These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Perfluorocarbon Gas Tracer Studies to Support Risk Assessment Modeling of Critical Infrastructure Subjected to Terrorist Attacks  

SciTech Connect

Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., “urban canyons”. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City’s (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving transport models needed for risk assessment.

Sullivan, Terry M.; Heiser, John H.; Watson, Tom; Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

2006-05-06

2

PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.  

SciTech Connect

Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving transport models needed for risk assessment.

SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J.; FLAHERTY, J.E.

2006-05-06

3

Multiple-tracer gas analyzer  

SciTech Connect

A multi-gas tracer system has been designed, built, and used on an explosively fractured oil shale rubble bed. This paper deals exclusively with the hardware, software, and overall operation of the tracer system. This system is a field portable, self-contained unit, which utilizes a mass spectrometer for gas analysis. The unit has a 20 channel sample port capability and is controlled by a desk top computer. The system is configured to provide a dynamic sensitivity range of up to six orders of magnitude. A roots blower is manifolded to the unit to provide continuous flow in all sample lines. The continuous flow process allows representative samples as well as decreasing the time between each measurement. Typical multiplex cycle time to evaluate four unique gases is approximately 12 seconds.

Uhl, J.E.

1982-01-01

4

A pilot study of the behavior of gas- and particle-phase ETS tracers in residences  

SciTech Connect

Our previous study of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a three-room environmental chamber showed that smoking history significantly influenced inter-room ETS transport, particularly of gas-phase nicotine. We conducted a three-home pilot study where smoking was limited to one room. Single-smoker residences were monitored during five one-week periods while the smoker participated in a smoking cessation program. Nicotine traced ETS particles were detected reliably in the smoking rooms (SRs) and unreliably in the non-smoking rooms (NSRs). On average, the ventilation- and volume-normalized smoking rate, 0.1 Cigarette-h{sup -1} m{sup -3}, added about 17 and 4 {micro}g m{sup -3} of ETS particles into the SR and NSR, while average nicotine concentration increases were 2 and 0.06 {micro}g m{sup -3}, respectively. Thus, nicotine tracers may underestimate ETS particle exposure in a NSR (e.g., a child's bedroom) by a factor of 2 to 8. In other words, ETS exposure predicted from nicotine concentrations could be almost an order of magnitude lower than actual exposure.

Apte, Michael; Gundel, Lara; Dod, Raymond; Chang, Gee-Min; Sextro, Richard

2002-02-01

5

Novel tracer method to measure isotopic labeled gas-phase nitrous acid (HO15NO) in biogeochemical studies.  

PubMed

Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO), the protonated form of nitrite, contributes up to ?60% to the primary formation of hydroxyl radical (OH), which is a key oxidant in the degradation of most air pollutants. Field measurements and modeling studies indicate a large unknown source of HONO during daytime. Here, we developed a new tracer method based on gas-phase stripping-derivatization coupled to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to measure the 15N relative exceedance, ?(15N), of HONO in the gas-phase. Gaseous HONO is quantitatively collected and transferred to an azo dye, purified by solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). In the optimal working range of ?(15N)=0.2-0.5, the relative standard deviation of ?(15N) is <4%. The optimum pH and solvents for extraction by SPE and potential interferences are discussed. The method was applied to measure HO15NO emissions from soil in a dynamic chamber with and without spiking 15) labeled urea. The identification of HO15NO from soil with 15N urea addition confirmed biogenic emissions of HONO from soil. The method enables a new approach of studying the formation pathways of HONO and its role for atmospheric chemistry (e.g., ozone formation) and environmental tracer studies on the formation and conversion of gaseous HONO or aqueous NO2- as part of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, e.g., in the investigation of fertilization effects on soil HONO emissions and microbiological conversion of NO2- in the hydrosphere. PMID:24954648

Wu, Dianming; Kampf, Christopher J; Pöschl, Ulrich; Oswald, Robert; Cui, Junfang; Ermel, Michael; Hu, Chunsheng; Trebs, Ivonne; Sörgel, Matthias

2014-07-15

6

Hydrodynamics of slurry bubble column during dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis: Gas–liquid recirculation model and radioactive tracer studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive tracer measurements, using impulse injections of Ar41, powdered oxide of Mn56 and real catalyst particles doped with an oxide of Mn56, conducted at the Advance Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) slurry bubble column (BC) reactor during dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis (reactor pressure of 5.27MPa, reactor temperature of T=250?C, inlet superficial gas velocity of 17.1cm\\/s, and a catalyst loading of 36wt%)

P. Chen; P. Gupta; M. P. Dudukovic; B. A. Toseland

2006-01-01

7

Noble gas tracers for characterisation of flow dynamics and origin of groundwater: A case study in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe Grenchen aquifer system in the Swiss Plateau was extensively investigated in order to determine the extent of groundwater contamination and to assess the natural attenuation capacity. Environmental tracer data were applied to estimate groundwater travel times, mixing ratios, and evaluate groundwater origin. Recharge is basically possible in two distinct topographical areas, the immediate vicinity of the town of Grenchen and the elevated plateau of the first Jura Mountain ridge. Groundwater dating was performed with the 3H/ 3He dating method and supplemented by 85Kr measurements. Stable isotope data ( ?18O, ?2H) and dissolved noble gas concentrations allow the determination of the recharge temperature, which is correlated to the recharge elevation. Noble gas temperatures (NGT) decrease in the direction of groundwater flow and range from 10 to 13 °C in the upstream area of the town to 7-9 °C in the downstream river plain. This trend could suggest the admixture of water from the underlying limestone aquifer recharged under cooler infiltration conditions, e.g. at higher recharge elevations. However, it is shown in this study that the difference in NGT does not require such a recharge. Rather, increasing air temperatures over the last 40 years and the urban heat island effect could possibly explain most of the observed temperature shift. Furthermore, it is concluded that the downstream river plain is hydrologically disconnected from the upstream town area. Consequently most water from the town area is drained by the creek Witibach and recharge in the river plain is higher than previously assumed.

Althaus, R.; Klump, S.; Onnis, A.; Kipfer, R.; Purtschert, R.; Stauffer, F.; Kinzelbach, W.

2009-05-01

8

Measuring Low Flows in Devonian Shale Gas Wells With a Tracer-Gas Flowmeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a design for a downhole flowmeter that can locate and quantify gas-entry points in a well is presented. The instrument has a gas-tracer injector at its lower end and a tracer detector at its upper end. The authors determine gas flow in the well by injecting tracer gas at a precisely measured rate into the natural gas

Richmond Bennett; Paul Schettler Jr.; Todd Gustafson; Illona Gillette

1991-01-01

9

Following Footsteps: ECD Tracer Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the single 2002 issue of The Bernard van Leer Foundation's "Early Childhood Matters," a periodical addressed to practitioners in the field of early childhood education and including information on projects funded by the Foundation. Articles in this issue focus on early childhood development tracer studies of former…

Smale, Jim, Editor

2002-01-01

10

Possible Tracers of Circumstellar Gas in the Disk Around ? Pictoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the circumstellar disk around ? Pictoris has been extensively discussed in the literature during the past ten years. CO is in general a poor tracer for the gas content of such low-mass disks. Based on recent disk models (Kamp & van Zadelhoff 2001), which include a self-consistent calculation of the gas temperature, we find that C and C+ are very promising tracers for the gas around ? Pictoris.

Kamp, I.; van Zadelhoff, G.-D.; van Dishoeck, E.

2004-12-01

11

Preliminary Investigation of Tracer Gas Reaeration Method for Shallow Bays  

E-print Network

was used with propane for the tracer gas and Rhodamine-WT, a fluorescent dye, for the "conservative" tracer. The propane was injected through porous tile diffusers, and the dye was released simultaneously. The propane acts as a model for the surface...

Baker, Sarah H.; Holley, Edward R.

12

Ballistic Motion of a Tracer Particle Coupled to a Bose gas  

E-print Network

We study the motion of a heavy tracer particle weakly coupled to a dense interacting Bose gas exhibiting Bose-Einstein condensation. In the so-called mean-field limit, the dynamics of this system approaches one determined by nonlinear Hamiltonian evolution equations. We derive the effective dynamics of the tracer particle, which is described by a non-linear integro-differential equation with memory, and prove that if the initial speed of the tracer particle is below the speed of sound in the Bose gas the motion of the particle approaches an inertial motion at constant velocity at large times.

Juerg Froehlich; Zhou Gang

2013-02-06

13

Field measurements of tracer gas transport by barometric pumping  

SciTech Connect

Vertical gas motions induced by barometric pressure variations can carry radioactive gases out of the rubblized region produced by an underground nuclear explosion, through overburden rock, into the atmosphere. To better quantify transit time and amount of transport, field experiments were conducted at two sites on Pahute Mesa, Kapelli and Tierra, where radioactive gases had been earlier detected in surface cracks. At each site, two tracer gases were injected into the rubblized chimney 300-400 m beneath the surface and their arrival was monitored by concentration measurements in gas samples extracted from shallow collection holes. The first ``active`` tracer was driven by a large quantity of injected air; the second ``passive`` tracer was introduced with minimal gas drive to observe the natural transport by barometric pumping. Kapelli was injected in the fall of 1990, followed by Tierra in the fall of 1991. Data was collected at both sites through the summer of 1993. At both sites, no surface arrival of tracer was observed during the active phase of the experiment despite the injection of several million cubic feet of air, suggesting that cavity pressurization is likely to induce horizontal transport along high permeability layers rather than vertical transport to the surface. In contrast, the vertical pressure gradients associated with barometric pumping brought both tracers to the surface in comparable concentrations within three months at Kapelli, whereas 15 months elapsed before surface arrival at Tierra. At Kapelli, a quasisteady pumping regime was established, with tracer concentrations in effluent gases 1000 times smaller than concentrations thought to exist in the chimney. Tracer concentrations observed at Tierra were typically an order of magnitude smaller. Comparisons with theoretical calculations suggest that the gases are traveling through {approximately}1 millimeter vertical fractures spaced 2 to 4 meters apart. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, San Diego, CA (United States); McKinnis, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Mercury, NV (United States); Hearst, J.R.; Burkhard, N.R.; Smith, C.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-07-28

14

Impact of Salinity on the Air-Water Partition Coefficient of Gas Tracers  

SciTech Connect

The use of a gas partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) has been proposed as a standard approach to the measurement of field-scale vadose zone water saturation fractions. The accuracy of the saturation measurement is largely dependent on the determination of the air-water partitioning coefficient, K, of the tracers; however, in practice, K is also strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the water. In this study, column tests were conducted to investigate the impact of salinity on tracer partitioning coefficients for two promising gas phase candidate tracers, dibromomethane and dimethylether. Sodium thiosulfate was used as a salinity surrogate. The dynamic K values of the two partitioning tracers were measured for sodium thiosulfate concentrations between 0% and 36% by weight. Methane was used as the non-partitioning tracer for all experiments. K values were found to decrease significantly with increasing sodium thiosulfate concentration. Similar correlations between K values and sodium thiosulfate concentration were found for both of the partitioning tracers tested.

Zhong, Lirong; Pope, Gary A.; Evans, John C.; Cameron, Richard J.

2005-09-01

15

Evaluating Gas-Phase Transport And Detection Of Noble Gas Signals From Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Chemical Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) involved detonating 1 kiloton of chemical explosive in a subsurface cavity which also contained bottles of tracer gases (ref 1). That experiment provided an improved understanding of transport processes relevant to the detection of noble gas signals at the surface emanating from a clandestine underground nuclear explosion (UNE). As an alternative to performing large chemical detonations to simulate gas transport from UNEs, we have developed a test bed for subsurface gas transport, sampling and detection studies using a former UNE cavity. The test bed site allows for the opportunity to evaluate pathways to the surface created by the UNE as well as possible transport mechanisms including barometric pumping and cavity pressurization (ref 2). With the test bed we have monitored long-term chemical tracers as well as newly injected tracers. In order to perform high temporal resolution tracer gas monitoring, we have also developed a Subsurface Gas Smart Sampler (SGSS) which has application during an actual On Site Inspection (OSI) and is available for deployment in OSI field exercises planned for 2014. Deployment of five SGSS at the remote test bed has provided unparalleled detail concerning relationships involving tracer gas transport to the surface, barometric fluctuations and temporal variations in the natural radon concentration. We anticipate that the results of our tracer experiments will continue to support the development of improved noble gas detection technology for both OSI and International Monitoring System applications. 1. C.R. Carrigan et al., 1996, Nature, 382, p. 528. 2. Y. Sun and C.R. Carrigan, 2012, Pure Appl. Geophys., DOI 10.1007/s00024-012-0514-4.

Carrigan, C. R.; Hunter, S. L.; Sun, Y.; Wagoner, J. L.; Ruddle, D.; Anderson, G.; Felske, D.; Myers, K.; Zucca, J. J.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.; Chipman, V.; Snelson, C. M.

2013-12-01

16

Estimating fracture spacing from natural tracers in shale-gas production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource appraisal and long-term recovery potential of shale gas relies on the characteristics of the fracture networks created within the formation. Both well testing and analysis of micro-seismic data can provide information on fracture characteristics, but approaches that directly utilize observations of gas transport through the fractures are not well-developed. We examine transport of natural tracers and analyze the breakthrough curves (BTC's) of these tracers with a multi-rate mass transfer (MMT) model to elucidate fracture characteristics. The focus here is on numerical simulation studies to determine constraints on the ability to accurately estimate fracture network characteristics as a function of the diffusion coefficients of the natural tracers, the number and timing of observations, the flow rates from the well, and the noise in the observations. Traditional tracer testing approaches for dual-porosity systems analyze the BTC of an injected tracer to obtain fracture spacing considering a single spacing value. An alternative model is the MMT model where diffusive mass transfer occurs simultaneously over a range of matrix block sizes defined by a statistical distribution (e.g., log-normal, gamma, or power-law). The goal of the estimation is defining the parameters of the fracture spacing distribution. The MMT model has not yet been applied to analysis of natural in situ natural tracers. Natural tracers are omnipresent in the subsurface, potentially obviating the needed for introduced tracers, and could be used to improve upon fracture characteristics estimated from pressure transient and decline curve production analysis. Results of this study provide guidance for data collection and analysis of natural tracers in fractured shale formations. Parameter estimation on simulated BTC's will provide guidance on the necessary timing of BTC sampling in field experiments. The MMT model can result in non-unique or nonphysical parameter estimates. We address this with Bayesian estimation approaches that can define uncertainty in estimated parameters as a posterior probability distribution. We will also use Bayesian estimation to examine model identifiability (e.g., selecting between parametric distributions of fracture spacing) from various BTC's. Application of the MMT model to natural tracers and hydraulic fractures in shale will require extension of the model to account for partitioning of the tracers between multiple phases and different mass transfer behavior in mixed gas-liquid (e.g., oil or groundwater rich) systems. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Bauer, S. J.; McKenna, S. A.; Heath, J. E.; Gardner, P.

2012-12-01

17

In situ evaluation of air-sea gas exchange parameterizations using novel conservative and volatile tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of air-sea gas exchange rates are reported from two deliberate tracer experiments in the southern North Sea during February 1992 and 1993. A conservative tracer, spores of the bacterium Bacillus globigii var. Niger, was used for the first time in an in situ air-sea gas exchange experiment. This nonvolatile tracer is used to correct for dispersive dilution of the

Philip D. Nightingale; Gill Malin; Cliff S. Law; Andrew J. Watson; Peter S. Liss; Malcolm I. Liddicoat; Jacqueline Boutin; Robert C. Upstill-Goddard

2000-01-01

18

Tracer Study on a Modified SBR Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further study a new modified SBR reactor, reaction theory is applied to the flow pattern analysis of this reactor. NaCl was used as a tracer. A common impulse-response method was adopted. Conductivity was measured manually using a conductivity meter every 15 minutes intervals. The relationship between conductivity and salt concentration was ascertained by experiments. A special curve of exit-age

Jun Li; Tao Tao; Hong Chen; Xin-ping Zhou; Jin Lu; Xue-bin Li; Yan-li Wang; Shu-hui Li; Qiang Li; Yan Zhang

2008-01-01

19

Dual-gas tracers for subsurface characterization and NAPL detection  

SciTech Connect

Effective design of in situ remediation technologies often requires an understanding of the mass transfer limitations that control the removal of contaminants from the soil. In addition, the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in soils will affect the ultimate success or failure of remediation processes. Knowing the location of NAPLs within the subsurface is critical to designing the most effective remediation approach. This work focuses on demonstrating that gas tracers can detect the location of the NAPLs in the subsurface and elucidating the mass transfer limitations associated with the removal of contaminants from soils.

Gauglitz, P.A.; Peurrung, L.M.; Mendoza, D.P.; Pillay, G.

1994-11-01

20

Uncertainties in gas exchange parameterization during the SAGE dual-tracer experiment  

E-print Network

Uncertainties in gas exchange parameterization during the SAGE dual-tracer experiment Murray J Ocean. Wind speed/ gas exchange parameterization is characterised by significant variability and we estimates, the comparison between gas exchange parameterizations from diverse experiments should clearly

Ho, David

21

Fluorine-18-labeled fluorine gas for synthesis of tracer molecules.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop a method to produce 18F-labeled fluorine gas ([18F]F2) with high specific radioactivity (SA, radioactivity/mass-ratio). 18F-Labeled methyl fluoride ([18F]CH3F) was synthesized from [18F]F-aq and mixed with carrier F2 in an inert neon matrix. The constituents were atomized in an electric discharge, after which a rearrangement and 18F for 19F exchange took place. [18F]F2 with a specific radioactivity of up to 55 GBq/mumol is available for the labeling synthesis of tracers for positron emission tomography (PET). PMID:9352540

Bergman, J; Solin, O

1997-10-01

22

Gastric activity studies using a magnetic tracer.  

PubMed

A magnetic pulse generator has been set up in order to study gastric activity. Two coils 1.05 m in diameter, arranged in a Helmholtz configuration, were used. The system generated magnetic field pulses higher than 15 mT, of duration 17.3+/-1.2 ms. Measurements were performed in 11 male volunteers, with average age 29.3+/-6.4 years and body mass index 26.0+/-4.8 kg m(-2). Magnetite (Fe3O4) particles with diameters from 75 to 125 microm were used as magnetic tracers, which were mixed in 250 ml of yogurt in concentrations from 2 to 5 g. Signals were registered by using a high speed 3 axis fluxgate digital magnetometer and processed to determine the relaxation of the magnetic tracers by fitting a first-order exponential function to the data, a mean relaxation constant K = 116+/-40 s(-1) was obtained. Also, an average gastric peristaltic frequency was measured; a value of 3.2+/-0.3 cpm was determined. PMID:15535190

Cordova-Fraga, T; Bernal-Alvarado, J J; Gutierrez-Juarez, G; Sosa, M; Vargas-Luna, M

2004-10-01

23

COMPARISON OF MODELLED AND MEASURED TRACER GAS CONCENTRATIONS DURING THE ACROSS NORTH AMERICA TRACER EXPERIMENT (ANATEX)  

EPA Science Inventory

The 24-hour surface concentrations of several perfluorocarbon tracer gases measured during the 1987 Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX) provided a unique continental-scale data set with which to evaluate long-range transport and diffusion models. One such model, a mul...

24

Atmospheric tracer experiments for regional dispersion studies  

SciTech Connect

Tracer experiments are being conducted to verify atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations at distances from tens to hundreds of km from pollutant sources. In one study, a 2 1/2 year sampling program has been carried out at 13 sites located 30 to 140 km from a source of /sup 85/Kr at the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. Average weekly concentrations as well as twice-daily concentrations were obtained. Sampling data and meteorological data, including surface, tower, and rawinsonde observations are available on magnetic tape for model verification studies. Some verification results for the Air Resources Laboratories Atmospheric Transort and Dispersion Model (ARL-ATAD) are shown for averaging periods from one week to two years.

Heffter, J.L.; Ferber, G.J.

1980-01-01

25

Generation of ethylene tracer by noncatalytic pyrolysis of natural gas at elevated pressure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is a critical need within the pipeline gas industry for an inexpensive and reliable technology to generate an identification tag or tracer that can be added to pipeline gas to identify gas that may escape and improve the deliverability and management of gas in underground storage fields. Ethylene is an ideal tracer, because it does not exist naturally in the pipeline gas, and because its physical properties are similar to the pipeline gas components. A pyrolysis process, known as the Tragen process, has been developed to continuously convert the ???2%-4% ethane component present in pipeline gas into ethylene at common pipeline pressures of 800 psi. In our studies of the Tragen process, pyrolysis without steam addition achieved a maximum ethylene yield of 28%-35% at a temperature range of 700-775 ??C, corresponding to an ethylene concentration of 4600-5800 ppm in the product gas. Coke deposition was determined to occur at a significant rate in the pyrolysis reactor without steam addition. The ?? 13C isotopic analysis of gas components showed a ?? 13C value of ethylene similar to ethane in the pipeline gas, indicating that most of the ethylene was generated from decomposition of the ethane in the raw gas. However, ?? 13C isotopic analysis of the deposited coke showed that coke was primarily produced from methane, rather than from ethane or other heavier hydrocarbons. No coke deposition was observed with the addition of steam at concentrations of > 20% by volume. The dilution with steam also improved the ethylene yield. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Lu, Y.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Ruch, R.; Coleman, D.; Benson, L.J.

2005-01-01

26

Application of the gas tracer method for measuring oxygen transfer rates in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) has a significant impact on the design, optimal operation and modelling of constructed wetlands treating wastewater. Oxygen consumption is very fast in wetlands and the OTR cannot be determined using an oxygen mass balance. This problem is circumvented in this study by applying the gas tracer method. Experiments were conducted in an unplanted gravel bed (dimensions L x W x d 125 x 50 x 35 cm filled with a 30-cm layer of 10-11-mm gravel) and a planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW) (L x W x d 110 x 70 x 38 cm filled with a 30-cm layer of 3.5-mm gravel with Phragmites australis). Tap water saturated with propane as gas tracer (pure or commercial cooking gas, depending on the test) was used. The mass transfer ratio between oxygen and commercial propane gas was quite constant and averaged R = 1.03, which is slightly lower than the value of R = 1.39 that is usually reported for pure propane. The OTR ranged from 0.31 to 5.04 g O(2) m(-2) d(-1) in the unplanted gravel bed and from 0.3 to 3.2 g O(2) m(-2) d(-1) in the HSSFCW, depending on the hydraulic retention time (HRT). The results of this study suggest that the OTR in HSSFCW is very low for the oxygen demand of standard wastewater and the OTR calculations based on mass balances and theoretical stoichiometric considerations overestimate OTR values by a factor that ranges from 10 to 100. The gas tracer method is a promising tool for determining OTR in constructed wetlands, with commercial gas proving to be a viable low-cost alternative for determining OTR. PMID:20542312

Tyroller, Lina; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Santa, Santa; García, Joan

2010-07-01

27

Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy for conducting gas tracer tests and measuring water saturations in landfills  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy tested for measuring tracer gas in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement errors for tracer gases were 1-3% in landfill gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Background signals from landfill gas result in elevated limits of detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique is much less expensive and easier to use than GC. - Abstract: Gas tracer tests can be used to determine gas flow patterns within landfills, quantify volatile contaminant residence time, and measure water within refuse. While gas chromatography (GC) has been traditionally used to analyze gas tracers in refuse, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) might allow real-time measurements with reduced personnel costs and greater mobility and ease of use. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PAS for conducting gas tracer tests in landfills. Two tracer gases, difluoromethane (DFM) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}), were measured with a commercial PAS instrument. Relative measurement errors were invariant with tracer concentration but influenced by background gas: errors were 1-3% in landfill gas but 4-5% in air. Two partitioning gas tracer tests were conducted in an aerobic landfill, and limits of detection (LODs) were 3-4 times larger for DFM with PAS versus GC due to temporal changes in background signals. While higher LODs can be compensated by injecting larger tracer mass, changes in background signals increased the uncertainty in measured water saturations by up to 25% over comparable GC methods. PAS has distinct advantages over GC with respect to personnel costs and ease of use, although for field applications GC analyses of select samples are recommended to quantify instrument interferences.

Jung, Yoojin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M. Erfan; Chiu, Pei [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yazdani, Ramin [Yolo County Planning and Public Works Department, Division of Integrated Waste Management, Yolo County, 44090 County Rd. 28H, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Imhoff, Paul T., E-mail: imhoff@udel.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

2012-02-15

28

ANALYSIS OF A GAS-PHASE PARTITIONING TRACER TEST CONDUCTED THROUGH FRACTURED MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The gas-phase partitioning tracer method was used to estimate non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), water, and air saturations in the vadose zone at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated field site in Tucson, AZ. The tracer test was conducted in a fractured clay system that is the confin...

29

Determination of Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media Using Gas-phase Tracer Tests  

SciTech Connect

Soil desiccation (drying), involving water evaporation induced by dry air injection and extraction, is a potentially robust remediation process to slow migration of inorganic or radionuclide contaminants through the vadose zone. The application of gas-phase partitioning tracer tests has been proposed as a means to estimate initial water volumes and to monitor the progress of the desiccation process at pilot-test and field sites. In this paper, tracer tests have been conducted in porous medium columns with various water saturations using sulfur hexafluoride as the conservative tracer and tricholorofluoromethane and difluoromethane as the water-partitioning tracers. For porous media with minimal silt and/or organic matter fractions, tracer tests provided reasonable saturation estimates for saturations close to zero. However, for sediments with significant silt and/or organic matter fractions, tracer tests only provided satisfactory results when the water saturation was at least 0.1 - 0.2. For dryer conditions, the apparent tracer retardation increases due to air – soil sorption, which is not included in traditional retardation coefficients derived from advection-dispersion equations accounting only for air – water partitioning and water – soil sorption. Based on these results, gas-phase partitioning tracer tests may be used to determine initial water volumes in sediments, provided the initial water saturations are sufficiently large. However, tracer tests are not suitable for quantifying moisture content in desiccated sediments.

Oostrom, Martinus; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.; Dane, Jacob H.

2011-04-15

30

Only Successful Graduates Respond to Tracer Studies: A Myth? Results from the German Corporation Project Tracer Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

INCHER-Kassel and 58 German Higher Education Institutions conducted together the biggest tracer studies campaign in Germany so far. Up to date, more than 100.000 graduates of the cohorts 2006 – 2009 were surveyed in the years 2007 – 2011. During this project it was often claimed that graduate tracer studies cannot be representative. This doubt is based on the assumption

Lutz Heidemann

2011-01-01

31

Multiple Isotopic Tracers for Study of Coastal Hydrological Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the combined use of radon and radium isotopes as tracers of near-shore geophysical processes including submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), water exchange rates, and atmospheric evasion. Methods were developed for easier measurement of long-lived radium isotopes in natural waters and for continuous radon surveying over larger areas in the coastal zone. These tracer techniques were used to

Henrieta Dulaiova

2005-01-01

32

Nitrous oxide as a tracer gas in the ASHRAE 110-1995 Standard.  

PubMed

ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 110 provides a quantitative method for testing the performance of laboratory fume hoods. Through release of a known quantity (4.0 Lpm) of a tracer gas, and subsequent monitoring of the tracer gas concentration in the "breathing zone" of a mannequin positioned in front of the hood, this method allows for evaluation of laboratory hood performance. Standard 110 specifies sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas; however, suitable alternatives are allowed. Through three series of performance tests, this analysis serves to investigate the use of nitrous oxide (N2O) as an alternate tracer gas for hood performance testing. Single gas tests were performed according to ASHRAE Standard 110-1995 with each tracer gas individually. These tests showed identical results using an acceptance criterion of AU 0.1 with the sash half open, nominal 18 inches (0.46m) high, and the face velocity at a nominal 60 fpm (0.3 m/s). Most data collected in these single gas tests, for both tracer gases, were below the minimum detection limit, thus two dual gas tests were developed for simultaneous sampling of both tracer gases. Dual gas dual ejector tests were performed with both tracer gases released simultaneously through two ejectors, and the concentration measured with two detectors using a common sampling probe. Dual gas single ejector tests were performed with both tracer gases released though a single ejector, and the concentration measured in the same manner as the dual gas dual ejector tests. The dual gas dual ejector tests showed excellent correlation, with R typically greater than 0.9. Variance was observed in the resulting regression line for each hood, likely due to non-symmetry between the two challenges caused by variables beyond the control of the investigators. Dual gas single ejector tests resulted in exceptional correlation, with R>0.99 typically for the consolidated data, with a slope of 1.0. These data indicate equivalent results for ASHRAE 110 performance testing using either SF6 or N2O, indicating N2O as an applicable alternate tracer gas. PMID:24283334

Burke, Martin; Wong, Larry; Gonzales, Ben A; Knutson, Gerhard

2014-01-01

33

Tracer Gas as a Practical Field Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Duct System Leaks  

E-print Network

A methodology is presented for using tracer gas testing to detect and quantify duct leakage in homes. Since air is invisible, leakage of air from duct systems often remains undetected. Smoke sticks used in conjunction with blower doors are excellent...

Cummings, J. B.

1989-01-01

34

National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

1995-05-31

35

RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses two tracer gas studies, to quantify the extent to which exhaust gases from indoor radon reduction systems are re-entrained into pitched-roof houses (exposing persons indoors), and the manner in which the exhausts disperse outdoors (exposing persons outside the...

36

Dust as a tracer of gas in galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a sample of 36 galaxies to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H2 + HI). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust-to-gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. When examining these relations as a function of galactocentric radius, we find the same correlations, albeit with a larger scatter, up to radius of r ~ 0.7r 25 (containing most of a galaxy's baryonic mass). The tight relations found for the bulk of the galaxy's baryonic content suggest that total gas masses of disk-like (non-merging/ULIRG) galaxies can be inferred from far-infrared continuum measurements in situations where only the latter are available. This work is to appear in Groves et al. (2014).

Groves, Brent; Schinnerer, Eva

2015-02-01

37

Evaluation of industrial local exhaust hood efficiency by a tracer gas technique.  

PubMed

Efficiency of industrial local exhaust ventilation is defined as the ratio of air contaminant quantity captured by the system per unit time to the total contaminant quantity produced by the process per unit time. To date, no direct method exists for this evaluation. This paper describes a tracer gas technique, using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which has been developed for the evaluation of local exhaust system efficiency. SF6 was discharged at a known rate into the industrial process generation area. Then, by comparing this quantity to that captured by the exhaust system, as measured in the exhaust duct, hood efficiency is determined. Major advantages of this technique are: The tracer gas technique is able to evaluate directly the hood efficiency. The tracer gas technique is not affected by cross-contamination from nearby industrial processes. The tracer gas technique can be conducted "on site" with minimal interruption of industrial process or interference with workers' duties. The tracer gas, using SF6 is non-toxic. Since SF6 is a gas, this technique may be limited to efficiency evaluation of hoods associated with gases, fumes, vapors, or fine particles. PMID:6464994

Hampl, V

1984-07-01

38

Radioisotope tracer study in a sludge hygienization research irradiator (SHRI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioisotope tracer study has been carried out in a batch type sludge hygienization research irradiator with flow from top to bottom, the objective being to measure flow rate, circulation and mixing times and to investigate the hydrodynamic behaviour of the irradiator for identifying the cause(s) of malfunction. A stimulus–response technique with NH824Br as a tracer was used to measure

H. J Pant; J Thýn; R Zitný; B. C Bhatt

2001-01-01

39

CHARACTERIZATION OF FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS WITH GAS TRACER MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a steady state bench scale fluidized bed the decomposition reaction of NaHCO3 was carried out. The residence times distributions, DRT, of carbon dioxide (the gaseous product) and non adsorbing argon (the reference tracer) were mass spectroscopically measured as a function of the bed temperature. By means of single-, two- and three-phase dispersion models as well as by a cell

D. WIPPERN; K. WITTMANN; J. KÜHNE; H. HELMRICH; K. SCHÜGERL

1981-01-01

40

National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study  

SciTech Connect

We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

Schafer, R.

1995-02-14

41

The effect of bubble-mediated gas transfer on purposeful dual-gaseous tracer experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For air-water gas exchange across unbroken surfaces, the only gas-dependent parameter affecting the transfer velocity is the molecular diffusivity of the transferring species. In contrast, bubble-mediated transfer processes can cause the transfer velocity to depend on both molecular diffusivity and aqueous-phase solubility. This can complicate the analysis of data from dual-gaseous tracer gas transfer experiments. Bubble effects also complicate the

William E. Asher; Rik Wanninkhof

1998-01-01

42

Stable isotope tracer and gas-chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry to study the in vivo compartmental metabolism of docosahexaenoic acid.  

PubMed

A gas-chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) method using carbon 13 (13C)-stable isotope to trace n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) turnover in vivo is presented. Natural 13C abundance of commercial n-3 PUFA was measured from 100 to 300 ng of fatty acids and was -27.58, -27.83, and -28.16 for 22:6n-3, 22:5n-3, and 20:5n-3, expressed as delta 13C /1000 versus Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB), respectively. Precision of delta 13C /1000 values was comparable for the three PUFA and gave relative standard deviations of 0.95-0.97%. Isotope enrichment of 0.0010 at.% could be detected. Triglycerides enriched in [13C]22:6n-3 ([13C]22:6-TG) were synthesized by growing a microalgae on [1-13C]glucose. [13C]22:6n-3 represented 36 wt.% of total triglyceride fatty acids and had an isotope enrichment of 2.0420 at.%, which was the double of natural abundance. The isotope enrichment of 22:6n-3 in lipids from rat lipoproteins and red cells could be followed as a function of time after ingestion of 3 mg [13C]22:6-TG and showed specific patterns according to the lipid compartments. The retroconversion of [13C]22:6n-3 was also detected in HDL phosphatidylcholine by the appearance of [13C]22:5n-3 and [13C]20:5n-3. On the other hand, 22:6n-3 natural 13C abundance in human lipid classes of lipoproteins and blood cells has been measured using 10 ml plasma, even for the more limiting lipid compartments in terms of 22:6n-3 dose size.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7978245

Brossard, N; Pachiaudi, C; Croset, M; Normand, S; Lecerf, J; Chirouze, V; Riou, J P; Tayot, J L; Lagarde, M

1994-07-01

43

Estimation of Fracture Porosity in an Unsaturated Fractured Welded Tuff Using Gas Tracer Testing  

SciTech Connect

Kinematic fracture porosity is an important hydrologic transport parameter for predicting the potential of rapid contaminant migration through fractured rock. The transport velocity of a solute moving within a fracture network is inversely related to the fracture porosity. Since fracture porosity is often one or two orders of magnitude smaller than matrix porosity, and fracture permeability is often orders of magnitude greater than matrix permeability, solutes may travel significantly faster in the fracture network than in the surrounding matrix. This dissertation introduces a new methodology for conducting gas tracer tests using a field portable mass spectrometer along with analytical tools for estimating fracture porosity using the measured tracer concentration breakthrough curves. Field experiments were conducted at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, consisting of air-permeability transient testing and gas-tracer-transport tests. The experiments were conducted from boreholes drilled within an underground tunnel as part of an investigation of rock mass hydrological behavior. Air-permeability pressure transients, recorded during constant mass flux injections, have been analyzed using a numerical inversion procedure to identify fracture permeability and porosity. Dipole gas tracer tests have also been conducted from the same boreholes used for air-permeability testing. Mass breakthrough data has been analyzed using a random walk particle-tracking model, with a dispersivity that is a function of the advective velocity. The estimated fracture porosity using the tracer test and air-injection test data ranges from .001 to .015. These values are an order of magnitude greater than the values estimated by others using hydraulically estimated fracture apertures. The estimates of porosity made using air-permeability test data are shown to be highly sensitive to formation heterogeneity. Uncertainty analyses performed on the gas tracer test results show high confidence in the parameter estimates made.

B.M. Freifeild

2001-10-18

44

Optimization and evaluation of fluorescent tracers for flare removal in gas-phase particle image velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of optimized fluorescent dye-doped tracer particles for gas-phase particle image velocimetry (PIV) and their use to eliminate 'flare' from the images obtained. In such applications, micron-sized tracer particles are normally required to accurately follow the flow. However, as the tracer size is reduced the amount of light incident on the particle diminishes and consequently the intensity of emitted light (fluorescence). Hence, there is a requirement to identify dyes with high quantum yield that can be dissolved in conventional tracer media at high concentrations. We describe the selection and characterization of a highly fluorescent blue-emitting dye, Bis-MSB, using a novel method, employing stabilized micro-emulsions, to emulate the fluorescence properties of tracer particles. We present the results of PIV experiments, using 1 µm tracer particles of o-xylene doped with Bis-MSB, in which elastically scattered 'flare' has been successfully removed from the images using an appropriate optical filter.

Chennaoui, M.; Angarita-Jaimes, D.; Ormsby, M. P.; Angarita-Jaimes, N.; McGhee, E.; Towers, C. E.; Jones, A. C.; Towers, D. P.

2008-11-01

45

Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves  

EPA Science Inventory

This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

46

Developing a magnetic tracer to study soil erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion is commonly measured as the quantity of sediment leaving a plot or watershed. The techniques for measuring soil erosion patterns and sediment redistribution within plots or watersheds by direct monitoring are very limited. The objective of this study was to develop a direct and non-intrusive tracer method to study the sources, patterns and rates of erosion and deposition

Eusebio Ventura Jr; Mark A. Nearing; L. Darrell Norton

2001-01-01

47

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas Operations  

E-print Network

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, 11 B, and 7 Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic

Jackson, Robert B.

48

Iodine as a tracer of organic material: 129 I results from gas hydrate  

E-print Network

Iodine as a tracer of organic material: 129 I results from gas hydrate systems and fore arc fluids of Geochemical Exploration Oct. 2004 #12;Abstract The strong association of iodine with organic material and the presence of the cosmogenic radioisotope 129 I make the iodine isotopic system useful in tracing and dating

Fehn, Udo

49

Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure  

E-print Network

1 Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates a series of intensive experiments to investigate the performance of a common approach to measuring air). The experiments were designed to identify optimal implementation procedures and limitations in the use

50

Radon as a natural tracer for gas transport within uranium waste rock piles.  

