy boron isotope ratios while those in the upstream area are composed of low Cl/B and light boron isotopes. However, there is not a resolvable mixing trend between the Cl/B ratio and the isotopic composition of boron. It is probably obscured by a highly variable boron isotope ratio in fresh surface water and through fractionation associated with water-rock interaction. Both factors would decrease the boron isotope ratio but one effect cannot be distinguished from the other. PMID:23998391

Lu, Hsueh-Yu

2014-01-01

227

Optimizing Natural Gas Use: A Case Study  

E-print Network

Optimization of Steam & Energy systems in any continuously operating process plant results in substantial reduction in Natural gas purchases. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant to control their fuel budget...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Schweikert, P.

2007-01-01

228

Tracer-based prediction of thermal reservoir lifetime: scope, limitations, and the role of thermosensitive tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal-lifetime prediction is a traditional endeavour of inter-well tracer tests conducted in geothermal reservoirs. Early tracer test signals (detectable within the first few years of operation) are expected to correlate with late-time production temperature evolutions ('thermal breakthrough', supposed to not occur before some decades of operation) of a geothermal reservoir. Whenever a geothermal reservoir can be described as a single-fracture system, its thermal lifetime will, ideally, be determined by two parameters (say, fracture aperture and porosity), whose inversion from conservative-tracer test signals is straightforward and non-ambiguous (provided that the tracer tests, and their interpretation, are performed in accordance to the rules of the art). However, as soon as only 'few more' fractures are considered, this clear-cut correlation is broken. A given geothermal reservoir can simultaneously feature a single-fracture behaviour, in terms of heat transport, and a multiple-fracture behaviour, in terms of solute tracer transport (or vice-versa), whose effective values of fracture apertures, spacings, and porosities are essentially uncorrelated between heat and solute tracers. Solute transport parameters derived from conservative-tracer tests will no longer characterize the heat transport processes (and thus temperature evolutions) taking place in the same reservoir. Parameters determining its thermal lifetime will remain 'invisible' to conservative tracers in inter-well tests. We demonstrate this issue at the example of a five-fracture system, representing a deep-geothermal reservoir, with well-doublet placement inducing fluid flow 'obliquely' to the fractures. Thermal breakthrough in this system is found to strongly depend on fracture apertures, whereas conservative-solute tracer signals from inter-well tests in the same system do not show a clear-cut correlation with fracture apertures. Only by using thermosensitive substances as tracers, a reliable correlation between (early) tracer signals and (later) thermal breakthrough can be re-established. Thus, thermosensitive tracers are indispensable for predicting thermal breakthrough, in such geothermal reservoirs whose 'hydrogeological personality' is given by a finite set of fractures, with flow occurring both across and along the fractures. In terms of the 'gebo benchmark-model' typology investigated by Hördt et al. (2011) [http://eposters.agu.org/abstracts/models-of-geothermal-reservoirs-as-a-basis-for-interdisciplinary-cooperation/] , such systems combine flow and transport patterns of the 'petrothermal' type and of the so-called 'deep-aquifer' type: across the fractures, heat is travelling faster than conservative-solute tracers; along the fractures, conservative-solute tracers experience much less retardation by transversal exchange (matrix diffusion), than heat; fluid (and tracer) flow is not limited to the fractures; matrix flow yields essential contribution to prolonging the fluid (and tracer) residence time. Thermal lifetime results from the opposite effects of fracture aperture as an: advection-related parameter: fluid travel time increases with increasing fracture aperture advection-unrelated parameter: fracture - matrix exchange rate increases with decreasing fracture aperture, which accelerates transport across the fracture, but retards transport along the fracture. In conservative-solute tracer signals, all these fracture aperture effects on tracer transport are masked by the very long residence time associated with the matrix flow component. Thermosensitive tracers are able to 'magnify' the visibility of fracture aperture effects against matrix flow effects. Acknowledgment: This study benefits from thermosensitive-tracer research conducted within the projects Smart Tracers and LOGRO, funded by the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU, 0327579 and 0325111B) and by Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW).

Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Karmakar, S.; Licha, T.; Nottebohm, M.; Sauter, M.

2012-04-01

229

OH as a Tracer for Molecular Gas in the Galaxy: Line Ratios and Signatures of non-LTE Findings in the ISM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While carrying out a blind survey of OH emission in a quiescent region towards the outer galaxy near l = 105 degrees, b = 1 degree using the Green Bank Telescope, we analyzed the ratios of the line strengths and identified several non-LTE emission sources in addition to the majority that were in LTE. The fact that the majority of OH features were in LTE ratios suggests that in general, OH can be a useful tracer for components of the molecular ISM that may not be traced by CO. However, the several non-LTE OH features observed demonstrate that such a blind survey can also be put to other uses. One of the non-LTE features was identified as a known OH-IR star, which we found could be easily identified with 1665 and 1667 MHz spectra alone, even though OH-IR stars are most prominent in 1612 MHz. We also identified several 1720 MHz masers features in the local ISM, which were found at adjacent positions in the sky along an arc shape. These masers are likely to be tracing a C-shock propagating through the local ISM, covering several survey positions.

Engelke, Philip; Allen, Ronald J.; Hogg, David E.

2015-01-01

230

Estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages of groundwater from selected sites: National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2006-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Piston-flow age dates were interpreted from measured concentrations of environmental tracers from 812 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program groundwater sites from 27 Study Units across the United States. The tracers of interest include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He). Tracer data compiled for this analysis were collected from 2006 to 2010 from groundwater wells in NAWQA studies, including: * Land-Use Studies (LUS, shallow wells, usually monitoring wells, located in recharge areas under dominant land-use settings), * Major-Aquifer Studies (MAS, wells, usually domestic supply wells, located in principal aquifers and representing the shallow drinking water supply), * Flow System Studies (FSS, networks of clustered wells located along a flowpath extending from a recharge zone to a discharge zone, preferably a shallow stream) associated with Land-Use Studies, and * Reference wells (wells representing groundwater minimally impacted by anthropogenic activities) also associated with Land-Use Studies. Tracer data were evaluated using documented methods and are presented as aqueous concentrations, equivalent atmospheric concentrations (for CFCs and SF6), and tracer-based piston-flow ages. Selected ancillary data, such as redox data, well-construction data, and major dissolved-gas (N2, O2, Ar, CH4, and CO2) data, also are presented. Recharge temperature was inferred using climate data (approximated by mean annual air temperature plus 1°C [MAAT +1°C]) as well as major dissolved-gas data (N2-Ar-based) where available. The N2-Ar-based temperatures showed significantly more variation than the climate-based data, as well as the effects of denitrification and degassing resulting from reducing conditions. The N2-Ar-based temperatures were colder than the climate-based temperatures in networks where recharge was limited to the winter months when evapotranspiration was reduced. The tracer-based piston-flow ages compiled in this report are provided as a consistent means of reporting the tracer data. The tracer-based piston-flow ages may provide an initial interpretation of age in cases in which mixing is minimal and may aid in developing a basic conceptualization of groundwater age in an aquifer. These interpretations are based on the assumption that tracer transport is by advection only and that no mixing occurs. In addition, it is assumed that other uncertainties are minimized, including tracer degradation, sorption, contamination, or fractionation, and that terrigenic (natural) sources of tracers, and spatially variable atmospheric tracer concentrations are constrained.

Shapiro, Stephanie D.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Widman, Peggy K.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Wayland, Julian E.; Runkle, Donna L.

2012-01-01

231

Determination of stream reaeration coefficients by use of tracers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream reaeration is the physical absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere by a flowing stream. This is the primary process by which a stream replenishes the oxygen consumed in the biodegradation of organic wastes. Prior to 1965, reaeration rate coefficients could be estimated only by indirect methods. In 1965, a direct method of measuring stream reaeration coefficients was developed whereby a radioactive tracer gas was injected into a stream-the principle being that the tracer gas would be desorbed from the stream inversely to how oxygen would be absorbed. The technique has since been modified by substituting hydrocarbon gases for the radioactive tracer gas. This manual describes the slug-injection and constant-rate-injection methods of measuring gas-tracer desorption. Emphasis is on the use of rhodamine WT dye as a relatively conservative tracer and propane as the nonconservative gas tracer, on planning field tests, on methods of injection, sampling, and analysis, and on techniques for computing desorption and reaeration coefficients.

Kilpatrick, F.A.; Rathbun, R.E.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro; Parker, G.W.; DeLong, L.L.

1989-01-01

232

Influence of Tracer Selection on Protein Synthesis Rates at Rest and Post-Exercise in Multiple Human Muscles  

PubMed Central

The goal of this investigation was to assess the influence of tracer selection on mixed muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR) at rest and post-exercise during amino acid infusion in multiple human skeletal muscles. FSR was measured before and 24h after 45-min of running using simultaneous infusion of [2H5]-phenylalanine (Phe) and [2H3]-leucine (Leu) coupled with muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis and soleus in aerobically-trained men (n=8; age 26±2 yr). Mixed muscle protein FSR was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with a standard curve using the enriched muscle tissue fluid (MTF) as the precursor pool. To control for potential analytical differences between tracers, all samples and standards for both tracers were matched for m+0 abundance. Tracer selection did not influence resting FSR for the vastus lateralis or soleus (P>0.05). FSR measured 24h post-exercise was higher (P<0.05) compared to rest and was similar between tracers for the vastus lateralis (Phe: 0.110±0.010; Leu: 0.109±0.005 %·h?1) and soleus (Phe: 0.123±0.008; Leu: 0.122±0.005 %·h?1). These data demonstrate that tracer selection does not influence the assessment of resting or post-exercise FSR, thereby supporting the use of both [2H5]-phenylalanine and [2H3]-leucine for the measurement of FSR in exercise based studies of human skeletal muscle. PMID:20822780

Harber, Matthew P.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Crane, Justin D.; Trappe, Scott W.; Trappe, Todd A.

2010-01-01

233

Sedimentation, bioturbation, and sedimentary fabric evolution on a modern mesotidal mudflat: A multi-tracer study of processes, rates, and scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of muddy tidal-flat sedimentation and bioturbation was undertaken in the Waitetuna Arm of Raglan Harbor, New Zealand, to evaluate the physical and biological processes that control cycling of sediment between the intertidal seabed and sediment-water interface, and also the formation of tidal flat sedimentary fabric and fine-scale stratigraphy. Cores were collected along an intertidal transect, and analyzed for sedimentary fabric, 210Pb and 7Be radiochemical distributions, and grain size. At the same locations, a new approach for time-series core-X-radiography study was undertaken (spanning 191 days), using magnetite-rich sand as a tracer for sedimentation and bioturbation processes in shallow tidal flat sediments. Sedimentary fabric consists of a shallow stratified layer overlying a deeper zone of intensely bioturbated shelly mud. Bioadvection mixes the deeper zone and contributes fine sediment to the surface stratified layer, via biodeposition. Physical resuspension and deposition of surface muds by wave and tidal flow are also likely contributors to formation of the surficial stratified layer, but physical stratification is not observed below this depth. The deliberate tracer study allowed calculation of bioadvection rates that control strata formation, and can be used to model diagenetic processes. Results suggest that the upper ˜15 cm of seabed can be fully mixed over timescales <1.75 y. Such mixing will erase pre-existing sedimentary fabric and transport buried sediment and chemical compounds back to the tidal-flat surface. Shallow biodiffusion also exists, but produces much slower and shallower mass transport. Best fits for 210Pb profiles using a diagenetic bioadvection/sedimentation model and independently measured tiered bioadvection rates suggest that sediment accumulation rates (SARs) on the tidal flat are ˜0.25 cm/y, near the low end of contemporary New Zealand muddy intertidal SARs. Frequent deposition and erosion of the surface layer demonstrates that long-term sediment accumulation captures only a small fraction of sediment deposited at any one time. Model results also suggest that our magnetite tracer method may slightly underestimate short-term shallow mixing rates (demonstrated by 7Be profiles), and slightly overestimate longer-term, deeper bioturbation rates (demonstrated by 210Pb profiles).

Bentley, Samuel J.; Swales, Andrew; Pyenson, Benjamin; Dawe, Justin

2014-03-01

234

3-D numerical evaluation of density effects on tracer tests.  

PubMed

In this paper we present numerical simulations carried out to assess the importance of density-dependent flow on tracer plume development. The scenario considered in the study is characterized by a short-term tracer injection phase into a fully penetrating well and a natural hydraulic gradient. The scenario is thought to be typical for tracer tests conducted in the field. Using a reference case as a starting point, different model parameters were changed in order to determine their importance to density effects. The study is based on a three-dimensional model domain. Results were interpreted using concentration contours and a first moment analysis. Tracer injections of 0.036 kg per meter of saturated aquifer thickness do not cause significant density effects assuming hydraulic gradients of at least 0.1%. Higher tracer input masses, as used for geoelectrical investigations, may lead to buoyancy-induced flow in the early phase of a tracer test which in turn impacts further plume development. This also holds true for shallow aquifers. Results of simulations with different tracer injection rates and durations imply that the tracer input scenario has a negligible effect on density flow. Employing model cases with different realizations of a log conductivity random field, it could be shown that small variations of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of the tracer injection well have a major control on the local tracer distribution but do not mask effects of buoyancy-induced flow. PMID:16183165

Beinhorn, M; Dietrich, P; Kolditz, O

2005-12-01

235

Combined use of ?(13)C, ?(15)N, and ?(34)S tracers to study anaerobic bacterial processes in groundwater flow systems.  

PubMed

We present an approach for determining the major anaerobic bacterial processes in aquifers, using the combined stable isotope ratios of major elements (C, N, and S) as net recorders of the biogeochemical reactions. The Kumamoto groundwater is constituted of two major flow systems, A-A' and B-B', within 10(3) km-scale area. Previous study [Hosono, T., Tokunaga, T., Kagabu, M., Nakata, H., Orishikida, T., Lin, I-T., Shimada, J., 2013. The use of ?(15)N and ?(18)O tracers with an understanding of groundwater flow dynamics for evaluating the origins and attenuation mechanisms of nitrate pollution. Water Res. 47, 2661-2675.] investigated the nitrate sources and extent of denitrification using [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] tracers. In the present study, we studied a type of denitrification (heterogenic vs. autotrophic) and occurrence of sequential anaerobic processes along the flow systems with newly measured ?(13)CDIC and [Formula: see text] . In A-A' flow system, C, N, and S isotopic compositions did not change along the flow direction. However, in B-B' flow system significant sulfate reduction (with a maximum [Formula: see text] enrichment of +55‰) occurred along with denitrification (with a maximum [Formula: see text] enrichment of +38‰) as the groundwater flowed down-gradient. Depletions in [Formula: see text] (-8‰ maximum) were found only sporadically. These observations imply that autotrophic denitrification could occur in very limited parts of the study area. Moreover, the occurrence of methanogenic reactions was suggested by the enriched ?(13)CDIC signature (+8‰ maximum) at a denitrification hotspot. By characterizing C, N, and S isotope compositional changes in wide redox range (from aerobic oxidation of organic carbon, through denitrification, to sulfate reduction, until methanogenesis), we could develop the model of C, N, and S isotopic evolutional patterns under different redox scenarios. Proposed model is useful in obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the major anaerobic bacterial processes in aquifer systems, including distinguishing between heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification. PMID:24583520

Hosono, Takahiro; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Tsushima, Akane; Shimada, Jun

2014-05-01

236

Inorganic Tracer Use - Lake Fryxell  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Inorganic Tracer Use - Lake Fryxell Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : June 27 ... Action Memorandum (Inorganic Tracer Use at Lake Fryxell) To: Files (S.7 - Environment) Manager ...

237

Application of the Tracer-Aerosol Gradient Interpretive Technique to Sulfur Attribution for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple data analysis method called the Tracer-Aerosol Gradient Interpretive Technique (TAGIT) is used to attribute particulate S and SO2 at Big Bend National Park in Texas and nearby areas to local and regional sources. Particulate S at Big Bend is of concern because of its effects on atmospheric visibility. The analysis used particulate S, SO2 , and perfluorocarbon tracer

Mark Green; Hampden Kuhns; Marc Pitchford; Russell Dietz; Lowell Ashbaugh; Tom Watson

2003-01-01

238

Experimental Study of Gas Hydrate Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important quantities of methane and other gases are trapped below the seafloor and in the permafrost by an ice-like solid, called gas hydrates or clathrate hydrates. The latter is formed when water is mixing with different gases at high pressures and low temperatures. Due to a their possible use as a source of energy [1] or the problematic related to flow assurance failure in pipelines [2] the understanding of their processes of formation/destabilisation of these structures becomes a goal for many laboratories research as well as industries. In this work we present an experimental study on the stochastic behaviour of hydrate formation from a bulk phase. The method used here for the experiments was to repeat several time the same hydrate formation procedure and to notice the different from one experiment to another. A variable-volume type high-pressure apparatus with two sapphire windows was used. This device, already presented by Ruffine et al.[3], allows us to perform both kinetics and phase equilibrium measurements. Three initial pressure conditions were considered here, 5.0 MPa, 7.5 MPa and 10.0 MPa. Hydrates have been formed, then allowed to dissociate by stepwise heating. The memory effect has also been investigated after complete dissociation. It turned out that, although the thermodynamics conditions of formation and/or destabilization were reproducible. An attempt to determine the influence of pressure on the nucleation induction time will be discussed. References 1. Sum, A. K.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D., Clathrate Hydrates: From Laboratory Science to Engineering Practice. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2009, 48, 7457-7465. 2. Sloan, E. D., A changing hydrate paradigm-from apprehension to avoidance to risk management. Fluid Phase Equilibria 2005, 228, 67-74. 3. Ruffine, L.; Donval, J. P.; Charlou, J. L.; Cremière, A.; Zehnder, B. H., Experimental study of gas hydrate formation and destabilisation using a novel high-pressure apparatus. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2010, 27, (6), 1157-1165.

Fandino, O.; Ruffine, L.

2011-12-01

239

A review of methods for modelling environmental tracers in groundwater: Advantages of tracer concentration simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical models of varying complexity have been developed since the 1960s to interpret environmental tracer concentrations in groundwater flow systems. This review examines published studies of model-based environmental tracer interpretation, the progress of different modelling approaches, and also considers the value of modelling tracer concentrations directly rather than estimations of groundwater age. Based on citation metrics generated using the Web of Science and Google Scholar reference databases, the most highly utilised interpretation approaches are lumped parameter models (421 citations), followed closely by direct age models (220 citations). A third approach is the use of mixing cell models (99 citations). Although lumped parameter models are conceptually simple and require limited data, they are unsuitable for characterising the internal dynamics of a hydrogeological system and/or under conditions where large scale anthropogenic stresses occur within a groundwater basin. Groundwater age modelling, and in particular, the simulation of environmental tracer transport that explicitly accounts for the accumulation and decay of tracer mass, has proven to be highly beneficial in constraining numerical models. Recent improvements in computing power have made numerical simulation of tracer transport feasible. We argue that, unlike directly simulated ages, the results of tracer mass transport simulation can be compared directly to observations, without needing to correct for apparent age bias or other confounding factors.

Turnadge, Chris; Smerdon, Brian D.

2014-11-01

240

Results from air-injection and tracer testing in the upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves of the Exploratory Studies Facility, August 1994 through July 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Air-injection and tracer testing were conducted in the upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from August 1994 to July 1991. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy.

LeCain, Gary D.

1998-01-01

241

Ultrastructural examination of the corticocollicular pathway in the guinea pig: a study using electron microscopy, neural tracers, and GABA immunocytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Projections from auditory cortex (AC) can alter the responses of cells in the inferior colliculus (IC) to sounds. Most IC cells show excitation and inhibition after stimulation of the AC. AC axons release glutamate and excite their targets, so inhibition is presumed to result from cortical activation of GABAergic IC cells that inhibit other IC cells via local projections. However, it is not known whether cortical axons contact GABAergic IC cells directly. We labeled corticocollicular axons by injecting fluorescent dextrans into the AC in guinea pigs. We visualized the tracer with diaminobenzidine and processed the tissue for electron microscopy. We identified presumptive GABAergic profiles with post-embedding anti-GABA immunogold histochemistry on ultrathin sections. We identified dextran-labeled cortical boutons in the IC and identified their postsynaptic targets according to morphology (e.g., spine, dendrite) and GABA-reactivity. Cortical synapses were observed in all IC subdivisions, but were comparatively rare in the central nucleus. Cortical boutons contain round vesicles and few mitochondria. They form asymmetric synapses with spines (most frequently), dendritic shafts and, least often, with cell bodies. Excitatory boutons in the IC can be classified as large, medium or small; most cortical boutons belong to the small excitatory class, while a minority (~14%) belong to the medium excitatory class. Approximately 4% of the cortical targets were GABA-positive; these included dendritic shafts, spines, and cell bodies. We conclude that the majority of cortical boutons contact non-GABAergic (i.e., excitatory) IC cells and a small proportion (4%) contact GABAergic cells. Given that most IC cells show inhibition (as well as excitation) after cortical stimulation, it is likely that the majority of cortically-driven inhibition in the IC results from cortical activation of a relatively small number of IC GABAergic cells that have extensive local axons. PMID:23734104

Nakamoto, Kyle T.; Mellott, Jeffrey G.; Killius, Jeanette; Storey-Workley, Megan E.; Sowick, Colleen S.; Schofield, Brett R.