PubMed

Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been identified as the main cause for outflow of acid water and radioactive/non-radioactive contaminants. AMD encompasses pyrites oxidation when water and oxygen are available. AMD was identified in uranium waste rock piles (WRPs) of Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil-Caldas facility (Brazilian uranium mine), resulting in high costs for water treatment. AMD reduction is the main challenge, and scientific investigation has been conducted to understand oxygen and water transportation within WRPs, where 222Rn is used as natural tracer for oxygen transportation. The study consists of soil radon gas mapping in the top layer of WRP4 using active soil gas pumping, radon adsorption in active charcoal and 222Rn determination using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A sampling network of 71 points was built where samples were collected at a depth of 40 cm. Soil radon gas concentration ranged from 33.7 to 1484.2 kBq m(-3) with mean concentration of 320.7±263.3 kBq m(-3). PMID:24729565

Silva, N C; Chagas, E G L; Abreu, C B; Dias, D C S; Lopez, D; Guerreiro, E T Z; Alberti, H L C; Braz, M L; Branco, O; Fleming, P

2014-07-01

51

TRACER STUDY OF SEDIMENT-WATER INTERACTIONS IN ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Rates of sediment bioturbation and advective exchange of water across the sediment-water interface in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island were studied by radioactive tracer experiments. The 'biological pumping rate' of water across the interface (.7 + or - .3 cc/sq cm day) was calcula...

52

A Tracer Study of Lebanese Upper Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents data arising from a tracer study of 90 terminating Beirut upper secondary school students. Nearly all the students intended to transit to university, about half of them to science and technology programmes, and subsequently did so. Median anticipated earnings upon graduation were realistic, but a lack of information or guidance…

Vlaardingerbroek, Barend; Dallal, Kamel; Rizkallah, George; Rabah, Jihan

2007-01-01

53

A tracer study of Lebanese upper secondary school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data arising from a tracer study of 90 terminating Beirut upper secondary school students. Nearly all the students intended to transit to university, about half of them to science and technology programmes, and subsequently did so. Median anticipated earnings upon graduation were realistic, but a lack of information or guidance about higher education and career options was

Barend Vlaardingerbroek; Kamel Dallal; George Rizkallah; Jihan Rabah

2007-01-01

54

Assessment of Contaminant Transport in Waterways Around Major Population Centers by Deliberately Gas Tracer Releases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution of water through leakage, catastrophic or climate-induced release of toxic chemicals, sewage, and fertilizer threaten the health of human inhabited areas. In order to assess pathways and mixing of such substances, small amounts of the inert gas tracer sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released at strategically chosen points in New York Harbor, the East River, the Houston Ship Channel, and the Stockton Deep Water Channel. Subsequently, the tracer movement was mapped for 7 to 10 days in near real-time mode. The results of these experiments revealed advective pathways, mixing patterns, exchange between individual subdomains of the water bodies, and mean residence times of substances in the system. These experiments demonstrated that the SF6 tracer technique could be used to examine persistent or emerging events that could affect human health.

Ho, D. T.; Schlosser, P.; Schmieder, P.; Caplow, T.

2005-12-01

55

Tracer Test Design and Sensitivity Studies of the Cove Fort Geothermal Resource Tracer Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cove Fort-Sulphurdale geothermal system produces both dry steam from a shallow parasitic vapor cap and liquid from an underlying liquid-dominated resource, offering a unique opportunity to analyze reservoir and tracer behavior. To aid our design of a tracer test we constructed a preliminary numerical model for the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale reservoir. Liquid and vapor-phase tracers were injected into the reservoir

K. K. Bloomfield; J. N. Moore; M. C. Adams; T. L. Sperry; Bud L. Bonnett; Geothermal Plant

56

Subcutaneous infusion and capillary "finger stick" sampling of stable isotope tracer in metabolic studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Metabolic studies utilizing stable isotope tracer in humans have typically used intravenous tracer infusions and venous blood sampling. These studies explore subcutaneous infusion of isotope and "finger stick" capillary blood sampling to measure glucose turnover. Five subjects received simultaneous ...

57

Using the tracer method to study detonation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tracer method was used to study the synthesis of nanodiamonds during detonation of composite explosives. Alloys of TNT\\u000a with RDX, HMX, PETN, and benzotrifuroxan were studied. It was shown that, in all cases, most nanodiamonds were formed from\\u000a TNT carbon. It was concluded that during the chemical reaction in the detonation wave propagating in heterogeneous explosives,\\u000a equilibrium parameters were

N. V. Kozyrev

2008-01-01

58

ANALYSIS OF A GAS-PHASE PARTITIONING TRACER TEST CONDUCTED IN AN UNSATURATED FRACTURED-CLAY FORMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The gas-phase partitioning tracer method was used to estimate non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), water, and air saturations in the vadose zone at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated field site in Tucson, AZ. The tracer test was conducted in a fractured-clay system that is the confin...

59

C-14 tracer studies on zeolite catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To elucidate the mechanism of hydrocarbon conversion on zeolite catalysts, small amount of 14C-labelled substances were added to the regular feed. Catalytic studies on isomerization of m-xylene and n-butene were carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor and the 14C distribution was determined by Radio-GC and Radio-HPLC.

Bauer, F.; Bilz, E.; Freyer, A.

2006-01-01

60

Measuring seasonal variations of moisture in a landfill with the partitioning gas tracer test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven pilot-scale partitioning gas tracer tests (PGTTs) were conducted to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of this method for measuring water in municipal solid waste landfills. Tests were conducted in the same location over a 12-month period, and measured moisture conditions ranged from possible dry waste to refuse with a moisture content of 24.7%. The final moisture content of 24.7%

Byunghyun Han; Behnam Jafarpour; Victoria N. Gallagher; Paul T.. Imhoff; Pei C. Chiu; Daniel A. Fluman

2006-01-01

61

Analysis of a gas-phase partitioning tracer test conducted in an unsaturated fractured-clay formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-phase partitioning tracer method was used to estimate non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), water, and air saturations in the vadose zone at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated field site in Tucson, AZ. The tracer test was conducted in a fractured-clay system that is the confining layer for the underlying regional aquifer. Three suites of three tracers were injected into wells located 14, 24, and 24 m from a single, central extraction well. The tracers comprised noble gases (traditionally thought to be nonsorbing), alkanes (primarily water partitioning), perfluorides (primarily NAPL partitioning), and halons (both NAPL and water partitioning). Observations of vacuum response were consistent with flow in a fractured system. The halon tracers exhibited the greatest amount of retardation, and helium and the perfluoride tracers the least. The alkane tracers were unexpectedly more retarded than the perfluoride tracers, indicating low NAPL saturations and high water saturations. An NAPL saturation of 0.01, water saturation of 0.215, and gas saturation of 0.775 was estimated based on analysis of the suite of tracers comprising helium, perfluoromethylcyclohexane and dibromodifluoromethane, which was considered to be the most robust set. The estimated saturations compare reasonably well to independently determined values.

Simon, Michelle A.; Brusseau, Mark L.

2007-03-01

62

The Tracer Gas Method of Determining the Charging Efficiency of Two-stroke-cycle Diesel Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A convenient method has been developed for determining the scavenging efficiency or the charging efficiency of two-stroke-cycle engines. The method consists of introducing a suitable tracer gas into the inlet air of the running engine and measuring chemically its concentration both in the inlet and exhaust gas. Monomethylamine CH(sub 3)NH(sub 2) was found suitable for the purpose as it burns almost completely during combustion, whereas the "short-circuited" portion does not burn at all and can be determined quantitatively in the exhaust. The method was tested both on four-stroke and on two-stroke engines and is considered accurate within 1 percent.

Schweitzer, P H; Deluca, Frank, Jr

1942-01-01

63

Tracking the SO-GasEx tracer patch with ADCP and high-resolution surface data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Southern Ocean Gas-exchange Experiment (SO-GasEx), we employed detailed analysis of the upper-water-column velocity data (via Acoustic Doppler Current Profiling (ADCP)) and high-resolution mapping of the hydrography of the surface waters in the patch (temperature, salinity, pCO2, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, and nitrate). ADCP-based velocity profiles were used to select the locations of the two injections. Subsequently they were used to make progressive vector estimations of the patches' migration over the course of the experiment. In addition, the velocity estimates were used to calculate point- wise back trajectories during the patch surveys to correct the tracer and hydrographic property fields to provide quasi-instantaneous snapshots of the tracer-infused region. This approach provided superior realizations of the structure of the patch tracer and hydrographic distributions over those generated without correction for advection. In the first patch, this approach showed small but statistically significant and coherent within patch variability in the surface hydrographic properties. In the second patch, surface properties were far more uniform and appeared to be in near steady-state over the course of the experiment.

Hebert, D.; Hales, B.; Strutton, P.; Ho, D. T.

2008-12-01

64

INTERPRETATION OF TRACER SURFACE DIFFUSION EXPERIMENTS ON UO{sub 2} ROLES OF GAS AND SOLID TRANSPORT PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The spreading of a tracer from an enriched needle source which contacts the surface of a depleted pellet sink is analyzed rigorously. It is shown that volume diffusion in both the needle and the pellet need to be considered because only by this process is sufficient radioactivity accumulated for measurement after the anneal. Parasitic gas phase processes are of two types-evaporative loss of solid if a flowing gas is used, or molecular diffusion from enriched portions of the surface to depleted zones if the couple is in a closed vessel with a stagnant gas. A complete numerical solution including surface diffusion, solid diffusion, evaporative loss and contact resistance is applied to the UO{sub 2} tracer study of Marlowe and Kazanoff at 1915° C. Based upon UO{sub 2} evaporation experiments, the analysis shows that the evaporative loss effect is not important in these experiments. The UO{sub 2} surface diffusion coefficient deduced from analysis of these data is 0.2{+-} 0.1 cm{sup 2)/s at 1915{degrees}C., which is 10{sup 4} times larger than that predicted by extrapolation of values obtained by mass transfer techniques.

Olander, D.R.

1980-06-01

65

Molecular Gas in Starburts: Understanding Mergers using High Density Gas Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NGC 6240 and Arp 220 can be considered the founding members of a very active class of objects called Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies or ULIRGs. They are in different stages of mergers and hence are excellent case studies to enhance our knowledge about the merging process. We have imaged the dense star-forming regions of these galaxies at sub-arcsec resolution with ALMA and CARMA. Multi-band imaging allows multilevel excitation analysis of HCN, HCO+ and CS transitions which will constrain the properties of the gas as a function of position and velocity (across line profiles). We are doing an extensive multilevel excitation analysis of the merger as a function of radius which enables in depth understanding of the gas dynamics and gas properties such as temperature and density. This in turn probes the homogeneity of the gas in the merging system and hence the regions that facilitate high star formation rates. This tandem use of CARMA with ALMA to map these systems at different merger stages will assemble a more integrated picture of the merger process. We are probing the distribution and dynamics of star forming gas and star formation activity in the dense disk structures to enable new theoretical understanding of the physics, dynamics, star formation activity and associated feedback in the most active and rapidly evolving galactic nuclei. Here we present preliminary observations of Arp 220 and NGC 6240 from ALMA and CARMA.

Manohar, Swarnima; Scoville, N.; Walter, F.; Sheth, K.

2014-01-01

66

Molecular Gas in Local Mergers: Understanding Mergers using High Density Gas Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NGC 6240 and Arp 220 can be considered the founding members of a very active class of objects called Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies or ULIRGs. They are in different stages of mergers and hence are excellent case studies to enhance our knowledge about the merging process. We have imaged the dense star-forming regions of these galaxies at sub-arcsec resolution with ALMA and CARMA. Multi-band imaging will allow multilevel excitation analysis of HCN, HCO+ and CS transitions which will be used to constrain the properties of the gas as a function of position and velocity (across line profiles). We aim to do an extensive multilevel excitation analysis of the merger as a function of radius which will enable in depth understanding of the gas dynamics and gas properties such as temperature and density. This will in turn probe the homogeneity of the gas in the merging system and hence the regions that facilitate high star formation rates. This tandem use of CARMA with ALMA to map these systems at different merger stages will help assemble a more integrated picture of the merger process. We will probe the distribution and dynamics of star forming gas and star formation activity in the dense disk structures to enable new theoretical understanding of the physics, dynamics, star formation activity and associated feedback in the most active and rapidly evolving galactic nuclei. Here we present preliminary observations of Arp 220 and NGC 6240 from ALMA and CARMA.

Manohar, Swarnima; Scoville, N.; Sheth, K.

2013-01-01

67

DISSOCIATION OF SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TRACER GAS IN THE PRESENCE OF AN INDOOR COMBUSTION SOURCE  

EPA Science Inventory

As an odorless, non-toxic, and inert compound, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the most widely used tracer gases in indoor air quality studies in both controlled and uncontrolled environments. This compound may be subject to hydrolysis under elevated temperature to form acidi...

68

CI lines as tracers of molecular gas, and their prospects at high redshifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the fine structure lines 3P1->3P0 (492 GHz) and 3P2->3P1 (809 GHz) of neutral atomic carbon as bulk molecular gas mass tracers and find that they can be good and on many occasions better than 12CO transitions, especially at high redshifts. The notion of CI emission as an H2 gas mass tracer challenges the long-held view of its distribution over only a relatively narrow layer in the CII/CI/CO transition zone in far-ultraviolet (FUV) illuminated molecular clouds. Past observations have indeed consistently pointed towards a more extended CI distribution but it was only recently, with the advent of large-scale imaging of its 3P1->3P0 transition, that its surprising ubiquity in molecular clouds has been fully revealed. In the present work we show that under typical interstellar medium conditions such a ubiquity is inevitable because of well-known dynamic and non-equilibrium chemistry processes maintaining a significant [C]/[12CO] abundance throughout giant molecular clouds during their lifetime. These processes are more intense in star-forming environments where a larger ambient cosmic ray flux will also play an important role in boosting [C]/[12CO]. The resulting CI lines can be bright and effective H2 mass tracers especially for diffuse (~102-103 cm-3) gas while in UV-intense and/or metal-poor environments their H2-tracing capability diminishes because of large-scale CII production but nevertheless remains superior to that of 12CO. The best place to take full advantage of the capacity of CI to trace H2 is not in the low-z Universe, where large atmospheric absorption at 492 and 809 GHz precludes routine observations, but at high redshifts (z>~ 1).

Papadopoulos, P. P.; Thi, W.-F.; Viti, S.

2004-06-01

69

In-situ characterization of soil-water content using gas-phase partitioning tracer tests: field-scale evaluation.  

PubMed

Field-scale tests were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the gas-phase partitioning tracer method for in-situ measurement of soil-water content. The tracer tests were conducted before and after a controlled infiltration event to evaluate performance at two water contents. Nonpartitioning (sulfur hexafluoride) and water-partitioning (difluoromethane) tracers were injected into the test zone, and their effluent breakthrough curves were analyzed using the method of moments to calculate retardation factors for difluoromethane. Soil-water contents estimated using the tracer data were compared to soil-water contents obtained independently using gravimetric core analysis, neutron scattering, and bore-hole ground penetrating radar. For the test conducted under drier soil conditions, the soil-water content estimated from the tracer test was identical to the independently measured values of 8.6% (equivalent to water saturation of 23%). For the test conducted under wetter soil conditions, the tracer test derived soil-water content was 81% of the independently measured values of 12.2% (equivalent to water saturation of 32%). The reduced efficacy at the higher soil-water content may reflectthe impact of advective and/ or diffusive mass transfer constraints on gas-phase transport. The results presented herein indicate that the partitioning tracer method is an effective technique to measure soil-water content at the field scale, especially for sites with moderate to low soil-water contents. PMID:12901662

Keller, Jason M; Brusseau, Mark L

2003-07-15

70

Study of stomach motility using the relaxation of magnetic tracers.  

PubMed

Magnetic tracers can be observed in the interior of the human body to give information about their quantity, position and state of order. With the aim of detecting and studying the degree of disorder of these tracers after they have been previously magnetized inside the stomach, a system composed of magnetization coils and magnetic detectors was developed. Helmholtz coils of diameter 84 cm were used to magnetize the sample and the remanent magnetization (RM) was detected with two first-order gradiometric fluxgate arrays each with a 15 cm base line, sensitivity of 0.5 nT and common mode rejection (CMR) of at least 10. The system allows simultaneous measurement in the anterior and posterior projections of the stomach. Measurements of the time evolution of the RM were performed in vitro and in normal subjects after the ingestion of a test meal labelled with magnetic particles. The data were fitted with an exponential curve and the relaxation time tau was obtained. Initial studies were performed to ascertain the action of a drug that is known to affect the gastric motility, showing that the decay of the remanent magnetization was indeed due to stomach contractions. PMID:10442706

Carneiro, A A; Baffa, O; Oliveira, R B

1999-07-01

71

A Rapid, Low-Cost Method to Determine Travel Times at Managed Aquifer Recharge Operations Using Noble Gas Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed aquifer recharge is a key component for the sustainable use of surface water and groundwater in the arid western U.S. When recycled water is a recharge water source, subsurface residence time, required for bacteria and virus deactivation, is best verified by application of an extrinsic tracer. Desirable tracer properties include: no real or perceived health risk, inexpensive even for a large volume of tagged water, large dynamic range, efficient introduction, convenient sampling methods, and rapid, low-cost analysis. We have developed and tested a dissolved noble gas tracer technique ideally suited for tracing large water volumes at managed aquifer recharge facilities. In an application of the method at a water district's facilities in the San Francisco Bay area, Xenon was introduced into a 106 m3 pond over a period of 7 days using a 300 m length of gas-permeable silicone tubing. Samples from the pond, near-field shallow monitoring wells, and production wells about 400 m from the recharge pond were analyzed for dissolved Xe by noble gas membrane inlet mass spectrometry (NGMIMS). The NGMIMS uses a syringe pump, gas-permeable membrane inlet, and quadrupole residual gas analyzer for measurement of noble gas concentrations. Samples are collected in VOA vials, and analysis can be carried out in real-time, with a measurement uncertainty of about 5% for Xe. Tracer first appeared in a production well 136 days after starting the tracer introduction at 0.7% (C/C0) of the peak pond xenon concentration. The cost of the tracer is about US650/106 m3 water, and the NGMIMS was assembled with parts totaling approximately US50,000, making application of the tracer method feasible for most managed aquifer recharge projects. This project is part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program.

Moran, J. E.; Visser, A.; Singleton, M. J.; Esser, B. K.; Halliwell, M.; Hillegonds, D. J.

2012-12-01

72

Atmospheric noble gases as tracers of biogenic gas dynamics in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric noble gases (NGs) were used to investigate biogenic gas dynamics in a shallow unconfined aquifer impacted by a crude oil spill, near Bemidji, MN. Concentrations of 3,4He, 20,22Ne, 36,40Ar, Kr, and Xe were determined for gas- and aqueous-phase samples collected from the vadose and saturated zones, respectively. Systematic elemental fractionation of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe with respect to air was observed in both of these hydrogeologic zones. Within the vadose zone, relative ratios of Ne and Ar to Kr and Xe revealed distinct process-related trends when compared to corresponding ratios for air. The degree of NG deviation from atmospheric concentrations generally increased with greater atomic mass (i.e., ?Xe > ?Kr > ?Ar > ?Ne), indicating that Kr and Xe are the most sensitive NG tracers in the vadose zone. Reactive transport modeling of the gas data confirms that elemental fractionation can be explained by mass-dependent variations in diffusive fluxes of NGs opposite to a total pressure gradient established between different biogeochemical process zones. Depletion of atmospheric NGs was also observed within a methanogenic zone of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation located below the water table. Solubility normalized NG abundances followed the order Xe > Kr > Ar > Ne, which is indicative of dissolved NG partitioning into the gas phase in response to bubble formation and possibly ebullition. Observed elemental NG ratios of Ne/Kr, Ne/Xe, Ar/Xe, and Kr/Xe and a modeling analysis provide strong evidence that CH4 generation below the water table caused gas exsolution and possibly ebullition and carbon transfer from groundwater to the vadose zone. These results suggest that noble gases provide sensitive tracers in biologically active unconfined aquifers and can assist in identifying carbon cycling and transfer within the vadose zone, the capillary fringe, and below the water table.

Jones, Katherine L.; Lindsay, Matthew B. J.; Kipfer, Rolf; Mayer, K. Ulrich

2014-03-01

73

Vertical Tracer Concentration Profiles Measured During the Joint Urban 2003 Dispersion Study  

SciTech Connect

An atmospheric tracer dispersion study known as Joint Urban 2003 was conducted in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma during the summer of 2003. As part of this field program, vertical concentration profiles were measured at approximately 1 km from downtown tracer gas release locations. These profiles indicated that the urban landscape was very effective in mixing the plume vertically. The height of the plume centerline (as determined by the maximum concentration over the depth of the measurements) for any specific 30 min period varied over the 65 m measurement range. Most of the variations in tracer concentration observed in the profile time series were related to changes in wind direction as opposed to changes in turbulence. As a simple analysis tool for emergency response, maximum normalized concentration curves were developed with 5-minute averaged measurements. These curves give the maximum concentration (normalized by the release rate) that would be observed as a function of downwind distance in an urban area. The 5-min data resulted in greater concentrations than predicted with a simple Gaussian plume model. However, the curve compared well with results from a computational fluid dynamics simulation. This dispersion dataset is a valuable asset not only for refining air quality models, but also for developing new tools for emergency response personnel in the event of a toxic release.

Flaherty, Julia E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, K Jerry; Allwine, Eugene J.

2007-12-01

74

Hourly Measurement of the Concentration and Gas-Particle Partitioning of Oxygenated Organic Tracers in Ambient Aerosol: First Results from Berkeley, CA and Rural Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hourly and bi-hourly time-resolved measurements of organic tracer compounds in ambient aerosols have been successfully used to elucidate sources and formation pathways of atmospheric particulate matter. Here we extend the Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (SVTAG), a custom in-situ instrument that collects, desorbs, and analyzes ambient aerosol and semi-volatile compounds with hourly time resolution, to include on-line derivatization and a second, parallel collection cell that provides simultaneous collection of both particle-phase and particle-plus-gas-phase organic compounds. By introducing a silylating agent upon desorption, SVTAG can measure highly oxygenated compounds that are not easily detected using traditional gas chromatography including most of the previously reported oxygenated tracers for biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol. The use of a pair of matched collection cells with parallel sampling and serial analysis provides direct gas-particle partitioning information. One cell collects the total organic fraction of compounds with volatilities lower than a C13 hydrocarbon, while the other cell samples through an activated carbon denuder to selectively remove the gas-phase components. Taken together these provide a direct measurement of gas-particle partitioning to yield a check on classical absorption based partitioning theory while deviations from this theory provide constraints on other driving factors in aerosol formation chemistry, such as oligomerization, salt formation, and acidity. We present here the capabilities and utility of the dual cell SVTAG with derivatization, with chemical insights gained from initial tests on ambient Berkeley air and the first results from a rural site in Alabama obtained during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Tracers for varying isoprene oxidation pathways are used to explore the influence of anthropogenic emissions; concentrations of 2-methyltetrols and 2-methyl glyceric acid provide constraints on the relative importance of NOx and HO2 as the fate of the alkylperoxy (RO2) radical. Measuring these and other known biogenic tracers with hourly time resolution yields detailed diurnal variability patterns of these compounds, elucidating formation timescales and pathways. Gas-particle partitioning of these biogenic oxygenated compounds, as well as oxygenated tracers common in urban environments, are found in many cases to be well-modeled by absorptive partitioning theory. However, for many compounds, the particle-phase fraction is greatly under-predicted by simple absorption. Several commonly used biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers that are typically considered to exist primarily in the particle phase, such as 2-methyltetrols, are shown to be 20-80% in the gas phase.

Isaacman, G. A.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Yee, L.; Chan, A.; Worton, D. R.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

2013-12-01

75

Reintegration of child soldiers in Burundi: a tracer study  

PubMed Central

Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07); and at present (T3; 2010). Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Results Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. Conclusion The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program. PMID:23095403

2012-01-01

76

C I Emission in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies as a Molecular Gas Mass Tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new sensitive wide-band measurements of the fine-structure line 3P1-->3P0 (J=1-0, 492 GHz) of neutral atomic carbon (C I) in the two typical ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) NGC 6240 and Arp 220. We then use them along with several other C I measurements in similar objects found in the literature to estimate their global molecular gas content under the assumption of a full C I-H2 concomitance. We find excellent agreement between the H2 gas mass estimated with this method and the standard methods using 12CO. This may provide a new way to measure H2 gas mass in galaxies and one that may be very valuable in ULIRGs since in such systems the bright 12CO emission is known to systematically overestimate the gas mass while their 13CO emission (an often-used alternative) is usually very weak. At redshifts z>=1 the C I J=1-0 line shifts to much more favorable atmospheric windows and can become a viable alternative tracer of the H2 gas, fueling starburst events in the distant universe.

Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Greve, Thomas R.

2004-11-01

77

GEOMETRIC OFFSETS ACROSS SPIRAL ARMS IN M51: NATURE OF GAS AND STAR FORMATION TRACERS  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of geometric offsets between gas spiral arms and associated star-forming regions in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51. These offsets are a suggested measure of the star formation timescale after the compression of gas at spiral arm entry. A surprising discrepancy, by an order of magnitude, has been reported in recent offset measurements in nearby spiral galaxies. Measurements using CO and H{alpha} emission find large and ordered offsets in M51. On the contrary, small or non-ordered offsets have been found using the H I 21 cm and 24 {mu}m emissions, possible evidence against gas flow through spiral arms, and thus against the conventional density-wave theory with a stationary spiral pattern. The goal of this paper is to understand the cause of this discrepancy. We investigate potential causes by repeating those previous measurements using equivalent data, methods, and parameters. We find offsets consistent with the previous measurements and conclude that the difference of gas tracers, i.e., H I versus CO, is the primary cause. The H I emission is contaminated significantly by the gas photodissociated by recently formed stars and does not necessarily trace the compressed gas, the precursor of star formation. The H I gas and star-forming regions coincide spatially and tend to show small offsets. We find mostly positive offsets with substantial scatter between CO and H{alpha}, suggesting that gas flow through spiral arms (i.e., density wave) though the spiral pattern may not necessarily be stationary.

Louie, Melissa; Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Egusa, Fumi, E-mail: melissa.louie@stonybrook.edu [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)] [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)

2013-02-15

78

A novel 83mKr tracer method for characterizing xenon gas and cryogenic distillation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radioactive isomer 83mKr, has many properties that make it very useful for various applications. Its low energy decay products, like conversion, shake-off and Auger electrons as well as X- and ?-rays are used for calibration purposes in neutrino mass experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments. Thanks to the short half-life of 1.83 h and the decay to the ground state 83Kr, one does not risk contamination of any low-background experiment with long-lived radionuclides. In this paper, we present a new approach, using 83mKr as a radioactive tracer in noble gases. A method of doping 83mKr, into xenon gas and its detection, using special custom-made detectors, based on a photomultiplier tube, is described. Two applications of this method are presented: firstly, it can be used to characterize the particle flow inside of gas routing systems and determine the circulation speed of gas particles inside of a gas purification system for xenon. Secondly, it is used for rapid estimating of the separation performance of a distillation system.

Rosendahl, S.; Bokeloh, K.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, I.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Lebeda, O.; Levy, C.; Murra, M.; Schneider, S.; V'enos, D.; Weinheimer, C.

2014-10-01

79

Observations of O VI. [ion spectroscopic tracer for hot phase interstellar gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A useful spectroscopic tracer for a hot phase of interstellar gas is the O VI ion, which reaches its maximum concentration in collisional ionization between 100,000 and 1 million K. Presently, over 70 stars have been observed for O VI absorption by the Copernicus satellite. Nearly all of the stars show broad weak lines, but no evidence favoring a circumstellar origin for the gas can be found. An overall average for the electron density of the hot gas in the galactic plane is of the order of 0.001 per cu cm. The relative volume in space occupied by the hot-gas regions (and hence their internal density) is uncertain, but a filling factor in the range from 0.02 to 0.2 seems most plausible. Fluctuations in radial velocities and column densities suggest there are roughly 6 regions per kpc, each with an O VI column density of approximately 10 trillion per sq cm. The observed rms dispersion of radial velocities for these regions is 26 km/s.

Jenkins, E. B.

1977-01-01

80

An Assessment of steady-state propane-gas tracer method for reaeration coefficients, Cowaselon Creek, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three tests were conducted in a straight 5.2-km reach of the Cowaselon Creek, Canastota, New York, in order to assess feasibility of the steady-state propane-gas tracer method as a means of estimating in situ reaeration coefficients. It is concluded that the steady-state method, which combines as instantaneous injection of dye tracer with a long-duration injection of propane tracer, is an operationally feasible field technique and provides a very reliable means of determining the propane desorption coefficient in steady-channel flow. The effect of wind shear on propane desorption coefficients was not detected in any tests, apparently due to the sheltering effect of high banks. The reaeration coefficient is estimated by applying a conversion factor determined from laboratory experiments to the gas desorption coefficient. (USGS)

Yotsukura, N.; Stedfast, D.A.; Draper, R.E.; Brutsaert, W.H.

1983-01-01

81

Measuring seasonal variations of moisture in a landfill with the partitioning gas tracer test.  

PubMed

Seven pilot-scale partitioning gas tracer tests (PGTTs) were conducted to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of this method for measuring water in municipal solid waste landfills. Tests were conducted in the same location over a 12-month period, and measured moisture conditions ranged from possible dry waste to refuse with a moisture content of 24.7%. The final moisture content of 24.7% was in reasonable agreement with gravimetric measurements of excavated refuse, where the moisture content was 26.5+/-6.0 CI%. Laboratory tests were used to assess the utility of the PGTT for measuring water in small pores, water sorbed to solid surfaces, and the influence of dry waste on PGTTs. These experiments indicated that when refuse surfaces are not completely solvated with water, PGTTs may produce misleading results (negative estimates) of water saturation and moisture content. PMID:16458495

Han, Byunghyun; Jafarpour, Behnam; Gallagher, Victoria N; Imhoff, Paul T; Chiu, Pei C; Fluman, Daniel A

2006-01-01

82

Measuring seasonal variations of moisture in a landfill with the partitioning gas tracer test  

SciTech Connect

Seven pilot-scale partitioning gas tracer tests (PGTTs) were conducted to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of this method for measuring water in municipal solid waste landfills. Tests were conducted in the same location over a 12-month period, and measured moisture conditions ranged from possible dry waste to refuse with a moisture content of 24.7%. The final moisture content of 24.7% was in reasonable agreement with gravimetric measurements of excavated refuse, where the moisture content was 26.5 {+-} 6.0CI%. Laboratory tests were used to assess the utility of the PGTT for measuring water in small pores, water sorbed to solid surfaces, and the influence of dry waste on PGTTs. These experiments indicated that when refuse surfaces are not completely solvated with water, PGTTs may produce misleading results (negative estimates) of water saturation and moisture content.

Han, Byunghyun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, 301 DuPont Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Jafarpour, Behnam [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, 301 DuPont Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Gallagher, Victoria N. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, 301 DuPont Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Imhoff, Paul T. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, 301 DuPont Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: imhoff@udel.edu; Chiu, Pei C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, 301 DuPont Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Fluman, Daniel A. [Delaware Solid Waste Authority, 1128 S. Bradford St. Dover, DE 19903-0455 (United States)

2006-07-01

83

The Critical Density and the Effective Excitation Density of Commonly Observed Molecular Dense Gas Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optically thin critical densities and the effective excitation densities to produce a 1 K km/s (or 0.818 Jy km/s ) spectral line are tabulated for 12 commonly observed dense gas molecular tracers. The dependence of the critical density and effective excitation density on physical assumptions (i.e., gas kinetic temperature and molecular column density) is analyzed. Critical densities for commonly observed dense gas transitions in molecular clouds (i.e., HCN 1-0, HCO+ 1-0, N2H+ 1-0) are typically 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than effective excitation densities because the standard definitions of critical density do not account for radiative trapping and 1 K km/s lines are typically produced when radiative rates out of the upper energy level of the transition are faster than collisional depopulation. The use of effective excitation density has a distinct advantage over the use of critical density in characterizing the differences in density traced by species such as NH3, HCO+, N2H+, and HCN, as well as their isotopologues; but, the effective excitation density has the disadvantage that it is undefined for transitions when Eu/k?Tk, for low molecular column densities, and for heavy molecules with complex spectra (i.e., CH3CHO).

Shirley, Yancy L.

2015-03-01

84

Near-road multipollutant profiles: Associations between volatile organic compounds and a tracer gas surrogate near a busy highway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research characterizes associations between multiple pollutants in the near-road environment attributed to a roadway line source. It also examines the use of a tracer gas as a surrogate of mobile source pollutants. Air samples were collected in summa canisters along a 300 m transect normal to a highway in Raleigh, North Carolina for five sampling periods spanning four days.

Timothy M. Barzyk; Anna Ciesielski; Richard C. Shores; Eben D. Thoma; Robert L. Seila; Vlad Isakov; Richard W. Baldauf

2012-01-01

85

Near-Road Mulltipollutant Profiles: Association between Volatile Organic Compounds and a Tracer Gas Surrogate Near a Busy Highway  

EPA Science Inventory

This research characterizes associations between multiple pollutants in the near-road environment attributed to a roadway line source. It also examines the use of a tracer gas as a surrogate of mobile source pollutants. Air samples were collected in summa canisters along a 300 m ...

86

Tracer studies and breakage testing in pilot-scale stirred mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tracer technique is used to provide parameters that describe mixing and breakage in stirred mills. The results are also used to test the accuracy of mixing and breakage models.Tracer studies have been undertaken using a 39-litre vertical Sala agitated mill and a 4-litre horizontal Netzsch mill. The experimental residence time distribution (RTD) of the mills is analysed both in

K. R. Weller; S. J. Spencer; M.-. Gao; Y. Liu

2000-01-01

87

Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

Roozen, K.

1995-02-15

88

13N as a tracer for studying glutamate metabolism  

PubMed Central

This mini-review summarizes studies my associates and I carried out that are relevant to the topic of the present volume [i.e. glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)] using radioactive 13N (t½ 9.96 min) as a biological tracer. These studies revealed the previously unrecognized rapidity with which nitrogen is exchanged among certain metabolites in vivo. For example, our work demonstrated that a) the t½ for conversion of portal vein ammonia to urea in the rat liver is ~10–11 sec, despite the need for five enzyme-catalyzed steps and two mitochondrial transport steps, b) the residence time for ammonia in the blood of anesthetized rats is ?7–8 sec, c) the t½ for incorporation of blood-borne ammonia into glutamine in the normal rat brain is <3 sec, and d) equilibration between glutamate and aspartate nitrogen in rat liver is extremely rapid (seconds), a reflection of the fact that the components of the hepatic aspartate aminotransferase reaction are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Our work emphasizes the importance of the GDH reaction in rat liver as a conduit for dissimilating or assimilating ammonia as needed. In contrast, our work shows that the GDH reaction in rat brain appears to operate mostly in the direction of ammonia production (dissimilation). The importance of the GDH reaction as an endogenous source of ammonia in the brain and the relation of GDH to the brain glutamine cycle is discussed. Finally, our work integrates with the increasing use of positron emission tomography (PET) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study brain ammonia uptake and brain glutamine, respectively, in normal individuals and in patients with liver disease or other diseases associated with hyperammonemia. PMID:21108979

Cooper, Arthur J. L.

2010-01-01

89

TRACER DISPERSION STUDIES FOR HYDRAULIC CHARACTERIZATION OF PIPES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of experiments were conducted at the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Test & Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, to quantify longitudinal dispersion of a sodium fluoride tracer in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe and ductile iron pipe under laminar, tr...

90

Sediment tracers in water erosion studies: Current approaches and challenges  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The interest in the use of sediment tracers as a complementary tool to traditional water soil erosion or deposition measurements or assessment has increased due to the additional information they may provide such as sediment source identification and tracking of sediment movement over the landscape ...

91

ACROSS NORTH AMERICA TRACER EXPERIMENT (ANATEX) MODEL EVALUATION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Three perfluorocarbon tracer gases were released at 2.5-day or 5.0-day intervals from two sites in central North America and sampled for 24-h periods at 77 surface sites. he source-receptor distances ranged from less than 30 km to 3,000 km. he data were used to evaluate the long-...

92

Tracer Study of Simultaneous Homogenization and Segregation in Industrial Equipments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioisotopic tracer technique is a wide-spread method for investigating homogenizing processes. During homogenization the homogeneity of the charge is decreasing according to exponential function in ideal situation, when there is no difference between the form, size and specific weight of granules. As these conditions in the practice generally are not fulfilled the equation is modified in different ways and

L. Baranyai

1984-01-01

93

THE NEW YORK CITY URBAN DISPERSION PROGRAM MARCH 2005 FIELD STUDY: TRACER METHODS AND RESULTS.  

SciTech Connect

The Urban Dispersion Program March 2005 Field Study tracer releases, sampling, and analytical methods are described in detail. There were two days where tracer releases and sampling were conducted. A total of 16.0 g of six tracers were released during the first test day or Intensive Observation Period (IOP) 1 and 15.7 g during IOP 2. Three types of sampling instruments were used in this study. Sequential air samplers, or SAS, collected six-minute samples, while Brookhaven atmospheric tracer samplers (BATS) and personal air samplers (PAS) collected thirty-minute samples. There were a total of 1300 samples resulting from the two IOPs. Confidence limits in the sampling and analysis method were 20% as determined from 100 duplicate samples. The sample recovery rate was 84%. The integrally averaged 6-minute samples were compared to the 30-minute samples. The agreement was found to be good in most cases. The validity of using a background tracer to calculate sample volumes was examined and also found to have a confidence level of 20%. Methods for improving sampling and analysis are discussed. The data described in this report are available as Excel files. An additional Excel file of quality assured tracer data for use in model validation efforts is also available. The file consists of extensively quality assured BATS tracer data with background concentrations subtracted.

WATSON, T.B.; HEISER, J.; KALB, P.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; WIESER, R.; VIGNATO, G.

2005-10-01

94

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Study; Progress report, January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Studies continue on the use of organic acids as tracers in hydrology studies of Yucca Mountain. Work performed during this time period has been concentrated in three main areas: the familiarization with, and optimization of, the LC-MS hardware and data system; the initial development of soil column test procedures, which are used for evaluation of both the columns themselves and the tracer compounds; and continuation of the batch sorption and degradation studies for the potential tracers. All three of these tasks will continue, as the addition of new tracer compounds, analytical information, and equipment will necessitate further evaluation of existing methods and procedures. Also included in this report is the final report on an information system.

Stetzenbach, K.J.

1991-12-31

95

Ammonium transport and reaction in contaminated groundwater: Application of isotope tracers and isotope fractionation studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ammonium (NH4+) is a major constituent of many contaminated groundwaters, but its movement through aquifers is complex and poorly documented. In this study, processes affecting NH4+ movement in a treated wastewater plume were studied by a combination of techniques including large-scale monitoring of NH4+ distribution; isotopic analyses of coexisting aqueous NH4+, NO3-, N2, and sorbed NH 4+; and in situ natural gradient 15NH 4+ tracer tests with numerical simulations of 15NH4+, 15NO3-, and 15N2 breakthrough data. Combined results indicate that the main mass of NH4+ was moving downgradient at a rate about 0.25 times the groundwater velocity. Retardation factors and groundwater ages indicate that much of the NH4+ in the plume was recharged early in the history of the wastewater disposal. NO3- and excess N2 gas, which were related to each other by denitrification near the plume source, were moving downgradient more rapidly and were largely unrelated to coexisting NH 4+. The ??15N data indicate areas of the plume affected by nitrification (substantial isotope fractionation) and sorption (no isotope fractionation). There was no conclusive evidence for NH 4+-consuming reactions (nitrification or anammox) in the anoxic core of the plume. Nitrification occurred along the upper boundary of the plume but was limited by a low rate of transverse dispersive mixing of wastewater NH4+ and O2 from overlying uncontaminated groundwater. Without induced vertical mixing or displacement of plume water with oxic groundwater from upgradient sources, the main mass of NH4+ could reach a discharge area without substantial reaction long after the more mobile wastewater constituents are gone. Multiple approaches including in situ isotopic tracers and fractionation studies provided critical information about processes affecting NH4+ movement and N speciation.

Böhlke, J.K.; Smith, R.L.; Miller, D.N.

2006-01-01

96

GHOST – A Novel Airborne Gas Chromatograph for In Situ Measurements of Long-Lived Tracers in the Lower Stratosphere: Method and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel fully-automated airborne gas chromatograph for in situmeasurements of long-lived stratospheric tracers hasbeen developed, combining the high selectivity of a megabore PLOTcapillary column with recently developed sampling and separationtechniques. The Gas cHromatograph for theObservation of Stratospheric Tracers (GHOST)has been successfully operated during three STREAM campaigns(Stratosphere TRoposphere Experiment byAirborne Measurement) onboard a Cessna Citation IIaircraft in two different modes: Either

Oliver Bujok; Viceith Tan; Erich Klein; Ralf Nopper; Reimar Bauer; Andreas Engel; Marie-Theres Gerhards; Armin Afchine; Daniel S. McKenna; Ulrich Schmidt; Frank G. Wienhold; Horst Fischer

2001-01-01

97

Urban Dispersion Program MSG05 Field Study: Summary of Tracer and Meteorological Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Urban Dispersion Program is a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, to better understand the flow and dispersion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of New York City. The first tracer and meteorological field study was a limited study conducted during March 2005 near the Madison Square Garden in midtown Manhattan. Six safe, inert, gaseous perfluorocarbon tracers were released simultaneously at five street-level locations during two experimental days. In addition to collecting tracer data, meteorological data were also collected. Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted the bulk of the tracer and meteorological field efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Stevens Institute of Technology assisting by measuring the vertical profile of winds. The Environmental Protection Agency worked with Brookhaven National Laboratory in accomplishing the personal exposure component of the study. This report presents some results from this analysis. In general, different release locations showed vastly different plume footprints for tracer materials, and the situation was made very complex with upwind and/or crosswind transport of tracer near street-level for the different release locations. Overall wind speeds and directions upwind and over the city were generally constant throughout each of the two experimental periods.

Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

2006-08-09

98

Using biofuel tracers to study alternative combustion regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in the use of alternative fuels and engines is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO 2 emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NO x) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and higher noise. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions. However, relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic due to economic constraints and difficult due to the emerging PM standards. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K inhibits NO x formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NO x threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder ( homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NO x and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to improve our combustion modeling.

Mack, J. H.; Flowers, D. L.; Buchholz, B. A.; Dibble, R. W.

2007-06-01

99

Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes  

SciTech Connect

Interest in the use of alternative fuels and combustion regimes is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO{sub 2} emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, and higher noise. Noise and PM have traditionally been the obstacles toward consumer acceptance of Diesel passenger cars in North America, while NOx (a key component in photochemical smog) has been more of an engineering challenge. Diesels are lean burning (combustion with excess oxygen) and reducing NOx to N2 in an oxygen rich environment is difficult. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions, but relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K prevents NOx formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NOx threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder (homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NOx and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to validate combustion modeling.

Mack, J H; Flowers, D L; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

2006-02-14

100

Dust Continuum Emission as a Tracer of Gas Mass in Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a sample of 36 galaxies from the KINGFISH (Herschel IR), HERACLES (IRAM CO), and THINGS (Very Large Array H I) surveys to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H2 + H I). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE 500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust to gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. The molecular (H2) gas mass is found to be better correlated with the peak of the IR emission (e.g., PACS160), driven mostly by the correlation of stellar mass and mean dust temperature. When examining these relations as a function of galactocentric radius, we find the same correlations, albeit with a larger scatter, up to a radius of r ~ 0.7 r 25 (containing most of a galaxy's baryonic mass). However, beyond that radius, the same correlations no longer hold, with increasing gas (predominantly H I) mass relative to the infrared emission. The tight relations found for the bulk of the galaxy's baryonic content suggest that total gas masses of disk-like (non-merging/ULIRG) galaxies can be inferred from far-infrared continuum measurements in situations where only the latter are available, e.g., in ALMA continuum observations of high-redshift galaxies.

Groves, Brent A.; Schinnerer, Eva; Leroy, Adam; Galametz, Maud; Walter, Fabian; Bolatto, Alberto; Hunt, Leslie; Dale, Daniel; Calzetti, Daniela; Croxall, Kevin; Kennicutt, Robert, Jr.

2015-01-01

101

A tracer experiment to study flow paths of water in a forest soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution discusses a tracer experiment, which was performed to study the flow paths of water in a macroporous forest soil. The experiment was performed in the framework of a study on the cycling of nitrogen in forested Prealpine catchments, in which losses of nitrate from virtually pristine areas were observed. Two soil plots with distinct micro-topography and top-soil were investigated: a well drained mor humus on a mound and a wet muck humus in a small depression. To reveal the effect of the soil horizons on the flow regime, tracers were applied both onto the soil surface and injected into the sub-soil. Tracers injected directly into the gleyic sub-soil reached the outlet (at a distance of 3.3 m) about 1000 times faster than could be expected from the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil matrix. Peak concentrations were observed after 18 (muck humus, tracer recovery 31%) to 70 min (mor humus, tracer recovery 40%). The peak concentration was 10 times smaller on the drier mor humus plot as compared to the muck humus. The mobile water content of the sub-soil varied between 0.5 (muck humus) and 1.3% (mor humus) of the total available soil water. The discrepancy in residence time, peak concentration and volume of mobile water between both sub-soils can be attributed to the differently structured sub-soil (longer travel distance and mixing volume in the drier mor humus). Tracers applied onto the soil surface resulted in a much slower breakthrough (tracer peaks after 400-700 min). Thus, in contrast to the sub-soil, flow through the matrix was the predominating transport process in the upper humus layers of both plots.

Feyen, H.; Wunderli, H.; Wydler, H.; Papritz, A.

1999-12-01

102

Multiple tracer study in Horonobe, northern Hokkaido, Japan: 1. Residence time estimation based on multiple environmental tracers and lumped parameter models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiple tracer study was conducted in the coastal plain of Horonobe, northern Hokkaido, Japan. To accomplish reliable estimates of groundwater residence time, multiple tracer approach, employing both gaseous and nongaseous environmental tracers, and lumped parameter models (LPMs) were applied in combination. Environmental tracers including 3H, 3H/3He, 36Cl, and SF6 were analyzed and compared with values estimated from LPMs to select the most appropriate tracer and models to describe groundwater flow regime in the study area. Time series of 36Cl/Cl input in the study area were reconstructed and used in the LPMs. From comparison of the analyzed and modeled results, an index of 3H/3He was selected as the most appropriate for investigation of the study area. The relationship between the 3H/3He index and 36Cl/Cl indicated reliability of the 3H/3He index, but 36Cl/Cl values of the samples were lower than the models. This discrepancy was caused by underestimation of Cl- concentration of recharging water in the calculation of 36Cl/Cl input. SF6 mixing ratios of the samples were slightly higher than the models and it suggested involvement of terrigenic SF6. Three well groups, northern Shimonuma wells (NSW), southern Shimonuma wells (SSW), and Hamasato wells (HW), were respectively consistent with exponential piston flow model (EPM), binary mixing model (BMM), and exponential mixing model (EMM). Relational expressions between the 3H/3He index and mean residence time or mixing fraction of young groundwater (assumed to contain no tritiogenic 3He) with old groundwater (all 3H decayed to tritiogenic 3He) were obtained based on the models. The mean residence time determined from the 3H/3He index and the expressions were 19-78 years for NSW and 1-648 years for HW. The mixing fraction of young groundwater was less than 10% at all SSW. Nongaseous tracers, including 36Cl are not influenced by factors specific for gaseous tracers, such as excess air and degassing. Analyses of multiple tracers, including both gaseous and nongaseous tracers, and comparison using LPMs were effective to show plausibility of the estimated residence time, and they contributed to understanding of groundwater flow regime in the study area.

Kashiwaya, Koki; Hasegawa, Takuma; Nakata, Kotaro; Tomioka, Yuichi; Mizuno, Takashi

2014-11-01

103

Results of Chemical Analyses for Alcove 8/Niche 3 Tracer Studies  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report detailing the analyses performed under ORD-FY04-011 "Chemical Analyses for Alcove 8/Niche 3 Tracer Studies." The work was performed under the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC28-04RW12232. This task provided method development and analytical support for the Alcove 8/Niche 3 Tracer Studies in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Concentrations of tracers, as well as major anions and cations, were reported for samples provided by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). Samples were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Ion Chromatography (IC). Samples were analyzed and controlled according to Implementing Procedures (IP's) written and approved in accordance with the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) approved Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) Quality Assurance Program.

Daniels, Jeanette

2006-02-23

104

Tracer Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In radioactive tracer technique, radioactive nuclides are used to follow the behavior of elements or chemical species in chemical and other processes. This is realized by means of radioactivity measurement. In 1913, Hevesy and Paneth succeeded in determining the extremely low solubility of lead salts by using naturally occurring 210Pb as a radioactive tracer. As various radioactive nuclides became artificially available, this technique has been widely employed in studies of chemical equilibrium and reactions as well as in chemical analysis. It is also an essential technique in biochemical, biological, medical, geological, and environmental studies. Medical diagnosis and industrial process control are the fields of its most important practical application. In this chapter, fundamental ideas concerning radioactive tracers will be described followed by their application with typical examples. Detailed description on their application to life sciences and medicine is given in Vol. 4.

Haba, H.; Motomura, S.; Kamino, S.; Enomoto, S.

105

Oxygen-18 tracer study of the passive thermal oxidation of silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work focuses on the thermal oxidation of silicon near 1273 K using the double-tracer oxidation method. The results confirm that oxidation occurs by the transport of electrically neutral nonnetwork oxygen through the interstitial space of the vitreous silica (v-SiO2) scale. Simultaneously, self- (or isotopic-) diffusion occurs in the network, resulting in characteristic isotopic fraction distributions near the gas-scale interface. The self-diffusion coefficients calculated from these profiles agree with those reported for tracer diffusion in v-SiO2, and the diffusion coefficient calculated from the scale growth is consistent with reported O2 permeation data. An important parameter that describes the double-oxidation behavior is a ratio relating the scale thickness grown during the second oxidation, the network self-diffusion coefficient for oxygen, and the time of the second oxidation.

Cawley, J. D.; Halloran, J. W.; Cooper, A. R.

1987-01-01

106

Using noble gas tracers to estimate residual CO2 saturation in the field: results from the CO2CRC Otway residual saturation and dissolution test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual CO2 saturation is a critically important parameter in CO2 storage as it can have a large impact on the available secure storage volume and post-injection CO2 migration. A suite of single-well tests to measure residual trapping was conducted at the Otway test site in Victoria, Australia during 2011. One or more of these tests could be conducted at a prospective CO2 storage site before large-scale injection. The test involved injection of 150 tonnes of pure carbon dioxide followed by 454 tonnes of CO2-saturated formation water to drive the carbon dioxide to residual saturation. This work presents a brief overview of the full test sequence, followed by the analysis and interpretation of the tests using noble gas tracers. Prior to CO2 injection krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe) tracers were injected and back-produced to characterise the aquifer under single-phase conditions. After CO2 had been driven to residual the two tracers were injected and produced again. The noble gases act as non-partitioning aqueous-phase tracers in the undisturbed aquifer and as partitioning tracers in the presence of residual CO2. To estimate residual saturation from the tracer test data a one-dimensional radial model of the near-well region is used. In the model there are only two independent parameters: the apparent dispersivity of each tracer and the residual CO2 saturation. Independent analysis of the Kr and Xe tracer production curves gives the same estimate of residual saturation to within the accuracy of the method. Furthermore the residual from the noble gas tracer tests is consistent with other measurements in the sequence of tests.

LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

2013-12-01

107

Subsurface Chloride Transport in Shallow Groundwater: A Tracer Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preferential flow pathways (primarily funnel flow) were identified at the USDA-ARS Beltsville OPE3 field site using geophysical surveys (ground-penetrating radar) and used in conjunction with intensive monitoring of soil water contents, groundwater depths, chemical composition of groundwater, and plant biophysical parameters. The tracer experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of preferential flow pathways on the solute transport in groundwater and vadose zone at a site with shallow groundwater in sandy loam soil and sediment. A pulse of the KCl solution was applied on a 13 x 14 m plot with irrigation water from a rainfall simulator. After that, the plot was irrigated twice a day for 4 months. Chloride concentrations were measured in four wells within the irrigated plot, with five additional wells at the distance of 7 m, and three more wells at a distance of 14 m from the irrigated plot. All eight wells outside the irrigated area were located down gradient from the Cl application area. Samples for quantifying Cl concentrations were collected from each well at three depths (1.1 m, 1.4 m, and 1.7 m) twice a day during the first month and once a day during three subsequent months. Additionally, meteorological data, groundwater depth, soil water content, and soil water potential were monitored in the vicinity of the wells with 15-min frequency. Runoff water from the irrigation events was captured, measured, and sampled for Cl. Results suggest that both matrix and preferential flow processes affected CL transport. Rainfalls caused groundwater dilution at all depths in all wells. The degree of mixing and dilution after rainfalls varied among wells with a definite spatial trend. The arrival time of the Cl differed between wells and was from seventy to one hundred days at the 7-m distance. The dispersion of Cl as inferred from the breakthrough concentrations was different for each spatial location. Vertical concentration profiles were not monotonous, and inversions of Cl concentrations were observed in some wells. Some of the observed differences in Cl breakthrough between the observation wells could be interpreted using the ground penetration radar and the borehole data that revealed substantial variability of the subsurface texture and structure. Modeling of the flow and transport in this experiment with a series of models of different complexity in the uncertainty context presents the challenging avenue of the ongoing research. However, it is clear that effective modeling of field- scale chemical transport needs to incorporate preferential flow processes.

Pachepsky, Y. A.; Guber, A. K.; Gish, T. J.; Nicholson, T. J.; Cady, R. E.; Yakirevich, A. M.; Daughtry, C. S.; Rowland, R. A.; McKee, L.; White, W. A.

2008-12-01

108

In vitro study of PET tumor tracers at normal and elevated media glucose levels  

SciTech Connect

FDG uptake in tumors is decreased by hyperglycemia. Little is known about the effect of hyperglycemia on non-FDG PET tracer uptake in tumors. This study was designed to determine if PET tumor tracers are affected by chronic exposure of tumor cells to high media glucose levels. Human ovarian adenocarcinoma (HTB77IP3) cells normally grown at 100 mg/dl of glucose were grown in media with 100 or 300 mg/dl of glucose. At 20, 26 and 38 days after initial culture (6-7 days after subculture), uptakes of 3H-labeled FDG, Thymidine (Thy), Methionine (Met) and Leucine (Leu) into the cells (n=4) were determined at the same glucose level as growth media. Tracer uptake per 1 million cells was measured after a 60 min uptake period. Presented are percentage of tracer uptake of cells grown at 300 mg/dl of glucose relative to uptake of cells grown at 100 mg/dl of glucose (mean {plus_minus} SD of 20, 26, and 38 days culture). Paired t-tests were used to compare tracer uptake of cells grown and assayed at both glucose levels. P values <0.05 were considered significant. FDG uptake of cells grown and assayed at 300 mg/dl of glucose was significantly decreased, compared with uptake of cells grown and assayed at 100 mg/dl of glucose. By contrast, uptake of Thy, Met and Leu were not different between cells grown and assayed at 100 or 300 mg/dl of glucose. These results indicate that tumor uptake of Thy, Met and Leu do not depend on media glucose level and suggest that these tracers labeled with C-11 are suitable for hyperglycemic patients, in whom tumor FDG uptake is expected to be impaired.

Torizuka, T.; Clavo, A.C.; Wahl, R.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-05-01

109

USING CONTINUOUS MONITORS FOR CONDUCTING TRACER STUDIES IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of online monitors for conducting a distribution system tracer study is proving to be an essential tool to accurately understand the flow dynamics in a distribution system. In a series of field testing sponsored by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Greater ...

110

Calculation of the mean residence time in distribution systems from tracer studies and models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The residence time of water within the distribution system (DS) is a key parameter to characterize the extent of disinfectant loss and disinfectant by-product formation. While hydraulic models include calculation of a parameter referred to commonly as 'water age', the expense of development and calibration has restricted their availability. Chemical tracer studies provide a less expensive alternative way to estimate

Francis A. DiGiano; Weidong Zhang; Alessandro Travaglia

2005-01-01

111

Development of a specific tracer for metabolic imaging of alveolar echinococcosis: A preclinical study.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) (FDG-PET/CT) is a valuable method for initial staging and follow up of patients with alveolar echinococcosis (AE). However, the cells responsible for FDG uptake have not been clearly identified. The main goal of our study was to evaluate the uptake of PET tracers by the cells involved in the host-parasite reaction around AE lesions as the first step to develop a specific PET tracer that would allow direct assessment of parasite viability in AE. Candidate molecules ([18F]-fluorotyrosine (FET), [18F]-fluorothymidine (FLT), and [18F]-fluorometylcholine (FMC), were compared to FDG by in vitro studies on human leukocytes and parasite vesicles. Our results confirmed that FDG was mainly consumed by immune cells and showed that FLT was the best candidate tracer for parasite metabolism. Indeed, parasite cells exhibited high uptake of FLT. We also performed PET/CT scans in mice infected intraperitoneally with E. multilocularis metacestodes. PET images showed no FDG or FLT uptake in parasitic lesions. This preliminary study assessed the metabolic activity of human leukocytes and AE cells using radiolabeling. Future studies could develop a specific PET tracer for AE lesions to improve lesion detection and echinococcosis treatment in patients. Our results demonstrated that a new animal model is needed for preclinical PET imaging to better mimic human hepatic and/or periparasitic metabolism. PMID:25571261

Porot, Clémence; Knapp, Jenny; Wang, Junhua; Germain, Stéphane; Camporese, Davide; Seimbille, Yann; Boulahdour, Hatem; Vuitton, Dominique A; Gottstein, Bruno; Blagosklonov, Oleg

2014-01-01

112

Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods  

SciTech Connect

The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

2013-12-01

113

Insights into secondary organic aerosol formation mechanisms from measured gas/particle partitioning of specific organic tracer compounds.  

PubMed

In situ measurements of organic compounds in both gas and particle phases were made with a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (TAG) instrument. The gas/particle partitioning of phthalic acid, pinonaldehyde, and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone is discussed in detail to explore secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation mechanisms. Measured fractions in the particle phase (f(part)) of 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone were similar to those expected from the absorptive gas/particle partitioning theory, suggesting that its partitioning is dominated by absorption processes. However, f(part) of phthalic acid and pinonaldehyde were substantially higher than predicted. The formation of low-volatility products from reactions of phthalic acid with ammonia is proposed as one possible mechanism to explain the high f(part) of phthalic acid. The observations of particle-phase pinonaldehyde when inorganic acids were fully neutralized indicate that inorganic acids are not required for the occurrence of reactive uptake of pinonaldehyde on particles. The observed relationship between f(part) of pinonaldehyde and relative humidity suggests that the aerosol water plays a significant role in the formation of particle-phase pinonaldehyde. Our results clearly show it is necessary to include multiple gas/particle partitioning pathways in models to predict SOA and multiple SOA tracers in source apportionment models to reconstruct SOA. PMID:23448102

Zhao, Yunliang; Kreisberg, Nathan M; Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Weber, Robin J; Liu, Shang; Day, Douglas A; Russell, Lynn M; Markovic, Milos Z; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Murphy, Jennifer G; Hering, Susanne V; Goldstein, Allen H

2013-04-16

114

Isotope pattern deconvolution as rising tool for isotope tracer studies in environmental research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade stable isotope tracers have emerged as versatile tool in ecological research. Besides 'intrinsic' isotope tracers caused by the natural variation of isotopes, the intentional introduction of 'extrinsic' enriched stable isotope tracers into biological systems has gained significant interest. Hereby the induced change in the natural isotopic composition of an element allows amongst others for studying the fate and fluxes of metals, trace elements and species in organisms or provides an intrinsic marker or tag of particular biological samples. Due to the shoreless potential of this methodology, the number of publications dealing with applications of isotope (double) spikes as tracers to address research questions in 'real world systems' is constantly increasing. However, some isotope systems like the natural Sr isotopic system, although potentially very powerful for this type of application, are still rarely used, mainly because their adequate measurement/determination poses major analytical challenges; as e.g. Sr is available in significant amounts in natural samples. In addition, biological systems underlie complex processes such as metabolism, adsorption/desorption or oxidation/reduction. As a consequence, classic evaluation approaches such as the isotope dilution mass spectrometry equation are often not applicable because of the unknown amount of tracer finally present in the sample. Isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD), based on multiple linear regression, serves as simplified alternative data processing strategy to double spike isotope dilution calculations. The outstanding advantage of this mathematical tool lies in the possibility of deconvolving the isotope pattern in a spiked sample without knowing the quantities of enriched isotope tracer being incorporated into the natural sample matrix as well as the degree of impurities and species-interconversion (e.g. from sample preparation). Here, the potential of IPD for environmental tracer studies is critically discussed, where special emphasis is set on evaluating different data processing strategies on the example of enriched stable Sr isotopes.1 The analytical key parameters such as blank (Kr, Sr and Rb), variation of the natural Sr isotopic composition in the sample, mass bias, interferences (Rb) and total combined uncertainty are considered. A full metrological protocol for data processing using IPD is presented based on data gained during two transgenerational marking studies of fish, where the transfer of a Sr isotope double spike (84Sr and 86Sr) from female spawners of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f.f.)2 to the centre of the otoliths of their offspring was studied by (LA)-MC-ICP-MS. 1J. Irrgeher, A. Zitek, M. Cervicek and T. Prohaska, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2014, 29, 193-200. 2A. Zitek, J. Irrgeher, M. Kletzl, T. Weismann and T. Prohaska, Fish. Manage. Ecol., 2013, 20, 654-361.

Irrgeher, Johanna; Zitek, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas

2014-05-01

115

Tracer-based quantification of individual frac discharge in single-well multiple-frac backflow: sensitivity study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the deep-geothermal research project at GroßSchönebeck in the NE German Basin, targeting volcanic rocks (Lower Rotliegend) and siliciclastics (Upper Rotliegend) in the Lower Permian by means of a well doublet with several screening intervals between 3815 and 4247 m b.s.l., several artificial fractures with different geometric and hydraulic characteristics were created at each well, aiming to increase reservoir performance [1], [2]. It could not be told a priori which of the various fracturing treatments was to prove as most promising in terms of future reservoir productivity. At the intended-production well (GS-4), one large-area waterfrac was created in the low-permeability volcanic rocks, and two gel-proppant fractures in selected sandstone layers. Each fracturing treatment was accompanied by the injection of a water-dissolved tracer slug, followed by a defined volume of tracer-free ('chaser') fluid [3]. Each frac received a different species of a sulfonated aromatic acid salt, as a conservative water tracer. During subsequent backflow tests (either gas-based lifting, or production by means of a downhole submersible pump), each frac can contribute a certain (more or less constant) amount to the measured total discharge (also depending on whether and when each frac 'starts' contributing, and which effective aperture and area it actually 'manifests' during the process). Since these individual-frac discharge amounts cannot be measured directly, it was endeavoured to indirectly determine ('resolve') them from tracer signals as detectable in the overall backflow discharge. Therefore, we need to examine how these tracer signals depend on local discharge values and on local hydrogeologic parameters (matrix porosity, permeability distribution; frac transmissivity, thickness, effective area and aperture), and to what extent hydrogeological uncertainty will impede the inversion of local discharge values. To this end, a parameter sensitivity study was conducted on a simplified flow and tracer transport model (using FEOW and assuming Darcian flow within the matrix, Hagen-Poiseuille flow within the waterfrac, and either D or H-P flow within the gel-proppant fracs), whose main findings are: (1) late tracer signals are almost independent on matrix porosity, permeability distribution, frac area (length), thickness and effective aperture, while being highly sensitive to local discharge values; 'late' means a backflow or production volume at least fivefold the injected chaser volume; (2a) early tracer signals (concentration 'peak' intervals) may exhibit slight 'acceleration' and 'damping' with increasing matrix porosity or increasing frac aperture (a 'paradoxical' behaviour which is not really surprising for single-well 'push-then-backflow' tests, actually owing to flow-field dispersion[4]), and (2b) a non-monotonous response to varying frac area, being almost insensitive to frac area as long as the linear-flow regime prevails against the radial-flow regime (effects of the latter only becoming visible at very low frac areas); (2c) the effects of these various factors on early-time tracer signals are not unambiguously discernible from each other, and this ambiguity would persist even if frac-resolved (in-situ) discharge metering were feasible. For each of the three fracs (k=1,2,3), a 'type-curve' set Ck(Q,t) (parametrized by discharge values Q) can be generated. Since every frac received a different tracer, tracer signals measured within the overall backflow will differ from individual-frac type-curves by mere dilution (no 'superposition'). Type-curve dilution by factor Qk/Qtotal can be compared to measured tracer concentrations in the total discharge, ck(ti), (i = 1, ..., no. of tracer samplings). From a formal point of view, the unknown discharge values Qk can be determined as the solution of a linear optimization task subject to the constraint Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = Qtotal (the latter being a measured value). It is recommendable to perform 'optimization' manually, rather than by resorting to automated solutions provided by some linea

Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

2014-05-01

116

Radio-tracer techniques for the study of flow in saturated porous materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An experiment was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine the feasibility of using a radioactive substance as a tracer in the study of microscopic flow in a saturated porous solid. A radioactive tracer was chosen in preference to dye or other chemical in order to eliminate effects of the tracer itself on the flow system such as those relating to density, viscosity and surface tension. The porous solid was artificial "sandstone" composed of uniform fine grains of sand bonded together with an epoxy adhesive. The sides of the block thus made were sealed with an epoxy coating compound to insure water-tightness. Because of the chemical inertness of the block it was possible to use radioactive phosphorus (P32). Ion-exchange equilibrium was created between the block and nonradioactive phosphoric acid. Then a tracer tagged with P32 was injected into the block in the desired geometric configuration, in this case, a line source. After equilibrium in isotopic exchange was reached between the block and the line source, the block was rinsed, drained and sawn into slices. It was found that a quantitative analysis of the flow system may be made by assaying the dissected block. ?? 1961.

Skibitzke, H.E.; Chapman, H.T.; Robinson, G.M.; McCullough, R.A.

1961-01-01

117

Measuring SSRI occupancy of SERT using the novel tracer [ 123 I]ADAM: a SPECT validation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Serotonergic brain regions play a crucial role in the modulation of emotion, and serotonergic dysfunction may contribute to several neurological dis- orders. ( 123 I)ADAM is a novel SPECT tracer which binds with high affinity to serotonin transporters (SERT). The ob- jective of this study was to compare different methods for the quantification of tracer binding and to develop

Kjell Erlandsson; Tharani Sivananthan; Dominic Lui; Andrea Spezzi; Caroline E. Townsend; Song Mu; Richard Lucas; Steven Warrington; Peter J. Ell

2005-01-01

118

A novel $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr tracer method for characterizing xenon gas and cryogenic distillation systems  

E-print Network

The radioactive isomer $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr has many properties that make it very useful for various applications. Its low energy decay products, like conversion, shake-off and Auger electrons as well as X- and $\\gamma$-rays are used for calibration purposes in neutrino mass experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments. Thanks to the short half-life of 1.83 h and the decay to the ground state $^{83}$Kr, one does not risk contamination of any low-background experiment with long- lived radionuclides. In this paper, we present two new applications of $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr. It can be used as a radioactive tracer in noble gases to characterize the particle flow inside of gas routing systems. A method of doping $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr into xenon gas and its detection, using special custom-made detectors, based on a photomultiplier tube, is described. This technique has been used to determine the circulation speed of gas particles inside of a gas purification system for xenon. Furthermore, 83m Kr can be used to...

Rosendahl, S; Brown, E; Cristescu, I; Fieguth, A; Huhmann, C; Lebeda, O; Levy, C; Murra, M; Schneider, S; Vénos, D; Weinheimer, C

2014-01-01

119

Sample site selection for tracer studies applying a unidirectional circulatory approach  

SciTech Connect

The optimal arterial or venous sites for infusion and sampling during isotopic tracer studies have not been established. This study determined the relationship of plasma and tissue enrichment (E) when isotopes were infused in an artery and sampled from a vein (av mode) or infused in a vein and sampled from an artery (va mode). Adult dogs were given primed constant infusions of (3-/sup 13/C)lactate, (1-/sup 13/C)leucine, and /sup 14/C-labeled bicarbonate. Simultaneous samples were drawn from the vena cava, aortic arch, and breath. Tissue samples were removed from skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and gut. Breath samples were analyzed for /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by liquid scintillation counting and plasma isotopic enrichments of (/sup 13/C)lactate, (/sup 13/C)leucine, and alpha-(/sup 13/C)ketoisocaproate (KIC) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. By using the va mode, the plasma E for lactate and leucine were 30-40% above tissue E. The av mode provided an accurate reflection of tissue E for lactate, which equilibrates rapidly with tissues, and a reasonable estimate for leucine, which exchanges more slowly. The isotopic enrichment of plasma KIC more directly reflected tissue leucine E than did plasma leucine E, and KIC enrichment was insensitive to sampling site. We also evaluated theoretically a circulatory model that predicts venous isotopic enrichments when the va mode is used. We conclude that the av mode is optimal but that the problems arising from use of the va mode can be overcome by use of a metabolic product (i.e., KIC) or by calculation of venous specific activity with our circulatory mode.

Layman, D.K.; Wolfe, R.R.

1987-08-01

120

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

Luong, E.

1999-05-10

121

Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI >> 1.0), solute exchange rates are fast relative to stream-water velocity and all solute is exchanged with the storage zone over the experimental reach. As DaI increases, tracer dispersion caused by hyporheic exchange eventually reaches an equilibrium condition and storage-zone exchange parameters become essentially nonidentifiable.

Wagner, B.J.; Harvey, J.W.

1997-01-01

122

A Study Plan for Determining Recharge Rates at the Hanford Site Using Environmental Tracers  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a study plan tor estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transporting contaminants through the vadose zone and into the groundwater. The prediction of contaminant movement or transport is one aspect of performance assessment and an important step in the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. In the past, recharge has been characterized by collecting lysimeter data. Although lysimeters can generate important and reliable data, their limitations include 1) fixed location, 2) fixed sediment contents, 3) edge effects, 4) low rates, and 5) relatively short duration of measurement. These limitations impact the ability to characterize the spatial distribution of recharge at the Hanford Site, and thus the ability to predict contaminant movement in the vadose zone. An alternative to using fixed lysimeters for determining recharge rates in the vadose zone is to use environmental tracers. Tracers that have been used to study water movement in the vadose zone include total chloride, {sup 36}CI, {sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H/{sup 18}O. Atmospheric levels of {sup 36}CI and {sup 3}H increased during nuclear bomb testing in the Pacific, and the resulting "bomb pulse" or peak concentration can be measured in the soil profile. Locally, past operations at the Hanford Site have resu~ed in the atmospheric release of numerous chemical and isotopic tracers, including nitrate, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc. The radionuclides, in particular, reached a well-defined atmospheric peak in 1945. Atmospheric releases of {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc were greatly reduced by mid-1946, but nitrogen oxides continued to be released from the uranium separations facilities. As a result, the nitrate concentrations probably peaked in the mid-1950s, when the greatest number of separations facilities were operating. Seven study sites on the Hanford Site have been selected, in two primary soil types that are believed to represent the extremes in recharge, the Quincy sand and the Warden silt loam. An additional background study site upwind of the Hanford facilities has been chosen at the Yakima Firing Center. Study sites at Hanford were chosen close to micrometeorology stations on downwind transects from the operational facilities. Initial testing will be done on sites that lack perennial vegetation. Six tracer techniques (total chlortde, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 3}H, nitrate, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) will be tested on at least one site in the Quincy sand, one site in the Warden si~ loam, and the background site, to determine which combination of tracers wortks best for a given soil type. In subsequent years, additional sites will be investigated to determine the effect of vegetation on recharge estimates and on the performance of individual tracers. The use of environmental tracers is perhaps the only cost-effective method for estimating the spatial vartability of recharge at a site as large as Hanford. The tracer techniques used at Hanford have wide applicability at other and sites operated by the U.S. Department of Energy as well as at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites.

Murphy,, E. M.; Szecsody,, J. E.; Phillips,, S. J.

1991-02-01

123

Modeling of meteorology, tracer transport and chemistry for the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies 2012 and 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies (UBWOS) field campaigns took place during winter of 2012 and 2013 in the Uintah Basin, Utah. The studies were aimed at characterizing meteorology, emissions of atmospheric constituents and air chemistry in a region abundant with oil and gas production, with associated emissions of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx. High ozone pollution events were observed throughout the Uintah Basin during the winter of 2013, but not during the winter of 2012. A clear understanding of the processes leading to high ozone events is still lacking. We present here high spatiotemporal resolution simulations of meteorology, tracer transport and gas chemistry over the basin during January-February, 2012 and 2013 using the WRF/Chem regional photochemical model. Correctly characterizing the meteorology poses unique challenges due to complex terrain, cold-pool conditions, and shallow inversion layers observed during the winter of 2013. We discuss the approach taken to adequately simulate the meteorology over the basin and present evaluations of the modeled meteorology using surface, lidar and tethersonde measurements. Initial simulations use a passive tracer within the model as a surrogate for CH4 released from oil and gas wells. These tracer transport simulations show that concentrations of inert, emitted species near the surface in 2013 were 4-8 times higher than 2012 due to much shallower boundary layers and reduced winds in 2013. This is supported by in-situ measurements of CH4 made at the Horse Pool surface station during the field campaigns. Full photochemical simulations are forced by VOC and NOx emissions that are determined in a top-down approach, using observed emission ratios of VOC and NOx relative to CH4, along with available information of active wells, compressors, and processing plants. We focus on differences in meteorology, temperature, and radiation between the two winters in determining ozone concentrations in the basin. The model is then used diagnostically to assess first-order sensitivities of basin-wide ozone to NOx or VOC emissions, and how they depend on the environmental differences between the winters of 2012 and 2013.

Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Angevine, W. M.; Frost, G. J.; Roberts, J. M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Peischl, J.; Brown, S. S.; Edwards, P. M.; Wild, R. J.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Senff, C. J.; Langford, A. O.; Petron, G.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Schnell, R. C.; Johnson, B.; Zamora, R. J.; Helmig, D.; Park, J.; Evans, J.; Stephens, C. R.; Olson, J. B.; Trainer, M.

2013-12-01

124

TRACER STUDY OF VERTICAL EXCHANGE BY CUMULUS CLOUDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The exchange of material by convective cloud processes between the mixed layer and the overlying free troposphere is examined. The paper describes results of a field experiment that was conducted in Lexington, Kentucky during the period from July 20 to August 24, 1983 to study th...

125

TRACER STUDIES OF TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION IN CUMULI  

EPA Science Inventory

The results from a study of the transport and transformation of pollutants are reported. irborne measurements near Champaign, llinois and Milwaukee, Wisconsin were made during the summers of 1990 and 1992. easurements of the aerosol size distribution, wind, turbulence, cloud micr...

126

Tracer Study of the Botswana Library School Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the results of a survey of graduates of the Department of Library and Information Studies, University of Botswana that was conducted to determine their characteristics, the relevance of their training to their present jobs, and their perceptions of the curriculum. A copy of the questionnaire used is appended. (Author/LRW)

Aina, L. O.; Moahi, K.