2013-01-01

242

Can Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography with the Dual Tracers Fluorine-18 Fluoroestradiol and Fluorodeoxyglucose Predict Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response of Breast Cancer? ----A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the clinical value of dual tracers Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) 18F-fluoroestradiol (18F-FES) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in predicting neoadjuvant chemotherapy response (NAC) of breast cancer. Methods Eighteen consecutive patients with newly diagnosed, non-inflammatory, stage II and III breast cancer undergoing NAC were included. Before chemotherapy, they underwent both 18F-FES and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. Surgery was performed after three to six cycles of chemotherapy. Tumor response was graded and divided into two groups: the responders and non-responders. We used the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) to qualify each primary lesion. Results Pathologic analysis revealed 10 patients were responders while the other 8 patients were non-responders. There was no statistical difference of SUVmax-FDG and tumor size between these two groups (P>0.05). On the contrary, SUVmax-FES was lower in responders (1.75±0.66 versus 4.42±1.14; U=5, P=0.002); and SUVmax-FES/FDG also showed great value in predicting outcome (0.16±0.06 versus 0.54±0.22; U=5, P=0.002). Conclusions Our study showed 18F-FES PET/CT might be feasible to predict response of NAC. However, whether the use of dual tracers 18F-FES and 18F-FDG has complementary value should be further studied. PMID:24205151

Yang, Zhongyi; Sun, Yifei; Xue, Jing; Yao, Zhifeng; Xu, Junyan; Cheng, Jingyi; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Beiling; Zhang, Yongping; Zhang, Yingjian

2013-01-01

243

Neurotoxicity after intracarotid 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea administration in the rat: Hemodynamic changes studied by double-tracer autoradiography  

SciTech Connect

Changes in blood-brain (BBB) permeability and local cerebral blood flow after intracarotid administration of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) were examined quantitatively in rats with double-tracer autoradiography using (14C)alpha-amino-isobutyric acid and (18F)fluoroantipyrine. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The control group (Group 1) received 1 ml of 5% dextrose. The other three groups received three different doses of BCNU dissolved in 5% dextrose: Group 2 rats received 1 mg, Group 3 3 mg, and Group 4 10 mg. The tracer study was performed on Day 1 or Days 4 to 12 after intracarotid administration of BCNU. In 11 rats in Group 2, there were no changes of BBB permeability. Transient BBB permeability changes were seen in the striatum or hippocampus in 3 of the 5 rats (60%) in Group 3 within 24 hours. In 8 of 9 rats (89%) in the same group, late BBB permeability changes were observed in the hypothalamus with or without histological changes. BBB permeability changes were seen in all rats of Group 4. Focal increase of local cerebral blood flow on the infused side compared with the non-infused side of the brain was observed, although not at a significant level, in 5 of 25 rats examined with (18F)fluoroantipyrine. The results of BBB permeability and histological examinations and study of heterogenous distribution by (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose indicated that the ipsilateral subcortical structures such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, internal capsule, and caudate putamen have the highest incidence of neurotoxicity, which are closely related to histopathological damage seen in human BCNU leucoencephalopathy.

Nagahiro, S.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Diksic, M.; Mitsuka, S.; Sugimoto, S.; Feindel, W. (Cone Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research, Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec (Canada))

1991-07-01

244

HST/COS detection of a Ne VIII absorber towards PG 1407+265: an unambiguous tracer of collisionally ionized hot gas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the detection of Ne VIII in a zabs = 0.599 61 absorber towards the QSO PG1407+265 (zem= 0.94). Besides Ne VIII, absorption from H I Lyman series lines (H I ?1025-?915), several other low (C II, N II, O II and S II), intermediate (C III, N III, N IV, O III, S IV and S V) and high (S VI, O VI and Ne VIII) ionization metal lines are detected. Disparity in the absorption line kinematics between different ions implies that the absorbing gas comprises of multiple ionization phases. The low and the intermediate ions (except S V) trace a compact (˜410 pc), metal-rich (Z ˜ Z?) and overdense (log nH ˜ -2.6) photoionized region that sustained star formation for a prolonged period. The high ions, Ne VIII and O VI, can be explained as arising in a low density (-5.3 ? log nH ? -5.0), metal-rich (Z ? Z?) and diffuse (˜180 kpc) photoionized gas. The S V, S VI and C IV [detected in the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) spectrum] require an intermediate photoionization phase with -4.2 < log nH < -3.5. Alternatively, a pure collisional ionization model, as used to explain the previous known Ne VIII absorbers, with 5.65 < log T < 5.72, can reproduce the S VI, O VI and Ne VIII column densities simultaneously in a single phase. However, even such models require an intermediate phase to reproduce any observable S V and/or C IV. Therefore, we conclude that when multiple phases are present, the presence of Ne VIII is not necessarily an unambiguous indication of collisionally ionized hot gas.

Hussain, T.; Muzahid, S.; Narayanan, A.; Srianand, R.; Wakker, B. P.; Charlton, J. C.; Pathak, A.

2015-01-01

245

Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions  

SciTech Connect

A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.

Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

2006-06-01

246

Excretion-retention data of steady state gas exchange in tidal breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the steady state gas transfer properties of the lungs. These properties can be derived from excretion-retention (E-R) data of inert tracer gases that are infused intravenously.E=PE\\/Pv andR=Pa\\/Pv, wherePE,Pa andPv represent the partial pressures of the tracer gases in mixed expired gas, arterial blood and mixed venous blood, respectively. In this paper, special

Aart Zwart; Sybrand C. M. Luijendijk; Wouter R. de Vries

1986-01-01

247

Particle and tracer diffusion in complex liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion of fluorescent tracers can be studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). This powerful method offers the possibility to monitor very small tracers at low concentrations, down to single molecules. Furthermore it possesses a sub-femtoliter detection volume that can be precisely positioned in a heterogeneous environment to probe the local dynamics. Despite its great potential and high versatility in addressing the diffusion and transport properties in complex systems, FCS has been predominantly applied in molecular and cell biology. Here we present some applications that are more relevant for material and soft matter science. First, we study the diffusion of single tracers with molecular sizes in undiluted polymer systems. Next, the diffusion of small molecules and semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) in silica inverse opals is studied and correlated to the size and morphology of the inverse opals. Finally, we show how FCS can be used to measure the diffusion coefficient of nanoparticles at water-oil interfaces.

Koynov, Kaloian; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

2013-02-01

248

Tracer for circulation determinations  

SciTech Connect

An improved tracer particle is described comprising an ion exchange core having a polymer coating thereon, the coated ion exchange core having a reaction site capable of reacting with a compound containing an oxirane group, said coated ion exchange core having been treated with a compound containing an oxirane group to react with said coated ion exchange core causing an increase in mass of the tracer particle. Preferably, the ion exchange core is labelled with a radionuclide. These particles have improved characteristics including improved stability against leaching and improved handling properties. Such particles are useful in circulatory determinations involving the injection of the particles as a suspension in a physiologically acceptable carrier or medium into the circulatory system of animals.

Moore, H.; Santos, S.; Wysong, R. D.

1985-03-19

249

Isotopes and Tracers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This assignment offers students several problems that help them understand the basic of mixing models and their use in understanding the controls on water quality in the environment. The purpose of the assignment is to help students integrate across the various topics in environmental chemistry in the context of flow and transport. Students will hopefully learn how reactive and non-reactive tracers can be used in conjunction to fully understand a chemical system.

Thomas Meixner

250

Tracers and Tracer Testing: Design, Implementation, Tracer Selection, and Interpretation Methods  

SciTech Connect

Conducting a successful tracer test requires adhering to a set of steps. The steps include identifying appropriate and achievable test goals, identifying tracers with the appropriate properties, and implementing the test as designed. When these steps are taken correctly, a host of tracer test analysis methods are available to the practitioner. This report discusses the individual steps required for a successful tracer test and presents methods for analysis. The report is an overview of tracer technology; the Suggested Reading section offers references to the specifics of test design and interpretation.

G. Michael Shook; Shannon L.; Allan Wylie

2004-01-01

251

Infill Drilling for Shale Gas Development: A Field Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy has conducted a reservoir simulation study of a producing Devonian shale reservoir in Meigs Co., Ohio, following an extensive field testing program to determine the parameters controlling production from this unconventional gas resource. The purpose of the study was to determine the possible impact of infill drilling in established areas of Eastern gas shales production.

Andrea Horton; James Mercer; Walter Sawyer

1982-01-01

252

Analysis of multicomopnent groundwater flow in karst aquifer by CFC, tritium, tracer test and modelling, case study at Skaistkalnes vicinity, Latvia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater in karst environments tends to have difficulties to distinguish multiple flows if several sources of water are present. Skaistkalne vicinity faces with such situation where old groundwater, fresh groundwater and inflow from river Iecava occurs. Attempts were made to distinguish groundwater residence time of multiple components of water applying CFC and tritium dating techniques supplied by tracer test and numerical model of study area. Study area covers territory between two rivers Iecava and Memele with water level difference of 7 meters and horizontal distance of 2.2 kilometres between both. Study area consists of karst affected Devonian gypsum and carbonaceous rocks covered by Quaternary low to high permeable deposits. Confined groundwater at depth of 10-25 meters where analysed by CFC's and tritium. At this depth groundwater exhibits anoxic reducing environment that has caused degradation of CFC's at similar degree in all samples. Taking it into account, mean residence time based on CFC piston flow model is 22 - 42 years and 28 - 34 years based on binary mixing model. Tritium results show signs of incensement of groundwater residence time towards discharge area. CFC combined with tritium proved increased vertical velocity in middle part between the rivers likely caused by hydrogeological window in Quaternary deposits created by karst processes. Numerical model (Delina et al. 2012) was applied and calculations yielded groundwater flow velocity rate at 0.3 - 1 m/day in area between the rivers. Investigation of CFC data resulted in possible groundwater flow rate of at a minimum of 0.2 m/day although it's not applicable to all sampled wells due to specific hydrogeological conditions. Tracer test was made between the rivers in order to distinguish main water flow paths and flow velocity. Results showed that very high permeable conduits connect rivers and karst lakes with velocity rates of 800 - 1300 m/day. Complex investigation leads to conclude that three different sources of groundwater occur characterized by different flow velocity, recharge age and chemical composition. Although CFC's has been degraded, it is possible to use the results to distinguish groundwater different components and even to estimate groundwater flow velocity because of near located recharge and discharge areas. Tritium results doesn't show considerable variations along flow path with 6 TU in average confirming conclusions based on CFC's. Tracer test approve very high groundwater velocity zones in study area that supposedly doesn't mix with groundwater in matrix. References Delina A., Babre A., Popovs K., Sennikovs J., Grinberga B. 2012. Effects of karst processes on surface water and groundwater hydrology at Skaistkalne vicinity, Latvia. - Hydrology Research, 43(4), IWA Publishing, pp. 445-459, doi:10.2166/nh.2012.123. This study is supported by ERAF project Nr. 1013/00542DP/2.1.1.1.0/13/APIA/VIAA/007

Bikshe, Janis; Babre, Alise; Delina, Aija; Popovs, Konrads

2014-05-01

253

High Performance Simulation of Environmental Tracers in Heterogeneous Formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tracers provide information on fluid flux, yielding important information for use in groundwater studies. Currently environmental tracer interpretation has been limited by computational expense. Here we use a scalable, massively parallel, flow and reactive transport code PFLOTRAN to simulate the concentrations of 3H, 3He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 39Ar, 81Kr , 4He and the mean groundwater age in 2D and 3D heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the spatial distribution of environmental tracer concentration, tracer derived ages and modeled mean ground water age in heterogeneous aquifers. Modeled concentrations are then used to calculate tracer derived ages. The deviation of the tracer derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. The separation between the apparent age derived from different tracers also increases with increasing system heterogeneity. Age distributions in 3D aquifers differ significantly from 2D simulations with similar spatial statistics. The addition of the 3rd dimension increases connectivity, decreasing mean age and reducing age variability. High performance computation allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age spatial distribution in unprecedented detail, providing a foundation for the next generation of environmental tracer interpretation.

Gardner, P.; Hammond, G. E.; Lichtner, P. C.; Arnold, B. W.

2013-12-01

254

Pore-scale studies of gas shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas is the cleanest hydrocarbon fuel. The contribution of natural gas produced from shale to the United States energy portfolio has been steadily increasing over the past several years. The projections into the coming decades expect this trend to remain stable. Although the advancements in well stimulation technologies have made it possible to convert huge resources into recoverable reserves, the mechanisms of gas recovery from these practically impermeable rocks are not yet fully understood. We employed the powerful imaging facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to gain insights into the pore geometry and structure of shale at micron and submicron scales. The X-ray micro-tomography facility at the Advanced Light Source produces 3D reconstructions of the pore space at resolutions approaching one micron. The Focused Ion-Beam sequential milling and imaging at the Molecular Foundry and National Center for Electron Microscopy allows for 3D shale structure and mineral composition at a resolution on the order of ten nanometers. We find that even a miniscule volume of reservoir shale includes an extremely rich diversity of minerals and geometries. Organic matter is consistently present as pore filling among solid grains. Some samples show a connected networks of pores in kerogen, apparently indicating its thermal maturity. Understanding the features controlling gas flow will help increase the ultimate recovery and extend the productive lifetime of a given well.

Silin, D.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Cabrini, S.; Kneafsey, T. J.; MacDowell, A.; Nico, P. S.; Radmilovic, V.

2010-12-01

255

EPA GAS PHASE CHEMISTRY CHAMBER STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Gas-phase smog chamber experiments are being performed at EPA in order to evaluate a number of current chemical mechanisms for inclusion in EPA regulatory and research models. The smog chambers are 9000 L in volume and constructed of 2-mil teflon film. One of the chambers is co...

256

Experimental Studies of Gas-Aerosol Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aqueous phase oxidation of SO_2 by H_2O_2 is believed to be the principle mechanism for atmospheric sulfate formation in cloud droplets. However, no studies in noncloud aerosol systems have been reported. The objective of this thesis is to quantify the importance of the noncloud liquid phase reactions of SO_2 by H_2O_2 in the atmosphere. In this thesis growth rates of submicron droplets exposed to SO_2 and H_2 O_2 were measured using the tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique (Rader and McMurry, 1986). The technique uses differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) to generate monodisperse particles and to measure particle size after the reaction. To facilitate submicron monodisperse droplet production with the DMA, a low-ion-concentration charger capable of generating singly charged particles up to 1.0 ?m was developed and experimentally evaluated. The experiments were performed using dry and deliquesced (NH_4)_2SO _4 particles with SO_2 and H_2O_2 concentrations from 0-860 ppb and 0-150 ppb, respectively. No growth was observed for dry particles. For droplets >=0.3 mum, the fractional diameter growth was independent of particle size and for droplets <=0.2 mum, it decreased as particle size decreased. The observed decrease is due to NH_3 evaporation. As ammonia evaporates, droplet pH decreases causing the oxidation rate to decrease, leading to a lower growth rate. To predict the size-dependent growth rates, a theoretical model was developed using solution thermodynamics, gas/particle equilibrium and chemical kinetics. The experimental and theoretical results are in reasonable agreement. For dry (NH_4) _2SO_4 particles exposed to SO_2, H_2O _2, NH_3 and H_2O vapor, surface reaction-controlled growth was observed. Particle growth was very sensitive to particle composition. No growth was observed for Polystyrene latex particles, whereas (NH_4) _2SO_4 particles doped with catalysts (Fe^{2+} , Fe^{3+}, Mn ^{2+}, Cu^{2+ }) in a molar ratio of 1:500 grew slower than pure (NH_4)_2SO _4 particles. The chemical mechanism for these surface reactions remains to be elucidated. Observed growth rates extrapolated to ambient SO_2 and H_2O _2 concentrations are 10 to 100 times smaller than those observed by McMurry and Wilson (1983) for ambient aerosols. Thus some other transformation process must be responsible for observed atmospheric rates.

Gupta, Anand

1991-02-01

257

Experimental studies of gas-aerosol reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aqueous phase oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 is believed to the principle mechanism for atmospheric sulfate formation in cloud droplets. However, no studies in noncloud aerosol systems have been reported. The objective is to quantify the importance of the noncloud liquid phase reactions of SO2 by H2O2 in the atmosphere. Growth rates of submicron droplets exposed to SO2 and H2O2 were measured using the tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique (Rader and McMurry, 1986). The technique uses differential mobility analyzers (DMA's) to generate monodisperse particles and to measure particle size after the reaction. To facilitate submicron monodisperse droplet production with the DMA, a low-ion-concentration charter capable of generating singly charged particles up to 1.0 microns was developed and experimentally evaluated. The experiments were performed using dry and deliquesced (NH4)2SO4 particles with SO2 and H2O2 concentrations from 0-860 ppb and 0-150 ppb, respectively. No growth was observed for dry particles. For droplets greater than or equal to 0.3 microns, the fractional diameter growth was independent of particle size and for droplets less than or equal to 0.2 microns, it decreased as particle size decreased. The observed decrease is due to NH3 evaporation. As ammonia evaporates, droplet pH decreases causing the oxidation rate to decrease, leading to a lower growth rate. To predict the size-dependent growth rates, a theoretical model was developed using solution thermodynamics, gas/particle equilibrium, and chemical kinetics. The experimental and theoretical results are in reasonable agreement. For dry (NH4)2SO4 particles exposed to SO2, H2O2, NH3, and H2O vapor, surface reaction-controlled growth was observed. Particle growth was very sensitive to particle composition. No growth was observed for Polystyrene latex particles, whereas (NH4)2SO4 particles doped with catalysts (Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(2+) and Cu(2+)) in a molar ratio of 1:500 grew slower than pure (NH4)2SO4 particles. The chemical mechanism for these surface reactions remains to be elucidated. Observed growth rates extrapolated to ambient SO2 and H2O2 concentrations are 10 to 100 times smaller than those observed by McMurry and Wilson (1983) for ambient aerosols.

Gupta, Anand

1991-05-01

258

VAPOR-PHASE TRANSPORT OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN AN INTERMEDIATE-SCALE VADOSE-ZONE SYSTEM: RETENTION PROCESSES AND TRACER-BASED PREDICTION  

PubMed Central

Gas-phase miscible-displacement experiments were conducted using a large weighing lysimeter to evaluate retention processes for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water-unsaturated (vadoze-zone) systems, and to test the utility of gas-phase tracers for predicting VOC retardation. Trichloroethene (TCE) served as a model VOC, while trichlorofluoromethane (CFM) and heptane were used as partitioning tracers to independently characterize retention by water and the air-water interface, respectively. Retardation factors for TCE ranged between 1.9 and 3.5, depending on water content. The results indicate that dissolution into the bulk water was the primary retention mechanism for TCE under all conditions studied, contributing approximately two thirds of the total measured retention. Accumulation at the air-water interface comprised a significant fraction of the observed retention for all experiments, with an average contribution of approximately 24%. Sorption to the solid phase contributed approximately 10% to retention. Water contents and air-water interfacial areas estimated based on the CFM and heptane tracer data, respectively, were similar to independently measured values. Retardation factors for TCE predicted using the partitioning-tracer data were in reasonable agreement with the measured values. These results suggest that gas-phase tracer tests hold promise for characterizing the retention and transport of VOCs in the vadose-zone. PMID:23333418

Costanza-Robinson, Molly S.; Carlson, Tyson D.; Brusseau, Mark L.

2013-01-01

259

Parametric Study of Gas Turbine Film-Cooling  

E-print Network

In this study, the film-cooling effectiveness in different regions of gas turbine blades was investigated with various film hole/slot configurations and mainstream flow conditions. The study consisted of three parts: 1) turbine blade span film...

Liu, Kevin

2012-10-19

260

Kinetic analysis of the metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 tracer [18F]FPEB in bolus and bolus-plus-constant-infusion studies in humans  

PubMed Central

[18F]FPEB is a positron emission tomography tracer which, in preclinical studies, has shown high specificity and selectivity toward the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). It possesses the potential to be used in human studies to evaluate mGluR5 function in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and Fragile X syndrome. To define optimal scan methodology, healthy human subjects were scanned for 6?hours following either a bolus injection (n=5) or bolus-plus-constant-infusion (n=5) of [18F]FPEB. Arterial blood samples were collected and parent fraction measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the metabolite-corrected plasma input function. Time activity curves were extracted from 13 regions and fitted by various models to estimate VT and BPND. [18F]FPEB was well fitted by the two-tissue compartment model, MA1 (t*=30), and MRTM (using cerebellum white matter as a reference). Highest VT values were observed in the anterior cingulate and caudate, and lowest VT values were observed in the cerebellum and pallidum. For kinetic modeling studies, VT and BPND were estimated from bolus or bolus-plus-constant-infusion scans as short as 90?minutes. Bolus-plus-constant-infusion of [18F]FPEB reduced intersubject variability in VT and allowed equilibrium analysis to be completed with a 30-minute scan, acquired 90–120?minutes after the start of injection. PMID:23250105

Sullivan, Jenna M; Lim, Keunpoong; Labaree, David; Lin, Shu-fei; McCarthy, Timothy J; Seibyl, John P; Tamagnan, Gilles; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E; Ding, Yu-Shin; Morris, Evan D

2013-01-01

261

Experimental Study of Metastability of Gas Hydrate in Frozen Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability zone of natural gas hydrates formations in cryolitozone where methane gas hydrates can be formed and exist, begins with depths of 200-250 meters and extends in sub-permafrost layers up to depths of 800-1500 meters. Recently obtained data allow to consider methane gas hydrates existence in thicknesses of frozen sediments above zone of its thermodynamic stability (up to depths of 200-250 meters) This zone may be called the zone of gas hydrate's metastability or zone of "relict hydrate" existence. The relict natural gas hydrate accumulations in permafrost may have formed under favorable thermodynamic conditions during glacial periods. Subsequently, glacial retreat induced metastable hydrate preservation due to self-preservation effect. At present the existence of natural gas hydrates at shallow depth at nonequilibrium conditions leads to a serious geological hazard during exploration drilling. The dissociation of shallow metastable methane hydrate may contribute to global warming by adding significant amount of a greenhouse gas (methane) to the atmosphere. Up to now relict natural gas hydrates are poorly understood, so the experimental research of gas hydrates decomposition in frozen sediments under non-equilibrium conditions is of significant importance. The experimental technique included the following stages: i) artificial saturation of sediments by methane or carbon dioxide hydrates, ii) freezing of the hydrate-containing samples, iii) studying of the hydrate decomposition process including self-preservation in frozen samples after the reducing gas pressure below line of three phase equilibrium (gaseous phase - gas hydrate - ice). Core samples of different composition and porous structure recovered from gas-showing horizons of permafrost sediments were used. Experimental data on the influence of temperature, pressure, hydrate- and ice-saturation on the kinetics of methane gas hydrates dissociation in natural sediments from permafrost zone was obtained. The experiments show that self-preservation of gas hydrates in frozen sediments is enhanced by low temperatures, high ice content, and low sediment gas permeability. Residual (preserved) hydrate saturation of frozen samples after pressure release below equilibrium reached 20-25%. Experimental researches on kinetics of gas hydrate dissociation in frozen sediments samples selected from gas showing horizons in permafrost confirm the opportunity of long preservation of pore methane gas hydrate in frozen sediments at negative temperatures and pressures below equilibrium due to self-preservation effect. Relic gas hydrates could be source of significant methane emission from shallow permafrost at rise of temperature and thawing.