1999-01-01

127

Hydrogen behavior near surface regions in Mo and W studied by tritium tracer technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium tracer techniques are applied to observe behavior of hydrogen (tritium (T)) in near surface regions of Mo and W loaded by gaseous absorption (GAS) and a glow discharge (GDC). GDC produces blisters on both Mo and W surfaces and Tritium Auto-RadioGraph (TARG) showed the thickness of blister skins is larger than the escaping depth of T ?-electrons, around 1 ?m. For GAS specimens, T evolution is likely controlled by diffusion giving diffusion coefficients of, D=1.5×10-7exp-{41 kJ/mol}/{RT} m s D=4.3×10-9exp-{38 kJ/mol}/{RT} m s at 273-323 K. GDC specimens show much smaller diffusion coefficients with higher activation energies and T release continues very long, suggesting T release from blisters.

Hoshihira, Takamitsu; Otsuka, Teppei; Wakabayashi, Ryusuke; Tanabe, Tetsuo

2011-10-01

128

A Mathematical Modeling Study of Tracer Mixing in a Continuous Casting Tundish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model based on a water model was developed to study the tracer mixing in a single strand tundish. The mixing behavior of black ink and KCl solution was simulated by a mixed composition fluid model, and the data were validated by water modeling results. In addition, a model that solves the scalar transport equation (STE) without any physical properties of the tracer was studied and the results were compared to predictions using the density-coupled model. Furthermore, the mixing behaviors of different amounts of KCl tracers were investigated. Before the model was established, KCl tracer properties such as the KCl molecule diffusion (KMD), the water molecule self-diffusion (WSD) in KCl solution, and the KCl solution viscosity (KV) were evaluated. The RTD curve of 250 mL KCl for the KMD case was closer to the water modeling results than that of the case implemented with only density. Moreover, the ensemble average deviation of the RTD curves of the cases implemented with KMD + WSD, KMD + KV, and KMD + WSD + KV to the KMD case is less than 0.7 pct. Thus, the water self-diffusion and KV were neglected, while the KCl density and KMD were implemented in the current study. The flow pattern of black ink was similar to the STE result i.e., the fluid flowed upwards toward the top surface and formed a large circulating flow at the outlet nozzle. The flow behavior of the 100, 150, and 250 mL KCl cases exhibited a strong tendency to sink to the tundish bottom, and subsequently flow through the holes in the dam. Thereafter, it propagated toward the outlet nozzle. Regarding the KCl tracer amount, the tracer concentration propagated to the outlet nozzle much faster for the larger amount case than for the smaller amount cases. However, the flow pattern for the 50 mL KCl case was somewhat different. The fluid propagated to the top surface which acted like black ink during the initial injection, and subsequently the fluid flowed throughout the holes at a much slower pace. The breakthrough time and peak concentration of RTD curves of model predictions and water modeling results showed a good agreement (all difference within 12.5 pct) for the 100, 150, and 250 mL KCl cases.

Chen, Chao; Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar; Tilliander, Anders; Cheng, Guoguang; Jönsson, Pär Göran

2014-09-01

129

Using dissolved noble gas and isotopic tracers to evaluate the vulnerability of groundwater resources in a small, high elevation catchment to predicted climate changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers in groundwater and stream water in a small high elevation catchment to provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge; and to determine subsurface residence times of different groundwater components. They identify three sources that contribute to groundwater flow: (1) seasonal groundwater recharge with short

M J Singleton; J E Moran

2009-01-01

130

Joint DOE/NRC field study of tracer migration in the unsaturated zone  

SciTech Connect

The results of a joint DOE/NRC field experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of solutes in a sandy silt backfill used for shallow land burial operations at Los Alamos are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. The migration of iodide, bromide, and lithium through the backfill material is studied as functions of depth and time and they are compared with one another. The bromide and iodide tracer data are used to estimate the diffusion coefficient, the tortuosity factor, and dispersivity. These values are used to calculate effective dispersion coefficients for subsequent analyses of the retardation factor and the distribution coefficient for lithium using least squares procedures. The results of the tracer migration study are discussed relative to challenges facing the waste management community, and chemical transport modeling opportunities are presented for a modeling workshop to be held in FY86.

Nyhan, J.; Polzer, W.; Essington, E.; Cokal, E.; Lane, L.; Lopez, E.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.

1986-03-01

131

National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).

Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

1995-02-15

132

Use of a simple model for studying oceanic tracer distributions and the global carbon cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies, based on work of Shaffer and Sarmiento (1992), a model for simulating the transport of CO2 and tracers in the ocean (HILDA, for High-Latitude Exchange\\/Interior Diffusion-Advection Model) that combines features of box models and of the box-diffusion model. Different ways of calibration are compared, and it is found that, in order to reproduce the distributions of natural

U. Siegenthaler; F. Joos

1992-01-01

133

Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds  

SciTech Connect

Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach.

Genereux, D.; Hemond, H. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Mulholland, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-05-01

134

STRATEGIES FOR QUANTIFYING PET IMAGING DATA FROM TRACER STUDIES OF BRAIN RECEPTORS AND ENZYMES.  

SciTech Connect

A description of some of the methods used in neuroreceptor imaging to distinguish changes in receptor availability has been presented in this chapter. It is necessary to look beyond regional uptake of the tracer since uptake generally is affected by factors other than the number of receptors for which the tracer has affinity. An exception is the infusion method producing an equilibrium state. The techniques vary in complexity some requiring arterial blood measurements of unmetabolized tracer and multiple time uptake data. Others require only a few plasma and uptake measurements and those based on a reference region require no plasma measurements. We have outlined some of the limitations of the different methods. Laruelle (1999) has pointed out that test/retest studies to which various methods can be applied are crucial in determining the optimal method for a particular study. The choice of method will also depend upon the application. In a clinical setting, methods not involving arterial blood sampling are generally preferred. In the future techniques for externally measuring arterial plasma radioactivity with only a few blood samples for metabolite correction will extend the modeling options of clinical PET. Also since parametric images can provide information beyond that of ROI analysis, improved techniques for generating such images will be important, particularly for ligands requiring more than a one-compartment model. Techniques such as the wavelet transform proposed by Turkheimer et al. (2000) may prove to be important in reducing noise and improving quantitation.

Logan, J.

2001-04-02

135

Overview of SIMS-Based Experimental Studies of Tracer Diffusion in Solids and Application to Mg Self-Diffusion  

SciTech Connect

Tracer diffusivities provide the most fundamental information on diffusion in materials and are the foundation of robust diffusion databases. Compared to traditional radiotracer techniques that utilize radioactive isotopes, the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based thin-film technique for tracer diffusion is based on the use of enriched stable isotopes that can be accurately profiled using SIMS. Experimental procedures & techniques that are utilized for the measurement of tracer diffusion coefficients are presented for pure magnesium, which presents some unique challenges due to the ease of oxidation. The development of a modified Shewmon-Rhines diffusion capsule for annealing Mg and an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system for sputter deposition of Mg isotopes are discussed. Optimized conditions for accurate SIMS depth profiling in polycrystalline Mg are provided. An automated procedure for the correction of heat-up and cool-down times during tracer diffusion annealing is discussed. The non-linear fitting of a SIMS depth profile data using the thin film Gaussian solution to obtain the tracer diffusivity along with the background tracer concentration and tracer film thickness is discussed. An Arrhenius fit of the Mg self-diffusion data obtained using the low-temperature SIMS measurements from this study and the high-temperature radiotracer measurements of Shewmon and Rhines (1954) was found to be a good representation of both types of diffusion data that cover a broad range of temperatures between 250 - 627 C (523 900 K).

Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Warmack, Robert J Bruce [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL; HunterJr., Jerry [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Sohn, Yong Ho [University of Central Florida; Coffey, Kevin [University of Central Florida; Murch, Prof. Graeme [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Belova, Irina [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

2014-01-01

136

Hydrophilic and lipophilic radiopharmaceuticals as tracers in pharmaceutical development: In vitro – In vivo studies  

PubMed Central

Background Scintigraphic studies have been performed to assess the release, both in vitro and in vivo, of radiotracers from tablet formulations. Four different tracers with differing physicochemical characteristics have been evaluated to assess their suitability as models for drug delivery. Methods In-vitro disintegration and dissolution studies have been performed at pH 1, 4 and 7. In-vivo studies have been performed by scintigraphic imaging in healthy volunteers. Two hydrophilic tracers, (99mTc-DTPA) and (99mTc-MDP), and two lipophilic tracers, (99mTc-ECD) and (99mTc-MIBI), were used as drug models. Results Dissolution and disintegration profiles, differed depending on the drug model chosen. In vitro dissolution velocity constants indicated a probable retention of the radiotracer in the formulation. In vivo disintegration velocity constants showed important variability for each radiopharmaceutical. Pearson statistical test showed no correlation between in vitro drug release, and in vivo behaviour, for 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-MIBI. High correlation coefficients were found for 99mTc-MDP not only for in vitro dissolution and disintegration studies but also for in vivo scintigraphic studies. Conclusion Scintigraphic studies have made a significant contribution to the development of drug delivery systems. It is essential, however, to choose the appropriate radiotracers as models of drug behaviour. This study has demonstrated significant differences in release patterns, depending on the model chosen. It is likely that each formulation would require the development of a specific model, rather than being able to use a generic drug model on the basis of its physicochemical characteristics. PMID:16232323

Terán, Mariella; Savio, Eduardo; Paolino, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm

2005-01-01

137

Isotopic analysis and multi tracer tests to study groundwater circulation in a landslide in Southern Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding groundwater circulation in landslides is often necessary to assess their dynamics and forecast movements. Fontana landslide is placed in Canton Ticino, its main body is constituted by gneiss, that is covered by moraine and other deposits related to the mass movements like debris flows and, rock fall. Gneiss that originally has low hydraulic conductivity increases their aquifer properties due to weathering and fracture presence. In fact several springs are present in across the landslide some of them having discharge up to 1 m3 S-1. To study groundwater circulation in the landslide body, a multi tracer test was designed and water samples taken. 3 tracers (Naphtionate, Sulphorhodamine B and Uranine) were injected underground. Injection mass was calculated by using EHTD (EPA, 2003), 2 field fluorimeters were placed in springs considered to be the main water discharge of the system for continuous monitoring. Other springs with smaller discharge scattered along the landslide body were monitored by using charcoal bags. Water samples also were taken for chemical and stable isotopes analysis. The tracers' presence was also monitored in the river crossing the area collecting surface flow from snowmelt and springs. Even if the landslide has a small area, isotopic composition of water from springs shows clear differences. All samples plot close to the local meteoric water line, and an altitude effect is visible. Chemical composition is relatively uniform however some differences can also be seen. Concerning tracers the only that arrived at monitored points was uranine, and it was detected in the charcoal bags. Considering tracer concentration in ppm, in the charcoal and travel times to restitution points was possible to have conceptual model for groundwater flow across the landslide. Circulation is rapid and recharge controlled by snowmelt in spring and precipitation in late spring to autumn. Snow accumulates at the top of the landslide where an elongated topographic basin is present filled by blocks infiltrates and feed the springs located at lower altitude but close to the basin. Those springs not originally considered for discharge monitoring, are draining the water from the basin and could be better correlated to landslide movement, respect to other springs with similar discharge rates but farther from the concentrated infiltration area represented by the topographic basin.

Pera, Sebastian; Marzocchi, Roberto; Bronzini, Simona

2014-05-01

138

A rapid method for the measurement of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3), and Halon 1211 (CF2ClBr) in hydrologic tracer studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid headspace method for the simultaneous laboratory determination of intentionally introduced hydrologic tracers, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3), Halon 1211 (CF2ClBr), and other halocarbons in water and gases is described. The high sensitivity of the procedure allows for introduction of minimal tracer mass (a few grams) into hydrologic systems with a large dynamic range of analytical detection (dilutions to 1:108). Analysis times by gas chromatography with electron capture detector are less than 1 min for SF6; about 2 min for SF6 and SF5CF3; and 4 min for SF6, SF5CF3, and Halon 1211. Many samples can be rapidly collected, preserved in stoppered septum bottles, and analyzed at a later time in the laboratory. Examples are provided showing the effectiveness of the gas tracer test studies in varied hydrogeological settings.

Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel

2010-11-01

139

A rapid method for the measurement of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3), and Halon 1211 (CF2ClBr) in hydrologic tracer studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A rapid headspace method for the simultaneous laboratory determination of intentionally introduced hydrologic tracers, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3), Halon 1211 (CF2ClBr), and other halocarbons in water and gases is described. The high sensitivity of the procedure allows for introduction of minimal tracer mass (a few grams) into hydrologic systems with a large dynamic range of analytical detection (dilutions to 1:108). Analysis times by gas chromatography with electron capture detector are less than 1 min for SF6; about 2 min for SF6 and SF5CF3; and 4 min for SF6, SF5CF3, and Halon 1211. Many samples can be rapidly collected, preserved in stoppered septum bottles, and analyzed at a later time in the laboratory. Examples are provided showing the effectiveness of the gas tracer test studies in varied hydrogeological settings.

Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel

2010-01-01

140

New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.  

PubMed

Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, ?11B, and ?7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), ?11B (25-31‰) and ?7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (?0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF. PMID:25327769

Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

2014-11-01

141

Uncertainties Associated with the Estimation of Mass Balances and Gaussian Parameters from Atmospheric Tracer Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data resulting from two atmospheric tracer experiments in the land-sea breeze winds in Los Angeles, CA are used to compare the observed and released amounts of tracer (a mass balance). The mass balance calculation indicated that essentially all of the tracer transported to sea during the land breeze was transported back across the shore during the subsequent sea breeze. A

Philip A. Sackinger; Danny D. Reible; Fredrick H. Shair

1982-01-01

142

Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique with mass spectrometry is not so common and application to aerosols is novel. The HTGC and HTGC-MS analyses of smoke samples taken by particle filtration from combustion of different species of plants provided the characterization of various classes of HMW compounds reported to occur for the first time in emissions from biomass burning. Among these components are a series of wax esters with up to 58 carbon numbers, aliphatic hydrocarbons, triglycerides, long chain methyl ketones, alkanols and a series of triterpenyl fatty acid esters which have been characterized as novel natural products. Long chain fatty acids with more than 32 carbon numbers are not present in the smoke samples analyzed. The HMW compounds in smoke samples from the burning of plants from Amazonia indicate the input of directly volatilized natural products in the original plants during their combustion. However, the major organic compounds extracted from smoke consist of a series of lower molecular weight polar components, which are not natural products but the result of the thermal breakdown of cellulose and lignin. In contrast, the HMW natural products may be suitable tracers for specific sources of vegetation combustion because they are emitted as particles without thermal alternation in the smoke and can thus be related directly to the original plant material.

Elias, V.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Pereira, A.S.; Cardoso, J.N. (Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)); Cabral, J.A. (Inst. de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Amazonas (Brazil))

1999-07-15

143

Using trees to remediate tritium contaminated groundwater: a modeling and tracer study.  

SciTech Connect

Rebel, Karin, T. 2004. Using trees to remediate tritium contaminated groundwater: a modeling and tracer study. Ph.D Dissertation. Cotnell University. Ithaca, New York. 174 pp. Abstract: We have developed a spatially explicit model of water and tritium fluxes in the vadose zone in order to simulate water uptake and subsurface lateral movement in coniferous and mixed hardwood - coniferous forests on Coastal Plain soils of the southern United States. These Coastal Plain soils are characteristically sand overlying slowly permeable clays found at depths of 30 to 200 cm, and can form temporarily saturated, unconfined aquifers. Ten hectares of the modeled watershed was periodically irrigated with tritium enriched water. We used the tritium enriched water as a tracer to validate the model. The model was used to optimize irrigation, to evaluate the amount of tritium entering the atmosphere due to evapotranspiration and to quantify water and tritium fluxes in texture contrast soils. Using tritium as a tracer, we have studied how tree species and canopy position effect water and solutes uptake from different parts of the soil profile. We clipped branches to obtain leaf water from over-and understory laurel oak (Quercus Laurifolia) and over- and understory pine (Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda), which was then analyzed for tritium. We found that for early successional trees (Pinus spp.) and trees in the overstory proportionally more water was taken up from deeper in the soil compared to the hardwoods or trees in the understory, which took up proportionally more water from the soil surface. These differences are important for understanding competition for resources within a forest and in predicting the hydrologic response to forest management practices such as thinning.

Rebel, Karin, Theodora

2004-01-01

144

DEVELOPMENT OF STATIC METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF PARTITION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN NAPL AND COMMON GAS TRACER COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many volatile compounds are being used for field scale partitioning tracer experiments. The design and analysis of these partitioning tracer tests require knowledge of these compounds' nonaqueous phase (NAPL) to air partition coefficient and many of these are not readily availabl...

145

SF6 Tracer Release Study: A Contaminant Fate Study in Newtown Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newtown Creek is a 5.5km creek that discharges into the East River, a 25km strait connecting Long Island Sound to the north and the New York Harbor to the south. Surface runoff dominates the freshwater input into the creek, for natural tributaries no longer exist. The areas directly adjacent to the creek are highly industrialized, and New York City's largest Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) discharges directly into creek. In August 2004, we injected sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) into Newtown creek to study the fate of oil seeping into the creek from an underground oil spill and the fate of nutrient rich effluent from the WPCP. We monitored SF6 in Newtown Creek, the East River, and the Upper Bay of New York Harbor for 7 consecutive days following the injection in order to investigate the spreading patterns and transport mechanics of waters exiting the creek, and to determine the ultimate fate of the contaminants/solutes originating in Newtown Creek. Dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements were collected simultaneously with SF6 measurements. A strong DO gradient exists in the creek, where waters in the upper reaches are anoxic. We use SF6 data to calculate mean residence times for Newtown Creek waters. SF6 was detected above background concentrations approximately 15km to the south of the creek at the Verrazano Bridge only 1 day after the tracer injection. By combining the movements of the SF6 distribution, the position of the oxygen gradient, and the residence time of Newtown Creek water, we can determine a lower boundary for oxygen consumption rates.

Schmieder, P. J.; Ho, D. T.; Peter, S.; Simpson, H. J.; Flores, S.; Dugan, W. A.

2004-12-01

146

Human biokinetic data and a new compartmental model of zirconium--a tracer study with enriched stable isotopes.  

PubMed

Biokinetic models describing the uptake, distribution and excretion of trace elements are an essential tool in nutrition, toxicology, or internal dosimetry of radionuclides. Zirconium, especially its radioisotope (95)Zr, is relevant to radiation protection due to its production in uranium fission and neutron activation of nuclear fuel cladding material. We present a comprehensive set of human data from a tracer study with stable isotopes of zirconium. The data are used to refine a biokinetic model of zirconium. Six female and seven male healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. It includes 16 complete double tracer investigations with oral ingestion and intravenous injection, and seven supplemental investigations. Tracer concentrations were measured in blood plasma and urine collected up to 100 d after tracer administration. The four data sets (two chemical tracer forms in plasma and urine) each encompass 105-240 measured concentration values above detection limits. Total fractional absorption of ingested zirconium was found to be 0.001 for zirconium in citrate-buffered drinking solution and 0.007 for zirconium oxalate solution. Biokinetic models were developed based on the linear first-order kinetic compartmental model approach used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The main differences of the optimized systemic model of zirconium to the current ICRP model are (1) recycling into the transfer compartment made necessary by the observed tracer clearance from plasma, (2) different parameters related to fractional absorption for each form of the ingested tracer, and (3) a physiologically based excretion pathway to urine. The study considerably expands the knowledge on the biokinetics of zirconium, which was until now dominated by data from animal studies. The proposed systemic model improves the existing ICRP model, yet is based on the same principles and fits well into the ICRP radiation protection approach. PMID:21724239

Greiter, Matthias B; Giussani, Augusto; Höllriegl, Vera; Li, Wei Bo; Oeh, Uwe

2011-09-01

147

URCHIN: Reverse ray tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

URCHIN is a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) reverse ray tracer (i.e. from particles to sources). It calculates the amount of shielding from a uniform background that each particle experiences. Preservation of the adaptive density field resolution present in many gas dynamics codes and uniform sampling of gas resolution elements with rays are two of the benefits of URCHIN; it also offers preservation of Galilean invariance, high spectral resolution, and preservation of the standard uniform UV background in optically thin gas.

Altay, Gabriel; Theuns, Tom

2014-12-01

148

Geophysical Methods, Tracer Leakage, and Flow Modeling Studies at the West Pearl Queen Carbon Sequestration/EOR Pilot Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a few thousand tons of CO2 were injected into the West Pearl Queen field, a depleted oil reservoir in southeastern New Mexico, for a pilot carbon sequestration project. Small amounts of 3 different perfluorocarbon tracers were injected with the CO2. Approximately 50 capillary absorption tube samplers (CATS) were located across the field within 2m of the grounds surface to detect the tracers in extremely small (~10-13L) quantities. After only several days, the CATS detected quantities of tracers at distances of up to 350m from the injection well. Greater amounts of tracers were detected in the different directions. The underground transport mechanism(s) are uncertain; however, appearance of tracer in the CATS after only a 6 day period suggests that CO2 movement may have occurred through near-surface processes. Subsequent tracer measurements made over 10 and 54 day time periods revealed continued tracer leakage. To try to understand the tracer information, we conducted lineament interpretations of the area using a black and white aerial photo taken in 1949, digital orthophotos, and Landsat TM imagery. Lineament interpretations revealed distinct northeast and northwest trending lineament sets. These directions coincided roughly with the direction of tracer-leakage into areas northwest and southwest of the injection well. The near-surface geology consists of a few-feet thick veneer of late Pleistocene and Holocene sand dunes covering the middle Pleistocene Mescalero caliche. A survey of the caliche was made using ground penetrating radar (GPR) to attempt to identify any preferential migration pathways. Modeling studies also were performed to identify the potential leakage pathways at the site. Because of the relatively fast appearance of tracers at large distances from the injection well, simple diffusion through the surface layers was ruled out. Wind patterns in the area have also made transport through the atmosphere and back into the ground highly unlikely. Other potential leakage pathways were transport from the well through the saturated zone and diffusion into the unsaturated zone or combined pressure-driven and diffusive flow through the vadose zone. An analysis of these alternatives has been made for this study.

Bromhal, G. S.; Wilson, T. H.; Wells, A.; Diehl, R.; Smith, D. H.

2003-12-01

149

Dual tracer autoradiographic study with thallium-201 and radioiodinated fatty acid in cardiomyopathic hamsters  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the usefulness of myocardial scintigraphy with radioiodinated 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in cardiomyopathy, quantitative dual tracer autoradiographic study with /sup 201/Tl and (/sup 125/I)BMIPP was performed in 27 cardiomyopathic Bio 14.6 Syrian hamsters and eight normal hamsters. Furthermore, 16 Bio 14.6 Syrian hamsters aged 21 days were divided into verapamil-treated (during 70 days) and control groups (respectively, n = 8), and autoradiography with /sup 201/Tl and (/sup 125/I)BMIPP was performed. Quantitative autoradiography demonstrated an uncoupling of /sup 201/Tl and (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distributions and a regional heterogeneity of (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distribution in cardiomyopathic hamsters aged more than 2 mo, while normal hamsters showed only mild heterogeneity of (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distribution without an uncoupling of tracers. Age-matched comparison between normal and cardiomyopathic hamsters (5-8 mo old) demonstrated that a difference between their (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distributions are more marked than that between their /sup 201/Tl distributions. Furthermore, (/sup 125/I)BMIPP visualized effects of verapamil on cardiomyopathy more distinctly than did /sup 201/Tl. In conclusion, myocardial imaging with (/sup 123/I)BMIPP could be useful for investigating cardiomyopathy and evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic intervention in patients with cardiomyopathy.

Kurata, C.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.

1989-01-01

150

Investigation of Contaminant Transport and Dispersion in New York Harbor by a High Resolution SF6 Tracer Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has been used successfully as a deliberate tracer for rivers, estuaries, and coastal areas, due to its inert nature, non-toxicity, and extremely low detection limit. An automated, high-resolution SF6 measurement system mounted on a boat was recently developed for several projects on the Hudson River. The system has a sampling interval of two minutes and a detection limit of 1 x 10-14 mol L-1. Real-time data visualization enables revisions of sampling strategy during the experiment. A single injection has allowed observation of advection rates, dispersion processes, and air-water gas exchange for up to two weeks, and longer experiments are possible. This equipment, with minor modifications, was applied to New York Harbor in July 2002. New York Harbor is one of the busiest seaports in the United States, processing nearly \\100 billion in cargo each year. Most of the shipping facilities are located in Newark Bay (approximately 15 km^{2}) or in two adjacent channels: the Kill van Kull (6 km long) and the Arthur Kill (20 km long). Newark Bay, which is mostly saline, is fed by the Hackensack and Passaic Rivers, both of which flow through heavily industrialized areas. Ultimately, these waters drain through the Kills to Raritan Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. Due to a combination of point sources, runoff, wastewater treatment plants, and emissions from the shipping industry, Newark Bay and the Kills receive a large volume and variety of contaminants, including petroleum, heavy metals, PCBs, and dioxins. In addition, much of the area is subject to ongoing and extensive navigational dredging, causing widespread re-suspension of previously deposited contaminants. A small quantity (ca. 2 mols) of SF_{6}$ was injected into northern Newark Bay to investigate the spreading of water throughout the Bay, the Kills, and the tidal portions of the Passaic and Hackensack Rivers. The tracer was successfully monitored across most of this area for 12 consecutive days. Most measurements were taken at a depth of 1 m, with deeper profiles at certain locations. Numerous CTD casts were made to examine the halocline and thermocline at different points. The study period coincided with relatively dry and calm conditions. The data suggest rapid initial dispersion, both laterally and vertically, driven by the tides. However, flushing of the area as a whole was slow during the study period. After two weeks, the tracer persisted throughout Newark Bay, the Kills, and the lower reaches of the rivers. Bulk seaward advection was weak, although a considerable quantity of tracer found its way out of the Kills due to tidal action, whereupon it was heavily diluted in Raritan Bay or Upper New York Bay. Overall, the study enables prediction of available response time for certain contamination events, while also providing critical validation data for computational fluid dynamics models of this area.

Caplow, T.; Schlosser, P.; Ho, D. T.

2002-12-01

151

Tracer simulation study of potential solute movement in Port Royal Sound, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A tracer study was conducted in Port Royal Sound to simulate the movement and ultimate pattern of concentration of a solute continuously injected into the flow. A total of 750 pounds of Rhodamine WT dye was injected by boat during a period of 24.8 hours in a line across the Colleton River. During the following 43 days, samples of water were taken at selected points in the sound, and the concentration of dye in the samples was determined by fluorometric analysis. The data obtained in the field study were used with theoretical models to compute the ultimate pattern of concentration of nonconservative and conservative solutes for a hypothetical continuous injection at the site on the Colleton River.

Kilpatrick, F.A.; Cummings, T. Ray

1972-01-01

152

13C-tracer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses reveal metabolic flux distribution in the oleaginous microalga Chlorella protothecoides.  

PubMed

The green alga Chlorella protothecoides has received considerable attention because it accumulates neutral triacylglycerols, commonly regarded as an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production. In order to gain a better understanding of its metabolism, tracer experiments with [U-(13)C]/[1-(13)C]glucose were performed with heterotrophic growth of C. protothecoides for identifying the metabolic network topology and estimating intracellular fluxes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis tracked the labeling patterns of protein-bound amino acids, revealing a metabolic network consisting of the glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle with inactive glyoxylate shunt. Evidence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and malic enzyme activity was also obtained. It was demonstrated that the relative activity of the pentose phosphate pathway to glycolysis under nitrogen-limited environment increased, reflecting excess NADPH requirements for lipid biosynthesis. Although the growth rate and cellular oil content were significantly altered in response to nitrogen limitation, global flux distribution of C. protothecoides remained stable, exhibiting the rigidity of central carbon metabolism. In conclusion, quantitative knowledge on the metabolic flux distribution of oleaginous alga obtained in this study may be of value in designing strategies for metabolic engineering of desirable bioproducts. PMID:20720172

Xiong, Wei; Liu, Lixia; Wu, Chao; Yang, Chen; Wu, Qingyu

2010-10-01

153

(2)H- and (13)C-labelled tracers compared for kinetic studies of ascorbic acid metabolism in man: a factor analytical approach.  

PubMed

A recent report that a (13)C stable isotope method can be used to measure the kinetics of ascorbic acid uptake and distribution in man has raised some interesting questions with regard to the physiological interpretation of the data obtained, in particular the sizes of the ascorbate distribution spaces. In order to prove that this result is not a function of the label used we have compared the behaviour of two different tracers to see if they are likely to give comparable results for the kinetic parameters. Volunteers received an oral dose of ascorbic acid, half of which was labelled with (2)H, and half of which was labelled with (13)C. Blood samples were taken over the course of the next 48 h, and ascorbic acid mass spectra measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Principal component analysis was used to investigate the number of factors required to explain the total variations observed in the ratios of the molecular isotopomer cluster over the time course of the experiment. Theoretical cracking patterns were then used as test vectors in target transformation and as the basis for subsequent combination to determine tracer/tracee ratios. Two factors were found sufficient to account for the observed cracking pattern variations within experimental error. These were identified as (1) the spectrum of unlabelled (endogenous) ascorbic acid, and (2) a linear combination of the spectra of the two labelled species used. The absence of a third factor in the decomposition indicates that there is no difference in the behaviour of the (13)C- and (2)H-labelled tracers. Target testing allowed the tracer/tracee ratios to be determined using calculated cracking patterns, and produced equivalent results to conventional methods. Our experience in this work indicates that factor analysis has a useful place in many kinetic studies of this kind, either with one or many labelled species. PMID:11948820

Bluck, Leslie J C; Jones, Kerry S; Bates, Christopher J

2002-01-01

154

A tracer study of ventilation in the Japan/East Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Circulation Research in East Asian Marginal Seas (CREAMS) summer cruises in 1999, a suite of samples was collected for tracer analysis. Oxygen isotopes combined with tritium-helium ventilation timescales and noble gas measurements give unique insights into the ventilation of water masses in the Japan/East Sea (JES). In particular, noble gases and oxygen isotopes are indicators of brine rejection, which may assist in explaining the recent changes observed in the ventilation of the JES. Oxygen isotope data presented here indicate that both thermally driven convection and brine rejection have played significant roles in deep-water formation but that brine rejection is unlikely to be a significant contributor at the moment. A 6-box ventilation model of the JES, calibrated with tritium and helium-3 measurements, performed better when a significant decrease of dense-water formation rates in the mid-1960s was incorporated. However, the model calculations suggest that Japan Sea Intermediate Water formation is still occurring. Subduction of sea-ice melt water may be a significant ventilation mechanism for this water mass, based on an argon saturation minimum at the recently ventilated salinity minimum in the northwestern sector of the JES. The salinity and oxygen isotope budgets imply a potential bottom-water formation rate of 3.97±0.89×10 12 m 3 yr -1 due to brine rejection, which could account for a time averaged fraction of between 25% and 35% of the ventilation of subsurface water formation in the JES.

Postlethwaite, C. F.; Rohling, E. J.; Jenkins, W. J.; Walker, C. F.

2005-06-01

155

Comparative study of the value of dual tracer PET/CT in evaluating breast cancer.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between tumor uptake and pathologic findings using dual-tracer PET/computed tomography (CT) in patients with breast cancer. Seventy-four patients with breast cancer (mean age 54 years) who underwent (11)C-choline and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT prior to surgery on the same day were enrolled in the present study. Images were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist and two nuclear medicine specialists who were unaware of any clinical information and a consensus was reached. Uptake patterns and measurements of dual tracers were compared with the pathologic findings of resected specimens as the reference standard. Mean (±SD) tumor size was 5.9 ± 3.2 cm. All primary tumors were identified on (18)F-FDG PET/CT and (11)C-choline PET/CT. However, (18)F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated focal uptake of the primary tumor with (n = 38; 51%) or without (n = 36; 49%) diffuse background breast uptake. Of the pathologic findings, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed an independent association between fibrocystic change and diffuse background breast uptake (odds ratio [OR] 8.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.86-25.66; P < 0.0001). Tumors with higher histologic grade, nuclear grade, structural grade, nuclear atypia, and mitosis had significantly higher maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)) and tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) for both tracers. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that only the degree of mitosis was independently associated with a high SUV(max) (OR 7.45; 95%CI 2.21-25.11; P = 0.001) and a high TBR (OR 5.41; 95%CI 1.13-25.96; P = 0.035) of (11)C-choline PET/CT. In conclusion, (11)C-choline may improve tumor delineation and reflect tumor aggressiveness on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer. PMID:22632272

Tateishi, Ukihide; Terauchi, Takashi; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Kano, Daisuke; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Murano, Takeshi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Macapinlac, Homer A

2012-09-01

156

Tracer Testing for Estimating Heat Transfer Area in Fractured Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

A key parameter governing the performance and life-time of a Hot Fractured Rock (HFR) reservoir is the effective heat transfer area between the fracture network and the matrix rock. We report on numerical modeling studies into the feasibility of using tracer tests for estimating heat transfer area. More specifically, we discuss simulation results of a new HFR characterization method which uses surface-sorbing tracers for which the adsorbed tracer mass is proportional to the fracture surface area per unit volume. Sorption in the rock matrix is treated with the conventional formulation in which tracer adsorption is volume-based. A slug of solute tracer migrating along a fracture is subject to diffusion across the fracture walls into the adjacent rock matrix. Such diffusion removes some of the tracer from the fluid in the fractures, reducing and retarding the peak in the breakthrough curve (BTC) of the tracer. After the slug has passed the concentration gradient reverses, causing back-diffusion from the rock matrix into the fracture, and giving rise to a long tail in the BTC of the solute. These effects become stronger for larger fracture-matrix interface area, potentially providing a means for estimating this area. Previous field tests and modeling studies have demonstrated characteristic tailing in BTCs for volatile tracers in vapor-dominated reservoirs. Simulated BTCs for solute tracers in single-phase liquid systems show much weaker tails, as would be expected because diffusivities are much smaller in the aqueous than in the gas phase, by a factor of order 1000. A much stronger signal of fracture-matrix interaction can be obtained when sorbing tracers are used. We have performed simulation studies of surface-sorbing tracers by implementing a model in which the adsorbed tracer mass is assumed proportional to the fracture-matrix surface area per unit volume. The results show that sorbing tracers generate stronger tails in BTCs, corresponding to an effective enhancement of diffusion. Tailing in BTCs for sorbing tracers may provide adequate sensitivity for quantifying the fracture-matrix interface area. We discuss requirements for tracer sorption and present considerations for designing a tracer test that would determine fracture-matrix interface area.

Pruess, Karsten; van Heel, Ton; Shan, Chao

2004-05-12

157

THE ULTRASTRUCTURAL BASIS OF CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY STUDIED WITH PEROXIDASE AS A TRACER  

PubMed Central

The transendothelial passage of horseradish peroxidase, injected intravenously into mice, was studied at the ultrastructural level in capillaries of cardiac and skeletal muscle. Peroxidase appeared to permeate endothelial intercellular clefts and cell junctions. Abnormal peroxidase-induced vascular leakage was excluded. Neutral lanthanum tracer gave similar results. The endothelial cell junctions were considered to be maculae occludentes, with gaps of about 40 A in width between the maculae, rather than zonulae occludentes. Some observations in favor of concurrent vesicular transport of peroxidase were also made. It is concluded that the endothelial cell junctions are most likely to be the morphological equivalent of the small pore system proposed by physiologists for the passage of small, lipid-insoluble molecules across the endothelium. PMID:6061717

Karnovsky, Morris J.

1967-01-01

158

Rocky Flats 1990--91 winter validation tracer study: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

During the winter of 1990--91, North American Weather Consultants (NAWC) and its subcontractor, ABB Environmental Services (ABBES), conducted a Winter Validation Study (WVS) for EG&G Rocky Flats involving 12 separate tracer experiments conducted between February 3 and February 19, 1991. Six experiments were conducted during nighttime hours and four experiments were conducted during daytime hours. In addition, there was one day/night and one night/day transitional experiment conducted. The primary purpose of the WVS was to gather data to further the approval process for the Terrain Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC). TRAC is an atmospheric dispersion model developed and operated at the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) north of Denver, Colorado. A secondary objective was to gather data that will serve to validate the TRAC model physics.

Brown, K.J. [North American Weather Consultants, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1991-10-01

159

Hydrological Tracer Studies at a DOE IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research activities at the Department of Energy Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado, have demonstrated that uranium can successfully be removed from groundwater through stimulation of indigenous metal-reducing bacteria, such as members of the Geobacteraceae. While such removal strategies may be effective over short timescales, the large inventory of uranium sorbed to aquifer sediments contributes to a diffuse and widespread contaminant plume at the Rifle site, leading to persistent uranium contamination of groundwater. Complicating the long-term plume behavior are seasonal changes in aquifer properties (e.g. fluctuating water levels, variations in dissolved oxygen and organic carbon, etc.) that accompany snowmelt and elevated river stage in the Colorado River. As the impact of such changes on contaminant behavior at Rifle is poorly understood, development of novel methods, such as isotopic techniques, is warranted to better constrain aquifer flow properties and resolve surface water-groundwater interactions that may influence long-term uranium mobility. In addition to floodplain scale (ca. 10 hectare) studies of uranium mobility, ongoing research at Rifle is investigating coupled approaches to desorb and reductively immobilize pools of sorbed and aqueous uranium. Performed as part of the “Super 8” field experiment (2010), a variety of conservative and non-conservative chemical compounds were injected into the Rifle aquifer to assess transport properties and quantify rates of reductive immobilization of uranium under different alkalinity conditions. Conservative tracers included sodium bromide (20mM), deuterium (500‰), and O-18 (25‰), whereas reactive amendments included sodium bicarbonate (50mM) and sodium acetate (6mM); the latter two were designed to enhance desorption of uranium from sediments and stimulate the activity of uranium-reducing microorganisms, respectively. The need to introduce the reactive amendments at different times and locations necessitated the use of distinct conservative tracers to delineate the spatial distribution of the injected plumes within the aquifer as a function time. Here we report on the field measurements of groundwater stable isotopes and bromide concentrations during the injection experiments. The data indicate differences in groundwater transport pathways as a function of injection and highlight the value of using multiple conservation tracers to resolve overlapping injection source terms.

Gupta, M.; Williams, K. H.; Berman, E. S.; Conrad, M. E.

2010-12-01

160

Tracer diffusion in colloidal gels  

E-print Network

Computer simulations were done of the mean square displacement (MSD) of tracer particles in colloidal gels formed by diffusion or reaction limited aggregation of hard spheres. The diffusion coefficient was found to be determined by the volume fraction accessible to the spherical tracers ($\\phi_a$) independent of the gel structure or the tracer size. In all cases, critical slowing down was observed at $\\phi_a\\approx 0.03$ and was characterized by the same scaling laws reported earlier for tracer diffusion in a Lorentz gas. Strong heterogeneity of the MSD was observed at small $\\phi_a$ and was related to the size distribution of pores.

Sujin Babu; Jean Christophe Gimel; Taco Nicolai

2007-05-09

161

Charge-selective permeability of dermo-epidermal junction: tracer studies with cationic and anionic ferritins.  

PubMed

To investigate quantitatively the charge-selective permeability of the basement membrane (BM) of the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), tracer experiments using anionic and cationic ferritins were performed on an epidermal sheet, whose lamina densa was exposed on the dermal surface; its dermis was removed with forceps after the treatment of newborn rat skin with 10 mM dithiothreitol. The lamina densa and epidermal components of the sheets were electron microscopically well preserved, and anionic sites were ultrastructurally demonstrated on both the dermal and epidermal aspects of the lamina densa in the DEJ as clusters of cationic ferritins (CF) [isoelectric point (pI) greater than 9.5] or polyethyleneimine particles, indicating that the epidermal sheets were suitable for study of permeability. In tracer experiments, a large number of CF (pI 8.0-9.4) passed the lamina densa and formed clusters on both aspects of the lamina densa and in the intercellular space. The number of native anionic ferritins (NF) (pI 4.1-4.6) passing it was apparently much smaller than that of CF. When the epidermal sheets were pre-treated with protamine sulfate to neutralize the negative charges in the tissue, the number of NF penetrating the lamina densa was significantly larger than the number of those in the untreated sheet. These results indicate that the BM of the DEJ plays a role in a charge-selective filtration, although it is not as selective a barrier as the glomerular basement membrane. PMID:2461418

Kazama, T; Yaoita, E; Ito, M; Sato, Y

1988-12-01

162

Predictive value of tracer studies for /sup 131/I treatment in hyperthyroid cats  

SciTech Connect

In 76 cats with hyperthyroidism, peak thyroidal radioiodine (/sup 131/I) uptakes and effective half-lives were determined after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I. In 6 additional hyperthyroid cats, only peak thyroidal uptakes after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I were determined. Good correlation was found between peak thyroidal uptakes of tracer and therapeutic /sup 131/I; however, only fair correlation was observed between effective half-lives. In 79% of the cats, the effective half-life for therapeutic /sup 131/I was longer than that for tracer /sup 131/I. After administration of therapeutic activity of /sup 131/I, monoexponential and biphasic decay curves were observed in 51 and 16 cats, respectively. Using therapeutic kinetic data, radiation doses to the thyroid gland were calculated retrospectively on the basis of 2 methods for determining the activity of /sup 131/I administered: (1) actual administration of tracer-compensated activity and (2) hypothetic administration of uniform activity (3 mCi). Because of the good predictive ability of tracer kinetic data for the therapeutic kinetic data, the tracer-compensated radiation doses came significantly (P = 0.008) closer to the therapeutic goal than did the uniform-activity doses. In addition, the use of tracer kinetic information reduced the extent of the tendency for consistently high uniform-activity doses. A manual method for acquiring tracer kinetic data was developed and was an acceptable alternative to computerized techniques. Adoption of this method gives individuals and institutions with limited finances the opportunity to characterize the iodine kinetics in cats before proceeding with administration of therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I.

Broome, M.R.; Turrel, J.M.; Hays, M.T.

1988-02-01

163

The Voices of Their Childhood: Families and Early Years' Practitioners Developing Emancipatory Methodologies through a Tracer Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pen Green Tracer Study questions the difference we may or may not have made to children's lives. An initial cohort of young people, now aged between 11-20, revisited their nursery in 2010. Their stories prompted discussion on parental involvement and advocacy within the education system, key worker attachment, and children's sense of self. Our…

Whalley, Margy; Arnold, Cath; Lawrence, Penny; Peerless, Sally

2012-01-01

164

AIRBORNE LIDAR MONITORING OF FLUORESCENT DYE PARTICLES AS A TRACER TO CHARACTERIZE TRANSPORT AND DISPERSION: A FEASIBILITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The feasibility of using airborne lidar to observe the three-dimensional distribution of fluorescent dye particle (FDP) tracers in long-range atmospheric transport and dispersion studies has been successfully demonstrated in field experiments conducted in the North East U.S. duri...

165

The Experience of Receiving and Then Losing a Scholarship: A Tracer Study of Secondary School Scholarship Recipients in Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports findings of a tracer that investigated differences in the profile and subsequent experiences of scholarship recipients in Uganda who were able to complete the lower secondary school cycle (O level) without interruption (N = 174) and those that dropped out before completing their O-level cycle (N = 51), thereby losing their…

Watson, Cathy; Chapman, David W.; Okurut, Charles Opolot

2014-01-01

166

The Fischa-Dagnitz spring, Southern Vienna Basin: a multi tracer time series study re-assessing earlier conceptual assumptions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravel aquifer of the Southern Vienna Basin is a very important backup drinking water resource for the city of Vienna. A discharge location, the Fischa-Dagnitz spring in the Southern Vienna Basin, Austria, was re-investigated in 2011, five years after the gas exchange tracer test published in (Stolp et al., 2010), and sampled for stable isotopes 18O/2H, tritium, 3He, SF6 and 85Kr (Gerber et al., 2012). Additionally, new tritium time series data (Davis et al., 1967), previously not considered in Stolp et al. (2010), were included. These show a higher and earlier tritium peak of >300 TU in 1965 in the discharge of the Fischa-Dagnitz spring as compared to 221 TU in 1972 considered in Stolp et al. (2010). The new 3He, SF6 and 85Kr gas tracer data from 2011 confirm the earlier finding for 3He of Stolp et al. (2010) and indicate a more recent equilibration with the atmosphere than the water bound tracers 18O, 2H and tritium. A new modelling attempt using the Lumpy code (Suckow, 2012) confirmed the discrepancy between the tritium data and the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr. No steady-state combination of local recharge (represented by an exponential model) and Schwarza river infiltration flowing through the gravel aquifer (represented by a parallel dispersion model) can equally well explain both the tritium time series and the gas tracer results. A revised conceptual model proposes that a pinching of the aquifer at unconformities in the gravel body or a fault zone known in the gravel body forces groundwater along the flow path closer to the surface and exposes it to the atmosphere. This would tend to reset the "dating" clock for the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr, which can equilibrate quickly with the atmosphere, but not for tritium, which marks the transport behaviour of the water itself. These findings are of importance also for other multi-tracer assessments of groundwater movement in phreatic aquifer systems. References: Davis, G.H., Payne, B.R., Dincer, T., Florkowski, T., Gattinger, T., 1967. Seasonal Variations in the Tritium Content of Groundwaters of the Vienna Basin, Austria, Isotope Hydrology 1967. IAEA, Vienna, Austria, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, pp. 451-473. Gerber, C., Purtschert, R., Kralik, M., Humer, F., Sültenfuss, J., Darling, G.W., Gooddy, D., 2012. Suitability and potential of environmental tracers for base-flow determination in streams: EGU2012-14066, EGU 12. European Geosciences Union, Vienna Stolp, B.J., Solomon, D.K., Suckow, A., Vitvar, T., Rank, D., Aggarwal, P.K., Han, L.-F., 2010. Age dating base flow at springs and gaining streams using helium-3 and tritium: Fischa-Dagnitz system, southern Vienna Basin, Austria. Water Resources Research 46. Suckow, A., 2012. Lumpy - an interactive Lumped Parameter Modeling code based on MS Access and MS Excel., EGU 12. European Geosciences Union, Vienna

Suckow, Axel; Gerber, Christoph; Kralik, Martin; Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Purtschert, Roland

2013-04-01

167

A comparison of selected organic tracers for quantitative scalar imaging in the gas phase via laser-induced fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares three of the tracers most commonly used for laser-induced fluorescence in gaseous flows, toluene, naphthalene, and acetone. Additionally, anisole (methoxybenzene, CH3OC6H5) is included in the comparison. Each tracer is employed to image the scalar field in the same nonreacting transient impinging turbulent jet. The jet fluid is seeded with tracer vapor in a bubbler, excitation is at 266 nm, and both air and nitrogen are used as bath gases. Measured signals are compared to theoretical predictions based on fluorescence quantum yield, absorption cross-section, and vapor pressure. We find that anisole shows the highest total signal intensity of all investigated species, while naphthalene features the highest signal per molecule. Acetone has the advantage of being insensitive to quenching by oxygen and that its fluorescence is partly at visible wavelengths. In addition to this volatility-limited scenario at room temperature, we also compare the expected relative signals for elevated temperatures and for a hypothetical case in which the amount of admissible tracer seeding is limited.

Faust, Stephan; Goschütz, Martin; Kaiser, Sebastian A.; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof

2014-10-01

168

Tracer Study of Mixing and Transport in the Upper Hudson River with Multiple Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 2001, ,0.2 mol of SF6 was injected into the upper Hudson River, a modified natural channel with multiple dams, at Ft. Edward, N.Y. The tracer was monitored for 7 days as it moved ,50 km downriver. The longitudinal evolution of the tracer distribution was used to estimate one-dimensional advection s9.0± 0.2 km d ?1d and dispersion s17.3± 4.0

Theodore Caplow; Peter Schlosser; David T. Ho

2004-01-01

169

Tracer-based studies of soil water movement in semi-arid forests of New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The related issues of water movement and contaminant transport in arid and semi-arid environments have generated considerable interest and concern in the last few decades. Essential to understanding these issues is knowledge of how water moves through the soils that form the uppermost part of the vadose zone. The use of tracers, both natural and artificially introduced, is proving to be an effective method for gaining such knowledge in dry regions, where investigation by other means is difficult. In this study, natural stable-isotope and chloride tracers were used to investigate water movement in the soils of a piñon-juniper woodland and of a ponderosa pine forest on the Pajarito Plateau in northern New Mexico. The objectives were to (1) estimate and compare near-surface flux rates and evaluate the importance of evaporation in the two communities, and (2) determine to what extent differences in flux rates and evaporation are due to differences in plant cover and/or soil hydraulic properties. The results of this study will aid in evaluating the potential for contaminant mobility in semi-arid systems such as the Pajarito Plateau and, in addition, will increase understanding of nutrient distributions and plant water use in semi-arid environments. The stable-isotope data indicate a similarity between the piñon-juniper and ponderosa communities with respect to evaporation: in both, it is restricted mainly to the upper 10 cm of soil. Chloride profiles from the two communities, on the other hand, show a distinct difference with respect to downward fluxes: in the ponderosa pine forest, these fluxes (?0.02 cm year -1) are an order of magnitude lower than those in the piñon-juniper woodland (?0.2 cm year -1), even though total precipitation is about 4 cm year -1 higher in the ponderosa pine forest. This difference, however, appears to be related not to plant cover, but to differences in soil hydraulic properties. The soils of the ponderosa pine forest contain clay-rich B horizons that appear to restrict downward movement of water through the soil matrix, whereas the soils of the piñon-juniper community have B horizons much lower in clay content. The effect of differing soil properties on water movement suggests that contaminant distributions will vary across the Pajarito Plateau. The data on soil water ages support this hypothesis: they indicate that water (and, thus, contaminants) moves through the soil matrix in less than a decade in some areas, whereas in other areas, water takes hundreds of years to pass through the entire soil profile.

Newman, Brent D.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Wilcox, Bradford P.

1997-09-01

170

Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers. Second technical annual progress report, October 1991--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

This second annual report on innovative uses of tracers for reservoir characterization contains four sections each describing a novel use of oilfield tracers. The first section describes and illustrates the use of a new single-well tracer test to estimate wettability. This test consists of the injection of brine containing tracers followed by oil containing tracers, a shut-in period to allow some of the tracers to react, and then production of the tracers. The inclusion of the oil injection slug with tracers is unique to this test, and this is what makes the test work. We adapted our chemical simulator, UTCHEM, to enable us to study this tracer method and made an extensive simulation study to evaluate the effects of wettability based upon characteristic curves for relative permeability and capillary pressure for differing wetting states typical of oil reservoirs. The second section of this report describes a new method for analyzing interwell tracer data based upon a type-curve approach. Theoretical frequency response functions were used to build type curves of ``transfer function`` and ``phase spectrum`` that have dimensionless heterogeneity index as a parameter to characterize a stochastic permeability field. We illustrate this method by analyzing field tracer data. The third section of this report describes a new theory for interpreting interwell tracer data in terms of channeling and dispersive behavior for reservoirs. Once again, a stochastic approach to reservoir description is taken. The fourth section of this report describes our simulation of perfluorocarbon gas tracers. This new tracer technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being tested at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California. We report preliminary simulations made of these tracers in one of the oil reservoirs under evaluation with these tracers in this field. Our compostional simulator (UTCOMP) was used for this simulation study.

Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

1992-12-31

171

Sinks for nitrogen inputs in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis of 15N tracer field studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to store carbon (C) depend in part on the amount of N retained in the system and its partitioning among plant and soil pools. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies at 48 sites across four continents that used enriched 15N isotope tracers in order to synthesize information about total ecosystem N retention (i.e., total ecosystem 15N recovery in plant and soil pools) across natural systems and N partitioning among ecosystem pools. The greatest recoveries of ecosystem 15N tracer occurred in shrublands (mean, 89.5%) and wetlands (84.8%) followed by forests (74.9%) and grasslands (51.8%). In the short term (15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N recovery was negatively correlated with fine-root and soil 15N natural abundance, and organic soil C and N concentration but was positively correlated with mean annual temperature and mineral soil C:N. In the longer term (3–18 months after 15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N retention was negatively correlated with foliar natural-abundance 15N but was positively correlated with mineral soil C and N concentration and C: N, showing that plant and soil natural-abundance 15N and soil C:N are good indicators of total ecosystem N retention. Foliar N concentration was not significantly related to ecosystem 15N tracer recovery, suggesting that plant N status is not a good predictor of total ecosystem N retention. Because the largest ecosystem sinks for 15N tracer were below ground in forests, shrublands, and grasslands, we conclude that growth enhancement and potential for increased C storage in aboveground biomass from atmospheric N deposition is likely to be modest in these ecosystems. Total ecosystem 15N recovery decreased with N fertilization, with an apparent threshold fertilization rate of 46 kg N·ha-1·yr-1 above which most ecosystems showed net losses of applied 15N tracer in response to N fertilizer addition.

Templer, P.H.; Mack, M.C.; Chapin, F. S., III; Christenson, L.M.; Compton, J.E.; Crook, H.D.; Currie, W.S.; Curtis, C.J.; Dail, D.B.; D'Antonio, C. M.; Emmett, B.A.; Epstein, H.E.; Goodale, C.L.; Gundersen, P.; Hobbie, S.E.; Holland, K.; Hooper, D.U.; Hungate, B.A.; Lamontagne, S.; Nadelhoffer, K.J.; Osenberg, C.W.; Perakis, S.S.; Schleppi, P.; Schimel, J.; Schmidt, I.K.; Sommerkorn, M.; Spoelstra, J.; Tietema, A.; Wessel, W.W.; Zak, D.R.

2012-01-01

172

Sinks for nitrogen inputs in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis of 15N tracer field studies.  

PubMed

Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to store carbon (C) depend in part on the amount of N retained in the system and its partitioning among plant and soil pools. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies at 48 sites across four continents that used enriched 15N isotope tracers in order to synthesize information about total ecosystem N retention (i.e., total ecosystem 15N recovery in plant and soil pools) across natural systems and N partitioning among ecosystem pools. The greatest recoveries of ecosystem 15N tracer occurred in shrublands (mean, 89.5%) and wetlands (84.8%) followed by forests (74.9%) and grasslands (51.8%). In the short term (< 1 week after 15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N recovery was negatively correlated with fine-root and soil 15N natural abundance, and organic soil C and N concentration but was positively correlated with mean annual temperature and mineral soil C:N. In the longer term (3-18 months after 15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N retention was negatively correlated with foliar natural-abundance 15N but was positively correlated with mineral soil C and N concentration and C:N, showing that plant and soil natural-abundance 15N and soil C:N are good indicators of total ecosystem N retention. Foliar N concentration was not significantly related to ecosystem 15N tracer recovery, suggesting that plant N status is not a good predictor of total ecosystem N retention. Because the largest ecosystem sinks for 15N tracer were below ground in forests, shrublands, and grasslands, we conclude that growth enhancement and potential for increased C storage in aboveground biomass from atmospheric N deposition is likely to be modest in these ecosystems. Total ecosystem 15N recovery decreased with N fertilization, with an apparent threshold fertilization rate of 46 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1) above which most ecosystems showed net losses of applied 15N tracer in response to N fertilizer addition. PMID:22928411

Templer, P H; Mack, M C; Chapin, F S; Christenson, L M; Compton, J E; Crook, H D; Currie, W S; Curtis, C J; Dail, D B; D'Antonio, C M; Emmett, B A; Epstein, H E; Goodale, C L; Gundersen, P; Hobbie, S E; Holland, K; Hooper, D U; Hungate, B A; Lamontagne, S; Nadelhoffer, K J; Osenberg, C W; Perakis, S S; Schleppi, P; Schimel, J; Schmidt, I K; Sommerkorn, M; Spoelstra, J; Tietema, A; Wessel, W W; Zak, D R

2012-08-01

173

Dual-tracer scintigraphy and subtraction studies in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Dual tracer scintigraphy (DTS) (technetium 99m (/sup 99m/Tc) sulfur colloid and gallium 67 citrate (67-gallium citrate)) of the liver and computer subtraction studies (SS) were performed in 26 patients subsequently proven to have hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 32 patients with cirrhosis and focal defects on the colloid scan, with no evidence for HCC after a complete evaluation and a 2-year follow-up period. Both DTS and SS had a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 90.6% for HCC. There were three false positive cases (9.4%), two of which were occult abscesses. The predictive value of a positive test was 89% and that of a negative test was 97%. The smallest tumor detected measured 2 cm in diameter and was only visualized with the SS. In the clinical setting, when HCC is suspected (a situation in which tumors are usually larger than 2 cm and the pretest probability of disease is between 20% and 60%) the DTS and SS is an excellent test for the diagnosis or exclusion of HCC. It does not appear to have a role in screening programs.

Sostre, S.; Villagra, D.; Morales, N.E.; Rivera, J.V.

1988-02-15

174

A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gas–solid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gas–solid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gas–solid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gas–solid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.

Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris

2012-03-01

175

The use of air as a natural tracer infractured hydrothermal systems, Los Azufres, Mexico, case study  

SciTech Connect

Injection of atmospheric air mixed with cold water has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres geothermal field. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured hydrothermal system could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate, under the action of the induced injection-extraction gradient, from reinjection sectors to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. A coarse numerical estimation of the average permeability tensor existing at Tejamaniles, the southern sector, explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years: the anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock would demand considerably quantities of tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, especially when fluid extraction was low. At the same time concentrations of calcium, cesium, chloride, potassium, rubidium and sodium, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of this field's sector.

Mario Cesar Sudrez Arriaga; Hector Gutierrez Puente, Josefina Moreno Ochoa

1991-01-01

176

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site characterization study; Progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report is in two parts one for the fluorinated benzoic acids and one for the fluorinated aliphatic acids. The assumptions made in the report regarding the amount of tracer that will be used, dilution of the tracer during the test and the length of exposure (if any) to individuals drinking the water were made by the authors. These assumptions must really come from the USGS hydrologists in charge of the c-well tracer testing program. Accurate estimates of dilution of the tracer during the test are also important because of solubility limitations of some of the tracers. Three of the difluorobenzoic acids have relatively low solubilities and may not be usable if the dilution estimates are large. The toxicologist that reviewed the document agreed with our conclusion that the fluorinated benzoic and toluic acids do not represent a health hazard if used under the conditions as outlined in the report. We are currently testing 15 of these compounds, and if even if three difluorobenzoic acids cannot be used because of solubility limitations we will still have 12 tracers. The toxicologist felt that the aliphatic fluorinated acids potentially present more of a health risk than the aromatic. This assessment was based on the fact of a known allergic response to halothane anesthetic. This risk, although minimal, is known and he felt that was enough reason to recommend against their use. The authors feel that the toxicologists interpretation of this risk was overly conservative, however, we will not go against his recommendation at this time for the following reasons. First, without the aliphatic compounds we still have 12 to 15 fluorinated aromatic acids which, should be enough for the c-well tests. Second, to get a permit to use aliphatic compounds would undoubtedly require a hearing which could be quite lengthy.

Dombrowski, T.; Stetzenbach, K.

1993-08-01

177

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

1996-06-01

178

Comparison of [11C]cocaine binding at tracer and pharmacological doses of baboon brain: A PET study  

SciTech Connect

In vitro studies have shown that cocaine (C) binds to both high and low affinity sites on the dopamine transporter (DAT). We have previously characterized the binding of tracer doses of [{sup 11}C]cocaine (C*)to a high affinity site on the DAT. To assess if in vivo C also binds to low affinity sites we used PET to compare binding of tracer doses (17.8{plus_minus}12.2 {mu}g C) of C* to pharmacological doses (8 mg of C coadministered with C*). Sixteen paired studies were done to assess test/retest variability, specific versus non specific binding and to characterize binding profile. Dynamic scans were started immediately after injection of C* (5-8 mCi) for 50 min on the CTI-931 (6 x 6 x 6.5 mm FWHM). Time activity curves for tissue concentration and for unchanged tracer in plasma were used to calculate the transport constant between plasma and tissue (K1) and to obtain the distribution volume (DV). The ratio of the DV in striatum (ST) to that in cerebellum (CB) (which corresponds to Bmax/Kd-1) was used as model parameter. Peak brain uptake of C* was significantly higher for tracer than for pharmacological doses (0.041 versus 0.033 % dose/cc), as were the values for K1 (1.07{plus_minus}0.21 versus 0.68{plus_minus}0.26 (t=3.0 p<0.01)). Repeated measures were reproducible for tracer ({plus_minus}2%) and pharmacological doses of C* ({plus_minus}4%). Tracer dose C* showed highest binding and slowest clearance in ST which was reduced by C (0.5-2.0 mg/kg iv, -25 to -30%) and by drugs that inhibit DAT (2mg/kg nomifensine - 21%, 0.5 mg/kg methylphenidate -12%) and was increased by serotonin transporter inhibitors (5HT-Ti) (2 mg/kg citalopram +11%, 0.5 mg/kg fluoxetine +6%) and not changed by NE transporter inhibitors (0.5 mg/kg desipramine or 2 mg/kg tomoxetine). The increase with (5HT-Ti) may reflect neurotransmitter interactions or changes in bioavailability. At pharmacological doses C* showed homogeneous distribution and was not changed by C nor by any of the above drugs.

Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-05-01

179

Viral Tracer Studies Indicate Contamination of Marine Waters by Sewage Disposal Practices in Key Largo, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

DomesticwastewaterdisposalpracticesintheFloridaKeysareprimarilylimitedtoon-sitedisposalsystems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacterio- phages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated

JOHN H. PAUL; JOAN B. ROSE; JORDAN BROWN; EUGENE A. SHINN; STEVEN MILLER; SAMUEL R. FARRAH

1995-01-01

180

SEDIMENT REWORKING AND TRANSPORT IN EASTERN LAKE SUPERIOR: IN SITU RARE EARTH ELEMENT TRACER STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A rare earth element (REE) tracer pellet was deployed at the floor of the Ile Parisienne basin of eastern Lake Superior to measure representative sediment reworking and transport processes in the benthic boundary layer of the prnfundal Great Lakes. Samarium oxide, a high neutron-...

181

Tracer-based studies of soil water movement in semi-arid forests of New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The related issues of water movement and contaminant transport in arid and semi-arid environments have generated considerable interest and concern in the last few decades. Essential to understanding these issues is knowledge of how water moves through the soils that form the uppermost part of the vadose zone. The use of tracers, both natural and artificially introduced, is proving to

Brent D Newman; Andrew R Campbell; Bradford P Wilcox

1997-01-01

182

Many Paths to Skilled Employment: A Reverse Tracer Study of Seven Occupations in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employs reverse tracer techniques to identify alternative training paths for selected skilled and semiskilled occupations in Colombia. Shows that workers pursue various alternative training paths to acquire essential occupational skills. Strong public intervention in training markets should be discouraged, as choices would be narrowed and the…

Ziderman, Adrian; Horn, Robin

1995-01-01

183

Observations of isotopic heterogeneities toward embedded cores and binary systems: potential tracers of varying chemical evolutionary pathways in protostellar gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed observations of protostellar gas have enabled the study of isotopic anomalies and peculiarities related to solar system chemical evolution, including the discrepancy in 12C/13C between the solar system and local ISM, and the oxygen isotope anomaly observed in meteorites. Further, comparing targets differing in mass, morphology, parent cloud and galactocentric radius offers an expanded view into the protostellar evolutionary process across a range of potential protoplanetary systems. Using the near-infrared CO rovibrational bands obtained with VLT-CRIRES at very high resolution (R ~ 95,000), we derived precise column densities of observable CO isotopologues (12C16O, 13C16O, 12C18O and 12C17O) toward 13 lines-of-site, representing 7 local star-forming clouds. Sources ranged from low-mass embedded cores, protostellar disks, foreground clouds, including 3 binary systems. We found significant heterogeneity in 12CO/13CO abundance ratios (~ 85 to 165) as compared to the solar system and local ISM, which may be in part due to the interplay between the CO ice and gas reservoirs as most strongly evidenced in our cold-gas sources. The finding of more similar values in 12CO/13CO toward the binary systems DoAr24E (Ophiuchus), EC 90 (Serpens), and potentially for VV CrA (Corona Australis), suggests that these data could be tracing homogeneities in chemical evolutionary pathways in binary gas reservoirs (spanning a radius of a few hundred AU) as compared to embedded cores separated in either the same parent cloud or between star-forming clouds. Heterogeneities in oxygen isotope ratios are found toward several objects in the same star-forming cloud (Ophiuchus) and between objects in 5 different clouds, with a potential correlation with evolutionary stage. Using Keck-NIRSPEC (R ~ 25,000), we have recently expanded these observations of protostellar carbon and oxygen reservoirs to include high mass, high luminosity protostars at varying locations toward the Galactic plane.

Smith, Rachel L.; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Lockwood, Alexandra C.

2013-07-01

184

Cesium-134 as a tracer to study particle transport processes within a small catchment with a buffer zone.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to use soil particles labeled with the radioactive tracer cesium-134 (134Cs) as a method for studying soil erosion and sedimentation pattern within a small catchment with buffer zones. Cesium is adsorbed to soil particles, and by measuring changes in the 134Cs activity on the soil surface, erosion, sedimentation, and pathways for particles can be traced. A harrowed area was surface-contaminated with 134CsCl, while the buffer zone was left uncontaminated. A grid net in the tilled plot and buffer zone was established for in situ measurements of the 134Cs activity after major runoff events from October 1993 to May 1996. In addition, 134Cs activity and suspended solids in runoff were followed during the events. At the end of the experiment, the vertical distribution of 134Cs in soil profiles and uptake of 134Cs in vegetation within the buffer zone were determined. At the end of the experiment, about 54% of the applied tracer remained at the soil surface. Surface soil erosion occurred relatively uniformly across the hillslope due to sheet flow. Most of the tracer was transported vertically into the soil profile, probably during the first heavy rainfall 3 wk after application when the soil was newly tilled. Sedimentation occurred in the upper part of the buffer zone. The correlation between suspended particles in runoff and 134Cs activity was good (R2=0.76). The study also demonstrates the benefit of utilizing 134Cs2+ tracer for investigating transport pathways for contaminated partic1les within a hillslope system without disturbing the surface soil system. PMID:11577886

Syversen, N; Oygarden, L; Salbu, B

2001-01-01

185

Warm gas TVC design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A warm gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a warm gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.

Moorhead, S. B., Jr.

1973-01-01

186

Tracer airflow measurement system (TRAMS)  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for measuring fluid flow in a duct is disclosed. The invention uses a novel high velocity tracer injector system, an optional insertable folding mixing fan for homogenizing the tracer within the duct bulk fluid flow, and a perforated hose sampling system. A preferred embodiment uses CO.sub.2 as a tracer gas for measuring air flow in commercial and/or residential ducts. In extant commercial buildings, ducts not readily accessible by hanging ceilings may be drilled with readily plugged small diameter holes to allow for injection, optional mixing where desired using a novel insertable foldable mixing fan, and sampling hose.

Wang, Duo (Albany, CA)

2007-04-24

187

Analysing fluorobenzoate tracers in groundwater samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A tool for leaching studies and hydrology.  

PubMed

A sensitive LC-MS-MS method for the direct determination and quantification of 15 fluorobenzoic acids (FBAs) was developed. FBAs are used as conservative tracers for hydrological modelling of water flow and in studies of pesticides and other xenobiotic compounds. The use of FBAs is discussed in relation to other tracers (bromide, chloride, uranine). The method covers mono-substituted fluorobenzoic acid, difluorobenzoic acid, trifluorobenzoic acid, and tetrafluorobenzoic acid. The general detection limit in ground water was 1 microg/l using electrospray ionisation and 20 microg/l using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. Analysis time was less than 10 min, small sample volumes were needed and no clean-up was required. PMID:12102307

Juhler, René K; Mortensen, Annette P

2002-05-24

188

Integration of stable carbon isotope, microbial community, dissolved hydrogen gas, and ²HH?O tracer data to assess bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethene degradation in fractured rocks.  

PubMed

An in situ bioaugmentation (BA) experiment was conducted to understand processes controlling microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. In the BA experiment, an electron donor (emulsified vegetable oil and sodium lactate) and a chloro-respiring microbial consortium were injected into a well in fractured mudstone of Triassic age. Water enriched in ²H was also injected as a tracer of the BA solution, to monitor advective transport processes. The changes in concentration and the ?¹³C of TCE, cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC); the ?²H of water; changes in the abundance of the microbial communities; and the concentration of dissolved H? gas compared to pre- test conditions, provided multiple lines of evidence that enhanced biodegradation occurred in the injection well and in two downgradient wells. For those wells where the biodegradation was stimulated intensively, the sum of the molar chlorinated ethene (CE) concentrations in post-BA water was higher than that of the sum of the pre-BA background molar CE concentrations. The concentration ratios of TCE/(cis-DCE+VC) indicated that the increase in molar CE concentration may result from additional TCE mobilized from the rock matrix in response to the oil injection or due to desorption/diffusion. The stable carbon isotope mass-balance calculations show that the weighted average ¹³C isotope of the CEs was enriched for around a year compared to the background value in a two year monitoring period, an effective indication that dechlorination of VC was occurring. Insights gained from this study can be applied to efforts to use BA in other fractured rock systems. The study demonstrates that a BA approach can substantially enhance in situ bioremediation not only in fractures connected to the injection well, but also in the rock matrix around the well due to processes such as diffusion and desorption. Because the effect of the BA was intensive only in wells where an amendment was distributed during injection, it is necessary to adequately distribute the amendments throughout the fractured rock to achieve substantial bioremediation. The slowdown in BA effect after a year is due to some extend to the decrease abundant of appropriate microbes, but more likely the decreased concentration of electron donor. PMID:24270158

Révész, Kinga M; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Kirshtein, Julie D; Tiedeman, Claire R; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E; Goode, Daniel J; Shapiro, Allen M; Voytek, Mary A; Lacombe, Pierre J; Busenberg, Eurybiades

2014-01-01

189

Integration of stable carbon isotope, microbial community, dissolved hydrogen gas, and 2HH2O tracer data to assess bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethene degradation in fractured rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in situ bioaugmentation (BA) experiment was conducted to understand processes controlling microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. In the BA experiment, an electron donor (emulsified vegetable oil and sodium lactate) and a chloro-respiring microbial consortium were injected into a well in fractured mudstone of Triassic age. Water enriched in 2H was also injected as a tracer of the BA solution, to monitor advective transport processes. The changes in concentration and the ?13C of TCE, cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC); the ?2H of water; changes in the abundance of the microbial communities; and the concentration of dissolved H2 gas compared to pre- test conditions, provided multiple lines of evidence that enhanced biodegradation occurred in the injection well and in two downgradient wells. For those wells where the biodegradation was stimulated intensively, the sum of the molar chlorinated ethene (CE) concentrations in post-BA water was higher than that of the sum of the pre-BA background molar CE concentrations. The concentration ratios of TCE/(cis-DCE + VC) indicated that the increase in molar CE concentration may result from additional TCE mobilized from the rock matrix in response to the oil injection or due to desorption/diffusion. The stable carbon isotope mass-balance calculations show that the weighted average 13C isotope of the CEs was enriched for around a year compared to the background value in a two year monitoring period, an effective indication that dechlorination of VC was occurring. Insights gained from this study can be applied to efforts to use BA in other fractured rock systems. The study demonstrates that a BA approach can substantially enhance in situ bioremediation not only in fractures connected to the injection well, but also in the rock matrix around the well due to processes such as diffusion and desorption. Because the effect of the BA was intensive only in wells where an amendment was distributed during injection, it is necessary to adequately distribute the amendments throughout the fractured rock to achieve substantial bioremediation. The slowdown in BA effect after a year is due to some extend to the decrease abundant of appropriate microbes, but more likely the decreased concentration of electron donor.

Révész, Kinga M.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Tiedeman, Claire R.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Goode, Daniel J.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

2014-01-01

190

Exploring Hydrofluorocarbons as Groundwater Age Tracers (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater dating tracers are an essential tool for analyzing hydrologic conditions in groundwater systems. Commonly used tracers for dating post-1940's groundwater include sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 3H-3He, and other isotopic tracers (85Kr, ?2H and ?18O isotopes, etc.). Each tracer carries a corresponding set of advantages and limitations imposed by field, analytical, and interpretive methods. Increasing the number available tracers is appealing, particularly if they possess inert chemical properties and unique temporal emission histories from other tracers. Atmospherically derived halogenated trace gases continue to hold untapped potential for new tracers, as they are generally inert and their emission histories are well documented. SF5CF3, and CFC-13 were previously shown to have application as dating tracers, though their low mixing ratios and low solubility require large amounts of water to be degassed for their quantification. Two related groups of compounds, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are hypothesized to be potential age tracers, having similar mixing ratios to the CFCs and relatively high solubility. However, these compounds yield gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) responses that are 10-2 -10-5 less than CFC-12, making purge and trap or field stripping GC-ECD approaches impractical. Therefore, in order to use dissolved HCFCs and HFCs as age tracers, different approaches are needed. To solve this problem, we developed an analytical method that uses an atomic emission detector (GC-AED) in place of an ECD to detect fluorinated compounds. In contrast to the ECD, the AED is a universally sensitive, highly linear, elementally specific detector. The new GC-AED system is being used to measure chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), and other fluorinated compounds in one liter water samples to study their potential as age dating tracers. HCFC-22 is a refrigerant introduced in the 1940's, with atmospheric mixing ratios increasing through the 1990s to the present value of ?230 pptv. HFC-134a is typically is used as a chlorine-free replacement for CFC-12, finding use in air-condition systems and as an inert aerosol blowing agent, with a mixing ratio that has increased from <1 in 1994 to ?75 pptv at present (2013). Their unique atmospheric histories and chemistry compared to CFCs makes these compounds interesting age tracer candidates, particularly in situations where multiple tracers enhance interpretive value. For instance, inclusion in lumped parameter mixing models and in situations where SF6 or the CFCs are present in elevated concentrations from non-atmospheric sources such that they cannot be used for dating purposes. Analysis of standards, air equilibrated water, and blanks suggests the GC-AED system is capable of detecting concentrations ?200 fM (HCFC-22) and ?100 fM (HFC-134a), corresponding to piston flow ages of 54 and 18 yr, respectively, with a typical uncertainty of ?1 yr. Preliminary comparisons with CFC and SF6 analyses show general agreement between the techniques (within a few years), and ongoing intercomparison studies will be discussed.

Haase, K. B.; Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L. N.; Casile, G.; Sanford, W. E.

2013-12-01

191

Compartmental Modeling and Dosimetry of in Vivo Metabolic Studies of Leucine and Three Secretory Proteins in Humans Using Radioactive Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and mathematical models provide a systematic means of looking at biological systems. Radioactive tracer kinetic studies open a unique window to study complex tracee systems such as protein metabolism in humans. This research deals with compartmental modeling of tracer kinetic data on leucine and apolipoprotein metabolism obtained using an endogenous tritiated leucine tracer administered as a bolus, and application of compartmental modeling techniques for dosimetric evaluation of metabolic studies of radioiodinated apolipoproteins. Dr. Waldo R. Fisher, Department of Medicine, was the coordinating research supervisor and the work was carried out in his laboratory. A compartmental model for leucine kinetics in humans has been developed that emphasizes its recycling pathways which were examined over two weeks. This model builds on a previously published model of Cobelli et al, that analyzed leucine kinetic data up to only eight hours. The proposed model includes different routes for re-entry of leucine from protein breakdown into plasma accounting for proteins which turn over at different rates. This new model successfully incorporates published models of three secretory proteins: albumin, apoA-I, and VLDL apoB, in toto thus increasing its validity and utility. The published model of apoA-I, based on an exogenous radioiodinated tracer, was examined with data obtained using an endogenous leucine tracer using compartmental techniques. The analysis concludes that the major portion of apoA-I enters plasma by a fast pathway but the major fraction of apoA-I in plasma resides with a second slow pathway; further the study is suggestive of a precursor-product relationship between the two plasma apoA-I pools. The possible relevance of the latter suggestion to the aberrant kinetics of apoA-I in Tangier disease is discussed. The analysis of apoA-II data resulted in similar conclusions. A methodology for evaluating the dosimetry of radioiodinated apolipoproteins by combining kinetic models of iodine and apolipoprotein metabolism has been developed. Residence times for source organs, whole body, thyroid, bladder, and red bone marrow obtained with this analysis, were used to calculate the cumulated activities and thus doses arising from these organs. The influence of the duration of the thyroid blocking period using stable iodine on the dose to the thyroid has been demonstrated.