Chuvilin, E. M.; Buhanov, B. A.; Guryeva, O. M.; Istomin, V. A.; Takeya, S.; Hachikubo, A.

2011-12-01

262

Study of the inhomogeneous electron gas at surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system of an interacting neutrally charged electron gas at a jellium surface is studied over a wide range of densities including those for the metallic range. Both the fully correlated as well as the inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock gas are examined. The applicability of a variational formalism for the density to the inhomogeneous many body problem at surfaces is demonstrated and

C. Q. Ma

1979-01-01

263

Development of a mobile tracer correlation method for assessment of air emissions from landfills and other area sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A standardized version of a mobile tracer correlation measurement method was developed and used for assessment of methane emissions from 15 landfills in 56 field deployments from 2009 to 2013. Using cavity ring-down spectroscopy and acetylene tracer gas, this method has potential implementation and cost advantages over other mobile tracer correlation approaches. The field deployment, data acquisition and analysis procedures, and a range of use conditions are discussed. To test real-world method application, the field studies were conducted by engineering technician-level personnel under randomly-encountered daytime atmospheric conditions. A total of 1876 mobile tracer correlation measurement transects were attempted over 131 field sampling days. Of these, 1366 transect (73%) were successfully completed and passed basic data acceptance criteria as valid measurement attempts. Invalid data were caused primarily by equipment failures, transect execution errors, or poor plume transport conditions. Valid transects were further analyzed using signal-to-noise ratio, plume correlation, and emission rate difference method quality indicators described here. Encountered scenarios that can result in high emission measurement uncertainty or bias are discussed in term of these indicators. Reasonable values for the acceptance levels of the method quality indicators that help protect against method errors and reduce measurement noise are discussed. The application of a default indicator set to the valid data yield 456 transects (33%) that pass data acceptance criteria. Transects that fail were associated with insufficient advected plume transport, poor correlation between the tracer and source plumes, and potential emissions pooling conditions.

Foster-Wittig, Tierney A.; Thoma, Eben D.; Green, Roger B.; Hater, Gary R.; Swan, Nathan D.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

2015-02-01

264

Progress in isotope tracer hydrology in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of current research in isotope hydrology, focusing on recent Canadian contributions, is discussed under the headings: precipitation networks, hydrograph separation and groundwater studies, river basin hydrology, lake and catchment water balance, and isotope palaeohydrology from lake sediment records. Tracer-based techniques, relying primarily on the naturally occurring environmental isotopes, have been integrated into a range of hydrological and biogeochemical

J. J. Gibson; T. W. D. Edwards; S. J. Birks; N. A. St Amour; W. M. Buhay; P. McEachern; B. B. Wolfe; D. L. Peters

2005-01-01

265

A groundwater separation study in boreal wetland terrain: the WATFLOOD hydrological model compared with stable isotope tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of stable water isotopes (O and H) in precipitation and surface waters in the Mackenzie River basin of northern Canada has created new opportunities for researchers to study the complex hydrology and hydroclimatology of this remote region [1]. A number of prior studies have used stable isotope data to investigate aspects of the hydrological regime of the wetland-dominated terrain

T. Stadnyk; N. S. T. Amour; N. Kouwen; T. W. D. Edwards; A. Pietroniro; J. J. Gibson

2005-01-01

266

Isotope tracer studies of diffusion in silicates and of geological transport processes using actinide elements. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The following are reported: high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer for U-Th studies; {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th disequilibrium in recent lavas from Iceland; water-rock interaction from U-Th studies; resonance ionization mass spectrometry of Os and Ti isotopes; and self-diffusion of Mg.

Wasserburg, G.J.

1992-12-31

267

Use of rubidium, manganese, and zinc as tracers to measure intestinal permeability by PIXE analysis: basal study in an experimental enteritis model.  

PubMed

Intestinal permeability has been suggested to be closely linked with the etiology or activity of Crohn's disease. However, current methods for measurement of intestinal permeability are too laborious for routine examination, as they require urine collection and/or use of radioisotopes. The present study was performed to develop a more convenient and safer method for assessing intestinal permeability using blood samples rather than urine. Rats with indomethacin-induced enteritis were orally administered Rb, Mn, and Zn as tracers. Intestinal permeability was determined by assaying the levels of Rb, Mn, and Zn in blood samples by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The distributions of Rb, Mn, and Zn in the small intestine after administration were analyzed by micro-PIXE. The conventional PIXE analysis showed that the levels of Rb and Zn in the blood in the enteritis group were correlated with the grade of enteritis. The micro-PIXE analysis showed that Rb, Mn, and Zn were translocated into the wall of the proximal small intestine 5 min after administration, and this effect was more conspicuous in the enteritis group than in controls. Analysis of blood or small intestine tissue samples using the PIXE allows determination of both intestinal permeability and the route of permeation. PMID:15051898

Nakao, Keitaro; Suzuki, Yasuo; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Joshima, Hisamasa; Tamanoi, Itsuro; Saito, Yasushi

2004-04-01

268

Fluid dynamic studies on scattering aerosol and its generation for application as tracer particles in supersonic flow measurements utilizing laser Doppler velocimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study on the particle-fluid interactions of scattering aerosols was performed using monodisperse aerosols of different particle sizes for the application of laser Doppler velocimeters in subsonic turbulence measurements. Particle response was measured by subjecting the particles to an acoustically excited oscillatory fluid velocity field and by comparing the ratio of particle velocity amplitude to the fluid velocity amplitude as a function of particle size and the frequency of oscillation. Particle velocity was measured by using a differential laser Doppler velocimeter. The test aerosols were fairly monodisperse with a mean diameter that could be controlled over the size range from 0.1 to 1.0 micron. Experimental results on the generation of a fairly monodisperse aerosol of solid particles and liquid droplets and on the aerosol response in the frequency range 100 Hz to 100 kHz are presented. It is indicated that a unit density spherical scatterer of 0.3 micron-diameter would be an optimum choice as tracer particles for subsonic air turbulence measurements.

Mazumder, M. K.; Hoyle, B. D.; Kirsch, K. J.

1974-01-01

269

Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban activities generate solid and liquid waste, and the handling and aftercare of the waste results in the emission of various compounds into the surrounding environment. Some of these compounds are emitted as gasses into the atmosphere, including methane and nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide are strong greenhouse gases and are considered to have 25 and 298 times the greenhouse gas potential of carbon dioxide on a hundred years term (Solomon et al. 2007). Global observations of both gasses have shown increasing concentrations that significantly contribute to the greenhouse gas effect. Methane and nitrous oxide are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources and inventories of source specific fugitive emissions from the anthropogenic sources of methane and nitrous oxide of are often estimated on the basis of modeling and mass balance. Though these methods are well-developed, actual measurements for quantification of the emissions is a very useful tool for verifying the modeling and mass balance as well as for validation initiatives done for lowering the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. One approach to performing such measurements is the tracer dilution method (Galle et al. 2001, Scheutz et al. 2011), where the exact location of the source is located and a tracer gas is released at this source location at a known flow. The ratio of downwind concentrations of the tracer gas and the methane and nitrous oxide gives the emissions rates of the greenhouse gases. This tracer dilution method can be performed using both stationary and mobile measurements and in both cases, real-time measurements of both tracer and quantified gas are required, placing high demands on the analytical detection method. To perform the methane and nitrous oxide measurements, two robust instruments capable of real-time measurements were used, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and operating in the near-infrared spectral region. One instrument measured the methane and tracer gas concentrations while another measured the nitrous oxide concentration. We present the performance of these instruments at different waste treatment facilities (waste water treatment plants, composting facilities, sludge mineralization beds, anaerobic digesters and landfills) in Denmark, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the method of the method for quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the different sources. Furthermore, we have measured the methane emissions from 10 landfills with emission rates ranging from 5 to 135 kg/h depending on the age, state, content and aftercare of the landfill. In addition, we have studied 3 waste water treatment plants, and found nitrous oxide emission of 200 to 700 g/h from the aeration tanks and a total methane emission ranging from 2 to 15 kg/h, with the primary emission coming from the sludge treatment. References Galle, B., Samuelsson, J., Svensson, B.H., and Börjesson, G. (2001). Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (1), 21-25 Scheutz, C., Samuelsson, J., Fredenslund, A. M., and Kjeldsen, P. (2011). Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique. Waste Management, 31(5), 1009-17 Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R.B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N.L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J.M. Gregory, G.C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B.J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T.Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J.Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T.F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R.A.Wood and D. Wratt, 2007: Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

2013-04-01

270

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND THE DESIGN OF GAS UPTAKE INHALATION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Gas uptake studies analyzed by physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to estimate metabolic parameters for many volatiles. he metabolic constants Vmax, Km, and Kf are typically inferred from the decline in chemical concentration observed in closed cham...

271

Using predictive uncertainty analysis to optimise tracer test design and data acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracer injection tests are regularly-used tools to identify and characterise flow and transport mechanisms in aquifers. Examples of practical applications are manifold and include, among others, managed aquifer recharge schemes, aquifer thermal energy storage systems and, increasingly important, the disposal of produced water from oil and shale gas wells. The hydrogeological and geochemical data collected during the injection tests are often employed to assess the potential impacts of injection on receptors such as drinking water wells and regularly serve as a basis for the development of conceptual and numerical models that underpin the prediction of potential impacts. As all field tracer injection tests impose substantial logistical and financial efforts, it is crucial to develop a solid a-priori understanding of the value of the various monitoring data to select monitoring strategies which provide the greatest return on investment. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of linear predictive uncertainty analysis (i.e. “data worth analysis”) to quantify the usefulness of different tracer types (bromide, temperature, methane and chloride as examples) and head measurements in the context of a field-scale aquifer injection trial of coal seam gas (CSG) co-produced water. Data worth was evaluated in terms of tracer type, in terms of tracer test design (e.g., injection rate, duration of test and the applied measurement frequency) and monitoring disposition to increase the reliability of injection impact assessments. This was followed by an uncertainty targeted Pareto analysis, which allowed the interdependencies of cost and predictive reliability for alternative monitoring campaigns to be compared directly. For the evaluated injection test, the data worth analysis assessed bromide as superior to head data and all other tracers during early sampling times. However, with time, chloride became a more suitable tracer to constrain simulations of physical transport processes, followed by methane. Temperature data was assessed as the least informative of the solute tracers. However, taking costs of data acquisition into account, it could be shown that temperature data when used in conjunction with other tracers was a valuable and cost-effective marker species due to temperatures low cost to worth ratio. In contrast, the high costs of acquisition of methane data compared to its muted worth, highlighted methanes unfavourable return on investment. Areas of optimal monitoring bore position as well as optimal numbers of bores for the investigated injection site were also established. The proposed tracer test optimisation is done through the application of common use groundwater flow and transport models in conjunction with publicly available tools for predictive uncertainty analysis to provide modelers and practitioners with a powerful yet efficient and cost effective tool which is generally applicable and easily transferrable from the present study to many applications beyond the case study of injection of treated CSG produced water.

Wallis, Ilka; Moore, Catherine; Post, Vincent; Wolf, Leif; Martens, Evelien; Prommer, Henning

2014-07-01

272

Transport and retention of a conservative tracer in an isolated creek–marsh system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of tracer transport and retention in a small tidal creek and marsh system located in the southeastern US was conducted using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and data from a dye tracer release. The model simulated tidally driven flow, including inundation and drying out of the marshes and the dispersal of the dye tracer. Flow measurements in the tidal

J. O. Blanton; A. J. Garrett; J. S. Bollinger; D. W. Hayes; L. D. Koffman; J. Amft; T. Moore

2010-01-01

273

Studying the Variation in Gas Permeability of Porous Building Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding permeability of building materials is important for problems involving studies of contaminant transport. Examples include contamination from fire, acid rain, and chemical and biological weapons. Our research investigates the gas permeability of porous building substrates such as concretes, limestones, sandstones, and bricks. Each sample was cored to produce 70 mm (2.75”) diameter cores approximately 75-130 mm (3-5”) tall. The surface gas permeability was measured on the top surface of these specimens using the AutoScan II device manufactured by New England Research, Inc. The measurements were taken along a 3 mm grid producing a map of surface gas permeability. An example map is shown in Figure 1. The macroscopic measurements were performed along the entire cored specimen. A second set of measurements were made on a 5 mm thick slice cut from the top of each specimen to examine whether these measurements compare better with the surface measurements. The macroscopic gas permeability was measured for all specimens using ASTM D 4525. The results are summarized in Table 1. In general, the surface and macroscopic gas permeability measurements (Table 1) compare reasonably well (within one order of magnitude). The permeability of the 5 mm slices is not significantly different from the entire core for the specimens tested. Figure 1. Results of surface permeability mappingof Ohio Sandstone using the AutoScan II device. a) Map of gas permeability b) Range of gas permeability c) Density function of permeability. Table 1. Gas permeability values (mD)

Townsend, L.; Savidge, C. R.; Hu, L.; Rizzo, D. M.; Hayden, N. J.; Dewoolkar, M.

2009-12-01

274

Comparative dual-tracer studies of carbon-14 tryptophan and iodine-131 HIPDM in animal models of pancreatic diseases  

SciTech Connect

Our previous studies have shown that a significant amount of the diamine derivative {sup 131}I-N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3- propanediamine (HIPDM) is taken up and retained by the normal pancreas. Therefore, we studied the uptake of ({sup 13}1I)HIPDM in various pathophysiological models in mice (chronic alcoholism, diabetes with beta-cell atrophy and obesity with beta-cell hypertrophy) and compared to {sup 14}C-L-Tryptophan (TRY) distribution in order to determine the factors influencing their pancreatic uptake. In normal animals, the pancreas uptake of TRY was generally higher than HIPDM. In diabetes, the relative concentration of both compounds was higher over the controls; however, in obesity, TRY showed lower accumulation than in controls while HIPDM showed no significant difference. Chronic ethanol (20%) ingestion increased TRY uptake in the pancreas compared to controls (36.88 {plus minus} 3.21 vs. 30.03 {plus minus} 4.17% ID/g; p less than 0.01) after 5 wk study period, but it decreased by 10 wk (22.36 {plus minus} 0.95% ID/g; p less than 0.005). There were no significant changes in ({sup 131}I)HIPDM distribution in alcoholics as compared to the controls. Radioiodinated HIPDM has potential advantages over ({sup 11}C)TRY for pancreatic imaging since conventional imaging techniques can be employed. Our data, however, suggest that {sup 11}C-L-TRY is a more sensitive indicator of various pancreatic disorders.

Kubota, K.; Som, P.; Brill, A.B.; Sacker, D.F.; Meinken, G.E.; Srivastava, S.C.; Atkins, H.L. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1989-11-01

275

Determination of the source of bioavailable Sr using ??Sr/??Sr tracers: a case study of hot pepper and rice.  

PubMed

The geographical origin of agricultural products has been intensively studied, but links between agricultural products and the environments are poorly established. Soils, water (streamwater and groundwater), and plants (hot pepper, Capsicum annuum; and rice, Oryza sativa) were collected from all regions of South Korea and measured Sr isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr). Sequential leaching of soil showed that Sr in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions (bioavailable) had a lower (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio than that in the silicate fraction, consistent with a low (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio in the plant. Although the bedrock-soil-water-plant system is closely linked, statistical analysis indicated that (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios of the plant showed the greatest agreement with those of water and the exchangeable fraction of soil. This study is the first report of (87)Sr/(86)Sr isoscapes in South Korea and first demonstrates that the agricultural product is strongly linked with the exchangeable fraction of soil and water. PMID:25186083

Song, Byeong-Yeol; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Shin, Hyung Seon; Lee, Kwang-Sik

2014-09-24

276

Lateral mixing and the North Atlantic Tracer Release Experiment: Observations and numerical simulations of Lagrangian particles and a passive tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixing and stirring of Lagrangian particles and a passive tracer were studied by comparison of float and tracer observations from the North Atlantic Tracer Release Experiment (NATRE). Statistics computed from the NATRE floats were found to be similar to those estimated by Ledwell et al. [this issue] from the tracer dispersion. Mean velocities computed from the floats were >(u¯,?¯>)=>(-1.2±0.3, -0.9±0.2>) cm/s for the (zonal, meridional) components, and large-scale effective eddy diffusivities were (?e11, ?e22) = (1.5±0.7, 0.7±0.4) × 103 m2/s. The NATRE observations were used to evaluate theoretical models of tracer and particle dispersal. The tracer dispersion observed by Ledwell et al. [this issue] was consistent with an exponential growth phase for about the first 6 months and a linear growth at larger times. A numerical model of mesoscale turbulence that was calibrated with float statistics also showed an exponential growth phase of tracer and a reduced growth for longer times. Numerical results further show that Garrett's [1983] theory, relating the effective small-scale diffusivity to the rms strain rate and tracer streak width, requires a scale factor of 2 when the observed growth rate of streak length is used as a measure of the strain rate. This scale factor will be different for different measures of the strain rate and may also be affected by temporal and spatial variations in the mesoscale strain field.

Sundermeyer, Miles A.; Price, James F.

1998-09-01

277

Feasibility study of full-reactor gas core demonstration test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Separate studies of nuclear criticality, flow patterns, and thermodynamics for the gas core reactor concept have all given positive indications of its feasibility. However, before serious design for a full scale gas core application can be made, feasibility must be shown for operation with full interaction of the nuclear, thermal, and hydraulic effects. A minimum sized, and hence minimum expense, test arrangement is considered for a full gas core configuration. It is shown that the hydrogen coolant scattering effects dominate the nuclear considerations at elevated temperatures. A cavity diameter of somewhat larger than 4 ft (122 cm) will be needed if temperatures high enough to vaporize uranium are to be achieved.

Kunze, J. F.; Lofthouse, J. H.; Shaffer, C. J.; Macbeth, P. J.

1973-01-01

278

Using Neural Networks to Describe Tracer Correlations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and CH4 volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.). In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation co- efficient of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) which has continuously observed CH4, (but not N2O) from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

Lary, D. J.; Mueller, M. D.; Mussa, H. Y.

2003-01-01

279

Single-scan dual-tracer FLT+FDG PET tumor characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid multi-tracer PET aims to image two or more tracers in a single scan, simultaneously characterizing multiple aspects of physiology and function without the need for repeat imaging visits. Using dynamic imaging with staggered injections, constraints on the kinetic behavior of each tracer are applied to recover individual-tracer measures from the multi-tracer PET signal. The ability to rapidly and reliably image both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) would provide complementary measures of tumor metabolism and proliferative activity, with important applications in guiding oncologic treatment decisions and assessing response. However, this tracer combination presents one of the most challenging dual-tracer signal-separation problems—both tracers have the same radioactive half-life, and the injection delay is short relative to the half-life and tracer kinetics. This work investigates techniques for single-scan dual-tracer FLT+FDG PET tumor imaging, characterizing the performance of recovering static and dynamic imaging measures for each tracer from dual-tracer datasets. Simulation studies were performed to characterize dual-tracer signal-separation performance for imaging protocols with both injection orders and injection delays of 10-60 min. Better performance was observed when FLT was administered first, and longer delays before administration of FDG provided more robust signal-separation and recovery of the single-tracer imaging measures. An injection delay of 30 min led to good recovery (R > 0.96) of static image values (e.g. SUV), Knet, and K1 as compared to values from separate, single-tracer time-activity curves. Recovery of higher order rate parameters (k2, k3) was less robust, indicating that information regarding these parameters was harder to recover in the presence of statistical noise and dual-tracer effects. Performance of the dual-tracer FLT(0 min)+FDG(32 min) technique was further evaluated using PET/CT imaging studies in five patients with primary brain tumors where the data from separate scans of each tracer were combined to synthesize dual-tracer scans with known single-tracer components; results demonstrated similar dual-tracer signal recovery performance. We conclude that rapid dual-tracer FLT+FDG tumor imaging is feasible and can provide quantitative tumor imaging measures comparable to those from conventional separate-scan imaging.

Kadrmas, Dan J.; Rust, Thomas C.; Hoffman, John M.

2013-02-01

280

Lead isotope composition of tree rings as bio-geochemical tracers of heavy metal pollution: a reconnaissance study from Firenze, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pb isotope composition of tree rings (Celtis Australis) and urban aerosols have been determined to assess whether arboreal species can be used as bio-geochemical tracers of the evolution of heavy metal pollution to the environment. Particular care was paid to setting up a high quality analytical technique to work with arboreal species with low Pb content. The Pb isotope composition

Simone Tommasini; Gareth R Davies; Tim Elliott

2000-01-01

281

Quantification of mine-drainage inflows to Little Cottonwood Creek, Utah, using a tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic mining in Little Cottonwood Canyon in Utah has left behind many mine drainage tunnels that discharge water to Little Cottonwood Creek. To quantify the major sources of mine drainage to the stream, synoptic sampling was conducted during a tracer injection under low flow conditions (September 1998). There were distinct increases in discharge downstream from mine drainage and major tributary

B. Kimball; R. Runkel; L. Gerner

2001-01-01

282

/sup 18/F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose as a tracer in the positron emission tomographic study of senile dementia  

SciTech Connect

Using /sup 18/F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose as a tracer, the authors obtained positron emission tomographic scans of 11 patients with senile dementia and 6 age-matched controls. The rate of glucose metabolism was significantly lower in the patients with senile dementia and significantly correlated with the degree of cognitive impairment.