Venkatakrishnan, Vaidehi

1995-01-01

192

Preliminary Results from a Gas Tracer Injection Experiment in the Upper Oceanic Crust on the Eastern Flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results from a gas tracer injection experiment in the ocean crust on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an area of vigorous hydrothermal circulation. A mixture of tracers was injected in Hole 1362B in 2010, during IODP Expedition 327, as part of a 24-hour pumping experiment. Fluid samples were subsequently collected from this hole and three additional holes (1026B, 1362A, and 1301A), located 300 to 500 m away. The array of holes is located on 3.5 M.y. old seafloor, and oriented N20°E, subparallel to the Endeavor Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge, 100 km to the west. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was injected at a concentration of 0.0192 mol/min, with fluid pumping rate of 6.7 L/s for 20.2 h, resulting in a mean concentration of 47.6 ?M and 23.3 mol of SF6 being added to crustal fluids. Borehole fluid samples were collected in copper coils using osmotic pumps attached to the wellheads of several long-term, subseafloor observatories (CORKs). These samples were recovered from the seafloor using a remotely-operated vehicle in 2011 and 2013. Analyses of SF6 concentrations in samples recovered in 2011 indicate the first arrival of SF6 in Hole 1301A, 550 m south of the injection Hole 1362B, ~265 days after injection. This suggests that the most rapid lateral transport of gas (at the leading edge of the plume) occurred at ~2 m/day. Samples recovered in 2013 should provide a more complete breakthrough curve, allowing assessment of the mean lateral transport rate. Additional insights will come from analysis of metal salts and particle tracers injected contemporaneously with the SF6, the cross-hole pressure response to injection and a two-year fluid discharge experiment. Additional wellhead samples will be collected in Summer 2014, as will downhole osmosamplers deployed in perforated casing within the upper ocean crust in Holes 1362A and 1362B.

Neira, N. M.; Clark, J. F.; Fisher, A. T.; Wheat, C. G.

2013-12-01

193

Coupling of groundwater and surface water at Lake Willersinnweiher: Groundwater modeling and tracer studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Coupling between groundwater and surface water at Lake Willersinnweiher, a gravel pit lake in the Upper Rhine Graben without\\u000a any surface in- or outflow, was investigated using both a groundwater model and the tracers 18O and SF6. Based on groundwater modeling, recharge and discharge areas around the lake as well as the residence time of the lake water\\u000a were determined

Ute Wollschläger; Johann Ilmberger; Margot Isenbeck-Schröter; Andreas M. Kreuzer; Christoph von Rohden; Kurt Roth; Wolfgang Schäfer

2007-01-01

194

3, 24372471, 2006 Chalk tracer test  

E-print Network

HESSD 3, 2437­2471, 2006 Chalk tracer test study S. A. Mathias et al. Title Page Abstract study of two chalk tracer tests S. A. Mathias1 , A. P. Butler1 , T. C. Atkinson 2,3 , S. Kachi3 (simon.mathias@imperial.ac.uk) 2437 #12;HESSD 3, 2437­2471, 2006 Chalk tracer test study S. A. Mathias et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

A radiogenic isotope tracer study of transatlantic dust transport from Africa to the Caribbean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many studies have suggested that long-range transport of African desert dusts across the Atlantic Ocean occurs, delivering key nutrients and contributing to fertilization of the Amazon rainforest. Here we utilize radiogenic isotope tracers – Sr, Nd and Pb – to derive the provenance, local or remote, and pathways of dust transport from Africa to the Caribbean. Atmospheric total suspended particulate (TSP) matter was collected in 2008 on quartz fibre filters, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean at three different locations: in Mali (12.6°N, 8.0°W; 555 m a.s.l.), Tobago (11.3°N, 60.5°W; 329 m a.s.l.) and the U.S. Virgin Islands (17.7°N, 64.6°W; 27 m a.s.l.). Both the labile phase, representative of the anthropogenic signal, and the refractory detrital silicate fraction were analysed. Dust deposits and soils from around the sampling sites were measured as well to assess the potential contribution from local sources to the mineral dust collected. The contribution from anthropogenic sources of Pb was predominant in the labile, leachate phase. The overall similarity in Pb isotope signatures found in the leachates is attributed to a common African source of anthropogenic Pb, with minor inputs from other sources, such as from Central and South America. The Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in the silicate fraction were found to be systematically more radiogenic than those in the corresponding labile phases. In contrast, Nd and Sr isotopic compositions from Mali, Tobago, and the Virgin Islands are virtually identical in both leachates and residues. Comparison with existing literature data on Saharan and Sahelian sources constrains the origin of summer dust transported to the Caribbean to mainly originate from the Sahel region, with some contribution from northern Saharan sources. The source regions derived from the isotope data are consistent with 7-day back-trajectory analyses, demonstrating the usefulness of radiogenic isotopes in tracing dust provenance and atmospheric transport.

Kumar, A.; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S.J.G.; Garrison, V.H.; Williams, E.; Andreae, M.O.

2014-01-01

196

The Numerical Simulation of a Tracer-Release Field Project to Study Motion within the Nocturnal Boundary Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the University of Georgia (UGA), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) conducted a regional tracer experiment to study the nocturnal behavior of CO2 in the vicinity of an instrumented tall tower during two nights on May 11th and 12th, 2009. The experiment consisted of a release of five perfluorocarbon tracer (PFTs) compounds in twelve unique locations in Aiken County, South Carolina. Intensive meteorological measurements including in-situ turbulence were made in conjunction with the release and sampling of the PFTs. A 300m tower was also used to collect data from higher levels, allowing us to determine the extent to which the tracer was mixed vertically. Lagrangian plume simulations performed during the experiment demonstrated transport over distances of >8 km, and correlated well with in situ sampling. The area was characterized by heavy vegetation cover, and carbon dioxide concentrations were also monitored in an effort to determine how respiration and advection affect CO2 levels in the stable layer. Tracer release locations were carefully selected via a fine-scale mesoscale modeling study of similar nights. The purpose of these experiments was to provide data that will be used to increase the understanding of the terrestrial carbon budget, especially with respect to nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) phenomena such as low level jets and breaking gravity waves. Using these data, a simulation of the motion of the tracer within the boundary layer was developed using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model coupled to a tracer model. The RAMS model was also coupled to the Simple Biosphere (SiB) vegetation model, which allowed for the simulation of the release of carbon dioxide into the NBL. The simulation results are used to validate the NBL hypothesis of CO2 monitoring, by which the release of CO2 can be correlated with the accumulation of CO2 in the boundary layer beneath a stable ‘lid’, which impedes vertical mixing. This is done with both the tracer, in which the release rate is known and no advection occurs, and for CO2, in which the release rate is not known and for which advection of CO2 must be accounted. The high resolution of the simulation allows us to resolve the small-scale motions within the NBL, which are important to nocturnal transport. Flux data from the tall tower were studied to learn more about the eddy transport, and also to detect the occurrence of transport ‘events’ in which the CO2 and H2O values experience a sudden increase. A wavelet analysis is also applied, and reveals the existence of eddy activity dominated by eddies of diameter 90-240m.

Werth, D. W.; Leclerc, M. Y.; Buckley, R.; Parker, M.; Kurzeja, R.; Duarte, H. F.; Zhang, G.; Durden, D.

2009-12-01

197

AIR INFILTRATION MEASUREMENTS USING TRACER GASES: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature review of air filtration measurements using tracer gases, including sulfur hexafluoride, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and radioactive argon and krypton. Sulfur hexafluoride is the commonest tracer gas of choice...

198

Diffusion of oxygen tracer into deuterium-gas-baked IrO{sub x}/Pb(Zr,TiO{sub 3})Pt capacitors and Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3}Pt films  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium gas (D{sub 2}) ambient heat treatment of ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) thin-film capacitors with a top electrode of iridium oxide and a bottom electrode of platinum showed significant polarization loss when baked at 200 deg. C at a pressure of 5 Torr. The D{sub 2} gas treatment of the capacitors partially reduced the iridium oxide (IrO{sub x}, where x is 1tracer ({sup 18}O{sub 2}) gases which recovered the ferroelectric properties and the D concentration in the PZT decreased to the detection level of 10{sup 17} at./cm{sup 3}. The oxygen tracer concentration was highest in the IrO{sub x} film and much lower in the PZT. Comparison of the oxygen tracer SIMS profiles of the PZT annealed in tracer oxygen or preannealed in oxygen followed by oxygen tracer annealing showed little difference in the calculated PZT oxygen tracer diffusion coefficient of 5x10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}/s. If the PZT was reduced by the D{sub 2} gas, an increase in the oxygen diffusion coefficient would be expected as has been proposed in the literature, but this was not observed experimentally. These results indicate that the loss of polarization in the PZT capacitor is primarily due to the inhibition of ferroelectric domain switching by possible formation of [OD{sup -}].

Cross, J.S.; Kurihara, K.; Haneda, H. [Fujitsu Limited and Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi 243-0197 (Japan); National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

2005-11-01

199

Radioisotope tracer studies in the NASA Skylab ethothermic brazing experiment M-552  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first use of radioisotope tracer for mapping flow patterns during brazing of metal components in a space environment (near-zero gravity) proved successful. A nickel ferrule was brazed to a nickel tube with Lithobraze BT (71.8% Ag, 28% Cu, 0.2% Li) which contained a trace amount of radioactive Ag-110. Mapping of the flow of the braze alloy in the annulus formed between the tube and the concentric ferrule was determined by counting the radiation intensity as a function of position in the braze joint. Significant information concerning the thermal history of the braze was determined.

Braski, D. N.; Adair, H. L.; Kobisk, E. H.

1974-01-01

200

Groundwater age structure and palaeo hydrogeology over a 500 kyr time scale revealed from Krypton 81and a multiple tracer study: Great Artesian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the most comprehensive set of krypton -81 data to be analysed so far. Our study site is on the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). The study area is focused on the western margin of the GAB between the Finke River system in the Northern Territory and the iconic Dalhousie springs in South Australia. This represents the direction of groundwater flow from recharge to discharge through the Dalhousie spring complex. Because of its vast size and the potential for large regional flow systems to occur, the GAB has been considered an ideal basin to test emerging groundwater dating techniques such as Cl-36 and He-4. However both of these techniques are subjected to large degrees of uncertainty, as they require a detailed understanding of different sources and sinks of these two isotopes. Contrasting this Kr-81 is considered to be an ideal tracer as it contains only one source, the atmosphere with no or at most minimal sub surface production. For the first time we have provided a comprehensive suite of analyse not only of Cl-36, He-4, C-14, Ar-39, stable isotopes of the water molecule and noble gases but also, Kr-85 and Kr-81. Our results indicate a spectrum of 'groundwater ages' ranging from modern as indicated by thermonuclear C-14 and Ar-39 up to hundreds of thousands of years as indicated by Kr-81, Cl-36 and He-4. The data set indicates a wide range of stable isotopes of the water molecule as well as variability in noble gas recharge temperatures that suggest that not only has this region been subjected to changes in climate in the recharge zone but also testaments to a changes in the dominate direction of rainfall indicated by a change in recharge mechanism at the beginning of the Holocene. As suggested previously this groundwater flow transect may represent an ideal 'type section' for testing new and emerging environmental tracers in hydrogeology.

Love, A. J.; Purtschert, R.; Jiang, W.; Lu, Z.; Tosaki, Y.; Fulton, S.; Wohling, D.; Shand, P.; Broder, L.; Aeschbach, W.; Rousseau=Gueutin, P.

2013-12-01

201

Using dissolved noble gas and isotopic tracers to evaluate the vulnerability of groundwater resources in a small, high elevation catchment to predicted climate changes  

SciTech Connect

We use noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers in groundwater and stream water in a small high elevation catchment to provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge; and to determine subsurface residence times of different groundwater components. They identify three sources that contribute to groundwater flow: (1) seasonal groundwater recharge with short travel times, (2) water from bedrock aquifers that have elevated radiogenic {sup 4}He, and (3) upwelling of deep fluids that have 'mantle' helium and hydrothermal carbon isotope signatures. Although a bimodal distribution in apparent groundwater age indicates that groundwater storage times range from less than a year to several decades, water that recharges seasonally is the largest likely contributor to stream baseflow. Under climate change scnearios with earlier snowmelt, the groundwater that moves through the alluvial aquifer seasonally will be depleted earlier, providing less baseflow and possible extreme low flows in the creek during summer and fall. Dissolved noble gas measurements indciate recharge temperatures are 5 to 11 degrees higher than would be expected for direct influx of snowmelt, and that excess air concentrations are lower than would be expected for recharge through bedrock fractures. Instead, recharge likely occurs over diffuse vegetated areas, as indicated by {delta}{sup 13}C-DIC values that are consistent with incorporation of CO{sub 2} from soil respiration. Recharge temperatures are close to or slightly higher than mean annual air temperature, and are consistent with recharge during May and June, when snowpack melting occurs.

Singleton, M J; Moran, J E

2009-10-02

202

Performance evaluation of AERMOD, CALPUFF, and legacy air dispersion models using the Winter Validation Tracer Study dataset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of the steady-state air dispersion models AERMOD and Industrial Source Complex 2 (ISC2), and Lagrangian puff models CALPUFF and RATCHET were evaluated using the Winter Validation Tracer Study dataset. The Winter Validation Tracer Study was performed in February 1991 at the former Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Denver, Colorado. Twelve, 11-h tests were conducted where a conservative tracer was released and measured hourly at 140 samplers in concentric rings 8 km and 16 km from the release point. Performance objectives were unpaired maximum one- and nine-hour average concentration, location of plume maximum, plume impact area, arc-integrated concentration, unpaired nine-hour average concentration, and paired ensemble means. Performance objectives were aimed at addressing regulatory compliance, and dose reconstruction assessment questions. The objective of regulatory compliance is not to underestimate maximum concentrations whereas for dose reconstruction, the objective is an unbiased estimate of concentration in space and time. Performance measures included the fractional bias, normalized mean square error, geometric mean, geometric mean variance, correlation coefficient, and fraction of observations within a factor of two. The Lagrangian puff models tended to exhibit the smallest variance, highest correlation, and highest number of predictions within a factor of two compared to the steady-state models at both the 8-km and 16-km distance. Maximum one- and nine-hour average concentrations were less likely to be under-predicted by the steady-state models compared to the Lagrangian puff models. The characteristic of the steady-state models not to under-predict maximum concentrations make them well suited for regulatory compliance demonstration, whereas the Lagrangian puff models are better suited for dose reconstruction and long range transport.

Rood, Arthur S.

2014-06-01

203

Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in key largo, Florida.  

PubMed

Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys. PMID:16535046

Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Brown, J; Shinn, E A; Miller, S; Farrah, S R

1995-06-01

204

Numerical simulation of a natural gradient tracer experiment for the natural attenuation study: flow and physical transport.  

PubMed

Results are presented for numerical simulations of ground water flow and physical transport associated with a natural gradient tracer experiment conducted within a heterogeneous alluvial aquifer of the Natural Attenuation Study (NATS) site near Columbus, Mississippi. A principal goal of NATS is to evaluate biogeochemical models that predict the rate and extent of natural biodegradation under field conditions. This paper describes the initial phase in the model evaluation process, i.e., calibration of flow and physical transport models that simulate conservative bromide tracer plume evolution during NATS. An initial large-scale flow model (LSM) is developed encompassing the experimental site and surrounding region. This model is subsequently scaled down in telescopic fashion to an intermediate-scale ground water flow model (ISM) covering the tracer-monitoring network, followed by a small-scale transport model (SSM) focused on the small region of hydrocarbon plume migration observed during NATS. The LSM uses inferred depositional features of the site in conjunction with hydraulic conductivity (K) data from aquifer tests and borehole flowmeter tests to establish large-scale K and flow field trends in and around the experimental site. The subsequent ISM incorporates specified flux boundary conditions and large-scale K trends obtained from the calibrated LSM, while preserving small-scale K structure based on some 4000 flowmeter data for solute transport modeling. The configuration of the ISM-predicted potentiometric surface approximates that of the observed surface within a root mean squared error of 0.15 m. The SSM is based on the dual-domain mass-transfer approach. Despite the well-recognized difficulties in modeling solute transport in extremely heterogeneous media as found at the NATS site, the dual-domain model adequately reproduced the observed bromide concentration distributions. Differences in observed and predicted bromide concentration distributions are attributed to aquifer heterogeneity at the decimeter (dm) and smaller scales. The calibrated transport parameters for the SSM (i.e., 1:7 for the ratio of mobile-to-total porosity; 2.5 x 10(-3) day-1 for the mass-transfer coefficient; 1 m for longitudinal dispersivity; and 0.1 m for transverse dispersivity) are consistent with separate numerical simulations of two earlier tracer experiments at the site. The multiscale modeling approach adopted in this study permits the incorporation of both large-scale geologic features important for flow simulation and small-scale heterogeneities critical for transport simulation. In addition, the dual-domain transport model provides a foundation for multispecies reactive transport modeling studies of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons during NATS. PMID:11447854

Julian, H E; Boggs, J M; Zheng, C; Feehley, C E

2001-01-01

205

Petroleum characterization by perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), a class of six compounds, were used to help characterize the Shallow Oil Zone (SOZ) reservoir at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC) at Elk Hills. The SOZ reservoir is undergoing a pilot gas injection program to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of injecting gas into the SOZ for improved oil recovery. PFTs were utilized in the pilot gas injection to qualitatively assess the extent of the pilot gas injection so as to determine the degree of gas containment within the SOZ reservoir.

Senum, G.I.; Fajer, R.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Harris, B.R. Jr. (USDOE Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, Tupman, CA (United States)); DeRose, W.E. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); Ottaviani, W.L. (Chevron U.S.A., Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1992-02-01

206

Fluorescent particle tracers for surface hydrology: development of a sensing station for field studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on the development and testing of a sensing station for the detection and tracking of a new class of fluorescent particle tracers for surface hydrology. This tracing methodology is based on the release of microspheres that fluoresce at labeled wavelengths in natural streams. The particles are detected as they transit below a sensing station that comprises a light source and a digital camera. Video feed from the station is then processed to obtain direct flow measurements and stream reach travel times. This novel tracing technology is a low-cost measurement system that can be implemented on a variety of real-world settings, spanning from small scale streams to few centimeters rills in natural hillslopes. In particular, the use of insoluble buoyant particles limits the tracer dispersion from adhesion to natural substrates and thus minimizes the amount of tracing material for experimental measurements. Further, particle enhanced fluorescence allows for non-intrusively detecting the tracer without deploying probes and samplers in the water. The performance of the sensing station is assessed by conducting a large array of experiments under different flow and acquisition conditions. More specifically, experiments are performed for multiple flow velocities, camera acquisition frequencies, light sources, and distances of the sensing station from the flow surface. Particles are deployed in a custom built artificial water channel of adjustable slope to simulate varying flow conditions. A high definition bullet camera is used to detect particles that fluoresce either in green or red and two optical filters, corresponding to the emission wavelengths of the particles, are incorporated in the sensing station. In this implementation, green emission is elicited by using Ultra Violet lights, while white light drives the red emission. Experimental results confirm the versatility and the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Both particle types are found to be easily detected in a wide range of flow conditions. This evidence favors the use of red particles whose controlled fluorescent emission does not require costly Ultra Violet lamps and is rather based on commonly available light sources. Therefore, at a limited cost, powerful white lights can be used in the system and allow for increased fields of view.

Capocci, I.; Mocio, G.; Insogna, F.; Tauro, F.; Petroselli, A.; Rapiti, R.; Cipollari, G.; Grimaldi, S.; Porfiri, M.

2012-04-01

207

PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Integrin Expression: Tracers in Clinical Studies and Recent Developments  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive determination of integrin expression has become an interesting approach in nuclear medicine. Since the discovery of the first 18F-labeled cyclic RGD peptide as radiotracer for imaging integrin ?v?3 expression in vivo, there have been carried out enormous efforts to develop RGD peptides for PET imaging. Moreover, in recent years, additional integrins, including ?5?1 and ?v?6, came into the focus of pharmaceutical radiochemistry. This review will discuss the tracers already evaluated in clinical trials and summarize the preliminary outcome. It will also give an overview on recent developments to further optimize the first-generation compounds such as [18F]Galacto-RGD. This includes recently developed 18F-labeling strategies and also new approaches in 68Ga-complex chemistry. Furthermore, the approaches to develop radiopharmaceuticals targeting integrin ?5?1 and ?v?6 will be summarized and discussed. PMID:25013808

Maschauer, Simone

2014-01-01

208

TRACER EMISSIONS INFERRED FROM A BACKWARD LAGRANGIAN STOCHASTIC DISPERSION MODEL: A VALIDATION STUDY.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A dispersion model is a useful tool for estimating gas emissions, and compared with other techniques, it has the benefit of experimental simplicity, flexibility in the type and location of the gas concentration measurement, and applicability (in principle) even in disturbed flow conditions. The bac...

209

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01

210

The application of mass spectrometry to the study of mixing processes in confined and unconfined gas flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel flow tracing technique which has been developed to obtain data on mixing and dispersion processes in gaseous flow systems. Tracer gas is injected at low flow rates into an air stream. Choice of tracer gas-primary fluid combination in relation to gas properties and detection techniques is discussed. The mode of operation of the mass spectrometer

E. C. P. Ransom; J. H. Barnes

1986-01-01

211

A Brownian dynamics study on the self-diffusion of charged tracers in dilute polyelectrolyte solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brownian dynamics simulations with hydrodynamic interactions are conducted to investigate the self-diffusion of charged tracer particles in a dilute solution of charged polymers, which are modeled by bead-spring chains. The Debye-Hückel approximation is used for the electrostatic interactions. The hydrodynamic interactions are implemented by the Ewald summation of the Rotne-Prager tensor. Our simulations find that the difference in short- and long-time diffusivities is very slight in uncharged short-chain solutions. For charged systems, to the contrary, the difference becomes considerable. The short-time diffusivity is found to increase with increasing chain length, while an opposite behavior is obtained for the long-time diffusivity. The former is attributed to the hydrodynamic screening among beads in a same chain due to the bead connectivity. The latter is explained by the memory effect arising from the electrostatic repulsion and chain length. The incorporation of hydrodynamic interactions improves the agreement between the simulation prediction and the experimental result.

Zhou, Tong; Chen, Shing Bor

2005-03-01

212

Tracer studies and hydraulic behaviour of planted and un-planted vertical-flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to assess the hydraulic behaviour of three intermittently-fed vertical flow wetland units operated in parallel, designed for the treatment of raw wastewater generated in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The system was designed to serve 100 PE (-1 m2/PE). The first filter was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia), the second with Tifton-85 (Cynodon spp.) and the third was maintained without plants (control unit). NaCl tracer tests were conducted to determine the residence time distribution. The tests were done with water when the system was unused (clean media) and also after an 11-month operation period with wastewater (used media), using two different dosing regimes (lower and higher frequency). Results showed a strong tendency towards the hydraulic completely mixed regime. A great dispersion in the units and the presence of short circuiting and dead zones were observed. The unsaturated condition in a large volume of the filter, even during the draining stage, was confirmed for the three units. The dosing regime, the resting period duration, the age of the filter and the presence of plants were found to influence the hydraulic processes in the units. PMID:22214051

Cota, R S; von Sperling, M; Penido, R C S

2011-01-01

213

Novel and nontraditional use of stable isotope tracers to study metal bioavailability from natural particles.  

PubMed

We devised a novel tracing approach that involves enriching test organisms with a stable metal isotope of low natural abundance prior to characterizing metal bioavailability from natural inorganic particles. In addition to circumventing uncertainties associated with labeling natural particles and distinguishing background metals, the proposed "reverse labeling" technique overcomes many drawbacks inherent to using radioisotope tracers. Specifically, we chronically exposed freshwater snails ( Lymnaea stagnalis ) to synthetic water spiked with Cu that was 99.4% (65)Cu to increase the relative abundance of (65)Cu in the snail's tissues from ~32% to >80%. The isotopically enriched snails were then exposed to benthic algae mixed with Cu-bearing Fe-Al particles collected from the Animas River (Colorado), an acid mine drainage impacted river. We used (63)Cu to trace Cu uptake from the natural particles and inferred their bioavailability from calculation of Cu assimilation into tissues. Cu assimilation from these particles was 44%, indicating that 44% of the particulate Cu was absorbed by the invertebrate. This demonstrates that inorganic particulate Cu can be bioavailable. The reverse labeling approach shows great potential in various scientific areas such as environmental contamination and nutrition for addressing questions involving uptake of an element that naturally has multiple isotopes. PMID:23458345

Croteau, Marie-Noële; Cain, Daniel J; Fuller, Christopher C

2013-04-01

214

Investigation of helical flow by using tracer technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow through coiled tubes is, in practice, important for pipe systems, heat exchangers, chemical reactors, mixers of different gas components, etc., and is physically interesting because of the peculiar characteristics caused by the centrifugal force. Therefore, it is not so easy to observe flow parameters in the helical pipe experimentally. Tracer techniques are being increasingly used to determine characteristics such as volume flow rate, residence time, dispersion and mixing process in industry. In this study, the flow in the helical pipe was obtained in the laboratory and investigated by using the tracer technique. The experimental system including the helical pipe was set up in the laboratory. In the experiments methylene-blue (C16H17N3S) has been used as the tracer. The experiments were successfully performed with different flow rates and their results were evaluated with the flow parameters.

Alt?nsoy, N.; Tu?rul, A. B.; Bayta?, F.; Baydo?an, N.; Karatepe, N.; Hac?yakupo?lu, S.; Büyük, B.

2013-05-01

215

VOXEL-LEVEL MAPPING OF TRACER KINETICS IN PET STUDIES: A STATISTICAL APPROACH EMPHASIZING TISSUE LIFE TABLES.  

PubMed

Most radiotracers used in dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scanning act in a linear time-invariant fashion so that the measured time-course data are a convolution between the time course of the tracer in the arterial supply and the local tissue impulse response, known as the tissue residue function. In statistical terms the residue is a life table for the transit time of injected radiotracer atoms. The residue provides a description of the tracer kinetic information measurable by a dynamic PET scan. Decomposition of the residue function allows separation of rapid vascular kinetics from slower blood-tissue exchanges and tissue retention. For voxel-level analysis, we propose that residues be modeled by mixtures of nonparametrically derived basis residues obtained by segmentation of the full data volume. Spatial and temporal aspects of diagnostics associated with voxel-level model fitting are emphasized. Illustrative examples, some involving cancer imaging studies, are presented. Data from cerebral PET scanning with (18)F fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) and (15)O water (H2O) in normal subjects is used to evaluate the approach. Cross-validation is used to make regional comparisons between residues estimated using adaptive mixture models with more conventional compartmental modeling techniques. Simulations studies are used to theoretically examine mean square error performance and to explore the benefit of voxel-level analysis when the primary interest is a statistical summary of regional kinetics. The work highlights the contribution that multivariate analysis tools and life-table concepts can make in the recovery of local metabolic information from dynamic PET studies, particularly ones in which the assumptions of compartmental-like models, with residues that are sums of exponentials, might not be certain. PMID:25392718

O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Muzi, Mark; Mankoff, David A; Eary, Janet F; Spence, Alexander M; Krohn, Kenneth A

2014-06-01

216

Three-dimensional tracer model study of atmospheric CO2 - Response to seasonal exchanges with the terrestrial biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional tracer transport model is used to investigate the annual cycle of atmospheric CO2 concentration produced by seasonal exchanges with the terrestrial biosphere. The tracer model uses winds generated by a global general circulation model to advect and convect CO2; no explicit diffusion coefficients are employed. A biospheric exchange function constructed from a map of net primary productivity, and

I. Fung; K. Prentice; E. Matthews; J. Lerner; G. Russell

1983-01-01

217

A pilot study of the feasibility of long-term human bone balance during perimenopause using a 41Ca tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms governing calcium fluxes during bone remodeling processes in perimenopausal women are poorly known. Despite higher, albeit erratic, estradiol levels in perimenopause, spine bone loss is greater than during the first five years past the final menstrual flow when estradiol becomes low. Understanding changes during this dynamic transition are important to prevent fragility fractures in midlife and older women. The exploration of long-lived 41Ca ( T1/2 = 1.04 × 10 5 yrs) tracer measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) leads to the possibility of monitoring bone remodeling balance. With this new technology, we explored a pilot long-term feasibility study of bone health by measuring the 41Ca trace element in urine for six years from premenopausal to later perimenopausal phases in one midlife woman. We measured bone mineral density in parallel.

Hui, S. K.; Prior, J.; Gelbart, Z.; Johnson, R. R.; Lentle, B. C.; Paul, M.

2007-06-01

218

Applications of a total dissolved gas pressure probe in ground water studies.  

PubMed

Measurements of dissolved gases have numerous applications in ground water hydrology, and it is now possible to measure the total dissolved gas pressure in situ using a probe. Dissolved gas pressure is measured by submerging a headspace volume with a gas-permeable membrane, allowing dissolved gases in the water to equilibrate with gases in the headspace, then measuring the pressure in the headspace with a pressure transducer. Total dissolved gas pressure (TGP) probes have many potential uses in ground water studies employing dissolved gases, including: (1) determining approximate excess air levels, which may provide information about the time and location of recharge; (2) screening wells for air contamination, which can compromise the accuracy of dissolved gas tracer techniques: (3) detecting a trapped gas phase, which can significantly reduce hydraulic conductivity and impede the transport of dissolved solutes and gases; (4) enabling the use of gas-filled passive diffusion samplers for determining accurate dissolved gas concentrations; and (5) determining relative concentrations of CH4 and CO2 when they are known to be highly abundant. Although TGP probes designed for surface water have been available for several years, TGP probes suitable for ground water applications have only recently become available. Herein we present what are, to our knowledge, the first reported ground water dissolved gas data collected using a TGP probe. We also explain the basic operating principles of these probes and discuss the potential applications listed. PMID:12873007

Manning, Andrew H; Solomon, D Kip; Sheldon, Amy L

2003-01-01

219

Spatially resolved physical conditions of molecular gas and potential star formation tracers in M 83, revealed by the Herschel SPIRE FTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the physical properties of the molecular and ionized gas, and their relationship to the star formation and dust properties in M 83, based on submillimeter imaging spectroscopy from within the central 3.5' (~4 kpc in diameter) around the starburst nucleus. The observations use the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) of the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The newly observed spectral lines include [CI] 370 ?m, [CI] 609 ?m, [NII] 205 ?m, and CO transitions from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12. Combined with previously observed J = 1-0 to J = 3-2 transitions, the CO spectral line energy distributions are translated to spatially resolved physical parameters, column density of CO, N(CO), and molecular gas thermal pressure, Pth, with a non-local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer model, RADEX. Our results show that there is a relationship between the spatially resolved intensities of [NII] 205 ?m and the surface density of the star formation rate (SFR), ?SFR. This relation, when compared to integrated properties of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), exhibits a different slope, because the [NII] 205 ?m distribution is more extended than the SFR. The spatially resolved [CI] 370 ?m, on the other hand, shows a generally linear relationship with ?SFR and can potentially be a good SFR tracer. Compared with the dust properties derived from broad-band images, we find a positive trend between the emissivity of CO in the J = 1-0 transition with the average intensity of interstellar radiation field (ISRF), ? U ?. This trend implies a decrease in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, XCO, when ? U ? increases. We estimate the gas-to-dust mass ratios to be 77 ± 33 within the central 2 kpc and 93 ± 19 within the central 4 kpc of M 83, which implies a Galactic dust-to-metal mass ratio within the observed region of M 83. The estimated gas-depletion time for the M 83 nucleus is 1.13 ± 0.6 Gyr, which is shorter than the values for nearby spiral galaxies found in the literature (~2.35 Gyr), most likely due to the young nuclear starbursts. A linear relationship between Pth and the radiation pressure generated by ? U ?, Prad, is found to be Pth ? 30 Prad, which signals that the ISRF alone is insufficient to sustain the observed CO transitions. The spatial distribution of Pth reveals a pressure gradient, which coincides with the observed propagationof starburst activities and the alignment of (possibly background) radio sources. We discover that the off-centered (from the optical nucleus) peak of the molecular gas volume density coincides well with a minimum in the relative aromatic feature strength, indicating a possible destruction of their carriers. We conclude that the observed CO transitions are most likely associated with mechanical heating processes that are directly or indirectly related to very recent nuclear starbursts. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Wu, R.; Madden, S. C.; Galliano, F.; Wilson, C. D.; Kamenetzky, J.; Lee, M.-Y.; Schirm, M.; Hony, S.; Lebouteiller, V.; Spinoglio, L.; Cormier, D.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Bournaud, F.; De Looze, I.; Hughes, T. M.; Panuzzo, P.; Rangwala, N.

2015-03-01

220

The effect of wind and currents on gas exchange in an estuarine system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives were to develop a non-volatile tracer to use in gas exchange experiments in laterally unconfined systems and to study applications of deliberate tracers in limnology and oceanography. Progress was made on both fronts but work on the development of the non-volatile tracer proved to be more difficult and labor intensive that anticipated so no field experiments using non-volatile tracers was performed as yet. In the search for a suitable non-volatile tracer for an ocean scale gas exchange experiment a tracer was discovered which does not have the required sensitivity for a large scale experiment, but is very easy to analyze and will be well suited for smaller experiments such as gas exchange determinations on rivers and streams. Sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, was used successfully as a volatile tracer along with tritium as a non-volatile tracer to study gas exchange rates from a primary stream. This is the first gas exchange experiment in which gas exchange rates were determined on a head water stream where significant groundwater input occurs along the reach. In conjunction with SF6, Radon-222 measurements were performed on the groundwater and in the stream. The feasibility of using a combination of SF6 and radon is being studied to determine groundwater inputs and gas exchange of rates in streams with significant groundwater input without using a non-volatile tracer.

Broecker, W. S.; Ledwell, J. R.; Bopp, R.

1987-01-01

221

Application of the SO 4 2?\\/Se tracer technique to study SO 2 oxidation in cloud and fog on a time scale of minutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated the use of Se as a tracer to quantitatively determine in situ SO42? production from SO2 oxidation in clouds and fogs. Until now, it has not been possible to study the kinetics of SO2 oxidation because the aerosol sampling interval for Se determination was limited to 2 h or longer. Here we report results of 5-min aerosol

Liaquat Husain; Badar Ghauri; Karl Yang; Adil R. Khan; O. V. Rattigan

2004-01-01

222

Results from air-injection and tracer testing in the Upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves of the Exploratory Studies Facility, August 1994 through July 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) scientific study to evaluate the potential for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste in an unsaturated-zone desert environment. The US Geological Survey (USGS) has been conducting geologic and hydrologic studies of the potential repository site for the DOE. These studies are to quantify the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of Yucca Mountain and to conceptualize and model gas and liquid flow at the potential repository site. Single-hole and cross-hole air-injection and tracer testing was conducted in alcoves located in the underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) to quantify the permeability and porosity values of the fractured and unfractured volcanic rocks (tuff). The permeability and porosity of these tuffs control the movement of fluids in Yucca Mountain. Study of these parameters provides an understanding of fluid flow in the unsaturated zone, and the parameters can be used in unsaturated-zone numerical modeling to estimate fluid flux through the mountain. This report presents the results from air-injection and tracer testing conducted in the upper Tiva Canyon alcove (UTCA), the Bow Ridge Fault alcove (BRFA), and the upper Paintbrush contact alcove (UPCA) by the USGS from August 1994 through July 1996. The locations of the alcoves and their relations to the potential repository are shown in a figure.

LeCain, G.D.