Farkas, T.; Ferris, S.H.; Wolf, A.P.; De Leon, M.J.; Christman, D.R.; Reisberg, B.; Alavi, A.; Fowler, J.S.; George, A.E.; Reivich, M.

1982-03-01

283

An investigation of longwall gob gas behavior and control methods  

SciTech Connect

The National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has initiated the use of a tracer gas in field studies to characterize geologic and mining factors influencing the migration of longwall gob gas. Three studies have been conducted using sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) at a coal mine in the Northern Appalachian Basin operating in the Pittsburgh Coalbed. Eight underground tracer gas releases and one gob gas venthole release are summarized. The results indicate that the gas flow in the bleeder network and in the interior regions of longwall panel gobs do not strongly interact and that the negative pressure provided by gob gas venthole exhausters is very significant in maintaining this behavior. The data also show that ventilation practices employed in a large multi-panel gob area are functioning in accordance with the intent of the engineering design, a fact which would be difficult to evaluate using conventional mine ventilation measurement methods.

Schatzel, S.J.; Diamond, W.P.; Garcia, F.; LaScola, J.C.; McCall, F.E.; Jeran, P.W.; Mucho, T.P.

1999-07-01

284

Study of solid propellant ignition by a hot gas stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of fast ignition of double-base solid propellants (ignition time 0.6–40 msec) is studied in a model rocket chamber by means of fine thermocouples that are located on the surface being ignited and in the igniting gas stream under rapidly varying external conditions. The basic parameters of the process (propellant surface temperature, gas-propellant heat transfer coefficient, heat flux from

A. A. Zenin; S. V. Finyakov

1993-01-01

285

Comparison of different tracers for PIV measurements in EHD airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a proposed method for selecting a tracer for particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurement in electrohydrodynamics flows was developed. To begin with, several published studies were identified that exploit different tracers, such as oil smoke, cigarette smoke and titanium dioxide (TiO2). An assortment of tracers was then selected based on comparisons with conventional dimensionless numbers; Stokes number ( St), Archimedes number ( Ar) and electrical mobility ratio ( M). Subsequently, an experimental study for testing tracers was developed, which enabled the velocity profile of an ionic wind generated by a needle/ring configuration to be measured. Air velocity measurements carried out with a Pitot tube, considered as the reference measurements, were compared to PIV measurements for each tracer. In addition, the current-voltage curves and the evolution of the current during seeding were measured. All the experimental results show that TiO2, SiO2 microballoons and incense smoke are the ideal tracers in the series of tracers investigated.

Hamdi, M.; Havet, M.; Rouaud, O.; Tarlet, D.

2014-04-01

286

Technique for elevated release of sulfur hexafluoride tracer  

SciTech Connect

Study of the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants has benefited greatly in the past from the use of artificial tracers. The study described in this paper used tethered balloons which carry one end of a hose aloft, through which a gaseous tracer can be dispensed. From the field tests it was concluded that the tandem balloon system is useful in atmospheric tracer experiments where a single balloon has insufficient lift to provide a release at the desired elevation. The SF/sub 6/ release system proved to be portable, easy to use, and suitable for simulating continuous elevated pollutant releases. 3 figures. (DP)

Whiteman, C.D.; Glover, D.W.

1983-08-01

287

Leakage detection of Marcellus Shale natural gas at an Upper Devonian gas monitoring well: a 3-d numerical modeling approach.  

PubMed

Potential natural gas leakage into shallow, overlying formations and aquifers from Marcellus Shale gas drilling operations is a public concern. However, before natural gas could reach underground sources of drinking water (USDW), it must pass through several geologic formations. Tracer and pressure monitoring in formations overlying the Marcellus could help detect natural gas leakage at hydraulic fracturing sites before it reaches USDW. In this study, a numerical simulation code (TOUGH 2) was used to investigate the potential for detecting leaking natural gas in such an overlying geologic formation. The modeled zone was based on a gas field in Greene County, Pennsylvania, undergoing production activities. The model assumed, hypothetically, that methane (CH4), the primary component of natural gas, with some tracer, was leaking around an existing well between the Marcellus Shale and the shallower and lower-pressure Bradford Formation. The leaky well was located 170 m away from a monitoring well, in the Bradford Formation. A simulation study was performed to determine how quickly the tracer monitoring could detect a leak of a known size. Using some typical parameters for the Bradford Formation, model results showed that a detectable tracer volume fraction of 2.0 × 10(-15) would be noted at the monitoring well in 9.8 years. The most rapid detection of tracer for the leak rates simulated was 81 days, but this scenario required that the leakage release point was at the same depth as the perforation zone of the monitoring well and the zones above and below the perforation zone had low permeability, which created a preferred tracer migration pathway along the perforation zone. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the time needed to detect CH4 leakage at the monitoring well was very sensitive to changes in the thickness of the high-permeability zone, CH4 leaking rate, and production rate of the monitoring well. PMID:25144442

Zhang, Liwei; Anderson, Nicole; Dilmore, Robert; Soeder, Daniel J; Bromhal, Grant

2014-09-16

288

A computational study of axial dispersion in segmented gas-liquid flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Axial dispersion of a tracer in a two-dimensional gas-liquid flow is studied computationally using a finite-volume/front-tracking method. The effects of Peclet number, capillary number, and segment size are examined. At low Peclet numbers, the axial dispersion is mainly controlled by the convection through the liquid films between the bubbles and channel walls. In this regime, the computational results are found to be in a very good agreement with the existing model due to Pedersen and Horvath [Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 20, 181 (1981)]. At high Peclet numbers, the axial dispersion is mainly controlled by the molecular diffusion, with some convective enhancement. In this regime, a new model is proposed and found to agree well with the computational results. These Peclet number regimes are shown to persist for different slug lengths. The axial dispersion is found to depend weakly on the capillary number in the diffusion-controlled regime. Finally, computational simulations are performed for the cases of six bubbles to mimic bubble trains, and results are compared with the theoretical models.

Muradoglu, Metin; Günther, Axel; Stone, Howard A.

2007-07-01

289

USE OF PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER (PFT) TECHNOLOGY FOR SUBSURFACE BARRIER INTEGRITY VERIFICATION AT THE WALDO TEST SITE.  

SciTech Connect

Testing of perfluorocarbon gas tracers (PFT) on a subsurface barrier with known flaws was conducted at the Waldo Test Site operated by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc (SEA). The tests involved the use of five unique PFTs with a different tracer injected along the interior of each wall of the barrier. A fifth tracer was injected exterior to the barrier to examine the validity of diffusion controlled transport of the PFTs. The PFTs were injected for three days at a nominal flow rate of 15 cm{sup 3}/min and concentrations in the range of a few hundred ppm. Approximately 65 liters of air laced with tracer was injected for each tracer. The tracers were able to accurately detect the presence of the engineered flaws. Two flaws were detected on the north and east walls, and one flaw was detected on the south and west walls. In addition, one non-engineered flaw at the seam between the north and east walls was also detected. The use of multiple tracers provided independent confirmation of the flaws and permitted a distinction between tracers arriving at a monitoring port after being released from a nearby flaw and non-engineered flaws. The PFTs detected the smallest flaw, 0.5 inches in diameter. Visual inspection of the data showed excellent agreement with the known flaw locations and the relative size of the flaws was accurately estimated. Simultaneous with the PFT tests, SEA conducted tests with another gas tracer sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}).

SULLIVAN,T.

1999-06-01

290

Assessment of a Geothermal Doublet in the Malm Aquifer Using a Push-Pull Tracer Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal exploration of the Malm aquifer in Bavaria is highly successful. Data about the long-term operation, however, is still scarce, although detailed knowledge about the processes occurring in the aquifer is a key requirement to run geothermal facilities efficiently and economically. While there usually is a constant flow of data from the production well (temperatures, hydraulic data, hydrochemical conditions, gas composition) not even the temperatures in the immediate surrounding of the reinjection well are accessible or known. In 2011 the geothermal facility in Pullach was extended with a third geothermal well reaching into the Malm aquifer which is now used as a reinjection well. The former reinjection well was converted to a production well after 5 years of operation. This setting offers a unique opportunity to study the processes in the vicinity of a reinjection well and provides the data base to describe the hydraulic, thermal and hydrochemical performance of the reservoir. The viscosity of the reinjected cold water is increasing by 60% compared to the production well, thus one would expect an increase of the reinjection pressure as the cold water plume spreads around the reinjection well. Measurements, however, show a significant decrease of the reinjection pressure, suggesting processes in the aquifer which positively change the hydraulic properties and overcompensate the viscosity effects. Hydrochemical data and modeling indicate that a dissolution of the matrix along the flow pathways is responsible for the decreasing reinjection pressures. The change of the flow direction from reinjection to production was used to conduct a push-pull tracer test. Here, a series of fluorescent dye pulses was added to the reinjected water before the former reinjection well was shut down (push phase). These tracers included a conservative tracer (Fluorescein), surface-sensitive tracers (Eosin/Sulforhodamin B), and a NAPL-sensitive tracer (Na-Naphthionate). After changing to production mode in October 2012 the pull phase was started. The different behavior of the tracers within the reservoir delivers data about dispersion, sorption properties, matrix interaction and the regional flux. First tracer breakthrough curves point to a significant heterogeneity of the flow pathways and that regional flow is not negligible.

Lafogler, Mark; Somogyi, Gabriella; Nießner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

2013-04-01

291

Crystallographic studies of gas sorption in metal–organic frameworks  

PubMed Central

Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous crystalline materials of modular design. One of the primary applications of these materials is in the adsorption and separation of gases, with potential benefits to the energy, transport and medical sectors. In situ crystallography of MOFs under gas atmospheres has enabled the behaviour of the frameworks under gas loading to be investigated and has established the precise location of adsorbed gas molecules in a significant number of MOFs. This article reviews progress in such crystallographic studies, which has taken place over the past decade, but has its origins in earlier studies of zeolites, clathrates etc. The review considers studies by single-crystal or powder diffraction using either X-rays or neutrons. Features of MOFs that strongly affect gas sorption behaviour are discussed in the context of in situ crystallographic studies, specifically framework flexibility, and the presence of (organic) functional groups and unsaturated (open) metal sites within pores that can form specific interactions with gas molecules. PMID:24892587

Carrington, Elliot J.; Vitórica-Yrezábal, Iñigo J.; Brammer, Lee

2014-01-01

292

Some design considerations for the proposed Dixie Valley tracer test  

SciTech Connect

A tracer test for the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal resource is planned for the summer of 1988, in order to study the fluid flow paths that will develop under typical operating conditions. During the test six production wells will provide the power plant with steam sufficient for generation of 60 MWe, requiring fluid production at a rate of approximately 600 kg/sec. Up to 75% by mass of the extracted fluid will be reinjected into the reservoir, using four injection wells. Tracer will be added to the injected fluid for a twenty-minute period, and subsequently the produced fluid will be monitored for the tracer. 5 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Doughty, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1988-06-01

293

Chemical Tracers as an Indicator of Transport in the UT/LS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous airborne studies have proven the scientific value of chemical tracers in examining transport of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS). ESRL scientists operated two airborne gas chromatographs on the NCAR G-V during the NSF sponsored Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport START-08 campaign over the midlatitudes of central North America. The Unmanned aircraft systems Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) is comprised of a two-channel electron capture detection-gas chromatograph (ECD-GC), an ozone absorption photometer, and a water vapor tunable diode laser spectrometer. It measures N2O and SF6 every 70 seconds on one EC-GC channel, and H2, CO, and CH4 every 140 seconds on the second channel. PAN and Trace Hydrohalocarbon ExpeRiment (PANTHER) is a six-channel gas chromatograph with four ECD-GC channels and two mass selective detector-gas chromatograph (MSD-GC) channels that double the sampling rate to 180 seconds by using two traps and columns. The ECD-GC channels measure N2O, SF6, CFC-11, CFC-12, halon-1211, and PAN once every 70 seconds, H2, CH4, and CO once every 140 seconds. The two MSD-GC channels measure methyl halides (CH3I, CH3Cl, CH3I), HCFCs (22, 141b, 142b), HFC-134a, sulfur gases (COS and CS2) once every 180 seconds. These data represent a diversity of atmospheric lifetimes and are useful in examining transport in UT/LS. One example is the tracer-tracer correlation plot of N2O versus SF6, which shows three distinction regions of transport, LS, tropospause transition, and UT. Tropospheric gradients for both gases are apparent in the UT region. Other correlations will be shown in this presentation. A comparison of common species measured between UCATS and PANTHER shows a better than one percent agreement between the two instruments.

Moore, F. L.; Hurst, D. F.; Elkins, J. W.; Nance, J. D.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.

2009-12-01

294

Study on the wiping gas jet in continuous galvanizing line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the continuous hot-dip galvanizing process, the gas-jet wiping is used to control the coating thickness of moving steel strip. The high speed gas-jet discharged from the nozzle slot impinges on the strip, and at this moment, wipes the liquid coating layer dragged by a moving strip. The coating thickness is generally influenced on the flow characteristics of wiping gas-jet such as the impinging pressure distribution, pressure gradient and shear stress distribution on the surface of strip. The flow characteristics of wiping gas-jet mentioned above depends upon considerably both the process operating conditions such as the nozzle pressure, nozzle-to-strip distance and line speed, and the geometry of gas-jet wiping apparatus such as the height of nozzle slot. In the present study, the effect of the geometry of nozzle on the coating thickness is investigated with the help of a computational fluid dynamics method. The height of nozzle slot is varied in the range of 0.6mm to 1.7mm. A finite volume method (FVM) is employed to solve two-dimensional, steady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Based upon the results obtained, the effect of the height of nozzle slot in the gas-jet wiping process is discussed in detail. The computational results show that for a given standoff distance between the nozzle to the strip, the effective height of nozzle slot exists in achieving thinner coating thickness.

Kweon, Yong-Hun; Kim, Heuy-Dong

2011-09-01

295

Character of the subglacial drainage system in the ablation area of Dokriani glacier, India, as revealed by dye-tracer studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The character of the subglacial drainage system is best determined by the dye-tracer technique. Ten dye-tracer experiments were conducted at three moulins at 930, 1700 and 2300 m, respectively, from the measurement site on the Dokriani glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India. The injections were made during July, August and September 2000. In July, the subglacial drainage appeared to be via efficient trunk channels, which resulted in dye-concentration curves with velocities between 0.37 and 0.47 m s -1. In August and September, drainage was active mainly in the inefficiently distributed system, as velocity declined and varied between 0.10 and 0.39 m s -1. Probably, the distributed system during August expanded to accommodate the increased runoff by the seasonal high discharges. Limited observations indicate that there was temporal switching between channelised and distributed drainage system.

Hasnain, S. I.; Jose, P. G.; Ahmad, S.; Negi, D. C.

2001-07-01

296

A prospective comparative study to assess the contribution of radioisotope tracer method to dye-only method in the detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Metastasis in the axillary lymph nodes is the most important known prognostic factor for breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the contribution of the radioisotope tracer method to the dye-only method by performing sentinel lymph node biopsy on the same patient group during a single surgical session. Methods Forty-two patients who underwent operations in our clinic from February 2010 to October 2011 and with masses of <5 cm and clinically and radiologicallly negative axilla (T1-2 N0) were prospectively included in this study. After paraffin examination results were obtained, the numbers and metastatic states of the lymph nodes that were unidentifiable during surgery (although they were stained) but were detected by a gamma probe, lymph nodes that were only stained, lymph nodes that were only radioactive (hot), and lymph nodes that were both stained and radioactive (stained-hot) were determined in all patients. In patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection, the total numbers of lymph nodes removed and their metastatic states were determined separately. Results At least one blue-stained sentinel lymph node was identified in all patients during the blue-stained lymph node detection stage. The average number of sentinel nodes removed at this stage was 2.1?±?1.1. In the second surgical stage (the stage in which nodes with axillary counts were investigated with the gamma probe) in these 41 patients, at least one additional hot node was removed, or at least one of the nodes that was removed because it was blue was also hot. In addition to the lymph nodes removed in the dye stage, 34 hot lymph nodes were excised from 21 patients. Overall, the average number of hot lymph nodes removed was 2.9?±?1.5. In all patients, subsequent frozen sections and histopathological examinations were 100% concordant with the sentinel lymph nodes that were removed; the stained sentinel lymph nodes that were removed first did not affect the decision to perform axillary dissection. Conclusion The results of our study indicate that performing sentinel lymph node biopsy with dye only is sufficient and as effective as the combined method. PMID:23617459

2013-01-01

297

An 18 O tracer study on the growth mechanism of alumina scales on NiAl and NiAlY alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Y additions on the oxidation mechanism of NiAl at 1270 K has been investigated. Mass transport in the alumina scale was examined with18O tracers. Proton activation analysis (18O(p, a)15N) and SIMS were used to measure the18O distribution in the scale. On pure NiAl and low-doped (0.07% Y) NiAl mainly outward scale growth was observed. Addition of 0.5%

E. W. A. Young; J. H. W. de Witt

1986-01-01

298

Analysis of tracer tomography using temporal moments of tracer breakthrough curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic/partitioning tracer tomography (HPTT) was recently developed by Yeh and Zhu [Yeh T-CJ, Zhu J. Hydraulic/partitioning tracer tomography for characterization of dense nonaqueous phase liquid source zones, Water Resour Res 2007;43:W06435. doi:10.1029/2006WR004877.] for estimating spatial distribution of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface. Since discrete tracer concentration data are directly utilized for the estimation of DNAPLs, this approach solves the hyperbolic convection-dispersion equation. Solution to the convection-dispersion equation however demands fine temporal and spatial discretization, resulting in high computational cost for an HPTT analysis. In this work, we use temporal moments of tracer breakthrough curves instead of discrete concentration data to estimate DNAPL distribution. This approach solves time independent partial differential equations of the temporal moments, and therefore avoids solving the convection-dispersion equation using a time marching scheme, resulting in a dramatic reduction of computational cost. To reduce numerical oscillations associated with convection dominated transport problems such as in inter-well tracer tests, the approach uses a finite element solver adopting the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin method to calculate moments and sensitivities. We test the temporal moment approach through numerical simulations. Comparing the computational costs between utilizing moments and discrete concentrations, we find that temporal moments significantly reduce the computation time. We also find that tracer moment data collected through a tomographic survey alone are able to yield reasonable estimates of hydraulic conductivity, as indicated by a correlation of 0.588 between estimated and true hydraulic conductivity fields in the synthetic case study.

Zhu, Junfeng; Cai, Xing; Jim Yeh, Tian-Chyi

2009-03-01

299

Gas  

MedlinePLUS

... swallow and the breakdown of undigested food by bacteria in the large intestine. Certain foods may cause gas. Foods that produce gas in one person may not cause gas in another. You can reduce the amount of gas you have by Drinking lots of water and non-fizzy drinks Eating more slowly so ...

300

Study of physical properties, gas generation and gas retention in simulated Hanford waste  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to establish the chemical and physical processes responsible for the generation and retention of gases within high-level waste from Tank 101-SY on the Hanford Site. This research, conducted using simulated waste on a laboratory scale, supports the development of mitigation/remediation strategies for Tank 101-SY. Simulated waste formulations are based on actual waste compositions. Selected physical properties of the simulated waste are compared to properties of actual Tank 101-SY waste samples. Laboratory studies using aged simulated waste show that significant gas generation occurs thermally at current tank temperatures ({approximately}60{degrees}C). Gas compositions include the same gases produced in actual tank waste, primarily N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}. Gas stoichiometries have been shown to be greatly influenced by several organic and inorganic constituents within the simulated waste. Retention of gases in the simulated waste is in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles. This attachment phenomenon is related to the presence of organic constituents (HEDTA, EDTA, and citrate) of the simulated waste. A mechanism is discussed that relates the gas bubble/particle interactions to the partially hydrophobic surface produced on the solids by the organic constituents.

Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

1993-04-01

301

Experimental study of gas permeabilities and breakthrough pressures in clays  

SciTech Connect

In this study, gas migration experiments in unsaturated and saturated states were carried out to clarify the fundamental gas migration characteristics in compacted bentonite to be used for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In unsaturated experiments, the gas permeability for Japanese bentonite (Kunigel V1) as a function of degree of saturation was measured to examine the applicability of conventional two-phase flow models to compacted bentonite. The intrinsic permeability obtained in this study was about five orders of magnitude larger than that obtained in water permeation tests with the same density. The difference seems to originate from the change of pore structure due to the swelling phenomenon of the bentonite. Since these effects have not been evaluated quantitatively yet, various relative gas permeability functions of conventional two-phase flow models were applied as a first approximation. Saturated experiments designed to simulate the gas migration phenomenon in a repository for the waste were carried out to obtain relationship between breakthrough and swelling pressures using Kunigel V1 and French Of-Ca clay in saturation state. The reproducibility of the breakthrough pressure was also examined for Kunigel V1 bentonite. The breakthrough pressure was almost the same as swelling pressure irrespective of the type of clay. As to the reproducibility of breakthrough pressure, it was observed that first and second breakthrough pressures were almost the same for Kunigel V1 specimens with the dry densities of 1.7 and 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}.