1998-09-01

223

An Analysis of Whole Body Tracer Kinetics in Dynamic PET Studies With Application to Image-Based Blood Input Function Extraction  

PubMed Central

In a positron emission tomography (PET) study, the local uptake of the tracer is dependent on vascular delivery and retention. For dynamic studies the measured uptake time-course information can be best interpreted when knowledge of the time-course of tracer in the blood is available. This is certainly true for the most established tracers such as 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 15O-Water (H2O). Since direct sampling of blood as part of PET studies is increasingly impractical, there is ongoing interest in image-extraction of blood time-course information. But analysis of PET-measured blood pool signals is complicated because they will typically involve a combination of arterial, venous and tissue information. Thus, a careful appreciation of these components is needed to interpret the available data. To facilitate this process, we propose a novel Markov chain model for representation of the circulation of a tracer atom in the body. The model represents both arterial and venous time-course patterns. Under reasonable conditions equilibration of tracer activity in arterial and venous blood is achieved by the end of the PET study—consistent with empirical measurement. Statistical inference for Markov model parameters is a challenge. A penalized nonlinear least squares process, incorporating a generalized cross-validation score, is proposed. Random effects analysis is used to adaptively specify the structure of the penalty function based on historical samples of directly measured blood data. A collection of arterially sampled data from PET studies with FDG and H2O is used to illustrate the methodology. These data analyses are highly supportive of the overall modeling approach. An adaptation of the model to the problem of extraction of arterial blood signals from imaging data is also developed and promising preliminary results for cerebral and thoracic imaging studies with FDG and H2O are obtained. PMID:24770914

Huang, Jian; O’Sullivan, Finbarr

2014-01-01

224

Numerical simulation of `multiphase tracer transport in fractured geothermal reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer transport in two-phase (liquid–gas) conditions is a complex process that involves advection, diffusion, and hydrodynamic dispersion. Volatile tracers may be strongly affected by partitioning between gas and liquid phases, and by exchanges between fractures and rock matrix. This paper presents a space-discretized treatment of tracer diffusion under multiphase conditions that is fully coupled with equilibrium phase partitioning. Our method

Karsten Pruess

2002-01-01

225

Tracer transport in fractured rocks  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in the safety of toxic waste underground disposal and nuclear waste geologic repositories has motivated many studies of tracer transport in fractured media. Fractures occur in most geologic formations and introduce a high degree of heterogeneity. Within each fracture, the aperture is not constant in value but strongly varying. Thus for such media, tracer tends to flow through preferred flowpaths or channels within the fractures. Along each of these channels, the aperture is also strongly varying. A detailed analysis is carried out on a 2D single fracture with variable apertures and the flow through channels is demonstrated. The channels defined this way are not rigidly set pathways for tracer transport, but are the preferred flow paths in the sense of stream-tubes in the potential theory. It is shown that such variable-aperture channels can be characterized by an aperture probability distribution function, and not by the exact deterministic geometric locations. We also demonstrate that the 2D tracer transport in a fracture can be calculated by a model of a system of 1D channels characterized by this distribution function only. Due to the channeling character of tracer transport in fractured rock, random point measurements of tracer breakthrough curves may give results with a wide spread in value due to statistical fluctuations. The present paper suggests that such a wide spread can probably be greatly reduced by making line/areal (or multiple) measurements covering a few spatial correlation lengths. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.W.; Hale, F.V.

1988-07-01

226

Chaotic Advection of Tracers.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stirring of passive scalar (tracer) in simple laminar flows that give rise to nonintegrable particle motion is investigated in five independent chapters. The first chapter provides a general introduction to this phenomenon of "chaotic advection" and a brief review of its historical development. In the second chapter a model flow driven by a potential flow source and sink is analyzed using standard dynamical systems diagnostics such as Poincare sections and Lyapunov exponents. In addition numerical experiments are performed to study the stirring of "blobs" of tracer. This flow possesses zero circulation about any contour. Despite the absence of vorticity it is shown that the flow stirs efficiently. A strategy to mechanically separate tracers with different molecular diffusivities is developed in Chapter 3. This strategy, which combines the reversibility of Stokes flow with the irreversibility of diffusion, is based on a scaling argument that equates the "striation thickness" of an advected cloud of tracer with a characteristic diffusion length. This scaling is verified by numerical simulations over a large range of parameter values. In the fourth chapter the stirring characteristics of a model flow through a "twisted pipe" are examined. A one-dimensional mapping of the pipe boundary onto itself provides insight into the onset of chaotic particle motion. The parameter regime that leads to efficient stirring in the transverse direction is determined by a set of numerical experiments. The coupling between this transverse chaos and the longitudinal distribution of particles is illustrated. Implications for heat and mass transfer in engineering and physiological flows are commented upon. In the final chapter the axial dispersion of tracer by the model flow described in Chapter 4 is studied. It is found that chaotic particle trajectories augment molecular diffusion and lead to a smaller effective diffusivity than obtained for comparable integrable flows. However, in the limit of infinite Peclet number, this effective diffusivity is singular. The divergence of the effective diffusivity is due to long-time velocity correlations near the pipe wall owing to the no-slip condition. Thus this flow fails to provide a deterministic counterpart to classical Taylor dispersion in straight tubes.

Jones, Scott Wayne

227

Tracer tests in geothermal resource management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinjection boreholes. A simple and efficient method of tracer test interpretation, assuming specific flow channels connecting reinjection and production boreholes, is available. It simulates tracer return profiles and estimates properties of the flow channels, which are consequently used for predicting the production borehole cooling. Numerous examples are available worldwide on the successful application of tracer tests in geothermal management, many involving the application of this interpretation technique. Tracer tests are also used for general subsurface hydrological studies in geothermal systems and for flow rate measurements in two-phase geothermal pipelines. The tracers most commonly used in geothermal applications are fluorescent dyes, chemical substances and radioactive isotopes. New temperature-resistant tracers have also been introduced and high-tech tracers are being considered.

Axelsson, G.

2013-05-01

228

Fate of nitrogen in riparian forest soils and trees: an 15N tracer study simulating salmon decay.  

PubMed

We introduced an 15N-NH4+ tracer to the riparian forest of a salmon-bearing stream (Kennedy Creek, Washington, USA) to quantify the cycling and fate of a late-season pulse of salmon N and, ultimately, mechanisms regulating potential links between salmon abundance and tree growth. The 15N tracer simulated deposition of 7.25 kg of salmon (fresh) to four 50-m2 plots. We added NH4+ (the initial product of salmon carcass decay) and other important nutrients provided by carcasses (P, S, K, Mg, Ca) to soils in late October 2003, coincident with local salmon spawning. We followed the 15N tracer through soil and tree pools for one year. Biological uptake of the 15N tracer occurred quickly: 64% of the 15N tracer was bound in soil microbiota within 14 days, and roots of the dominant riparian tree, western red cedar (Thuja plicata), began to take up 15N tracer within seven days. Root uptake continued through the winter. The 15N tracer content of soil organic matter reached a maximum of approximately 52%, five weeks after the application, and a relative equilibrium of approximately 40% within five months. Six months after the addition, in spring 2004, at least 37% of the 15N tracer was found in tree tissues: approximately 23% in foliage, approximately 11% in roots, and approximately 3% in stems. Within the stems, xylem and phloem sap contained approximately 96% of the tracer N, and approximately 4% was in structural xylem N. After one year, at least 28% of the 15N tracer was still found in trees, and loss from the plots was only approximately 20%. The large portion of tracer N taken up in the fall and reallocated to leaves and stems the following spring provides mechanistic evidence for a one-year-lagged tree-growth response to salmon nutrients. Salmon nutrients have been deposited in the Kennedy Creek system each fall for centuries, but the system shows no evidence of nutrient saturation. Rates of N uptake and retention are a function of site history and disturbance and also may be the result of a legacy effect, in which annual salmon nutrient addition may lead to increased efficiency of nutrient uptake and use. PMID:16761604

Drake, Deanne C; Naiman, I Robert J; Bechtold, J Scott

2006-05-01

229

NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

2003-03-01

230

Perfluorocarbon Gas Tracer Studies to Support Risk Assessment Modeling of Critical Infrastructure Subjected to Terrorist Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and\\/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution

Terry M. Sullivan; John H. Heiser; Tom Watson; K Jerry Allwine; Julia E. Flaherty

2006-01-01

231

Experimental studies on a natural gas vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of several studies conducted on a natural gas vehicle. In one study of engine-out emissions performance, the exhaust emissions of the CNG engine were lower than those of the base gasoline engine. In another study of the conversion characteristics of three-way catalysts, it was found that the conversion efficiency of total hydrocarbons (THCs) was much

Mitsunori Ishii; Shizuo Ishizawa; Eiji Inada; Ryuichi Idoguchi; Toru Sekiba

1994-01-01

232

Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176±34d in milk, 40.7±6.1kg of milk yield, and 685±49kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458g/d (standard error of the mean=18g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination=0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination=0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or outdoors is warranted to further assess the GQS and SF6 methodologies. PMID:25660738

Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

2015-04-01

233

Tracer injection and detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device is described for injecting and detecting a radioactive tracer in a well bore. Not only can the quantity of the tracer element injected be controlled from the surface but also the device is capable of making a plurality of injections. The liquid tracer element is contained in a cylinder fitted with a spring-loaded ejection valve and a piston

R. Jr

1967-01-01

234

A groundwater separation study in boreal wetland terrain: the WATFLOOD hydrological model compared with stable isotope tracers.  

PubMed

Monitoring of stable water isotopes (18O and 2H) in precipitation and surface waters in the Mackenzie River basin of northern Canada has created new opportunities for researchers to study the complex hydrology and hydroclimatology of this remote region. A number of prior studies have used stable isotope data to investigate aspects of the hydrological regime of the wetland-dominated terrain near Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, Canada. The present paper compares estimates of groundwater contributions to streamflow derived using the WATFLOOD distributed hydrological model, equipped with a new water isotope tracer module, with the results of conventional isotope hydrograph separation for five wetland-dominated catchments along the lower Liard River. The comparison reveals highly promising agreement, verifying that the hydrological model is simulating groundwater flow contributions to total streamflow with reasonable fidelity, especially during the crucial snowmelt period. Sensitivity analysis of the WATFLOOD simulations also reveals intriguing features about runoff generation from channelized fens, which may contribute less to streamflow than previously thought. PMID:15823857

Stadnyk, T; St Amour, N; Kouwen, N; Edwards, T W D; Pietroniro, A; Gibson, J J

2005-03-01

235

Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones  

SciTech Connect

Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references.

Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

1989-05-01

236

Analysis of the Summer 2004 ozone budget over the United States using Intercontinental Transport Experiment Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS) observations and Model of Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART4) simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of ozone over the summertime contiguous United States during summer 2004 was examined using the Intercontinental Transport Experiment (INTEX-A) Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS-04) over North America. We estimate the budget using the global chemistry transport Model of Ozone and Related Tracers version 4 (MOZART-4) with synthetic tracers that keep track of the ozone produced from selected NOx sources

G. G. Pfister; L. K. Emmons; P. G. Hess; J.-F. Lamarque; A. M. Thompson; J. E. Yorks

2008-01-01

237

Stable Isotope Composition of Molecular Oxygen in Soil Gas and Groundwater: A Potentially Robust Tracer for Diffusion and Oxygen Consumption Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the concentration and isotopic composition of molecular oxygen in soil gas and groundwater. At a site near Lincoln, Nebraska, USA, soil gas oxygen concentrations ranged from 13.8 to 17.6% at depths of 3-4 m and the ? 18O values ranged mostly from 24.0 to 27.2‰ (SMOW). The concentration of dissolved oxygen in a perched aquifer in the Texas Panhandle (depth to water ˜76 m) was about 5 mg/L and the ? 18O values were 21.2-22.9‰. The ? 18O of soil gas oxygen in our study are higher and those of dissolved oxygen are lower than the ? 18O of atmospheric oxygen (23.5‰). A model for the oxygen concentration and isotopic composition in soil gas was developed using the molecular diffusion theory. The higher ? 18O values in soil gas at the Nebraska site can be explained by the effects of diffusion and soil respiration (plant root and bacterial) on the isotopic composition of molecular oxygen. The lower ? 18O of dissolved oxygen at the Texas site indicates that oxygen consumption below the root zone in the relatively thick unsaturated zone here may have occurred with a different fractionation factor (either due to inorganic consumption or due to low respiration rates) than that observed for the dominant pathways of plant root and bacterial respiration. It is concluded that the use of the concentration and isotopic composition of soil gas and dissolved oxygen should provide a robust tool for studying the subsurface gaseous diffusion and oxygen consumption processes.

Aggarwal, Pradeep K.; Dillon, M. A.

1998-02-01

238

Technical note: Can the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique be used to accurately measure enteric methane production from ruminally cannulated cattle?  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine whether using ruminally cannulated cattle affects the estimate of enteric methane (CH(4)) emissions when using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) tracer technique with samples taken from a head canister. Eleven beef cattle were surgically fitted with several types of ruminal cannula (2C, 3C, 3C+washer, 9C; Bar Diamond, Parma, ID). The 2C and 3C models (outer and inner flanges with opposite curvature) had medium to high leakage, whereas the 9C models (outer and inner flanges with the same curvature) provided minimum to moderate leakage of gas. A total of 48 cow-day measurements were conducted. For each animal, a permeation tube containing sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) was placed in the rumen, and a sample of air from around the nose and mouth was drawn through tubing into an evacuated canister (head canister). A second sample of air was collected from outside the rumen near the cannula into another canister (cannula canister). Background concentrations were also monitored. The methane (CH(4)) emission was estimated from the daily CH(4) and SF(6) concentrations in the head canister (uncorrected). The permeation SF(6) release rate was then partitioned based on the proportion of the SF(6) concentration measured in the head vs. the cannula canister. The CH(4) emissions at each site were calculated using the two release rates and the two CH(4):SF(6) concentration ratios. The head and cannula emissions were summed to obtain the total emission (corrected). The difference (corrected - uncorrected) in CH4 emission was attributed to the differences in CH(4):SF(6) ratio at the 2 exit locations. The proportions of CH(4) and SF(6) recovered at the head were greater (P < 0.001) for the 9C cannulas (64% and 66%) compared with the other cannulas, which were similar (P > 0.05; 2C, 6% and 4%; 3C, 17% and 15%; 3C+washer, 19% and 14%). Uncorrected CH(4) emissions were ± 10% of corrected emissions for 53% of the cow-day measurements. Only when more than 80% of the SF(6) escaped via the rumen did the difference between the uncorrected and corrected CH(4) emissions exceed 20%. We concluded that using cannulated cattle introduces more variability into the SF(6) technique used with a head canister, a technique that is already highly variable. Thus, use of cannulated animals is not recommended when using the SF(6) technique with head canister. However, if cannulated cattle are used, the cannulas need to be tight-fitting to minimize leakage, and large animal numbers are needed to overcome the additional variability. PMID:22408084

Beauchemin, K A; Coates, T; Farr, B; McGinn, S M

2012-08-01

239

Fundamental study on gas monitoring in CELSS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass spectrometer and computer system was developed for conducting a fundamental study on gas monitoring in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Respiration and metabolism of the hamster and photosynthesis of the Spirulina were measured in a combination system consisting of a hamster chamber and a Spirulina cultivator. They are connected through a membrane gas exchanger. Some technical problems were examined. In the mass spectrometric gas monitoring, a simultaneous multisample measurement was developed by employing a rotating exchange valve. Long term precise measurement was obtained by employing an automatic calibration system. The membrane gas sampling probe proved to be useful for long term measurement. The cultivation rate of the Spirulina was effectively changed by controlling CO2 and light supply. The experimental results are helpful for improving the hamster-spirulina system.

Nishi, I.; Tateishi, T.; Tomizawa, G.; Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.

1987-01-01

240

Fundamental study on gas monitoring in celss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mass spectrometer and computer system was developed for conducting a fundamental study on gas monitoring in CELSS. Respiration and metabolism of the hamster and photosynthesis of the Spirulina were measured in a combination system consisting of a hamster chamber and a Spirulina cultivator. They are connected through a membrane gas exchanger. Some technical problems were examined. In the mass spectrometric gas monitoring, a simultaneous multi-sample measurement was developed by employing a rotating exchange valve. Long term precise measurement was obtained by employing an automatic calibration system. The membrane gas sampling probe proved to be useful for long term measurement. The cultivation rate of the Spirulina was effectively changed by controlling CO2 and light supply. The experimental results are helpful for improving the hamster-spirulina system.

Nishi, I.; Tateishi, T.; Tomizawa, G.; Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.

241

Isotope tracer studies of diffusion in silicates and of geological transport processes using actinide elements  

SciTech Connect

The following are reported: high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer for U-Th studies; [sup 238]U-[sup 230]Th disequilibrium in recent lavas from Iceland; water-rock interaction from U-Th studies; resonance ionization mass spectrometry of Os and Ti isotopes; and self-diffusion of Mg.

Wasserburg, G.J.

1992-01-01

242

Marine Chemistry special issue: The renaissance of radium isotopic tracers in marine processes studies  

E-print Network

it was used to quantify the importance of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on the oceanic budget of many Ra studies; however, the sharp increase beginning in 1999 is largely due to the addition of SGD studies. Data source: Science Citation Index, Web of Science. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2008.04.001 #12;SGD

243

Effects of trichloroacetic acid on the nitrogen metabolism of Pinus sylvestris--a 13C/15N tracer study.  

PubMed

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) can be found in various environmental compartments like air, rain and plants all over the world. It is assumed that TCA is an atmospheric degradation product of volatile chloroorganic hydrocarbons. The herbicide effect of TCA in higher concentrations is well known, but not much is known about the phytotoxic effects in environmentally relevant concentrations. It can be shown in this study by using the 13C/15N stable isotope tracer technique that [13C]TCA is taken up by roots of two-year-old seedlings of Pinus sylvestris L. and transported into the needles. At the same time the effect of the substance on nitrogen metabolism can be analyzed by measuring the incorporation of 15NO3- into different nitrogen fractions of the plant. The more [13C]TCA incorporation, the higher the synthesis of 15N labelled amino acids and proteins is. These effects on the nitrogen metabolism are probably based on the activation of stress- and detoxification metabolism. It has to be assumed that there is an influence on N metabolism of Pinus sylvestris caused by the deposition of environmentally relevant TCA concentrations. PMID:11827283

Hafner, Christoph; Jung, Klaus; Schüürmann, Gerrit

2002-01-01

244

A tracer experiment study to evaluate the CALPUFF real time application in a near-field complex terrain setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CALPUFF is an atmospheric source-receptor model recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use on a case-by-case basis in complex terrain and wind condition. As the bulk of validation of CALPUFF has focused on long-range or short-range but long-term dispersion, we can not gauge the reliability of the model for predicting the short-term emission in near-field especially complex terrain, and sometimes this situation is important for emergency emission. To validate the CALPUFF's application in such condition, we carried out a tracer experiment in a near-field complex terrain setting and used CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model to simulate the tracer experiment in real condition. From the centroid trajectory comparison of predictions and measures, we can see that the model can correctly predict the centroid trajectory and shape of tracer cloud, and the results also indicate that sufficient observed weather data only can develop a good wind field for near-field. From the concentration comparison in each arc, we can see the model underestimate horizontal extent of tracer puff and can not reflect the irregular characters showed in measurements. The result of global analysis is FOEX of -25.91%, FA2 of 27.06%, FA5 of 61.41%. The simulations shows that the CALPUFF can simulate the position and direction of tracer cloud in near-field complex terrain but underestimate over measurements especially in peak concentrations.

cui, Huiling; Yao, Rentai; Xu, Xiangjun; Xin, Cuntian; Yang, jinming

2011-12-01

245

Ammonium transport and reaction in contaminated groundwater: Application of isotope tracers and isotope fractionation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium (NH4+) is a major constituent of many contaminated groundwaters, but its movement through aquifers is complex and poorly documented. In this study, processes affecting NH4+ movement in a treated wastewater plume were studied by a combination of techniques including large-scale monitoring of NH4+ distribution; isotopic analyses of coexisting aqueous NH4+, NO3?, N2, and sorbed NH4+; and in situ natural

J. K. Böhlke; Richard L. Smith; Daniel N. Miller

2006-01-01

246

A tracer study for assessing the interactions between hydraulic retention time and transport processes in a wetland system for nutrient removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a new-generation subsurface upflow wetland (SUW) system packed with the unique sorption media was introduced\\u000a for nutrient removal. To explore the interface between hydraulic and environmental performance, a tracer study was carried\\u000a out in concert with a transport model to collectively provide hydraulic retention time (7.1 days) and compelling evidence\\u000a of pollutant fate and transport processes. Research findings

Ni-Bin Chang; Zhemin Xuan; Martin P. Wanielista

247

Diverse mechanisms of growth inhibition by luteolin, resveratrol, and quercetin in MIA PaCa-2 cells: a comparative glucose tracer study with the fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75  

PubMed Central

The rationale of this dose matching/dose escalating study was to compare a panel of flavonoids—luteolin, resveratrol, and quercetin—against the metabolite flux-controlling properties of a synthetic targeted fatty acid synthase inhibitor drug C75 on multiple macromolecule synthesis pathways in pancreatic tumor cells using [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose as the single precursor metabolic tracer. MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of 0.1% DMSO (control), or 50 or 100 ?M of each test compound, while intracellular glycogen, RNA ribose, palmitate and cholesterol as well as extra cellular 13CO2, lactate and glutamate production patterns were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and stable isotope-based dynamic metabolic profiling (SiDMAP). The use of 50% [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose as tracer resulted in an average of 24 excess 13CO2 molecules for each 1,000 CO2 molecule in the culture media, which was decreased by 29 and 33% (P < 0.01) with 100 ?M C75 and luteolin treatments, respectively. Extracellular tracer glucose-derived 13C-labeled lactate fractions (?m) were between 45.52 and 47.49% in all cultures with a molar ratio of 2.47% M + 1/?m lactate produced indirectly by direct oxidation of glucose in the pentose cycle in control cultures; treatment with 100 ?M C75 and luteolin decreased this figure to 1.80 and 1.67%. The tracer glucose-derived 13C labeled fraction (?m) of ribonucleotide ribose was 34.73% in controls, which was decreased to 20.58 and 8.45% with C75, 16.15 and 6.86% with luteolin, 27.66 and 19.25% with resveratrol, and 30.09 and 25.67% with quercetin, respectively. Luteolin effectively decreased nucleotide precursor synthesis pentose cycle flux primarily via the oxidative branch, where we observed a 41.74% flux (M + 1/?m) in control cells, in comparison with only a 37.19%, 32.74%, or a 26.57%, 25.47% M + 1/?m flux (P < 0.001) after 50 or 100 ?M C75 or luteolin treatment. Intracellular de novo fatty acid palmitate (C16:0) synthesis was severely and equally blocked by C75 and luteolin treatments indicated by the 5.49% (control), 2.29 or 2.47% (C75) and 2.21 or 2.73% (luteolin) tracer glucose-derived 13C-labeled fractions, respectively. On the other hand there was a significant 192 and 159% (P < 0.001), and a 103 and 117% (P < 0.01) increase in tracer glucose-derived cholesterol after C75 or luteolin treatment. Only resveratrol and quercetin at 100 ?M inhibited tracer glucose-derived glycogen labeling (?m) and turnover by 34.8 and 23.8%, respectively. The flavonoid luteolin possesses equal efficacy to inhibit fatty acid palmitate de novo synthesis as well as nucleotide RNA ribose turnover via the oxidative branch of the pentose cycle in comparison with the targeted fatty acid synthase inhibitor synthetic compound C75. Luteolin is also effective in stringently controlling glucose entry and anaplerosis in the TCA cycle, while it promotes less glucose flux towards cholesterol synthesis than that of C75. In contrast, quercetin and resveratrol inhibit glycogen synthesis and turnover as their underlying mechanism of controlling tumor cell proliferation. Therefore the flavonoid luteolin controls fatty and nucleic acid syntheses as well as energy production with pharmacological strength, which can be explored as a non-toxic natural treatment modality for pancreatic cancer. PMID:22754424

Li, Luyi; Chen, Monica; Lagunero, F. Tracy; Go, Vay Liang W.; Boros, Laszlo G.

2011-01-01

248

Techniques necessary for multiple tracer quantitative small-animal imaging studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAn increasing number and variety of studies on rodent models are being conducted using small-animal positron emission tomography scanners. We aimed to determine if animal handling techniques could be developed to perform routine animal imaging in a timely and efficient manner and with minimal effect on animal physiology. These techniques need to be reproducible in the same animal while maintaining

Terry L. Sharp; Carmen S. Dence; John A. Engelbach; Pilar Herrero; Robert J. Gropler; Michael J. Welch

2005-01-01

249

AIRBORNE LIDAR TRACKING OF FLUORESCENT TRACERS FOR ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Development and validation of transport models for the study of regional acid deposition require improved observations of pollutant transport and dispersion processes. Current methods for tracking air-parcel is limited to constant density surfaces using tetroons or by gaseous tra...

250

Contribution of isoprene to chemical budgets: A model tracer study with the NCAR CTM MOZART4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of the sensitivity of isoprene emission calculations in a global chemistry transport model (CTM) to input land cover characteristics and analyze the impacts of changes in isoprene on the tropospheric budgets of atmospheric key species. The CTM Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Species, version 4 (MOZART-4) includes the online calculation of isoprene emissions based on

G. G. Pfister; L. K. Emmons; P. G. Hess; J.-F. Lamarque; J. J. Orlando; S. Walters; A. Guenther; P. I. Palmer; P. J. Lawrence

2008-01-01

251

Assessing the effects of LXR agonists on cellular cholesterol handling: a stable isotope tracer study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liver X receptors (LXRs) a and b are respon- sible for the transcriptional regulation of a number of genes involved in cholesterol efflux from cells and therefore may be molecular targets for the treatment of cardiovascular dis- ease. However, the effects of LXR ligands on cholesterol turnover in cells has not been examined comprehensively. In this study, cellular cholesterol

Karpagam Aravindhan; Christine L. Webb; Michael Jaye; Avijit Ghosh; Robert N. Willette; N. John DiNardo; Beat M. Jucker

2006-01-01

252

NOAA EPA Near-Roadway Sound Barrier Atmospheric Tracer Study 2008  

EPA Science Inventory

A roadway toxics dispersion study was conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory to document the effects on concentrations of roadway emissions behind a roadside sound barrier in various conditions of atmospheric stability. The key finding was that reduced concentrations were me...

253

The Transition from School to the University under Restricted Entry: A Greek Tracer Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study that examined patterns of access to Greek universities among 500 high school graduates found a strong but unsatisfied demand for higher education, high preparatory school costs for families, and inequity in the distribution of available university places. (Author/MSE)

Papas, George; Psacharopoulos, George

1987-01-01

254

A TRACER STUDY OF THE TRANSPORT OF CHROMIUM IN FLUORIDE FUEL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was made of the mass transport of chromium in poly-; thermal Inconel-fluoride fuel systems. The transport of chromium was followed by ; toe technique of adding radioactive Cr⁵¹ to the system as either CrFâ; , in the salt or as elemental chromium in the solid phase. The rates of ; diffusion of chromium in Inconel at 600,

R. B. Price; D. N. Sunderman; M. Pobereskin; G. D. Calkin

1957-01-01

255

Investigation of tracer and steam tests on the Western Research Institute 150-ton retort  

SciTech Connect

Gas tracer and steam front velocities in addition to flow model calculations are used to characterize rubble bed structure in an oil shale retort. The gas tracer method is shown to have superior resolution to the steam front method in detecting rubble bed variations. The tracer method is potentially less expensive. Recommendations for further research are made.

Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.; Merriam, N.W.; Covell, J.R.

1984-04-01

256

FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PILOT STUDY. PHASE II. APPLICABILITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (NATO-CCMS) Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Study Group prepared status reports on 12 FGD processes. Results of this work are summarized in NATO Report No. 95 titled 'Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilo...

257

Stable isotope and fatty acid tracers in energy and nutrient studies of jellyfish: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the trophic ecology of gelatinous zooplankton have predominantly employed gut content analyses and grazing experiments.\\u000a These approaches record only what is consumed rather than what is assimilated by the jellyfish, only provide evidence of recent\\u000a feeding, and unless digestion rates of different prey are known, may provide biased estimates of the relative importance of\\u000a different prey to jellyfish

K. A. Pitt; R. M. Connolly; T. Meziane

258

Stable isotope and fatty acid tracers in energy and nutrient studies of jellyfish: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the trophic ecology of gelatinous zooplankton have predominantly employed gut content analyses and grazing experiments.\\u000a These approaches record only what is consumed rather than what is assimilated by the jellyfish, only provide evidence of recent\\u000a feeding, and unless digestion rates of different prey are known, may provide biased estimates of the relative importance of\\u000a different prey to jellyfish

K. A. Pitt; R. M. Connolly; T. Meziane

2009-01-01

259

Simultaneous determination of glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis  

SciTech Connect

We have developed and validated a new method to measure simultaneously glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human, in steady and non-steady states, using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and GC-MS analysis. The method is based on the concomitant infusion and dilution of D-(2,3,4,6,6-2H5)glucose and L-(1,2,3-13C3)alanine. The choice of the tracers was done on the basis of a minimal overlap between the ions of interest and those arising from natural isotopic abundances. Alanine was chosen as the gluconeogenic substrate because it is the major gluconeogenic amino acid extracted by the liver and, with lactate, constitutes the bulk of the gluconeogenic precursors. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained during simultaneous infusion of trace amounts of both stable isotope labeled compounds with the radioactive tracers (D-(3-3H)glucose and L-(1,2,3-14C3)alanine) in a normal and a diabetic subject; the radiolabeled tracers were used as the accepted reference procedure. A slight overestimation of glucose turnover (7.3 versus 6.8 in normal and 10.8 versus 9.2 mumol/kg min in diabetic subject) was noticed when the stable isotope-labeled tracers were used. For the basal turnover rate of alanine, similar values were obtained with both methods (6.2 mumol/kg min). For gluconeogenesis, higher values were observed in the basal state with the stable isotopes (0.42 versus 0.21 mumol/kg min); however, these differences disappeared in the postprandial period after the ingestion of a mixed meal. Despite those minor differences, the overall correlation with the reference method was excellent for glucose turnover (r = 0.87) and gluconeogenesis (r = 0.86).

Martineau, A.; Lecavalier, L.; Falardeau, P.; Chiasson, J.L.

1985-12-01

260

An airborne perfluorocarbon tracer system and its first application for a Lagrangian experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A perfluorocarbon tracer system (PERTRAS), specifically designed for Lagrangian aircraft experiments, has been developed by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR). It consists of three main parts: a tracer release unit (RU), an adsorption tube sampler (ATS) and a tracer analytical system. The RU was designed for airborne tracer release experiments; meanwhile, it can be used on various platforms for different experimental purpose (here research vessel). PERTRAS was for the first time applied in the field campaign Stratospheric ozone: halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) in November 2011. An amount of 8.8 kg perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP) was released aboard the research vessel Sonne (RV Sonne) near the operational site of this campaign, Miri, Malaysia, on 21 November. The tracer samples collected using the ATS on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon were analyzed in the laboratory using a thermal desorber/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) system. Guided by forecasts calculated with the Lagrangian model, Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT), 64 tracer samples were collected onboard the Falcon approximately 5 and 25 h after the release, respectively, mostly with a time resolution of 1 min. Enhanced PMCP concentrations relative to ambient PMCP background values (mean: 6.62 fmol mol-1) were detected during three intersects of the fresh tracer plume (age 5 h), with a maximum value of 301.33 fmol mol-1. This indicates that the fresh tracer plume was successfully intercepted at the forecasted position. During the second flight, 25 h after the release, the center of tracer plume was not detected by the sampling system due to a faster advection of the plume than forecasted. The newly developed PERTRAS system has been successfully deployed for the first time. The instrumental set-up and comparisons between the measurements and HYSPLIT simulations are presented in this study.

Ren, Y.; Baumann, R.; Schlager, H.

2014-07-01

261

Study of As self-diffusion in GaAs using sulfur as a tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion of sulfur was investigated in order to study arsenic self-diffusion. From in-diffusion experiments the effective diffusion coefficients of sulfur and arsenic were determined in the temperature range between 750°C and 1100°C. For this purpose, different surface concentrations of sulfur were provided to establish the diffusion model. The simulations show that As self-interstitials are responsible for the diffusion of sulfur under thermal non-equilibrium of native point defects. The self-diffusion coefficient and the solubility of As self-interstitials were determined.

Engler, N.; Leipner, H. S.; Scholz, R. F.; Werner, P.; Gösele, U.

2001-12-01

262

Gas geochemistry studies at the gas hydrate occurrence in the permafrost environment of Mallik (NWT, Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present real-time mud gas monitoring data as well as results of noble gas and isotope investigations from the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program, an international research project on Gas Hydrates in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The program participants include 8 partners; The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), The Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC), GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), United States Geological Survey (USGS), United States Department of the Energy (USDOE), India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)/Gas Authority of India (GAIL) and the Chevron-BP-Burlington joint venture group. Mud gas monitoring (extraction of gas dissolved in the drill mud followed by real-time analysis) revealed more or less complete gas depth profiles of Mallik 4L-38 and Mallik 5L-38 wells for N_2, O_2, Ar, He, CO_2, H_2, CH_4, C_2H_6, C_3H_8, C_4H10, and 222Rn; both wells are approx. 1150 m deep. Based on the molecular and and isotopic composition, hydrocarbons occurring at shallow depth (down to ˜400 m) are mostly of microbial origin. Below 400 m, the gas wetness parameter (CH_4/(C_2H_6 + C_3H_8)) and isotopes indicate mixing with thermogenic gas. Gas accumulation at the base of permafrost (˜650 m) as well as ?13C and helium isotopic data implies that the permafrost inhibits gas flux from below. Gas hydrate occurrence at Mallik is known in a depth between ˜890 m and 1100 m. The upper section of the hydrate bearing zone (890 m--920 m) consists predominantly of methane bearing gas hydrates. Between 920 m and 1050 m, concentration of C_2H_6, C_3H_8, and C_4H10 increases due to the occurrence of organic rich sediment layers. Below that interval, the gas composition is similar to the upper section of the hydrate zone. At the base of the hydrate bearing zone (˜1100 m), elevated helium and methane concentrations and their isotopic composition leads to the assumption that gas hydrates act as a barrier for gas migration from below. In mud gas samples from the hydrate zone, the concentrations of all noble gases are lower than in air. Using Ne as a tracer for air contamination, the air-normalized abundances of Ar, Ke and Xe in those samples increase with their mass. Non-atmospheric elemental ratios of the heavier noble gases are most possible the result of elemental fractionation during hydrate formation.

Wiersberg, T.; Erzinger, J.; Zimmer, M.; Schicks, J.; Dahms, E.; Mallik Working Group

2003-04-01

263

Uranium isotope fractionation in Saanich Inlet: A modern analog study of a paleoredox tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium isotope fractionation was studied in the sediment and water of Saanich Inlet, a seasonally anoxic fjord on the east coast of Vancouver Island. The concentration of dissolved U is the same above and below the redoxcline at ?120 m depth, with an average ?238U value of -0.45 ± 0.06‰ (2 s.e.), which is indistinguishable from seawater values reported in other studies. This finding is consistent with water renewal times for the inlet that are roughly seasonal in frequency, thus hiding the impact of the U losses to the anoxic sediment of the inlet. Complete digests of the anoxic sediment yielded higher ?238U values than seawater (-0.21 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.e.)). By contrast, complete digests of the sediment trap samples yielded lower ?238U values than seawater (-0.52 ± 0.10‰ (2 s.e.)), and marine plankton from the inlet yielded the lowest ?238U value of -1.24 ± 0.17‰ (2?). Cross-plots of ?238U and ?234U vs. Th/U reveal strong correlations indicative of two-component mixing when the data from traps and anoxic inlet sediment are combined. One mixing end-member is fractionated uranium of seawater origin, with a ?238U value of 0.17 ± 0.14‰ (2?). The other is detrital uranium with a ?238U value of -0.83 ± 0.12‰ (2?). The detrital end-member is lower than the range of ?238U values reported in the literature for granitoid igneous rocks (-0.44‰ to -0.17‰, 2?) (Telus et al., 2012), suggesting that continental weathering fractionates uranium isotopes, with preferential release of 238U. Development and application of U isotopes as a paleoredox proxy has its basis in the nuclear volume fractionation. The data from Saanich Inlet meets this expectation, with a positive fractionation factor (?aq(VI)sed(IV)) of 0.62 ± 0.17‰ (2?) calculated as the difference in ?238U between authigenic U in anoxic sediments and sediment traps (+0.17‰) and U dissolved in seawater (-0.45‰). However, it is widely believed that U(VI) reduction in the marine environment occurs on the surfaces of particles and that the negative isotope effect associated with U(VI) sorption to plankton (?seawaterplankton = - 0.79 ± 0.17 ‰ (2?) opens up the possibility that the particulate pool of seawater derived U(VI) is fractionated from the dissolved pool. Accordingly, the reduction of U(VI) in the marine environment might involve two steps: (1) U(VI) sorption to particles with a negative fractionation, and (2) reduction to U(IV) on particles with a positive fractionation. Environmental factors that are not yet well understood may influence the relative reaction rates for the two steps, thus affecting the magnitude and sign of the overall fractionation. This has the potential to explain conflicting results reported for U(VI) reduction experiments in the literature (laboratory and field), where both positive and negative fractionations have been observed, and in some instances, no fractionation at all. Variation in the fractionation factor has the potential to complicate application of U isotopes as a paleoredox proxy, but this study and a study of the Black Sea (Romaniello, 2012) give the same results (within their respective uncertainties) suggesting that 0.62 ± 0.17‰ (2?) is a robust assessment of the apparent U isotope fractionation factor associated with reductive deposition of seawater U(VI) in both anoxic and euxinic marine sediments of the present day.

Holmden, C.; Amini, M.; Francois, R.

2015-03-01

264

The Effect of Small Tumor Volumes upon Intra-tumoral Tracer Uptake Heterogeneity Studies  

PubMed Central

The number of studies in the literature involving quantification of the metabolic heterogeneity seen in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography (FDG-PET) images has increased sharply over recent years. We hypothesize that inclusion of very small regions-of-interest as unique data points will have deleterious effects upon these studies. Methods Using a combination of probability theory and clinical FDG-PET data, we numerically calculate the curve describing the probability a given tumor volume is large enough to adequately sample the underlying tumor biology assayed via a Siemens Biograph 40 True Point Tomograph hybrid PET/CT scanner at a planar resolution of 4 mm and trans-axial resolution of 4 mm (64 mm3 voxel size). We then employ a computer simulation to isolate the effects of tumor volume upon the image local entropy. Results We computed the underlying global intensity distribution for 70 cervical cancer tumors ranging from 5 to 310 cm3) which were ensemble averaged over the same intensity scale. From this distribution, we determined that about 700 total voxels (45 cm3) are required to give 95% certainty that the global intensity distribution has been sampled adequately enough such that common statistical comparisons of individual tumor intensity distributions can be made canonically. We demonstrate that one previously suggested measure of heterogeneity is dependent on tumor volume. Furthermore, that heterogeneity measure is about 5 times more sensitive to volume changes for volumes below the proposed minimum than for those above it. Conclusion We find that inclusion of tumor volumes below 45 cm3 can profoundly bias comparisons of intra-tumoral uptake heterogeneity metrics derived from the current generation of whole-body FDG-PET scanner data. PMID:24263086

Brooks, Frank J.; Grigsby, Perry W.