Tanai, K.; Kanno, T. [PNC Tokai Works, Ibaraki (Japan). Geological Isolation Technology Section; Galle, C. [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets

1997-12-31

302

Non-universal tracer diffusion in crowded media of non-inert obstacles  

E-print Network

We study the diffusion of a tracer particle, which moves in continuum space between a lattice of excluded volume, immobile non-inert obstacles. In particular, we analyse how the strength of the tracer-obstacle interactions and the volume occupancy of the crowders alter the diffusive motion of the tracer. From the details of the partitioning of the tracer diffusion modes between trapping states when bound to obstacles and bulk diffusion, we examine the degree of localisation of the tracer in the lattice of crowders. We study the properties of the tracer diffusion in terms of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements, the trapping time distributions, the amplitude variation of the time averaged mean squared displacements, and the non-Gaussianity parameter of the diffusing tracer. We conclude that tracer-obstacle adsorption and binding triggers a transient anomalous diffusion. From a very narrow spread of recorded individual time averaged trajectories we exclude continuous type random walk processes as the underlying physical model of the tracer diffusion in our system. For moderate tracer-crowder attraction the motion is found to be fully ergodic, while at stronger attraction strength a transient disparity between ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements occurs. We also put our results into perspective with findings from experimental single-particle tracking and simulations of the diffusion of tagged tracers in dense crowded suspensions. Our results have implications for the diffusion, transport, and spreading of chemical components in highly crowded environments inside living cells and other structured liquids.

Surya K. Ghosh; Andrey G. Cherstvy; Ralf Metzler

2014-12-23

303

Non-universal tracer diffusion in crowded media of non-inert obstacles.  

PubMed

We study the diffusion of a tracer particle, which moves in continuum space between a lattice of excluded volume, immobile non-inert obstacles. In particular, we analyse how the strength of the tracer-obstacle interactions and the volume occupancy of the crowders alter the diffusive motion of the tracer. From the details of partitioning of the tracer diffusion modes between trapping states when bound to obstacles and bulk diffusion, we examine the degree of localisation of the tracer in the lattice of crowders. We study the properties of the tracer diffusion in terms of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements, the trapping time distributions, the amplitude variation of the time averaged mean squared displacements, and the non-Gaussianity parameter of the diffusing tracer. We conclude that tracer-obstacle adsorption and binding triggers a transient anomalous diffusion. From a very narrow spread of recorded individual time averaged trajectories we exclude continuous type random walk processes as the underlying physical model of the tracer diffusion in our system. For moderate tracer-crowder attraction the motion is found to be fully ergodic, while at stronger attraction strength a transient disparity between ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements occurs. We also put our results into perspective with findings from experimental single-particle tracking and simulations of the diffusion of tagged tracers in dense crowded suspensions. Our results have implications for the diffusion, transport, and spreading of chemical components in highly crowded environments inside living cells and other structured liquids. PMID:25474476

Ghosh, Surya K; Cherstvy, Andrey G; Metzler, Ralf

2015-01-21

304

210Po and 210Pb as Tracers of Particle Cycling and Resuspension in a Dynamic Freshwater System: Case Study from the Clinton River, Southeast Michigan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polonium-210 and 210Pb are constantly delivered to the surface waters through atmospheric deposition with a 210Po/210Pb activity ratio (AR) of < 0.10. Freshly produced suspended particles in surface waters are ';tagged' with this ratio which tends to grow towards the secular equilibrium value of 1.0. This disequilibrium between 210Po and 210Pb in freshwater system with a relatively short hydrological residence time can be utilized to quantify sediment resuspension rates and to investigate the extent of recycling of sedimentary particulate matter. From the measurements of 210Po and 210Pb in particulate matter collected in sediment traps and surficial bottom sediments at 5 different sites in the Clinton River in southeast Michigan over a period of 6 months (April - September, 2005) and subsequent modeling of these data, we report the following: i) The direct atmospheric deposition of 210Po and 210Pb collected in the sediment trap materials accounted for 1% and 0.1%, respectively, of the total deposited in the sediment trap; ii) The ranges and mean values of the 210Po and 210Pb in the sediment trap material and bottom sediments are comparable, with near identical 210Po/210Pb ratios, indicating that most of the trapped 210Po and 210Pb were delivered by the resuspension of bottom sediments; iii) The particle residence times varied from 0.3 to 4 days for 210Pb and 0.9 to 13.4 days for 210Po; and iv) The sediment resuspension rates calculated via single box model approach yielded resuspension rates ranging from 0.2 to 14.2 g cm-2 yr-1 using 210Pb and 0.1 to 1.0 g cm-2 yr-1 using 210Po. We propose that the distribution of 210Bi (and 210Bi/210Pb) would provide better insight on particle cycling in short-time scales and a brief discussion will be presented on the utility of 210Bi/210Pb ratio as a powerful tool for short-term particle cycling and as tracers of POC, PON export studies in deeper freshwater lakes.

Mudbidre, R.; Baskaran, M. M.; Schweitzer, L.

2013-12-01

305

Tracking thermal fronts with temperature-sensitive, chemically reactive tracers  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos is developing tracer techniques using reactive chemicals to track thermal fronts in fractured geothermal reservoirs. If a nonadsorbing tracer flowing from the injection to production well chemically reacts, its reaction rate will be a strong function of temperature. Thus the extent of chemical reaction will be greatest early in the lifetime of the system, and less as the thermal front progresses from the injection to production well. Early laboratory experiments identified tracers with chemical kinetics suitable for reservoirs in the temperature range of 75 to 100/sup 0/C. Recent kinetics studies have focused on the kinetics of hydrolysis of derivatives of bromobenzene. This class of reactions can be used in reservoirs ranging in temperature from 150 to 275/sup 0/C, which is of greater interest to the geothermal industry. Future studies will include laboratory adsorption experiments to identify possibly unwanted adsorption on granite, development of sensitive analytical techniques, and a field demonstration of the reactive tracer concept.

Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, S.A.

1987-01-01

306

Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

2012-01-01

307

A Study of the Cold Gas and Stellar Populations of the Antlia Cluster with KAT-7 and WISE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present neutral hydrogen (HI) observations of the Antlia Galaxy Cluster from the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7), a MeerKAT/SKA pathfinder array in South Africa, and describe some of the data reduction challenges overcome by the science commissioning team. Antlia is the third most nearby, massive galaxy cluster, yet it is poorly studied because it lies at low Galactic latitude (l=+19'?) in the Southern hemisphere. We combine the KAT-7 HI data with WISE infrared observations to study the gaseous and stellar components of the galaxy population of this dynamically young system. The velocity information from KAT-7 allows us to confirm gas rich cluster members that lack optical spectroscopic redshifts. Antlia is an ideal target for KAT-7 spectral line commissioning because the recessional velocity of cluster members is not confused with Galactic hydrogen, and the telescope resolution is such that we recover the full HI flux of galaxies, while not suffering from source confusion. The WISE observations cut through Galactic extinction to provide a more complete census of cluster member candidates. Blind HI observations have shown that the presence of gas rich objects around the dense environments of clusters and massive groups is an excellent tracer of substructure, highlighting filaments where galaxies are being accreted within the dark matter halo. With two distinct concentrations of galaxies centered on each of two large elliptical galaxies, the cluster is likely still in the process of merging, making it an interesting target for environmentally driven galaxy evolution studies.

Hess, Kelley; Carignan, C.; Jarrett, T.; Goedhart, S.; Passmoor, S. S.; Wilcots, E. M.

2014-01-01

308

A feasibility study of a hypersonic real-gas facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A four month feasibility study of a hypersonic real-gas free flight test facility for NASA Langley Research Center (LARC) was performed. The feasibility of using a high-energy electromagnetic launcher (EML) to accelerate complex models (lifting and nonlifting) in the hypersonic, real-gas facility was examined. Issues addressed include: design and performance of the accelerator; design and performance of the power supply; design and operation of the sabot and payload during acceleration and separation; effects of high current, magnetic fields, temperature, and stress on the sabot and payload; and survivability of payload instrumentation during acceleration, flight, and soft catch.

Gully, J. H.; Driga, M. D.; Weldon, W. F.

1987-01-01

309

Results of Repeat Tracer Tests at Ohaaki, NZ  

SciTech Connect

During 20 years of tracer testing at Ohaaki a number of wells have been used more than once as tracer injection sites. In studying the various responses obtained it has been necessary to consider variations in the experimental test conditions before making comparisons which relate to field conditions. Some very significant changes have occurred in the field hydrology in recent years and water flow speeds as high as those encountered at Wairakei have been demonstrated.

McCabe, W.J.; Clotworthy, A.W.; Morris, C.

1995-01-01

310

Development of Standardized Mobile Tracer Correlation Approach for Large Area Emission Measurements (DRAFT UNDER EPA REVIEW)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved understanding of air emissions from large area sources such as landfills, waste water ponds, open-source processing, and agricultural operations is a topic of increasing environmental importance. In many cases, the size of the area source, coupled with spatial-heterogeneity, make direct (on-site) emission assessment difficult; methane emissions, from landfills for example, can be particularly complex [Thoma et al, 2009]. Recently, whole-facility (remote) measurement approaches based on tracer correlation have been utilized [Scheutz et al, 2011]. The approach uses a mobile platform to simultaneously measure a metered-release of a conservative gas (the tracer) along with the target compound (methane in the case of landfills). The known-rate tracer release provides a measure of atmospheric dispersion at the downwind observing location allowing the area source emission to be determined by a ratio calculation [Green et al, 2010]. Although powerful in concept, the approach has been somewhat limited to research applications due to the complexities and cost of the high-sensitivity measurement equipment required to quantify the part-per billion levels of tracer and target gas at kilometer-scale distances. The advent of compact, robust, and easy to use near-infrared optical measurement systems (such as cavity ring down spectroscopy) allow the tracer correlation approach to be investigated for wider use. Over the last several years, Waste Management Inc., the U.S. EPA, and collaborators have conducted method evaluation activities to determine the viability of a standardized approach through execution of a large number of field measurement trials at U.S. landfills. As opposed to previous studies [Scheutz et al, 2011] conducted at night (optimal plume transport conditions), the current work evaluated realistic use-scenarios; these scenarios include execution by non-scientist personnel, daylight operation, and full range of atmospheric condition (all plume transport conditions). The trials tested a novel tracer gas (acetylene), chosen for its performance and cost characteristics. This presentation will summarize method development activities for the field test trials (107 test days, with repeat measurements at 14 separate landfill sites). In addition to a brief description of the measurement technology, the method performance will be described, and primary data quality indicators and use conditions will be explored. Because measurements were taken under daylight and a variety of atmospheric conditions, the range of distance and wind conditions allows us to make conclusions about the strengths and limitations of the method. This enables us to show when and where it is possible to make a quality measurement using this technique and therefore develop a standardized method for large area emission measurements. Green, R. et al (2010). 'Methane Emission Measured at Two California Landfills by OTM-10 and an Acetylene Tracer Method.' Global Waste Management Symposium. San Antonio, Texas. Scheutz, C. et al. (2011). 'Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique." Waste Management 31(5): 1009-1017. Thoma, E., et al (2009). 'Development of EPA OTM 10 for landfill applications." Journal of Environmental Engineering 136(8): 769-776.

Foster-wittig, T. A.; Thoma, E.; Green, R.; Hater, G.; Swan, N.; Chanton, J.

2013-12-01

311

Experimental study on engine gas-path component fault monitoring using exhaust gas electrostatic signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the recent development in engine gas-path components health monitoring using electrostatic sensors in combination with signal-processing techniques. Two ground-based engine electrostatic monitoring experiments are reported and the exhaust gas electrostatic monitoring signal-based fault-detection method is proposed. It is found that the water washing, oil leakage and combustor linear cracking result in an increase in the activity level of the electrostatic monitoring signal, which can be detected by the electrostatic monitoring system. For on-line health monitoring of the gas-path components, a baseline model-based fault-detection method is proposed and the multivariate state estimation technique is used to establish the baseline model for the electrostatic monitoring signal. The method is applied to a data set from a turbo-shaft engine electrostatic monitoring experiment. The results of the case study show that the system with the developed method is capable of detecting the gas-path component fault in an on-line fashion.

Sun, Jianzhong; Zuo, Hongfu; Liu, Pengpeng; Wen, Zhenhua

2013-12-01

312

The use of tracers to assess leakage from the sequestration of CO2 in a depleted oil reservoir, New Mexico, USA  

SciTech Connect

Geological sequestration of CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is a potentially useful strategy for greenhouse gas management and can be combined with enhanced oil recovery. Development of methods to estimate CO2 leakage rates is essential to assure that storage objectives are being met at sequestration facilities. Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) were added as three 12 h slugs at about one week intervals during the injection of 2090 tons of CO2 into the West Pearl Queen (WPQ) depleted oil formation, sequestration pilot study site located in SE New Mexico. The CO2 was injected into the Permian Queen Formation. Leakage was monitored in soil–gas using a matrix of 40 capillary adsorbent tubes (CATs) left in the soil for periods ranging from days to months. The tracers, perfluoro-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane (PDCH), perfluorotrimethylcyclohexane (PTCH) and perfluorodimethylcyclobutane (PDCB), were analyzed using thermal desorption, and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Monitoring was designed to look for immediate leakage, such as at the injection well bore and at nearby wells, and to develop the technology to estimate overall CO2 leak rates based on the use of PFTs. Tracers were detected in soil–gas at the monitoring sites 50 m from the injection well within days of injection. Tracers continued to escape over the following years. Leakage appears to have emanated from the vicinity of the injection well in a radial pattern to about 100 m and in directional patterns to 300 m. Leakage rates were estimated for the 3 tracers from each of the 4 sets of CATs in place following the start of CO2 injection. Leakage was fairly uniform during this period. As a first approximation, the CO2 leak rate was estimated at about 0.0085% of the total CO2 sequestered per annum.

Wells, A.W.; Diehl, J.R.; Bromhal, G.S.; Strazisar, B.R.; Wilson, T.H. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); White, C.M. (Parsons Corp., South Park, PA)

2007-05-01

313

Quantification of brain perfusion with tracers retained by the brain  

SciTech Connect

Almost a decade ago, tracers, labelled with {sup 123}I and {sup 99m}Tc, that are retained by the brain, started to be used for studies of regional brain perfusion (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF). To date, these tracers have been used for brain perfusion imaging with SPECT in brain disorders as well as for physiological activation protocols. Only seldom, however, have they been used in protocols that quantitatively measure rCBF. Nevertheless, comparative studies with perfusion reference tracers have repeatedly demonstrated that the brain uptake of these brain-retained tracers is correlated to perfusion, the major determinant of the distribution of these tracers in the brain. The brain kinetics of {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO, which is the tracer most commonly used, was described with a two-compartment tissue model. The theoretical approach, which is, in itself, sufficient for modeling quantitative measurements with {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO, initially suggested the possibility of empirically narrowing the distance between the brain`s regional uptake of the tracer and rCBF with a linearization algorithm which uses the cerebellum as the reference region. The value of this empirical method is hampered by the fact that the cerebellum can be involved in cerebrovascular disease (i.e. cerebellar diaschisis) as well as in several other brain disorders (e.g. anxiety, and dementia of the Alzheimer type). It also was proposed that different reference regions (occipital, whole slice, or whole brain) should be selected in relation to the brain disorder under study. However, this approach does not solve the main problem because it does not equip us with a reliable tool to evaluate rCBF with a high predictive value, and, at the same time, to reduce intersubject variability. The solution would be to measure a quantitative parameter which directly reflects rCBF, such as the unidirectional influx constant of the freely diffusible flow-limited tracers. 45 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Pupi, A.; Bacciottini, L.; De Cristofaro, M.T.R.; Formiconi, A.R.; Castagnoli, A. [Univ. of Florence (Italy)

1991-12-31

314

FTIR gas chromatographic analysis of perfumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfumes, natural or synthetic, are complex mixtures consisting of numerous components. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques have been extensively utilized for the analysis of perfumes and essential oils. A limited number of perfume samples have also been analyzed by FT-IR gas chromatographic (GC-FTIR) techniques. Most of the latter studies have been performed using the conventional light pipe (LP) based GC-FTIR systems. In recent years, cold-trapping (in a matrix or neat) GC-FTIR systems have become available. The cold-trapping systems are capable of sub-nanogram sensitivities. In this paper, comparison data between the LP and the neat cold-trapping GC- FTIR systems is presented. The neat cold-trapping interface is known as Tracer. The results of GC-FTIR analysis of some commercial perfumes is also presented. For comparison of LP and Tracer GC-FTIR systems, a reference (synthetic) mixture containing 16 major and numerous minor constituents was used. The components of the mixture are the compounds commonly encountered in commercial perfumes. The GC-FTIR spectra of the reference mixture was obtained under identical chromatographic conditions from an LP and a Tracer system. A comparison of the two sets of data thus generated do indeed show the enhanced sensitivity level of the Tracer system. The comparison also shows that some of the major components detected by the Tracer system were absent from the LP data. Closer examination reveals that these compounds undergo thermal decomposition on contact with the hot gold surface that is part of the LP system. GC-FTIR data were obtained for three commercial perfume samples. The major components of these samples could easily be identified by spectra search against a digitized spectral library created using the Tracer data from the reference mixture.

Diederich, H.; Stout, Phillip J.; Hill, Stephen L.; Krishnan, K.

1992-03-01

315

Application of active contours for photochromic tracer flow extraction.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques to automate tracer flow extraction in images obtained by the photochromic dye technique. This task is important in modeled arterial blood flow studies. Currently, it is performed via manual application of B-spline curve fitting. However, this is a tedious and error-prone procedure and its results are nonreproducible. In the proposed approach, active contours, snakes, are employed in a new curve-fitting method for tracer flow extraction in photochromic images. An algorithm implementing snakes is introduced to automate extraction. Utilizing correlation matching, the algorithm quickly locates and localizes all flow traces in the images. The feasibility of the method for tracer flow extraction is demonstrated. Moreover, results regarding the automation algorithm are presented showing its accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed approach for tracer flow extraction has potential for real-system application. PMID:9184890

Androutsos, D; Trahanias, P E; Venetsanopoulos, A N

1997-06-01

316

Microfluidics for Synthesis of Peptide-Based PET Tracers  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful noninvasive tool for acquisition of the physiological parameters in human and animals with the help of PET tracers. Among all the PET tracers, radiolabeled peptides have been widely explored for cancer-related receptor imaging due to their high affinity and specificity to receptors. But radiochemistry procedures for production of peptide-based PET tracers are usually complex, which makes large-scale clinical studies relatively challenging. New radiolabeling technologies which could simplify synthesis and purification procedures, are extremely needed. Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology have boomed as powerful tools in the field of organic chemistry, which potentially provide significant help to the PET chemistry. In this minireview, microfluidic radiolabeling technology is described and its application for synthesis of peptide-based PET tracers is summarized and discussed. PMID:24288688

Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

2013-01-01

317

Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel interchangeability  

E-print Network

in composition. As newer sources of natural gas become available (such as Liquefied Natural Gas and shale gasEmission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel for natural gas burner emissions data. The method is built to compensate for the typically small sample size

Dabdub, Donald

318

Electrical Network Design Studies for Natural Gas Liquefaction Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process requirements of liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants demand a high level of reliability from the supporting electrical power system. Extensive power system studies are required to confirm that the proposed electrical system meets the stringent design requirements. This paper outlines the load-flow, short-circuit, transient-stability and harmonic studies typically undertaken as part of the front end engineering design (FEED)

R. C. Wilson; C. L. Dall; K. S. Smith

2006-01-01

319

Nicotelline: A Proposed Biomarker and Environmental Tracer for Particulate Matter Derived from Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Particulate matter (PM) derived from tobacco smoke contains numerous toxic substances. Since the PM and gas phase of tobacco smoke may distribute differently in the environment, and substances in them may have different human bioavailability, multiple tracers and biomarkers for tobacco smoke constituents are desirable. Nicotelline is a relatively non-volatile alkaloid present in tobacco smoke, and therefore it has the potential to be a suitable tracer and biomarker for tobacco smoke-derived PM. We describe experiments demonstrating that nicotelline is present almost entirely in the PM, in both freshly generated cigarette smoke and aged cigarette smoke. An excellent correlation between the mass of nicotelline and the mass of the PM in aged cigarette smoke was found. We also describe experiments suggesting that the main source of nicotelline in tobacco smoke is dehydrogenation of another little-studied tobacco alkaloid, anatalline, during the burning process. We show that nicotelline metabolites can be measured in urine of smokers, and that nicotelline can be measured in house dust from homes of smokers and non-smokers. We conclude that nicotelline should be useful as a tracer and biomarker for PM derived from tobacco smoke. PMID:24125094

Jacob, Peyton; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

320

Diffusion NMR methods applied to xenon gas for materials study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report initial NMR studies of (i) xenon gas diffusion in model heterogeneous porous media and (ii) continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas. Both areas utilize the pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) techniques in the gas phase, with the aim of obtaining more sophisticated information than just translational self-diffusion coefficients--a brief overview of this area is provided in the Introduction. The heterogeneous or multiple-length scale model porous media consisted of random packs of mixed glass beads of two different sizes. We focus on observing the approach of the time-dependent gas diffusion coefficient, D(t) (an indicator of mean squared displacement), to the long-time asymptote, with the aim of understanding the long-length scale structural information that may be derived from a heterogeneous porous system. We find that D(t) of imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times is similar for the mixed bead pack and a pack of the smaller sized beads alone, hence reflecting the pore surface area to volume ratio of the smaller bead sample. The approach of D(t) to the long-time limit follows that of a pack of the larger sized beads alone, although the limiting D(t) for the mixed bead pack is lower, reflecting the lower porosity of the sample compared to that of a pack of mono-sized glass beads. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate D(t) data between the short- and long-time limits. Initial studies of continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas demonstrate velocity-sensitive imaging of much higher flows than can generally be obtained with liquids (20-200 mm s-1). Gas velocity imaging is, however, found to be limited to a resolution of about 1 mm s-1 owing to the high diffusivity of gases compared with liquids. We also present the first gas-phase NMR scattering, or diffusive-diffraction, data, namely flow-enhanced structural features in the echo attenuation data from laser-polarized xenon flowing through a 2 mm glass bead pack. c2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mair, R. W.; Rosen, M. S.; Wang, R.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

2002-01-01

321

Gas pockets in a wastewater rising main: a case study.  

PubMed

This paper presents a case study of an existing wastewater rising main (WWRM) in which an extreme transient event produced by simultaneous power failure of the pumps caused the rupture of a 1.2 m (48 in) prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), causing an important leakage of sewage. The event and the methodology followed in order to validate the diagnostics of the failure are described. The detail study included in situ observation of the system, experimental investigation in a setup, hydraulic analysis, as well as details of the structural strength of the WWRM. After the extensive investigation and several simulations of fluid transients for different scenarios and flow conditions, it was found that stationary small gas pockets accumulated at high points of the WWRM were identified as the principal contributory factor of the failure. This case study serves as clear warning of the consequences of operating a WWRM with gas pockets at its high points. PMID:22949261

Pozos-Estrada, Oscar; Fuentes-Mariles, Oscar A; Pozos-Estrada, Adrian

2012-01-01

322

Numerical Study of Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustor Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To further reduce pollutant emissions, such as CO, NO(x), UHCs, etc., in the next few decades, innovative concepts of gas turbine combustors must be developed. Several concepts, such as the LIPP (Lean- Premixed- Prevaporized), RQL (Rich-Burn Quick-Quench Lean-Burn), and LDI (Lean-Direct-Injection), have been under study for many years. To fully realize the potential of these concepts, several improvements, such as inlet geometry, air swirler, aerothermochemistry control, fuel preparation, fuel injection and injector design, etc., must be made, which can be studied through the experimental method and/or the numerical technique. The purpose of this proposal is to use the CFD technique to study, and hence, to guide the design process for low emission gas turbine combustors. A total of 13 technical papers have been (or will be) published.

Yang, Song-Lin

2002-01-01

323

Using Multiple Natural Tracers to Investigate Groundwater Recharge and Flow in Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because mountain precipitation provides the majority of groundwater recharge in the western USA, an understanding of groundwater recharge and flow in mountain ranges is needed to make informed resource-management decisions. Natural tracers are excellent tools for studying these systems, but a single tracer can only provide limited information. As a result, using multiple tracers is ideal - by using several tracers, several aspects of mountain groundwater systems can be examined. For instance, groundwater stable-isotope measurements (?D and ?18O) can reveal the elevation at which the water fell as precipitation, but not the elevation at which the water was recharged. However, concentrations of dissolved gases in groundwater can be used to determine actual recharge elevations. Major-ion chemistry can provide insight into the geologic units through which the water has moved, and may also provide a qualitative indication of residence time; radioisotopes can yield more precise estimates of groundwater age. Other information is helpful for interpreting natural tracer data, including the local and regional geology, the area's climate, and the locations where groundwater recharge ('disappearing' streams) or discharge (springs and seeps) occur. A study utilizing these tools was conducted in the Chiricahua Mountains (Arizona, USA). Stable-isotope data show that precipitation from near the crest of the range is responsible for the majority of the groundwater recharge. Dissolved-gas data indicate that, while most of this recharge takes place near the crest of the range; some waters recharge in a high-permeability zone near the base of the range. Based on our observations of the range's hydraulics, the majority of this low-elevation recharge appears to be 're-recharge'---water that recharged at higher elevations, flowed underground, discharged, flowed downslope overland, then re-recharged. Major-ion chemistry data show that both volcanic (tuff and rhyolite) and sedimentary (primarily carbonates) units are conduits for groundwater flow in the range, depending on location. Dissolved-gas data demonstrate that the extent of the high-elevation recharge zone is nearly identical to the area of the range that develops snowpack. If snowpack development is a needed condition for recharge in other ranges of the western USA, groundwater recharge could be seriously impacted if current predictions for global-warming-induced changes in precipitation in the western USA (decreased percentage of precipitation falling as snow, and higher snowlines) are accurate.

Earman, S.; Phillips, F. M.

2005-12-01

324

Experimental Study of High-Z Gas Buffers in Gas-Filled ICF Engines  

SciTech Connect

ICF power plants, such as the LIFE scheme at LLNL, may employ a high-Z, target-chamber gas-fill to moderate the first-wall heat-pulse due to x-rays and energetic ions released during target detonation. To reduce the uncertainties of cooling and beam/target propagation through such gas-filled chambers, we present a pulsed plasma source producing 2-5 eV plasma comprised of high-Z gases. We use a 5-kJ, 100-ns theta discharge for high peak plasma-heating-power, an electrode-less discharge for minimizing impurities, and unobstructed axial access for diagnostics and beam (and/or target) propagation studies. We will report on the plasma source requirements, design process, and the system design.

Rhodes, M A; Kane, J; Loosmore, G; DeMuth, J; Latkowski, J

2010-12-03

325

Experimental study of high-Z gas buffers in gas-filled ICF engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICF power plants, such as the LIFE scheme at LLNL, may employ a high-Z, target-chamber gas-fill to moderate the first-wall heat-pulse due to x-rays and energetic ions released during target detonation. To reduce the uncertainties of cooling and beam/target propagation through such gas-filled chambers, we present a pulsed plasma source producing 2-5 eV plasma comprised of high-Z gases. We use a 5-kJ, 100-ns theta discharge for high peak plasma-heating-power, an electrode-less discharge for minimizing impurities, and unobstructed axial access for diagnostics and beam (and/or target) propagation studies. We will report on the plasma source requirements, design process, and the system design.

Rhodes, M. A.; Kane, J.; Loosmore, G.; DeMuth, J.; Latkowski, J.

2011-03-01

326

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) COMPLEX TERRAIN MODEL DEVELOPMENT: DESCRIPTION OF A COMPUTER DATA BASE FROM THE FULL SCALE PLUME STUDY, TRACY POWER PLANT, NEVADA  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the EPA's Complex Terrain Model Development Program, the Full Scale Study was conducted at the Tracy Power Plant near Reno, Nevada. SO6 tracer gas and oil-fog particles were injected into the base of a 91.4 smokestack, and CF3Br tracer was released from one of three le...

327

Assessing denitrification in groundwater using natural gradient tracer tests with 15N: In situ measurement of a sequential multistep reaction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Denitrification was measured within a nitrate-contaminated aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, using natural gradient tracer tests with 15N nitrate. The aquifer contained zones of relatively high concentrations of nitrite (up to 77 ??M) and nitrous oxide (up to 143 ??M) and has been the site of previous studies examining ground water denitrification using the acetylene block technique. Small-scale (15-24 m travel distance) tracer tests were conducted by injecting 15N nitrate and bromide as tracers into a depth interval that contained nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, and excess nitrogen gas. The timing of the bromide breakthrough curves at down-gradient wells matched peaks in 15N abundance above background for nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen gas after more than 40 days of travel. Results were simulated with a one-dimensional transport model using linked reaction kinetics for the individual steps of the denitrification reaction pathway. It was necessary to include within the model spatial variations in background concentrations of all nitrogen oxide species. The model indicated that nitrite production (0.036-0.047 ??mol N (L aquifer)-1 d -1) was faster than the subsequent denitrification steps (0.013-0.016 ??mol N (L aquifer)-1 d-1 for nitrous oxide and 0.013-0.020 ??mol N (L aquifer)-1 d-1 for nitrogen gas) and that the total rate of reaction was slower than indicated by both acetylene block tracer tests and laboratory incubations. The rate of nitrate removal by denitrification was much slower than the rate of transport, indicating that nitrate would migrate several kilometers down-gradient before being completely consumed.

Smith, R.L.; Böhlke, J.K.; Garabedian, S.P.; Revesz, K.M.; Yoshinari, T.

2004-01-01

328

Macro and micro scale interactions between cohesive sediment tracers and natural mud.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dispersion patterns of fine, cohesive sediment (< 63 micron) is fundamental to the sustainable management of aquatic environments. In order to develop sediment transport models and predict sediment dispersion, accurate field techniques for the measurement of sediment transport are required. Although this is relatively simple for the sand sized fraction, measuring transport pathways for cohesive sediment is more problematic. Cohesive sediment tracers developed for this purpose include synthetic tracer particles (e.g. polymers) and labelled natural clays (e.g. Mahler et al. 1998, Yin et al. 1999, Krezoski 1985; Spencer et al. 2007) and a fundamental assumption is that the tracer has the same physical properties as natural sediment. For the cohesive fraction this means that the tracer must be incorporated into and transported via floc aggregates (Black et al. 2006). A few studies have examined the physical behaviour of cohesive tracers (e.g. Manning et al. in press) but most are limited to the examination of gross settling characteristics (e.g. Louisse et al. 1986) rather than floc formation and behaviour. This work focuses on a labelled natural clay; a Ho-montmorillonite (see Spencer et al. 2007). The aims of this work were to examine the physical characteristics, internal structure and settling dynamics of the tracer and to determine whether the tracer flocculated and interacted with natural estuarine muds at both macro- and microscales. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present data examining the flocculation characteristics and structure of cohesive sediment tracers and their interaction with natural sediment. Macroscale floc characteristics such as floc size and settling velocity measurements were obtained using the LabSFLOC - Laboratory Spectral Flocculation Characteristics - instrument. Floc density, porosity, dry mass, and mass settling flux were then calculated. Floc internal microstructure (1-2 nm) and elemental floc composition were observed using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy). The tracer formed macroflocs (i.e. flocs > 160 micron important for sediment deposition) that could not be distinguished statistically in terms of size and settling velocity from natural mud, although the tracer microflocs (< 160 micron and important building blocks for floc growth) were statistically smaller and settled more slowly. Due to the absence of organic matter tracer flocs were spheroidal in shape compared to elongate ‘stringer' natural mud flocs. The interaction of the tracer and natural mud was examined by observing the physical and dynamic floc characteristics of tracer and natural mud mixtures. The microflocs decreased linearly in floc size and sphericity with increasing tracer content suggesting interaction between tracer and natural mud. However, individual microflocs (< 20 micron using TEM) containing both tracer and natural mud were not observed suggesting that this interaction is not on a particle to particle basis, rather macroflocs are comprised of discrete microflocs of pure tracer or pure natural mud. Macroflocs comprising both tracer and natural mud mixtures were larger and settled faster than either the pure tracer or pure natural mud flocs. We hypothesise that this is due to irregular packing of the differently shaped natural mud and tracer flocs. Therefore, the tracer flocculates and has key characteristics which can not be distinguished from natural cohesive mud. The tracer interacts with natural mud, but because of floc shape the transport characteristics of mixed flocs differ from natural mud. Therefore, although this tracer meets some requirements of tracer technology and is superior to synthetic tracer particles in terms of matching the physical characteristics of cohesive mud, the mixed tracer and natural mud flocs have different settling behaviour. This has implications for the use of cohesive tracers to understand natural mud transport.

Spencer, Kate; Manning, Andrew; Droppo, Ian; Leppard, Gary; Benson, Thomas

2010-05-01

329

Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual tracer flux measurements and onsite observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with onsite tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions, and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

2014-12-01

330

Selected examples of gas-phase ion chemistry studies.  

PubMed

Gas-phase ion chemistry is an area in mass spectrometry that has received much research interest since the mid fifties of the last century. Although the focus of mass spectrometric research has shifted the last twenty years largely to life science studies, including proteomics, genomics and metabolomics, there are still several groups in the world active in gas-phase ion chemistry of both positive and negative ions, either unimolecularly and/or bimolecularly. In this tutorial lecture the formation and determination of tautomeric ion structures and intra-ionic catalyzed tautomerization in the gas phase will be discussed. In addition, an example of formation of different tautomeric structures in protic and aprotic solvents under electrospray ionization conditions will be given, as established by gas-phase infrared multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy. This will be followed by presenting an example of time-resolved MS/MS which enables to identify the structure of an ion, generated at a particular molecular ion lifetime. At the end of the lecture the power of ion mobility will be shown in elucidating the mechanism of epimerization of bis-Tröger bases having chiral nitrogen centers. PMID:24349921

Nibbering, Nico M M

2013-01-01

331

Selected Examples of Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry Studies  

PubMed Central

Gas-phase ion chemistry is an area in mass spectrometry that has received much research interest since the mid fifties of the last century. Although the focus of mass spectrometric research has shifted the last twenty years largely to life science studies, including proteomics, genomics and metabolomics, there are still several groups in the world active in gas-phase ion chemistry of both positive and negative ions, either unimolecularly and/or bimolecularly. In this tutorial lecture the formation and determination of tautomeric ion structures and intra-ionic catalyzed tautomerization in the gas phase will be discussed. In addition, an example of formation of different tautomeric structures in protic and aprotic solvents under electrospray ionization conditions will be given, as established by gas-phase infrared multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy. This will be followed by presenting an example of time-resolved MS/MS which enables to identify the structure of an ion, generated at a particular molecular ion lifetime. At the end of the lecture the power of ion mobility will be shown in elucidating the mechanism of epimerization of bis-Tröger bases having chiral nitrogen centers. PMID:24349921

Nibbering, Nico M. M.

2013-01-01

332

Aircraft measurements of polar organic tracer compounds in tropospheric particles (PM10) over central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected by aircraft at low to middle altitudes (0.8-3.5 km a.g.l.) over central East to West China during summer 2003 and spring 2004. The samples were analyzed for polar organic compounds using a technique of solvent extraction/BSTFA derivatization/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers from the oxidation of isoprene were found to be more abundant in summer (3.3-138 ng m-3, mean 39 ng m-3) than in spring (3.2-42 ng m-3, 15 ng m-3), while ?/?-pinene and ?-caryophyllene SOA tracers showed similar abundances between these two seasons. A strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.83) between levoglucosan and ?-caryophyllinic acid was found in the spring samples vs. a weak correlation (R2 = 0.17) in the summer samples, implying substantial contributions from biomass burning to the ?-caryophyllinic acid production in spring. Two organic nitrogen species (oxamic acid and carbamide) were detected in the aircraft aerosol samples, and their concentrations were comparable to those of biogenic SOA tracers. Most of the primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA tracers were less abundant at higher altitudes, suggesting they are of ground surface origin, either being directly emitted from anthropogenic/natural sources on the ground surface, or rapidly formed through photooxidation of their precursors emitted from the ground surface and then diluted during uplifting into the troposphere. This study demonstrates that primary biological aerosols, biogenic SOA, and organic nitrogen species are important components of organic aerosols in the troposphere over central China during warm seasons.

Fu, P. Q.; Kawamura, K.; Cheng, Y. F.; Hatakeyama, S.; Takami, A.; Li, H.; Wang, W.

2014-04-01

333

Aircraft measurements of polar organic tracer compounds in tropospheric particles (PM10) over Central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected by aircraft at low to middle altitudes (0.8-3.5 km a.g.l.) over Central East to West China during summer 2003 and spring 2004. The samples were analyzed for polar organic compounds using a technique of solvent extraction/BSTFA derivatization/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers from the oxidation of isoprene were found to be more abundant in summer (3.3-138 ng m-3, mean 39 ng m-3) than in spring (3.2-42 ng m-3, 15 ng m-3), while ?/?-pinene and ?-caryophyllene SOA tracers showed similar abundance between these two seasons. A strong positive correlation (R2=0.83) between levoglucosan and ?-caryophyllinic acid was found in the spring samples versus a weak correlation (R2=0.17) in the summer samples, implying substantial contributions from biomass burning to the ?-caryophyllinic acid production in spring. Two organic nitrogen species (oxamic acid and carbamide) were detected in the aircraft aerosol samples and their concentrations were comparable to those of biogenic SOA tracers. Most of the POA and SOA tracers were less abundant at higher altitudes, suggesting they are of ground surface origin, either being directly emitted from anthropogenic/natural sources on the ground surface, or rapidly formed through photooxidation of their precursors emitted from the ground surface and then diluted during uplifting into the troposphere. This study demonstrates that primary biological aerosols, biogenic SOA, and organic nitrogen species are important components of organic aerosols in the troposphere over Central China.

Fu, P. Q.; Kawamura, K.; Cheng, Y. F.; Hatakeyama, S.; Takami, A.; Li, H.; Wang, W.

2013-09-01

334

Synthesis, pervaporation and gas separation studies of polyaniline blends  

SciTech Connect

Membranes have been successfully produced from blends of polyaniline/polyacrylic acid and polyaniline/polyimide. The uniqueness of these membranes is the incorporation of {open_quotes}polymer dopants{close_quotes} in polyaniline. Conductivity measurements show that polyacrylic acid dopes the polyaniline. Pervaporation of water and water/acetic acid mixtures were performed using polyaniline and its polyacrylic acid blend. An improved flux over the polyaniline base form is observed. Polyaniline/polyimide blends were synthesized for gas permeability studies. These blends combine improved thermal stability relative to polyaniline with greater gas selectivity relative to polyimide. The blend shows an increase in permeability for all gases studied over both, polyaniline base and polyimide, while maintaining comparable separation factors.

Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.; Su, T.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

335

Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

2012-01-01

336

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 12. Geochemical and reactive-transport modeling based on tracer injection-synoptic sampling studies for the Red River, New Mexico, 2001-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reactive-transport processes in the Red River, downstream from the town of Red River in north-central New Mexico, were simulated using the OTEQ reactive-transport model. The simulations were calibrated using physical and chemical data from synoptic studies conducted during low-flow conditions in August 2001 and during March/April 2002. Discharge over the 20-km reach from the town of Red River to the USGS streamflow-gaging station near the town of Questa ranged from 395 to 1,180 L/s during the 2001 tracer and from 234 to 421 L/s during the 2002 tracer. The pH of the Red River ranged from 7.4 to 8.5 during the 2001 tracer and from 7.1 to 8.7 during the 2002 tracer, and seep and tributary samples had pH values of 2.8 to 9.0 during the 2001 tracer and 3.8 to 7.2 during the 2002 tracer. Mass-loading calculations allowed identification of several specific locations where elevated concentrations of potential contaminants entered the Red River . These locations, characterized by features on the north side of the Red River that are known to be sources of low-pH water containing elevated metal and sulfate concentrations, are: the initial 2.4 km of the study reach, including Bitter Creek, the stream section from 6.2 to 7.8 km, encompassing La Bobita well and the Hansen debris fan, Sulphur Gulch, at about 10.5 km, the area near Portal Springs, from 12.2 to 12.6 km, and the largest contributors of mass loading, the 13.7 to 13.9 km stream section near Cabin Springs and the 14.7 to 17.5 km stream section from Shaft Spring to Thunder Bridge, Goathill Gulch, and Capulin Canyon. Speciation and saturation index calculations indicated that although solubility limits the concentration of aluminum above pH 5.0, at pH values above 7 and aluminum concentrations below 0.3 mg/L inorganic speciation and mineral solubility controls no longer dominate and aluminum-organic complexing may occur. The August 2001 reactive-transport simulations included dissolved iron(II) oxidation, constrained using measured concentrations of dissolved iron(II) and dissolved iron(total). Both simulations included precipitation of amorphous Al(OH)3 and hydrous ferric oxide as Fe(OH)3, and sorption of copper and zinc to the precipitated hydrous ferric oxide. Simulations revealed that hydrogen, iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc were non-conservative and that mineral precipitation can account for iron and aluminum concentrations. Copper and zinc concentrations can be accounted for by simulating their sorption to hydrous ferric oxide forming in the water column of the Red River , although hydrous manganese oxides also may be important sorption substrates.

Ball, James W.; Runkel, Robert L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

2005-01-01

337

Experimental study of gas phase titanium and aluminum oxide clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an experimental study of the vibrational properties of gas phase titanium oxide and aluminum oxide clusters. The titanium and aluminum oxide clusters have a stoichiometry of (Ti2O3) x-(TiO2)y (with (x, y) from (2, 4) to (11, 29)) and AlO-(Al2O3)n (5 <= n <= 70). The vibrational properties of the clusters are obtained using infrared resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization

K. Demyk; D. van Heijnsbergen; G. von Helden; G. Meijer

2004-01-01

338

TRACING MOLECULAR GAS MASS IN EXTREME EXTRAGALACTIC ENVIRONMENTS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY  

SciTech Connect

We present a new observational study of the {sup 12}CO(1-0) line emission as an H{sub 2} gas mass tracer under extreme conditions in extragalactic environments. Our approach is to study the full neutral interstellar medium (H{sub 2}, H I, and dust) of two galaxies whose bulk interstellar medium (ISM) resides in environments that mark (and bracket) the excitation extremes of the ISM conditions found in infrared luminous galaxies, the starburst NGC 3310, and the quiescent spiral NGC 157. Our study maintains a robust statistical notion of the so-called X = N(H{sub 2})/I {sub CO} factor (i.e., a large ensemble of clouds is involved) while exploring its dependence on the very different average ISM conditions prevailing within these two systems. These are constrained by fully sampled {sup 12}CO(3-2) and {sup 12}CO(1-0) observations, at a matched beam resolution of half-power beam width approx15'', obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan, combined with sensitive 850 mum and 450 mum dust emission and H I interferometric images which allow a complete view of all the neutral ISM components. Complementary {sup 12}CO(2-1) observations were obtained with the JCMT toward the center of the two galaxies. We found an X factor varying by a factor of 5 within the spiral galaxy NGC 157 and about two times lower than the Galactic value in NGC 3310. In addition, the dust emission spectrum in NGC 3310 shows a pronounced submillimeter 'excess'. We tried to fit this excess by a cold dust component but very low temperatures were required (T {sub C} approx 5-11 K) with a correspondingly low gas-to-dust mass ratio of approx5-43. We furthermore show that it is not possible to maintain the large quantities of dust required at these low temperatures in this starburst galaxy. Instead, we conclude that the dust properties need to be different from Galactic dust in order to fit the submillimeter 'excess'. We show that the dust spectral energy distribution can be fitted by an enhanced abundance of very small grains and discuss different alternatives.

Zhu Ming [Joint Astronomy Centre/National Research Council Canada, 660 N. A'ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Papadopoulos, Padeli P. [Argelander Instituet fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Xilouris, Emmanuel M. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, P. Penteli, 15236 Athens (Greece); Kuno, Nario [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Lisenfeld, Ute, E-mail: m.zhu@jach.hawaii.ed, E-mail: padeli@astro.uni-bonn.d, E-mail: xilouris@astro.noa.g, E-mail: kuno@nro.nao.ac.j, E-mail: ute@ugr.e [Departamento de fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada (Spain)

2009-12-01

339

PROCESS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY STUDY OF A SELEXOL ACID GAS REMOVAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of continuous compositional monitoring by process gas chromatography (GC) for three gas streams associated with the Selexol acid gas removal system at the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, PA. Data were obtained from the inlet and outlet streams of the Se...

340

Evaluation of a tracer release and measurement system for the detection and quantification of air emissions using the tracer ratio method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of oil and gas production operations is increasing as is their proximity to residential areas. These facilities have been known to emit methane and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere during the different phases of development and operation. To gain a better understanding of the types and magnitude of these emissions, accurate methods for identifying and measuring the plumes released from these sources are needed. One of the most common methods for characterization of emissions is the tracer ratio. In this method, a known amount of a tracer gas is released near the potential emission source, both the tracer and the compound(s) of interest are then measured at a location downwind of the potential emissions; and the emission rate is estimated based on the ratio of the compound of interest to the tracer at the location of the measurement. This work describes field tests conducted in an air field in Fort Collins, CO to evaluate a tracer release and detection system. Acetylene (tracer gas) and methane (emission from potential source) have been released from a custom made manifold system. A PICARRO G2203 analyzer (using cavity ring down spectroscopy) and a mobile kit A0941 have been deployed on a vehicle for the downwind measurements. The emissions are measured downwind of the source and the tracer ratio method is used to calculate the emissions of methane. The measured and calculated values have been compared. Additionally, silonite-coated canisters have been used for collection and analysis of acetylene to further validate the setup. This system has been evaluated for sensitivity, accuracy and response time through a series of controlled tracer and methane releases under various meteorological conditions. The results from these tests and error analysis for the system are presented and discussed.

Hecobian, A.; Clements, A. L.; Shonkwiler, K. B.; Williams, C. M.; Wells, B. L.; MacDonald, L. P.; Pierce, J. R.; Ham, J. M.; Collett, J. L.

2013-12-01

341

Bioethics. LC Science Tracer Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide lists published materials on many aspects of bioethics, the literature of which is varied and scattered. Related guides in the LC Science Tracer Bullet series are TB 80-9, Terminal Care, TB 80-11, Drug Research on Human Subjects, TB 83-4, Science Policy, and TB 84-7, Biotechnology. Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, this…

Martin, Cathy, Comp.; Cadoree, Michelle

342

Thermochromatography study of volatile tellurium species in various gas atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption interaction of tellurium species with fused silica was studied by thermochromatography. Trace amounts of tellurium were obtained by irradiating elemental tin with ?-particles. Different tellurium species were obtained using carrier gases with varied redox potential. Adsorption enthalpies of the obtained species were calculated allowing for the identification of some species. Elemental tellurium or SnTe was deposited in thermochromatography experiments when using both dried and deoxygenated He and H2 as carrier gases. Tellurium dioxide was deposited in thermochromatography experiments when using dry oxygen as carrier gas. Tellurium dioxide was found to be significantly less volatile compared to elemental Te or SnTe. The deposition of a species with still lower volatility occurring under less oxidizing conditions was tentatively assigned to tellurium monoxide, TeO. Species more volatile than elemental tellurium or SnTe, most likely Te-hydroxides, were detected in experiments using moist H2 as carrier gas. In moist oxidizing gas, species more volatile than TeO2 were found, most likely Te-oxyhydroxides. The obtained results provide valuable input to design experiments for studying the volatility of tellurium's heavier homologue polonium and its compounds, which represent one of the major radiological concerns for the use of lead-bismuth-eutectic as coolant and target material for innovative accelerator-driven systems or spallation sources.

Maugeri, Emilio Andrea; Neuhausen, Jörg; Eichler, Robert; Piguet, David; Schumann, Dorothea

2014-09-01

343

Study for Blade Ceramic Coating Delamination Detection for Gas Turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The component of the hot gas path in gas turbines can survive to very high temperatures because they are protected by ceramic Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC); the failure of such coating can dramatically reduce the component life. A reliable assessment of the Coating integrity and/or an Incipient TBC Damage Detection can help both in optimizing the inspection intervals and in finding the appropriate remedial actions. This study gives the TBC integrity; so other methods are required, like thermography to obtain indications of TBC delamination. Pulsed Thermography detects coating detachments and interface defects, with a large area of view but a spatial resolution of few mm. The mentioned techniques as a whole constitute a powerful tool for the life assessment of thermal barrier coating.

Choi, Choul-Jun; Choi, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jae-Yeol

344

Developing, Coupling, and Applying a Gas, Aerosol, Transport, and Radiation Model to Study Urban and Regional Air Pollution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis discusses the development of a gas, aerosol, transport, and radiation air quality model (GATOR), the coupling of GATOR to a mesoscale meteorological and tracer dispersion model (MMTD), and the application of the resulting GATOR/MMTD air pollution modeling system (APMS) to studies of gas and aerosol pollution buildup in the Los Angeles Basin. GATOR consists of computer algorithms that simulate four groups of atmospheric processes: gas, aerosol, transport, and radiation processes. Gas processes include chemistry, emissions, gas-to-particle conversion, optical depth attenuation, and deposition. Aerosol processes include size-resolved emissions, nucleation, coagulation, condensational growth, dissolutional growth, evaporation, chemical equilibrium, aqueous chemistry, optical depth attenuation, deposition, and sedimentation. Transport processes include horizontal advection and diffusion and vertical diffusion of all gases and particles, and they require meteorological data as inputs. To drive the transport processes, the MMTD, developed by R. Lu and R. P. Turco, was coupled to GATOR. The MMTD predicts wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity, and pressure, among other variables. Finally, radiation processes in GATOR include spectrally-resolved scattering and absorption by gases, aerosols, fogs, and clouds, and calculation of mean intensities and heating rates. I used the GATOR/MMTD modeling system to predict pollution buildup in Los Angeles during the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS) period of August 26-28, 1987. Among the model inputs were emissions, soil moisture, albedo, topographical, landuse, and chemical rate data. To validate the model, surface observations were compared to model predictions of gas-phase ozone, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, methane, total non-methane hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, peroxyacetylnitrate, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, nitrous acid, and ammonia concentrations. Observations were also compared to predictions of aerosol-phase ammonium, nitrate, sodium, chloride, sulfate, and total particulate concentrations. Finally, observations were compared to predictions of solar radiation and scattering coefficients. In sum, the GATOR/MMTD system predicted ozone to within a normalized gross error of 20 -35% during the study period. Additional statistics and time-series plots are shown.

Jacobson, Mark Zachary

345

Accounting for pharmacokinetic differences in dual-tracer receptor density imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual-tracer molecular imaging is a powerful approach to quantify receptor expression in a wide range of tissues by using an untargeted tracer to account for any nonspecific uptake of a molecular-targeted tracer. This approach has previously required the pharmacokinetics of the receptor-targeted and untargeted tracers to be identical, requiring careful selection of an ideal untargeted tracer for any given targeted tracer. In this study, methodology capable of correcting for tracer differences in arterial input functions, as well as binding-independent delivery and retention, is derived and evaluated in a mouse U251 glioma xenograft model using an Affibody tracer targeted to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a cell membrane receptor overexpressed in many cancers. Simulations demonstrated that blood, and to a lesser extent vascular-permeability, pharmacokinetic differences between targeted and untargeted tracers could be quantified by deconvolving the uptakes of the two tracers in a region of interest devoid of targeted tracer binding, and therefore corrected for, by convolving the uptake of the untargeted tracer in all regions of interest by the product of the deconvolution. Using fluorescently labeled, EGFR-targeted and untargeted Affibodies (known to have different blood clearance rates), the average tumor concentration of EGFR in four mice was estimated using dual-tracer kinetic modeling to be 3.9 ± 2.4 nM compared to an expected concentration of 2.0 ± 0.4 nM. However, with deconvolution correction a more equivalent EGFR concentration of 2.0 ± 0.4 nM was measured.

Tichauer, K. M.; Diop, M.; Elliott, J. T.; Samkoe, K. S.; Hasan, T.; St. Lawrence, K.; Pogue, B. W.

2014-05-01

346

Spectral Analysis of Tracer Emission and Absorption Lines in Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic analysis of tracer absorption and emission lines is reported for a nested tungsten (W) wire array z-pinch containing an on-axis CH foam with an embedded, thin Al-Mg tracer. The absorption and emission of radiation from the W plasma, the tracer, and the foam are studied with the goal of determining plasma parameters, such as electron temperatures, W composition along

J. J. Macfarlane; K. A. Park; A. R. Thomas-Cramer; J. E. Bailey; G. A. Chandler; P. Lake; T. A. Mehlhorn; T. J. Nash; G. A. Rochau S; S. A. Slutz; R. A. Vesey

2001-01-01

347

Spectral Analysis of Tracer Emission and Absorption Lines in Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic analysis of tracer absorption and emission lines is reported for a nested tungsten (W) wire array z-pinch containing an on-axis CH foam with an embedded, thin Al-Mg tracer. The absorption and emission of radiation from the W plasma, the tracer, and the foam are studied with the goal of determining plasma parameters, such as electron temperatures, W composition along

Joseph Macfarlane; Jim Bailey; Greg Rochau; Tom Nash; Gordon Chandler; Tom Sanford; Tom Mehlhorn; Igor Golovkin; Pam Woodruff

2002-01-01

348

Numerical Simulation and Multiple Realizations for Sensitivity Study of Shale Gas Reservoir  

E-print Network

SPE 141058 Numerical Simulation and Multiple Realizations for Sensitivity Study of Shale Gas. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright. Abstract Shale gas in the United States the largest conventional gas accumulations in the world. Shale gas success is directly the result

Mohaghegh, Shahab

349

A Numerical Study of Microscale Flow Behavior in Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various attempts have been made to model flow in shale gas systems. However, there is currently little consensus regarding\\u000a the impact of molecular and Knudsen diffusion on flow behavior over time in such systems. Direct measurement or model-based\\u000a estimation of matrix permeability for these “ultra-tight” reservoirs has proven unreliable. The composition of gas produced\\u000a from tight gas and shale gas

C. M. Freeman; G. J. Moridis; T. A. Blasingame

350

Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel  

E-print Network

Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor B. Eng. Mgmt

Victoria, University of

351

A Really Good Hammer: Quantification of Mass Transfer Using Perfluorocarbon Tracers (475th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven Lab’s perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be viewed as a hammer looking for nails. But, according to Tom Watson, leader of the Lab’s Tracer Technology Group in the Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD), “It’s a really good hammer!” The colorless, odorless and safe gases have a number of research uses, from modeling how airborne contaminants might move through urban canyons to help first responders plan their response to potential terrorist attacks and accidents to locating leaks in underground gas pipes. Their extremely low background level — detectable at one part per quadrillion — allows their transport to be easily tracked. Lab researchers used PFTs during the 2005 Urban Dispersion Program field studies in New York City, gathering data to help improve models of how a gas or chemical release might move around Manhattan’s tall buildings and canyons. Closer to home, scientists also used PFTs to make ventilation measurements in Bldg. 400 on the Lab site to provide data to test air flow models used in determining the effects of passive and active air exchange on the levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and to determine the effects of an accidental or intentional release of hazardous substances in or around buildings.

Watson, Tom [BNL Environmental Sciences, Tracer Technology Group

2012-02-15

352

Analysing the capabilities and limitations of tracer tests in stream-aquifer systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of this study was to identify the limitations that apply when we couple conservative-tracer injection with reactive solute sampling to identify the transport and reaction processes active in a stream. Our methodology applies Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis to assess the ability of the tracer approach to identify the governing transport and reaction processes for a wide range of stream-solute transport and reaction scenarios likely to be encountered in high-gradient streams. Our analyses identified dimensionless factors that define the capabilities and limitations of the tracer approach. These factors provide a framework for comparing and contrasting alternative tracer test designs.

Wagner, B.J.; Harvey, J.W.

2001-01-01

353

The Postshock Chemical Lifetimes of Outflow Tracers and a Possible New Mechanism to Produce Water Ice Mantles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have used a coupled time-dependent chemical and dynamical model to investigate the lifetime of the chemical legacy in the wake of C-type shocks. We concentrate this study on the chemistry of H2O and O2, two molecules which are predicted to have abundances that are significantly affected in shock-heated gas. Two models are presented: (1) a three-stage model of preshock, shocked, and postshock gas; and (2) a Monte Carlo cloud simulation where we explore the effects of stochastic shock activity on molecular gas over a cloud lifetime. For both models we separately examine the pure gas-phase chemistry as well as the chemistry including the interactions of molecules with grain surfaces. In agreement with previous studies, we find that shock velocities in excess of 10 km/s are required to convert all of the oxygen not locked in CO into H2O before the gas has an opportunity to cool. For pure gas phase models the lifetime of the high water abundances, or "H2O legacy," in the postshock gas is approximately (4-7) x 10(exp 5) yr, independent of the gas density. A density dependence for the lifetime of H2O is found in gas-grain models as the water molecules deplete onto grains at the depletion timescale. Through the Monte Carlo cloud simulation we demonstrate that the time-average abundance of H2O, the weighted average of the amount of time gas spends in preshock, shock, and postshock stages, is a sensitive function of the frequency of shocks. Thus we predict that the abundance of H2O, and to a lesser extent O2, can be used to trace the history of shock activity in molecular gas. We use previous large-scale surveys of molecular outflows to constrain the frequency of 10 km/s shocks in regions with varying star formation properties and discuss the observations required to test these results. We discuss the postshock lifetimes for other possible outflow tracers (e.g., SiO and CH3OH) and show that the differences between the lifetimes for various tracers can produce potentially observable chemical variations between younger and older outflows. For gas-grain models we find that the abundance of water-ice on grain surfaces can be quite large and is comparable to that observed in molecular clouds. This offers a possible alternative method to create water mantles without resorting to grain surface chemistry: gas heating and chemical modification due to a C-type shock and subsequent depletion of the gas-phase species onto grain mantles.

Bergin, Edwin A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Neufeld, David A.

1998-01-01

354

28 CFR Appendix B to Part 79 - Blood-Gas Study Tables  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blood-Gas Study Tables B Appendix B to Part 79... Pt. 79, App. B Appendix B to Part 79—Blood-Gas Study Tables For arterial blood-gas studies performed at test locations...

2011-07-01

355

28 CFR Appendix B to Part 79 - Blood-Gas Study Tables  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blood-Gas Study Tables B Appendix B to Part 79... Pt. 79, App. B Appendix B to Part 79—Blood-Gas Study Tables For arterial blood-gas studies performed at test locations...

2013-07-01

356

28 CFR Appendix B to Part 79 - Blood-Gas Study Tables  

... 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blood-Gas Study Tables B Appendix B to Part 79... Pt. 79, App. B Appendix B to Part 79—Blood-Gas Study Tables For arterial blood-gas studies performed at test locations...

2014-07-01

357

28 CFR Appendix B to Part 79 - Blood-Gas Study Tables  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blood-Gas Study Tables B Appendix B to Part 79... Pt. 79, App. B Appendix B to Part 79—Blood-Gas Study Tables For arterial blood-gas studies performed at test locations...

2012-07-01

358

28 CFR Appendix B to Part 79 - Blood-Gas Study Tables  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pt. 79, App. B Appendix B to Part 79—Blood-Gas Study Tables For arterial blood-gas studies performed at test locations...below. Above 50 mmHg Any value. For arterial blood-gas studies performed at test...

2010-07-01

359

Study of vacuum gas flows with the unified gas-kinetic scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unified gas-kinetic scheme is a novel approach to solve the kinetic equation by using both hydrodynamic and kinetic scales flow physics in each evolution step at the cell interface. It can basically represent flow features in all flow regimes from the free molecular flows to the Navier-Stokes solutions. In this paper, two-dimensional channels with different length to height ratios L/H were systematically studied with this scheme in a very large variation of the rarefaction condition. When L/H = 1, the results are in good agreement with the reference results obtained with the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. When L/H = 30, a Knudsen minimum arises around a Knudsen number of unity. These calculation results clearly demonstrate the capability of this new scheme.

Luo, Xueli; Wang, Ruiji; Day, Christian; Xu, Kun

2014-12-01

360

Lean stability augmentation study. [on gas turbine combustion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical conceptual design study and an experimental test program were conducted to investigate techniques and develop technology for improving the lean combustion limits of premixing, prevaporizing combustors applicable to gas turbine engine main burners. The use of hot gas pilots, catalyzed flameholder elements, and heat recirculation to augment lean stability limits was considered in the conceptual design study. Tests of flameholders embodying selected concepts were conducted at a pressure of 10 arm and over a range of entrance temperatures simulating conditions to be encountered during stratospheric cruise. The tests were performed using an axisymmetric flametube test rig having a nominal diameter of 10.2 cm. A total of sixteen test configurations were examined in which lean blowout limits, pollutant emission characteristics, and combustor performance were evaluated. The use of a piloted perforated plate flameholder employing a pilot fuel flow rate equivalent to 4 percent of the total fuel flow at a simulated cruise condition resulted in a lean blowout equivalence ratio of less than 0.25 with a design point (T sub zero = 600k, Phi = 0.6) NOx emission index of less than 1.0 g/kg.

Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.

1979-01-01

361

A study of the sources and sinks of methane and methyl chloroform using a global three-dimensional Lagrangian tropospheric tracer transport model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sources and sinks of methane and methyl chloroform are investigated using a global three-dimensional Lagrangian tropospheric tracer transport model with parameterized hydroxyl and temperature fields. Using the hydroxyl radical field calibrated to the methyl chloroform observations, the globally averaged release of methane and its spatial and temporal distribution were investigated. Two source function models of the spatial and temporal distribution of the flux of methane to the atmosphere were developed. The first model was based on the assumption that methane is emitted as a proportion of net primary productivity (NPP). The second model identified source regions for methane from rice paddies, wetlands, enteric fermentation, termites, and biomass burning based on high-resolution land use data. The most significant difference between the two models were predictions of methane fluxes over China and South East Asia, the location of most of the world's rice paddies, indicating that either the assumption that a uniform fraction of NPP is converted to methane is not valid for rice paddies, or that NPP is underestimated for rice paddies, or that present methane emission estimates from rice paddies are too high.

Taylor, John A.; Brasseur, G. P.; Zimmerman, P. R.; Cicerone, R. J.

1991-01-01

362

A study of the sources and sinks of methane and methyl chloroform using a global three-dimensional Lagrangian tropospheric tracer transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sources and sinks of methane and methyl chloroform are investigated using a global three-dimensional Lagrangian tropospheric tracer transport model with parameterized hydroxyl and temperature fields. Using the hydroxyl radical field calibrated to the methyl chloroform observations, the globally averaged release of methane and its spatial and temporal distribution were investigated. Two source function models of the spatial and temporal distribution of the flux of methane to the atmosphere were developed. The first model was based on the assumption that methane is emitted as a proportion of net primary productivity (NPP). The second model identified source regions for methane from rice paddies, wetlands, enteric fermentation, termites, and biomass burning based on high-resolution land use data. The most significant difference between the two models were predictions of methane fluxes over China and South East Asia, the location of most of the world's rice paddies, indicating that either the assumption that a uniform fraction of NPP is converted to methane is not valid for rice paddies, or that NPP is underestimated for rice paddies, or that present methane emission estimates from rice paddies are too high.

Taylor, John A.; Brasseur, G. P.; Zimmerman, P. R.; Cicerone, R. J.

1991-02-01

363

A toolkit for groundwater mean residence time interpretation with gaseous tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical Excel-based toolkit called Gas-Tracer-Interpretation (GTI) was developed for determining mean residence time (MRT) of groundwater samples and for validating conceptual model assumptions. This novel data interpretation toolkit improves data handling during analysis and resolves some problems in the interpretation of data from environmental tracers. The toolkit can assist error detection, uncertainty and ambiguity during data analysis, particularly ambiguity due to the decline in atmospheric data of CFC input functions (air-mixing ratios of tracers). The innovative interpretation methodologies are: (1) corrections of environmental tracer data are conducted in concentrations in water instead of air (atmosphere), allowing comparison of different tracer input functions under similar conditions and thereby replacing the use of unique global atmospheric data; (2) a multi-model, multi-tracer approach is adopted to improve the number of different combinations of environmental tracers and lumped-parameter models (piston flow (PM), exponential (EM), exponential-piston flow (EPM), advection-dispersion (DM) and gamma (GM)); and (3) generation of sufficient information for determination of erroneous, unclear and ambiguous outcomes. Results are linked to graphical analysis to improve data view. GTI supports the environmental tracers CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 3H, and also SF5CF3, which is included as it represents a promising environmental tracer in hydrological research. The toolkit compares modeled input functions of tracers and data from samples. The apparent recharge age and MRT are estimated by combining explicit graphical and numerical data presentation. Due to the multi-model approach, it is possible to contrast selected models and estimate the best fit for a given sample, which is particularly useful for validating conceptual model assumptions. The toolkit has been developed in Microsoft ®Excel, and hence is user-friendly such that advanced programming skills or detailed understanding of the calculations and mathematical procedures are unnecessary.

Dávila, Pablo Fernando; Külls, Christoph; Weiler, Markus

2013-12-01

364

A Statistical Study of H I Gas in Nearby Narrow-Line AGN-Hosting Galaxies  

E-print Network

As a quenching mechanism, AGN feedback could suppress on-going star formation in their host galaxies. On the basis of a sample of galaxies selected from ALFALFA HI survey, the dependence of their HI mass M[HI], stellar mass M[*] & HI-to-stellar mass ratio M[HI]/M[*] on various tracers of AGN activity are presented and analyzed in this paper. Almost all the AGN-hostings in this sample are gas-rich galaxies, and there is no any evidence to be shown to indicate that the AGN activity could increase/decrease either M[HI] or M[HI]/M[*]. The cold neutral gas can not be fixed positions accurately just based on available HI data due to the large beam size of ALFALFA survey. In addition, even though AGN-hostings are more easily detected by HI survey compared with absorption line galaxies, these two types of galaxies show similar star formation history. If an AGN-hosting would ultimately evolve into an old red galaxy with few cold gas, then when and how the gas has been exhausted have to be solved by future hypothes...

Zhu, Yi-Nan

2015-01-01

365

A Statistical Study of H I Gas in Nearby Narrow-Line AGN-Hosting Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a quenching mechanism, active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback could suppress on going star formation in host galaxies. On the basis of a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) H i survey, the dependence of the H i mass (MH i), stellar mass (M*), and H i-to-stellar mass ratio (MH i/M*) on various tracers of AGN activity are presented and analyzed in this paper. Almost all the AGN hostings in this sample are gas-rich galaxies, and there is not any evidence to indicate that the AGN activity could increase or decrease either MH i or MH i/M*. The position of the cold neutral gas cannot be fixed accurately based only on available H i data, due to the large beam size of ALFALFA survey. In addition, even though AGN hostings are more easily detected by an H i survey compared with absorption line galaxies, these two types of galaxies show similar star formation history. If an AGN hosting would ultimately evolve into an old red galaxy with low cold gas, then when and how the gas has been exhausted must be solved by future hypotheses and observations.

Zhu, Yi-Nan; Wu, Hong

2015-01-01

366

A review of biomarker compounds as source indicators and tracers for air pollution.  

PubMed

An overview of the application of organic geochemistry to the analysis of organic matter on aerosol particles is presented here. This organic matter is analyzed as solvent extractable bitumen/ lipids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The organic geochemical approach assesses the origin, the environmental history and the nature of secondary products of organic matter by using the data derived from specific molecular analyses. Evaluations of production and fluxes, with cross-correlations can thus be made by the application of the same separation and analytical procedures to samples from point source emissions and the ambient atmosphere. This will be illustrated here with typical examples from the ambient atmosphere (aerosol particles) and from emissions of biomass burning (smoke). Organic matter in aerosols is derived from two major sources and is admixed depending on the geographic relief of the air shed. These sources are biogenic detritus (e.g., plant wax, microbes, etc.) and anthropogenic particle emissions (e.g., oils, soot, synthetics, etc.). Both biogenic detritus and some of the anthropogenic particle emissions contain organic materials which have unique and distinguishable compound distribution patterns (C(14)-C(40)). Microbial and vascular plant lipids are the dominant biogenic residues and petroleum hydrocarbons, with lesser amounts of the pyrogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and synthetics (e.g., chlorinated compounds), are the major anthropogenic residues. Biomass combustion is another important primary source of particles injected into the global atmosphere. It contributes many trace substances which are reactants in atmospheric chemistry and soot paniculate matter with adsorbed biomarker compounds, most of which are unknown chemical structures. The injection of natural product organic compounds into smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. Although the molecular composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular tracers are generally still source specific. Retene has been utilized as a tracer for conifer smoke in urban aerosols, but is not always detectable. Dehydroabietic acid is generally more concentrated in the atmosphere from the same emission sources. Degradation products from biopolymers (e.g., levoglucosan from cellulose) are also excellent tracers. An overview of the biomarker compositions of biomass smoke types is presented here. Defining additional tracers of thermally-altered and directly-emitted natural products in smoke aids the assessment of the organic matter type and input from biomass combustion to aerosols. The precursor to product approach of compound characterization by organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide tracers for studying the chemistry and dispersion of ambient aerosols and smoke plumes. PMID:19009394

Simoneit, B R

1999-01-01

367

Natural organic compounds as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Although various molecular markers have already been proposed for this process, additional specific organic tracers need to be characterized. The injection of natural product organic tracers to smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. The degree of alteration increases as the burn temperature rises and the moisture content of the fuel decreases. Although the molecular composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. The homologous compound series and biomarkers present in smoke particles are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers, wax, gum and resin. The complexity of the organic components of smoke aerosol is illustrated with examples from controlled burns of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Burning of biomass from temperate regions (i.e., conifers) yields characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species, which are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke particles from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. The precursor-to-product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

Simoneit, B.R.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Coll. of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences; Abas, M.R. bin [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Cass, G.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Environmental Engineering Science Dept.; Rogge, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Florida International Univ., University Park, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Standley, L.J. [Academy of Natural Sciences, Avondale, PA (United States). Stroud Water Research Center; Hildemann, L.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-08-01

368

Monodisperse magnetite nanoparticle tracers for in vivo magnetic particle imaging  

PubMed Central

Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging modality that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle tracer distributions. In this study, we synthesized monodisperse tracers for enhanced MPI performance and investigated both, their blood clearance time using a 25 kHz magnetic particle spectrometer (MPS), and biodistribution using a combination of quantitative T2-weighted MRI and tissue histology. In vitro and in vivo MPI performance of our magnetic nanoparticle tracers (MNTs), subject to biological constraints, were compared to commercially available SPIOs (Resovist). Monodisperse MNTs showed a 2-fold greater signal per unit mass, and 20% better spatial resolution. In vitro evaluation of tracers showed that MPI performance of our MNTs is preserved in blood, serum-rich cell culture medium and gel; thus independent of changes in hydrodynamic volume and fluid viscosity – a critical prerequisite for in vivo MPI. In a rodent model, our MNTs circulated for 15 minutes – 3× longer than Resovist – and supported our in vitro evaluation that MPI signal is preserved in the physiological environment. Furthermore, MRI and histology analysis showed that MNTs distribute in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in a manner similar to clinically approved SPIO agents. MNTs demonstrating long-circulation times and optimized MPI performance show potential as angiography tracers and blood-pool agents for the emerging MPI imaging modality. PMID:23434348

Khandhar, Amit P; Ferguson, R Matthew; Arami, Hamed; Krishnan, Kannan M

2013-01-01

369

Comparing reactive and non reactive tracers to measure changes in liquid dominated, fractured geothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Tracer test data collected during the 1992 and 1995 flow tests of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) reservoir at Fenton Hill, NM reveal that significant dynamic flow changes occurred with heat mining. Temporally changing tracer residence times, reservoir fluid volume, and broadening fluid residence time distributions were measured with two different tracers used simultaneously during both flow tests. The tracers employed were p-toluene sulfonic acid (p-TSA) and sodium fluorescein (NaFl). While p-TSA is considered non reactive, fluorescein degrades at high temperature. Differences in the recovery of the two tracers measured at Fenton Hill suggest the circulating fluid may have increasingly accessed higher temperature flow paths as energy was extracted. However, the reactive and adsorptive properties of fluorescein are not well characterized for the geochemistry of the Fenton hill reservoir, so further study of tracer properties should be conducted before making firm conclusions. Reservoir simulation with GEOCRACK, a computer model that couples thermal deformation with fluid flow and heat transfer, aids in understanding the tracer response with heat extraction. Simulation of non reactive and reactive tracers illustrates how a comparison of these tracers could be employed to characterize fracture surface area and predict thermal breakthrough in liquid dominated, fractured geothermal reservoirs.

Du Teaux, R.; Callahan, T.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

370

Radiant energy absorption studies for laser propulsion. [gas dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the energy absorption mechanisms and fluid dynamic considerations for efficient conversion of high power laser radiation into a high velocity flow is presented. The objectives of the study are: (1) to determine the most effective absorption mechanisms for converting laser radiation into translational energy, and (2) to examine the requirements for transfer of the absorbed energy into a steady flow which is stable to disturbances in the absorption zone. A review of inverse Bremsstrahlung, molecular and particulate absorption mechanisms is considered and the steady flow and stability considerations for conversion of the laser power to a high velocity flow in a nozzle configuration is calculated. A quasi-one-dimensional flow through a nozzle was formulated under the assumptions of perfect gas.

Caledonia, G. E.; Wu, P. K. S.; Pirri, A. N.

1975-01-01

371

PET Tracers Based on Zirconium-89  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies has always been a dynamic area in molecular imaging. With decay half-life (3.3 d) well matched to the circulation half-lives of antibodies (usually on the order of days), 89Zr has been extensively studied over the last decade. This review article will give a brief overview on 89Zr isotope production, the radiochemistry generally used for 89Zr-labeling, and the PET tracers that have been developed using 89Zr. To date, 89Zr-based PET imaging has been investigated for a wide variety of cancer-related targets, which include human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, epidermal growth factor receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, splice variant v6 of CD44, vascular endothelial growth factor, carbonic anhydrase IX, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, among others. With well-developed radiochemistry, commercial availability of chelating agents for 89Zr labeling, increasingly widely available isotope supply, as well as successful proof-of-principle in pilot human studies, it is expected that PET imaging with 89Zr-based tracers will be a constantly evolving and highly vibrant field in the near future. PMID:22191652

Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

2011-01-01

372

Wave speeds in gas hydrate and sediments containing gas hydrate: A laboratory and modeling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like phases of water that physically trap "guest" molecules in cages created by the water crystal lattice. Gas hydrates formed with methane have been found in many continental margin and deep-sea sediments and beneath permafrost in the Arctic. Natural gas hydrate deposits may contain an economically significant volume of natural gas and/or play a role in global climate change. The presence of gas hydrate can also affect the strength and rigidity of sediments. Current estimates of natural gas stored in gas hydrates are uncertain because it is difficult to quantify the amount of gas hydrate present in the subsurface. Seismic data could be used to more effectively locate and quantify gas hydrate if more were known of the elastic properties of gas hydrate and sediments containing gas hydrate. In this thesis I analyze previous models and summarize previous measurements of wave speeds in gas hydrate. One model (limited to T < 0°C) is updated to account for modern laboratory measurements and extended to predicting shear wave speeds. I also report new experiments on propane and methane hydrate. Experiments on propane hydrate formed by bubbling gas through water and water saturated sediments were largely unsuccessful because the resultant hydrate was unsuitable for wave speed measurements. Subsequent experiments on methane hydrate formed from granulated ice resulted in compressional and shear wave speed measurements over a range of temperatures (-15 to 15°C) and pressures (0 to 15,000 psi). The measurements made below 0°C matched the predictions of the model. Wave speed measurements were also made on ice samples, and "hand-book" values were obtained. Methane hydrate was found to be much more resistant to compaction than ice. The results from the methane hydrate experiments were used in rock physics models to predict the effect that gas hydrate has on compressional and shear wave speeds in sediments. The models were tested against well log data from ocean bottom sediments and sands known to contain gas hydrate. The results matched independent estimates, where available, and made it possible to infer how the gas hydrate was distributed in the pore space.

Helgerud, Michael B.

373

Evaluation of Natural Gas Systems: A Comparison Study for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

With global warming, natural gas is becoming one of the critical energy sources in the world due to low-level emission of greenhouse gases. For that reason, natural gas consumption is increasing rapidly in the world. Turkey, which is a natural bridge between Europe and the Middle East, is a developing country in the world. The demand for natural gas has

F. E. Boran; K. Boran

2012-01-01

374

Fugitive greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas activities - a case study of Dish, TX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate new findings on aerial (horizontal and vertical) mapping of methane emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer region to help study fugitive methane emissions from extraction, transmission, and storage of natural gas and oil in Dish, Texas. Dish is located in the Barnett Shale which has seen explosive development of hydraulic fracking activities in recent years. The aerial measurements were performed with a new laser-based methane sensor developed specifically for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) methane sensor, with a mass of 2.5 kg and a precision of < 20 ppbv methane at 1 Hz, was flown on the UT-Dallas ARC Payload Master electronic aircraft at two sites in Texas: one representative of urban emissions of the Dallas-Fort Worth area in Richardson, Texas and another in Dish, Texas, closer to gas and oil activities. Methane mixing ratios at Dish were ubiquitously in the 3.5 - 4 ppmv range which was 1.5 - 2 ppmv higher than methane levels immediately downwind of Dallas. During the flight measurements at Dish, narrow methane plumes exceeding 20 ppmv were frequently observed at altitudes from the surface to 130 m above the ground. Based on the wind speed at the sampling location, the horizontal widths of large methane plumes were of the order of 100 m. The locations of the large methane plumes were variable in space and time over a ~ 1 km2 area sampled from the UAV. Spatial mapping over larger scales (10 km) by ground-based measurements showed similar methane levels as the UAV measurements. To corroborate our measurements, alkane and other hydrocarbon mixing ratios from an on-site TCEQ environmental monitoring station were analyzed and correlated with methane measurements to fingerprint the methane source. We show that fugitive methane emissions at Dish are a significant cause of the large and ubiquitous methane levels on the 1-10 km scale.

Khan, A.; Roscoe, B.; Lary, D.; Schaefer, D.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Brian, A.; DiGangi, J.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.

2012-12-01

375

Background studies in gas ionizing x ray detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background response of a gas ionizing proportional x ray detector is estimated by solving the one dimensional photon transport equation for two regions using Monte Carlo techniques. The solution was effected using the SSL VAX 780 and the CRAY XMP computers at Marshall Space Flight Center. The isotropic photon energy spectrum encompassing the range from 1 to 1000 KeV incident onto the first region, the shield, is taken so as to represent the measured spectrum at an altitude of 3 mb over Palastine, Texas. The differential energy spectrum deposited in the gas region, xenon, over the range of 0 to 100 KeV is written to an output file. In addition, the photon flux emerging from the shield region, tin, over the range of 1 to 1000 KeV is also tabulated and written to a separate file. Published tabular cross sections for photoelectric, elastic and inelastic Compton scattering as well as the total absorption coefficient are used. Histories of each incident photon as well as secondary photons from Compton and photoelectric interactions are followed until the photon either is absorbed or exits from the regions under consideration. The effect of shielding thickness upon the energy spectrum deposited in the xenon region for this background spectrum incident upon the tin shield was studied.

Eldridge, Hudson B.

1989-01-01

376

AVO studies of gas sands via physical modeling  

SciTech Connect

A physical modeling experiment was conducted over a simple model consisting of three layers. The three layers were epoxy, Foamglas, and epoxy. The materials of these layers correspond to shale, gas sand and shale in the real earth. A trench was drilled in this model and the ground roll was successfully attenuated prior to seismic data acquisition over this model. Transducer directivity corrections were made based on empirically derived least square function. An elastic synthetic based on wave equation and an acoustic synthetic based on ray tracing were computed over this model. Elastic, and acoustic AVO modeling data corresponding to the top interface (epoxy and Foamglas) were compared to the AVO data of the physical model. The results show a consistent decrease of amplitude versus offset at this interface. This amplitude decrease with offset is due to the anomalous density contrast between epoxy and Foamglas material. This experiment demonstrates that the physical modeling can be used to simulate gas sand reservoirs in the actual field AVO studies.

Tadepalli, S.V.; Sekharan, K.K.; Ebrom, D.A. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

377

Numerical studies of gas flow in spiral galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical method is described which is designed to treat the dynamics of an infinitesimally thin, differentially rotating gaseous disk. The method is based on the Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM), a higher-order extension of Godunov's method which allows the accurate computation of small perturbations. The method is suited to the study of the gaseous response to a spiral density wave in a disk galaxy. A series of two-dimensional hydrodynamical models is computed to test the gravitational response of a uniform, isothermal, massless gaseous disk to an imposed spiral gravitational perturbation. Galaxy parameters are based on the galaxy NGC 628. The solutions have shocks inside and outside corotation, depleting the region around corotation. Implied rapid evolution shown by this model suggests that if galaxies exist with such large perturbations, either gas must be replenished from outside the galaxy or the perturbations must be transitory. Inside corotation with the spiral pattern, the loss of angular momentum by the gas increases the angular momentum of the stars, reducing the wave amplitude.

Edgar, Bruce Kevin

378

Conceptual design study of an improved automotive gas turbine powertrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automotive gas turbine concepts with significant technological advantages over the spark ignition (SI) engine were assessed. Possible design concepts were rated with respect to fuel economy and near-term application. A program plan which outlines the development of the improved gas turbine (IGT) concept that best met the goals and objectives of the study identifies the research and development work needed to meet the goal of entering a production engineering phase by 1983. The fuel economy goal is to show at least a 20% improvement over a conventional 1976 SI engine/vehicle system. On the basis of achieving the fuel economy goal, of overall suitability to mechanical design, and of automotive mass production cost, the powertrain selected was a single-shaft engine with a radial turbine and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Design turbine inlet temperature was 1150 C. Reflecting near-term technology, the turbine rotor would be made of an advanced superalloy, and the transmission would be a hydromechanical CVT. With successful progress in long-lead R&D in ceramic technology and the belt-drive CVT, the turbine inlet temperature would be 1350 C to achieve near-maximum fuel economy.

Wagner, C. E. (editor); Pampreen, R. C. (editor)

1979-01-01

379

ARE RADON GAS MEASUREMENTS ADEQUATE FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CASE CONTROL  

E-print Network

ARE RADON GAS MEASUREMENTS ADEQUATE FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CASE CONTROL STUDIES OF RADON 2004 The lung dose derived from radon is not attributed to the radon gas itself, but instead to its of the radon risk, the excess number of cancers are related to the radon gas exposure, and not to the radon

Yu, K.N.

380

When Gas Prices Go Up, So Do Motorcycle Accidents, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. When Gas Prices Go Up, So Do Motorcycle Accidents, Study ... Injuries MONDAY, Dec. 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- As gas prices rose in recent years, so did motorcyclist ...

381

Study of gas flow dynamics in porous and granular media with laser-polarized ¹²?Xe NMR  

E-print Network

This thesis presents Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of gas flow dynamics in porous and granular media by using laser-polarized ¹²?Xe . Two different physical processes, the gas transport in porous rock cores and ...

Wang, Ruopeng, 1972-

2005-01-01

382

Boron as a tracer of aerosol from combustion of coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric boron was found to be predominantly gaseous in ambient samples and in stacks of coal-fired power plants. Typical gas/particulate ratios ranged from 20 to more than 100, with stack ratios above 100 and ambient ratios generally below 100. In the stacks, B/SO2 ratios were lower than expected from bulk U.S. coals, consistent with volatilization of 20-80 percent of the boron during combustion. Midwestern ambient B/SO2 ratios were at or above stack values, with the lowest ratios associated with highest concentrations. SO2 was always more variable than gaseous boron. These observations are consistent with coal combustion as the major source of atmospheric boron (and SO2) in the Midwest. In northern Vermont, concentrations of gaseous boron and SO2 were several times lower than in the Midwest, but the B/SO2 ratio was several times higher. Both species passed through quasiweekly in-phase cycles of concentration with the relative amplitudes being greater for SO2 than for gaseous boron. All major pulses of boron and SO2 came from the direction of the Midwest, on the backsides of high-pressure areas. Since the ocean is also a source of gaseous boron, its anthropogenic tracer potential for acid deposition studies will be most useful in the interior of continents.

Fogg, Thomas R.; Rahn, Kenneth A.

1984-09-01

383

Tracer Transport Modelling for Unsaturated Zone — Effect of Anion Exclusion and Immobile Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injected tracer method for the evaluation of mass flow of moisture in the unsaturated zone is based on the ‘piston-flow’ model. The assumptions inherent in this concept are that the dynamic behaviour of the tracer is similar to the moisture in transport and that there is no ‘immobile’ component of soil moisture. Our studies indicate that the above assumptions

S. M. Rao; S. K. Jain

1985-01-01

384

Evaluating Bacteriophage P22 as a Tracer in a Complex Surface Water  

E-print Network

Evaluating Bacteriophage P22 as a Tracer in a Complex Surface Water System: The Grand River marine and fresh water environments. There is a strong interest in using bacteriophages as tracers the transport of bacteriophages in the subsurface environment, few studies examined phage transport in large

385

Comparing Surface Residue Transfer Efficiencies to Hands Using Polar and Non-Polar Florescent Tracers  

EPA Science Inventory

Results of this study indicate that dermal loadings of both tracers increase through the seventh brief contact. Dermal loading of Uvitex tends to increase at a higher rate than dermal loadings of riboflavin. Measurement of co-applied tracer and pesticide suggest results for thes...

386

Tracer tests and the structure of permeability in the Corallian limestone aquifer of northern England, UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Corallian limestone of northern England (UK) is widely exploited for water supplies and exhibits the karstic phenomena of sinking rivers, conduit development and groundwater velocities of several kilometres per day. To test a number of model-derived source protection zones and elucidate contaminant transport mechanisms in the aquifer, three tracer tests were conducted from a set of swallow-holes draining the River Derwent toward public water supply wells in the eastern part of the aquifer. Tracers used included: Enterobacter cloacae (bacteriophage), Photine C (optical brightener), sodium fluorescein (fluorescent dye) and sulphur hexafluoride (dissolved gas), the varying properties of which make them suitable analogues for different types of potential contaminant. Observed tracer transport times and arrival patterns indicate that tracer transport occurs through karstic channels embedded in a network of primary fissures which exert control over tracer concentrations once initial tracer plumes have passed. A dipole flow system is observed between the swallow-holes and the closest abstraction well, whilst previously modelled source protection zones do not accurately reflect either groundwater velocity or those areas of the aquifer supplying the wells. These findings imply that managing such aquifers for potential contamination should rely upon empirical tracer evidence for source-protection zone modelling.

Foley, Aidan; Cachandt, Gerd; Franklin, Janine; Willmore, Fergus; Atkinson, Tim

2012-05-01

387

Impact Studies Using a One Stage Light Gas Gun  

E-print Network

The Center for Astrophysics,Space Physics, and Engineering Research (CASPER) has completed construction and calibration of a Light Gas Gun (LGG), which is used for low velocity impact studies. At geosynchronous orbit, space debris can impact commercial satellites at velocities of 500 m/s [1] reducing their useful lifetime. Additionally, there is an ever-increasing population of abandoned nonoperational satellites and related debris in these orbits [2]. Therefore, it is important to clearly understand the physics behind how such collisions can cause structural damage. This is most easily determined by measuring the damage incurred on representative material exposed to test collisions in the laboratory. Data collected in this manner will not only help illuminate the shock physics involved but can also aid in providing methods for designing advanced shielding for satellites.

Jorge Carmona; Mike Cook; Jimmy Schmoke; Katie Harper; Jerry Reay; Lorin Matthews; Truell Hyde

2004-01-29