2014-01-01

265

Magnetofossils as tracers of oxygenation change: a case study from the stratified Pettaquamscutt River Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotactic bacteria (MB) are motile organisms commonly found around the oxic-anoxic-interface (OAI) in sediments and stratified water columns. Magnetite and greigite crystals synthesized by MB intracellularly, termed magnetosomes, can be preserved in sediments as magnetofossils. Changes in OAI thickness (due to changes in temperature, clathrate dissociation & methane oxidation, organic carbon supply/oxidation, or sedimentation rate) would produce proportional changes in MB population and sedimentary magnetofossil concentration. While potentially useful as an oxygenation proxy, magnetofossil quantification techniques and variables controlling their preservation in sediments need to be better understood. Most prior work focused on cultured magnetite-MB and sediment mixtures while studies of greigite-MB (found just below the OAI in the sulfidic hypolimnion) is lacking because axenic cultures do not exist. To address these issues, we study wild magnetite- and greigite-MB from the seasonally stratified Pettaquamscutt River Estuary Upper Basin (RI, USA) as a function of water depth, d. Transmission electron microscope imaging of 21 MB (377 magnetosomes) revealed a complexity in wild MB not found in cultures. From d=3.9 m-7.0 m, live-cell assays confirmed the presence of multiple MB morphotypes, both north- (majority) and south-seeking (minority), and a few magnetic protists. Based on a previous microscopy study just 1.4 km south of Upper Basin (Bazylinski et al., 1995), magnetite-MB are expected for d<5.0 m, mix magnetite- and greigite-MB for 5.0 m6.0 m. Coercivity distributions for all depths are characterized by a small variance, reflecting uniformity in magnetosome size. Interestingly, despite changing from dominant magnetite to greigite-MB with increasing depth, the median coercivity remained largely unchanged. Median coercivity is therefore not diagnostic of magnetosome mineralogy. We also report ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy (FMR) results. The first derivative of the absorption spectra for d<5.6 m typically present multiple low-field maxima, which is consistent with observations from magnetite-MB cultures. In contrast, only one maximum in the spectra was observed for 6.0 m

Chen, A. P.; Berounsky, V. M.; Chan, M. K.; Moskowitz, B. M.; Andrade Lima, E.; Kopp, R. E.; Cady, C.; Weiss, B. P.; Hesse, P. P.

2013-12-01

266

Tracer study of batch sedimentation. [Resin beads - 45 and 62. mu. m in diameter  

SciTech Connect

The initial particle-concentration profile in batch settling tests was assessed and determined to be uniform. Two sets of data for batch-settling tests using cobalt-57-traced ion-exchange resin beads (45 and 62 ..mu..m in diameter) were compared with existing theories and models. A single suspended-solids zone was observed in agreement with the predictions of Dixon; the Richardson-Zaki correlation predicted the settling velocity as a function of void fraction to within 5%. Studies with a bimodal particle-size distribution of equal fraction of 45- and 62-..mu..m particles showed that the larger particles settled at the same velocity as in a single-particle-size distribution but that the smaller ones settled slower than for a single-particle-size distribution at a given void fraction. The ratio of the settling velocity of the smaller particles in a bimodal-particle-size distribution u/sub b/ to the settling velocity of these particles in a single particle-size distribution u/sub s/ was correlated by raising to the (3.78 +- 0.47) power the effective void fraction of the resulting upper settling zone containing only the smaller particles.

Bigot, P.C.; Lee, A.H.

1982-04-01

267

A 15 N tracer study to compare nitrogen supply by Azolla and ammonium sulphate to IR8 rice plants grown under flooded conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A pot experiment was carried out using a Bangladesh sandy loam paddy soil of pH 6.9 to compare the rates at which nitrogen from Azolla and ammonium sulphate was available to a high yielding rice variety, IR8, grown for 60 days in pots with 4 cm standing flood water.15N tracer studies confirm that nitrogen from ammonium sulphate was more

M. H. Mian; W. D. P. Stewart

1985-01-01

268

Methylmercury effects on migratory behaviour in glass eels (Anguilla anguilla): An experimental study using isotopic tracers.  

PubMed

The effect of methylmercury (MeHg) on glass eels' propensity to migrate, mitochondrial activity and antioxidative defence systems was investigated. Marine glass eels were first sorted in an experimental flume according to their response to dusk. Fish responding to the decrease in light intensity by ascending in the water column and moving with or against the flow were considered as having a high propensity to migrate (migrant). Glass eels still sheltering at the end of the 24h catching period were considered as having a low propensity to migrate and were called non-migrant. Migrant and non-migrant glass eels were then individually tagged and exposed to isotopically enriched (201)MeHg (50ngL(-1)) for 11days. The effect of contamination was studied on muscle fibre structure, and the expression level of genes involved in mitochondrial activity and antioxidative defence systems. To investigate the effect of MeHg on glass eel behaviour, migrant and non-migrant glass eels were sorted again and the bioaccumulation of (201)MeHg and its demethylation product ((201)Hg(II)) were determined for each individual. MeHg exposure increased activity in non-migrant glass eels but not migratory behaviour. Contamination affected mitochondrial structure and metabolism and suggests a higher oxidative stress and activation of antioxidative defence systems in non-migrant glass eels. Overall, our results suggest that exposure to MeHg might induce an increase in energy expenditure and a higher vulnerability to predation in non-migrant glass eels in the wild. PMID:25797033

Claveau, Julie; Monperrus, Mathilde; Jarry, Marc; Baudrimont, Magalie; Gonzalez, Patrice; Cavalheiro, Joana; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Bolliet, Valérie

2015-05-01

269

Geophysical Methods, Tracer Leakage, and Flow Modeling Studies at the West Pearl Queen Carbon Sequestration\\/EOR Pilot Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a few thousand tons of CO2 were injected into the West Pearl Queen field, a depleted oil reservoir in southeastern New Mexico, for a pilot carbon sequestration project. Small amounts of 3 different perfluorocarbon tracers were injected with the CO2. Approximately 50 capillary absorption tube samplers (CATS) were located across the field within 2m of the grounds surface to

G. S. Bromhal; T. H. Wilson; A. Wells; R. Diehl; D. H. Smith

2003-01-01

270

Gas Cylinders and Safety A Case Study in Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study, developed for an introductory chemistry course as part of a two-year dental hygiene curriculum, teaches students how to apply gas properties and gas storage identification systems to identify a mishandled or mislabeled gas cylinder.

Melinda Box

2006-01-01

271

Constraining North Atlantic circulation with transient tracer observations  

E-print Network

The capability of transient tracers to constrain the ocean circulation in the North Atlantic is explored. Study of an idealized tracer shows that inferences of circulation properties from transient state distributions are ...

Li, Xingwen, 1968-

2003-01-01

272

Evaluating the accretion of meteoritic debris and interplanetary dust particles in the GPC-3 sediment core using noble gas and mineralogical tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraterrestrial (ET) noble gases (helium and neon) in 35 sediment samples from Central Pacific core LL-44 GPC-3 demonstrate the variable flux of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and major meteorite impacts over the past 70 Ma (21-72 Ma). Spinel mineralogical and chemical compositions clearly distinguish major impact events from the continuous flux of IDPs, including the well-established Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) and late Eocene (E/O) impact boundaries. No spinel grains with chemical or mineralogical evidence of a distinctly ET origin were found in an extensive survey of 'background' samples (i.e. non E/O or K/T boundary) suggesting that either the carrier grains for ET noble gas occur within the Fe-Ti oxide mineral fraction observed in this study (found to include ilmenite and ulvospinel) or are too small for identification by SEM. The presence of ilmenite and ulvospinel suggest lunar regolith is a potential source for ET noble gas-rich particles. Noble gas analysis on both the EMF (extractable magnetic fraction) and the Bulk minus EMF (Bulk - EMF) show that the He and Ne compositions are consistent with partially degassed noble gas signatures of zero-age magnetic grains (Z-MAG) and stratospheric interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Conclusive evidence for a 'planetary' (Ne-A) noble gas signature is found only in the bulk sediments at the K/T boundary, although all GPC-3 K/T fractions (Bulk, EMF, and HF Digestion) plot along a mixing line between planetary (Ne-A) and solar wind (SW). Spinels from major impact boundaries (K/T; E/O) exhibit dendritic texture and elevated [Ni], consistent with previous reports. In contrast to the otherwise consistent [3He] signal from IDPs, the [3He] at the known impact boundaries (K/T and E/O) actually decreases. These anomalously low [3He] are accompanied by significantly elevated [Ne] and significantly lower (3He/20Ne)solar ratios (˜10× lower) produced by both preferentially degassing of He relative to Ne at times of increased flux of larger ET material. Degassed ("degassed-He/enriched-Ne profile") noble gas characteristics occur in two sample intervals that do not correspond to any known impact events (47 and 71 Ma), explained by an influx of larger particles. SEM analysis of the 47 Ma sample shows spinels with dendritic textures, but without distinctive markers of large meteorite impacts (e.g. elevated Ni). Particle size increases and degassed signatures may be caused by major bolides, micrometeorites, comet showers; or simply a flux of larger IDPs, potentially with a different source.

Darrah, Thomas H.; Poreda, Robert J.

2012-05-01

273

Combined use of tracer approach and numerical simulation to estimate groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system: A case study of Nasunogahara area, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system in the Nasunogahara area of Japan. Natural stable isotopes (18O, D) were considered as additional calibration targets in a numerical model. The reliability of the model outputs was further validated by comparing the results from the numerical simulation and an independent tracer approach. The results indicated that the calibrated model can effectively simulate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the contribution ratios of recharge sources to groundwater in the Nasunogahara area. However, the tracer approach (i.e., end member mixing analysis) provided more reliable results at point scale, particularly for the estimated contribution ratios of paddy field water. The precipitation in the Nasunogahara area is the major recharge source; its mean contribution ratio is 58% for a one-year period over the entire alluvial fan. River seepage is significant in the upstream area of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of river waters along the river channels in the upstream area increases during the wet season. Paddy field water is a highly important recharge source in the midstream and downstream areas of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of paddy field water obviously increases from dry season to wet season because of irrigation. This study demonstrates that combined use of the tracer approach and numerical simulation with stable isotopes as additional calibration targets can eliminate their respective limitations and can assist in better understanding the groundwater recharge mechanism in alluvial aquifer systems.

Liu, Yaping; Yamanaka, Tsutomu; Zhou, Xun; Tian, Fuqiang; Ma, Wenchao

2014-11-01

274

Effect of wind and currents on gas exchange in an estuarine system. Final technical report, 1 August 1986-31 July 1987  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were to develop a non-volatile tracer to use in gas exchange experiments in laterally unconfined systems and to study applications of deliberate tracers in limnology and oceanography. Progress was made on both fronts but work on the development of the non-volatile tracer proved to be more difficult and labor intensive that anticipated so no field experiments using non-volatile tracers was performed as yet. In the search for a suitable non-volatile tracer for an ocean scale gas exchange experiment a tracer was discovered which does not have the required sensitivity for a large scale experiment, but is very easy to analyze and will be well suited for smaller experiments such as gas exchange determinations on rivers and streams. Sulfur hexafluoride, SF/sub 6/, was used successfully as a volatile tracer along with tritium as a non-volatile tracer to study gas exchange rates from a primary stream. This is the first gas exchange experiment in which gas exchange rates were determined on a head water stream where significant groundwater input occurs along the reach. In conjunction with SF/sub 6/, Radon-222 measurements were performed on the groundwater and in the stream. The feasibility of using a combination of SF/sub 6/ and radon is being studied to determine groundwater inputs and gas exchange of rates in streams with significant groundwater input without using a non-volatile tracer.

Broecker, W.S.; Ledwell, J.R.; Bopp, R.

1987-11-01

275

Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (<10,000 ppm TDS) waters. These modified procedures have been successfully tested in our laboratory and have proven effective in greatly reducing interfering monovalent and divalent cation concentrations (e.g. Ba) and enriching the REE up to 100X for analysis. The procedures are straightforward, inexpensive, and require little infrastructure, using only single chromatography columns with inexpensive, reusable, commercially available resins and wash chemicals. The procedures have been tested with synthetic brines and waters (up to 250,000 ppm TDS) and field water samples (up to 5,000 ppm TDS). Testing has produced data with REE capture efficiency exceeding 95%, while reducing interfering elements by more than 93%. Further method development and testing continues in preparation for brine analysis of waters from the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership's Kevin Dome Pilot Study and the University of Wyoming's Carbon Institutes Rock Springs Uplift.

Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.

2013-12-01

276

Application of water chemistry as a hydrological tracer in a volcano catchment area: A case study of the Tatun Volcano Group, North Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, water chemistry is successfully applied to elucidate hydrological processes through the use of natural tracers in a hydrological system. The concept of a natural tracer is principally based on water-rock interaction. In this case, a volcanic watershed in the Tatun Volcano Group is examined with the hydrochemistry of the Peihuang Creek system analyzed in terms of acidic hydrothermal water. The application of principal component analysis demonstrates that the hydrochemistry of Peihuang Creek is dominated by mixing among three end members, Lujiaoken seep water, Matsao seep water and shallow circulated water. Conservative ions, such as halogens, reveal that recharge of shallow circulated water with low ionic concentration is dominant in the mountain area and gradually becomes insignificant in the plains area. Rare earth elements also confirm this derivation. In addition, rare earth elements demonstrate parallel pattern along the tributaries, which implies that the fractionation of rare earth elements is not considerable and dilution is the major factor attenuating the concentrations of rare earth elements. Therefore, the constant slope of REE pattern allows for semi-quantitative estimation of mixing proportion of the two major tributaries. The results show that Lujiaoken Creek supplies about 50% of waters to the downstream Peihuang Creek. Comparing commonly used nature tracers, such as Cl- and environmental isotopes, this study demonstrates that rare earth elements have the advantage of very low background concentrations and easily defined sources if fractionation is not considerable. Under this circumstance, the calculation of water mixing is applicable.

Lu, Hsueh-Yu

2014-04-01

277

Experimental morphology of insect olfaction: tracer studies, X-ray microanalysis, autoradiography, and immunocytochemistry with silkmoth antennae.  

PubMed

The general morphology and methodological peculiarities of insect sensilla are briefly reviewed. The stimulus conducting pore-tubule systems of pheromone-sensitive sensilla of the silkmoths Bombyx mori and Antheraea polyphemus are described. Lipophilic tracers readily enter the hair lumen, while hydrophilic tracers do so only after prolonged extraction with lipid solvents and/or pronase. X-ray microanalysis demonstrates a high potassium content of the sensillum lymph; calcium was only found in the haemolymph above detection limit. Auxiliary cells rapidly take up radioactive leucine administered via the haemolymph. Antibodies against pheromone-binding protein of Antheraea polyphemus label the sensillum lymph of sensilla trichodea, but not of sensilla basiconica in A. polyphemus as well as in B. mori. The cytoplasm of auxiliary cells of the sensilla trichodea is also labelled. The results are discussed in context with present hypotheses on the role of sensillum lymph in stimulus transport and inactivation. PMID:1392064

Steinbrecht, R A

1992-09-01

278

Adenylate pool and radiological tracer studies of the metabolism of micro-metazoans of the sulfide system  

E-print Network

of oxygen. After exposure to the separate environments, two biochemical parameters were monitored to determine the effect of the treatments on the overall physiological state of the organisms. First, the measurement of relative changes in the adenosine... triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate concentrations were determined. Secondly, glucose metabolism was monitored by means of radioactive tracers. The biochemical data along with the ecological data should provide an overview of the metabolic capabilities...

Fox, Catherine Alice

1985-01-01

279

Oxygen mobility in yttria-doped zirconia studied by internal friction, electrical conductivity and tracer diffusion experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic conduction and oxygen diffusion in Y2O3-doped zirconia are due to the mobility of oxygen vacancies. Vacancy association reactions with Y cations can be classified using the activation enthalpies ?H determined by various methods in dependence of the yttria content (3–24 mol%). ?HO for oxygen tracer diffusion is independent of the yttria content (average value ?HO=0.95 eV). The activation enthalpy

M. Weller; R. Herzog; M. Kilo; G. Borchardt; S. Weber; S. Scherrer

2004-01-01

280

Complex Tracer Diffusion Dynamics in Polymer Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to study the mobility of tracers in polymer solutions. Excluded volume interactions result in crowding-induced slowdown, depending only on the polymer concentration. With specific tracer-polymer attractions, the tracer is slowed down at much lower concentrations, and a second diffusion component appears that is sensitive to the polymer chain length. The two components can be resolved by FCS, only if the distance traveled by the tracer in the polymer-bound state is greater than the FCS focal spot size. The tracer dynamics can be used as a sensitive probe of the nature and strength of interactions, which—despite their local character—emphasize the role of chain connectivity.

Vagias, Apostolos; Raccis, Riccardo; Koynov, Kaloian; Jonas, Ulrich; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Fytas, George; Košovan, Peter; Lenz, Olaf; Holm, Christian

2013-08-01

281

Tracer transport in internal wave beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuously stratified fluids sustain internal waves that propagate like beams under an angle with the vertical. In the ocean, these internal wave beams are believed to transport tracers and contribute to the total abyssal mixing. However, this has not been investigated in the numerous laboratory and numerical studies on this subject. We present laboratory experiments on internal wave beams that are able to transport tracers along the localised beams. The resulting transport depends on the tracer considered, as dynamically active tracers, e.g. buoyancy, are more constrained than free tracers. We observe a horizontal convergence of fluid into the internal wave beam. Internal waves play an important, albeit not quite understood, role in the oceans nutrient exchange and these findings might contribute in our understanding of this process.

Hazewinkel, J.; Dalziel, S. B.; Doelman, A.; Maas, L. R.

2008-12-01

282

Air-water mass transfer and tracer gases in stormwater systems.  

PubMed

Reaeration is a central quality parameter for the performance of environmental systems such as ponds receiving urban and road runoff. Tracer gases can be used to measure reaeration rates in these systems. The methods comprise injection of a volatile tracer into an environmental system and subsequently measurement of the emission of the volatile tracer. The physical basis of such methods is the existence of a constant ratio between the air-water mass transfer coefficient for oxygen and the corresponding mass transfer coefficient for the volatile tracer gas. This constant ratio is often not clearly defined in the literature due to difficulties in both experimental procedures and handling of data. In this study such methods are evaluated and an experimental procedure and a corresponding data processing procedure for a general and reliable determination of mass transfer rates are presented. Propane is selected as an example of an appropriate tracer gas and the ratio between the mass transfer coefficients of oxygen and propane is determined. PMID:17711024

Madsen, H I; Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T

2007-01-01

283

Selection of Actinide Chemical Analogues for WIPP Tests: Potential Nonradioactive Sorbing and Nonsorbing Tracers for Study of Ion Transport in the Environment  

SciTech Connect

Chemical characteristics of the actinides (Th, U, Np, Pu, Am) have been studied relative to nonradioactive chemical elements that have similar characteristics in an attempt to identify a group of actinide chemical analogues that are nonradioactive. In general, the chemistries of the actinides, especially U, Np, Pu, and Am, are very complex and attempts to identify a single chemical analogue for each oxidation state were not successful. However, the rationale for selecting a group of chemical analogues that would mimic the actinides as a group is provided. The categorization of possible chemical analogues (tracers) with similar chemical properties was based on the following criteria. Categorization was studied according.

Dale Spall; Robert Villarreal

1998-08-01

284

Development of Kinetic Interface Sensitive Tracers (KIS-Tracer) for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Injections into Deep Saline Aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage of captured CO2 into geological formations is recently one of the most promising technologies to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions into the earth's atmosphere. Deep saline aquifers are considered as the most potential sequestration sites of CO2 due to their huge storage capacities of several thousand Gt. Ongoing research deals mainly with the investigation of relevant physico-chemical processes, the fate of CO2 and the risk assessment during and after supercritical CO2 (scCO2) injections. The occurring processes at the interface between injected scCO2 and formation brine play a major role to evaluate the fate and behavior of scCO2 in the reservoir. This is because the interface represents a reactive zone where numerous physico-chemical processes like dissolution of scCO2 in water as well as dissolution and precipitation of minerals take place. In most cases it is desired to maximize the interface size to increase the storage efficiency. Therefore, knowledge on interface size and dynamics would allow the observation of plume spreading and the detection of mixing or fingering effects. In order to gain this information innovative tracers are necessary which are able to quantify the temporal and spatial development of scCO2/water interfaces. As a result, it may be possible to assess the storage efficiency and to optimize subsequent injections. Up to now, such time-dependent tracers for reservoir studies are not available and limited to equilibrium tracers (known as partitioning and interfacial tracers, respectively). Therefore, novel reactive tracers (KIS-Tracers) are developed to overcome this gap. The idea is to find suitable molecules which allow the implementation of a defined chemical reaction at the interface. Due to the known kinetic constants the change of interface size can be characterized over time. The new tracer is injected together with the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) into a deep saline aquifer. Afterwards, the tracer adsorbs at the interface and undergoes hydrolysis in contact with water. As a consequence, two water soluble reaction products are formed and can be measured in the water phase over time. Here, the reaction kinetics is the rate-limiting step for the phase transfer and strongly dependents on reservoir properties, such as temperature and pH. Such tracer molecules must have the following properties: i) low polarity (high log KOW) to ensure high scCO2 solubility and to minimize distribution into the water phase; (ii) at least one highly water soluble reaction product, which does not do partitioning back into the scCO2 phase; (iii) low detection limit. On the basis of naphthalenesulfonic acid, an established geothermal tracer, different molecules with the desired properties were synthesized and tested in the laboratory. For studying the occurring processes at the interface under atmospheric pressure conditions the scCO2 was replaced with a non-polar organic solvent. The experiments were conducted in a static batch system with constant interfacial area as well as in a dynamic system with changing interface size. In parallel, a macroscopic model which couples mass transfer and reaction kinetics is developed to interpret the data. In conclusion, experiments indicate that the integration of hydrolysis kinetics is possible and even one of the reaction products may be used as additional partitioning tracer, i.e. for measuring the residual saturation.

Schaffer, M.; Maier, F.; Licha, T.; Sauter, M.

2012-04-01

285

Gas-phase electron diffraction studies of unstable molecules   

E-print Network

Gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) is the only viable technique for the accurate structural study of gas-phase molecules that contain more than ~10 atoms. Recent advances in Edinburgh have made it possible to study ...

Noble-Eddy, Robert

2009-01-01

286

Single-well tracer test sensitivity w. r. to hydrofrac and matrix parameters (case study for the Horstberg site in the N-German Sedimentary Basin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the geothermal pilot site Horstberg in the N-German Sedimentary Basin, a complex field experiment program was conducted (2003-2007) by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) together with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA), aimed at evaluating the performance of innovative technologies for heat extraction, for direct use, from a single geothermal well[1],[2]. The envisaged single-well operation schemes comprised inter-layer circulation through a large-area hydrofrac (whose successful creation could thus be demonstrated), and single-screen 'huff-puff' in suitable (stimulated) layers, seated in sandstone-claystone formations in 3-4 km depth, with temperatures exceeding 160 ° C. Relying on Horstberg tracer-test data, we analyze heat and solute tracer transport in three characteristic hydraulic settings: (A) single-screen, multi-layer push-pull, with spiking and sampling at lower well-screen in low-permeability sandstone layer ('Detfurth'), from which hydrofrac propagation (through several adjacent layers) was initiated; (B) single-screen, single-layer push-pull, with spiking and sampling at upper well-screen within a more permeable sandstone layer ('Solling'); (C) inter-layer vertical push through above-mentioned hydrofrac, with spiking at well-screen of A, and sampling at well-screen of B. Owing to drill-hole deviation, the hydraulically-induced frac will, in its vertical propagation, reach the upper sandstone layer in a certain horizontal distance X from the upper well-screen, whose value turns out to be the major controlling parameter for the system's thermal lifetime under operation scheme C (values of X below ~8 m leading to premature thermal breakthrough, with the minimum-target rate of fluid turnover; however, the injection pressure required for maintaining the target outflow rate will also increase with X, which renders scheme C uneconomical, or technically-infeasible, when X exceeds ~15 m). Tracer signals in C are, as well, sensitive w. r. to X, but the effects of increasing X, upon tracer signals, are largely indistinguishable from those of increasing Solling porosity. Further numerical simulations of heat and solute tracer transport in above-named test settings reveal significant disparities between parameter sensitivities attainable in the same kind of test (A, B) conducted at different layers, as well as between solute concentration and temperature signal sensitivities w. r. to transport parameters in one and the same test (C). Why? - Test A features fracture flow, and dual-continuum transport, whereas test B features single-continuum flow and transport (within the host rock, with negligible losses to the hydrofrac). Flow is rapid in test A (being fracture-dominated), but slow in test B (being confined to the host rock). In test C, fluid first flows through the hydrofrac mainly, next it 'must' flow through the upper sandstone; heat transport is dominated by matrix diffusion across the hydrofrac (along which it thus experiences strong retardation), whereas solute transport is dominated by matrix micro-fissure and intra-particle diffusion within the upper sandstone (where it experiences strong retardation). We examine the implications of these findings upon the inversion of transport-effective hydrofrac parameters from measured tracer signals, and upon the tracer-based predictability of the system's thermal lifetime under different operation schemes. [1]http://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/SGW/2005/jung.pdf [2]http://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/WGC/2010/2272.pdf Acknowledgement: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task units 'G6' and 'G7' of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' (Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling).

Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Holzbecher, E.; Jung, R.; Sauter, M.; Tischner, T.

2012-04-01

287

Experimental study of the effect of test-well arrangement for partitioning interwell tracer test on the estimation of NAPL saturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) is a method to quantify and qualify a contaminated site with NAPLs through a degree of retardation of partitioning tracers compared to a conservative one. Although PITT is known to be a more effective method to measure the saturation of spatially-distributed NAPL contaminant than the point investigation method, the saturation estimation from PITT is reported to be underestimated due to various factors including heterogeneity of the media, adsorption, source zone NAPL architecture, and long tailing in breakthrough curves of partitioning tracers. Analytical description of PITT assumes that the injection-pumping well pair is on the line of ambient groundwater flow direction, but the test-well pair could easily be off the line in the field site, which could be another erroneous factor in analyzing PITT data. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of the angle of the test-well pair to ambient groundwater flow direction based on the result from PITT. The experiments were conducted in a small-scale 3D sandbox with dimensions of 0.5 m × 0.4 m × 0.15 m (LWH) of stainless steel. The surface is covered and sealed with a plexiglass plate to make the physical model a confined aquifer. Eight full-screened wells of Teflon material were installed along the perimeter of a 50 mm circle with 45 degree intervals in the middle of the physical model. Both ends of the sand box are connected to constant head reservoirs. The physical model was wet-packed with sieved and washed sand. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and bromide were used as the contaminant and the conservative tracer, respectively. Hexanol, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol and 6-methyl-2-heptanol were used as partitioning tracers. Before the injection of TCE, a PITT was conducted to measure adsorption coefficient of partitioning tracers to the sand material. TCE of 4.5 mL, dyed with Sudan IV, was injected into the inner part of the circle of the wells. PITTs using the test-well pair parallel and with angles of 45 and 90 degrees to ambient flow direction were performed. Another PITT was conducted at an increased pumping rate with the test-well pair at a 45 degree angle to examine the effect of pumping rate. From the experiments, it was found that as the angles of the test-well pair to ambient groundwater flow direction increased, the estimated NAPL saturation decreased. Although the increase in pumping rate in this experiment reduces the effect of the obliqueness of the test-well arrangement, the effect of rate-limited transfer of partitioning tracers due to the increased pumping rate on the PITT should be examined in the interpretation. The results of these experiments revealed that the arrangement of the test-well pair is another controlling factor in performing and interpreting PITT in the field, in addition to the factors such as heterogeneity, source zone architecture, and tailing. Key words: PITT, test-well arrangement, ambient groundwater flow direction, NAPL saturation Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Basic Research Project of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea. 11-3414

Kim, B.; Kim, Y.; Yeo, I.; Yongcheol Kim, In Wook Yeo

2011-12-01

288

The Star Formation Rate and Gas Surface Density Relation in the Milky Way: Implications for Extragalactic Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and gas surface densities in Galactic star-forming regions using a sample of young stellar objects (YSOs) and massive dense clumps. Our YSO sample consists of objects located in 20 large molecular clouds from the Spitzer cores to disks (c2d) and Gould's Belt (GB) surveys. These data allow us to probe the regime of low-mass star formation, essentially invisible to tracers of high-mass star formation used to establish extragalactic SFR-gas relations. We estimate the gas surface density (?gas) from extinction (AV ) maps and YSO SFR surface densities (?SFR) from the number of YSOs, assuming a mean mass and lifetime. We also divide the clouds into evenly spaced contour levels of AV , counting only Class I and Flat spectral energy distribution YSOs, which have not yet migrated from their birthplace. For a sample of massive star-forming clumps, we derive SFRs from the total infrared luminosity and use HCN gas maps to estimate gas surface densities. We find that c2d and GB clouds lie above the extragalactic SFR-gas relations (e.g., Kennicutt-Schmidt law) by factors of up to 17. Cloud regions with high ?gas lie above extragalactic relations up to a factor of 54 and overlap with high-mass star-forming regions. We use 12CO and 13CO gas maps of the Perseus and Ophiuchus clouds from the COMPLETE survey to estimate gas surface densities and compare to measurements from AV maps. We find that 13CO, with the standard conversions to total gas, underestimates the AV -based mass by factors of ~4-5. 12CO may underestimate the total gas mass at ?gas >~ 200 M sun pc-2 by gsim30%; however, this small difference in mass estimates does not explain the large discrepancy between Galactic and extragalactic relations. We find evidence for a threshold of star formation (?th) at 129 ± 14 M sun pc-2. At ?gas>?th, the Galactic SFR-gas relation is linear. A possible reason for the difference between Galactic and extragalactic relations is that much of ?gas is below ?th in extragalactic studies, which detect all the CO-emitting gas. If the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation (?SFR vprop ?1.4 gas) and a linear relation between dense gas and star formation are assumed, the fraction of dense star-forming gas (f dense) increases as ~?0.4 gas. When ?gas reaches ~300 ?th, the fraction of dense gas is ~1, creating a maximal starburst.

Heiderman, Amanda; Evans, Neal J., II; Allen, Lori E.; Huard, Tracy; Heyer, Mark

2010-11-01

289

Dual-tracer background subtraction approach for fluorescent molecular tomography  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Diffuse fluorescence tomography requires high contrast-to-background ratios to accurately reconstruct inclusions of interest. This is a problem when imaging the uptake of fluorescently labeled molecularly targeted tracers in tissue, which can result in high levels of heterogeneously distributed background uptake. We present a dual-tracer background subtraction approach, wherein signal from the uptake of an untargeted tracer is subtracted from targeted tracer signal prior to image reconstruction, resulting in maps of targeted tracer binding. The approach is demonstrated in simulations, a phantom study, and in a mouse glioma imaging study, demonstrating substantial improvement over conventional and homogenous background subtraction image reconstruction approaches. PMID:23292612

Holt, Robert W.; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Leblond, Frederic; Pogue, Brian W.

2013-01-01

290

Asian Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project: Draft Field Work Plan for the Asian Long-Range Tracer Experiment  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an experimental plan for a proposed Asian long-range tracer study as part of the international Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project. The TEAM partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the United States. Optimal times of year to conduct the study, meteorological measurements needed, proposed tracer release locations, proposed tracer sampling locations and the proposed durations of tracer releases and subsequent sampling are given. Also given are the activities necessary to prepare for the study and the schedule for completing the preparation activities leading to conducting the actual field operations. This report is intended to provide the TEAM members with the information necessary for planning and conducting the Asian long-range tracer study. The experimental plan is proposed, at this time, to describe the efforts necessary to conduct the Asian long-range tracer study, and the plan will undoubtedly be revised and refined as the planning goes forward over the next year.

Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

2007-08-01

291

Tracer attenuation in groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

Cvetkovic, Vladimir

2011-12-01

292

20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arterial blood-gas studies. 718.105 Section 718.105...Development of Medical Evidence § 718.105 Arterial blood-gas studies. (a) Blood-gas studies are performed to detect an...

2013-04-01

293

20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arterial blood-gas studies. 718.105 Section 718.105...Development of Medical Evidence § 718.105 Arterial blood-gas studies. (a) Blood-gas studies are performed to detect an...

2012-04-01

294

20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arterial blood-gas studies. 718.105 Section 718.105...Development of Medical Evidence § 718.105 Arterial blood-gas studies. (a) Blood-gas studies are performed to detect an...

2014-04-01

295

20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arterial blood-gas studies. 718.105 Section 718.105...Development of Medical Evidence § 718.105 Arterial blood-gas studies. (a) Blood-gas studies are performed to detect an...

2011-04-01

296

20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood-gas studies. 718.105 Section 718.105...Development of Medical Evidence § 718.105 Arterial blood-gas studies. (a) Blood-gas studies are performed to detect an...

2010-04-01

297

Dating of young groundwater using tritium and gaseous tracers (SF6, SF5CF3, CFC-12, H-1301): case study from southern Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an important source of potable water in many countries. While it covers ca. 50% of the global drinking water needs, in Europe this share is even higher, reaching approximately 70%. Nowadays, this strategic resource is at risk due to anthropogenic pollutants of various nature entering shallow aquifers. Proper management of groundwater resources requires thorough understanding of groundwater dynamics on time scales characteristic for the history of pollutant input to groundwater. The bomb-tritium has been used for several decades now as a tracer of choice to detect recent recharge and to quantify groundwater residence times on time scales extending from several years to several decades. The lumped-parameter modeling was the most often employed approach in this context. Since nowadays atmospheric concentrations of tritium are approaching natural levels in most parts of the world, the usage of this tracer has become more problematic. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alternative indicators of groundwater age in shallow aquifers. Anthropogenic trace gases present in the atmosphere, such as freons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), have been applied in numerous case studies as substitutes of tritium. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study aimed at quantifying mean residence time of groundwater in the recharge area of porous sandy aquifer system located in the southern Poland. The principal economic role of the aquifer, consisting of two water-bearing strata, is to provide potable water for public and private users. The yield of the aquifer is insufficient to meet all the needs and, as a consequence, licensing conflicts arise between water supply companies and industry on the amount of water available for safe exploitation. To quantify residence time distribution (RTD) functions of water parcels arriving at the production wells located in the recharge area of the aquifer, tritium along with several gaseous tracers was employed. Apart of well-established tracers such as SF6 and CFC-12, also other trace gases present in the atmosphere (SF5CF3 and H-1301) were tested as age indicators of young groundwater. Time series of tracer concentrations in the sampled boreholes were interpreted with the aid of lumped-parameter models. In parallel, the arrival times of tracers to the selected wells were calculated with the aid of 3D flow and transport model available for the studied groundwater system and compared with the RTD functions obtained from lumped-parameter modeling. Acknowledgements. Partial financial support of this work through GENESIS project (http:/www.thegenesisproject.eu) funded by the European Commission 7FP contract 226536 and through the funds from the Polish Ministry of Science and High Education (projects Nr. N N525 362637 and 11.11.220.01) is kindly acknowledged.

Rozanski, Kazimierz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Dulinski, Marek; Kuc, Tadeusz; Sliwka, Ireneusz; Mochalski, Pawel; Kania, Jaroslaw; Witczak, Stanislaw

2013-04-01

298

New physical Lagrangian tracer  

SciTech Connect

A physical Lagrangian tracer will be operational and available for use within the near future. The tracer is an adjustable buoyancy constant volume balloon with an onboard microprocessor to serve an appropriate array of sensors, and to control buoyancy. Tracking and data reporting is to be accomplished via the ARGOS satellite-borne data system, yielding both a local and a world-wide capability. 5 references, 1 figure.

Zak, B.D.

1984-01-01

299

Optimizing Natural Gas Use: A Case Study  

E-print Network

Optimization of Steam & Energy systems in any continuously operating process plant results in substantial reduction in Natural gas purchases. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant to control their fuel budget...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Schweikert, P.

2007-01-01

300

Behavior of organophosphates and hydrophilic ethers during bank filtration and their potential application as organic tracers. A field study from the Oderbruch, Germany.  

PubMed

The behavior of organophosphates and ethers during riverbank filtration and groundwater flow was assessed to determine their suitability as organic tracers. Four sampling campaigns were conducted at the Oderbruch polder, Germany to establish the presence of chlorinated flame retardants (TCEP, TCPP, TDCP), non-chlorinated plasticizers (TBEP, TiBP, TnBP), and hydrophilic ethers (1,4-dioxane, monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, tetraglyme) in the Oder River, main drainage ditch, and anoxic aquifer. Selected parameters were measured in order to determine the hydro-chemical composition of both, river water and groundwater. The results of the study confirm that organophosphates (OPs) are more readily attenuated during bank filtration compared to ethers. Both in the river and the groundwater, TCPP was the most abundant OP with concentrations in the main drainage ditch ranging between 105 and 958 ng L(-1). 1,4-dioxane, triglyme, and tetraglyme demonstrated persistent behavior during bank filtration and in the anoxic groundwater. In the drainage ditch concentrations of 1,4-dioxane, triglyme, and tetraglyme ranged between 1090 and 1467 ng L(-1), 37 and 149 ng L(-1), and 496 and 1403 ng L(-1), respectively. A positive correlation was found for the inorganic tracer chloride with 1,4-dioxane and tetraglyme. These results confirm the possible application of these ethers as environmental organic tracers. Both inorganic and organic compounds showed temporal variability in the surface- and groundwater. Discharge of the river water, concentrations of analytes at the time of infiltration and attenuation were identified as factors influencing the variable amounts of the analytes in the surface and groundwater. These findings are also of great importance for the production of drinking water via bank filtration and natural and artificial groundwater recharge as the physicochemical properties of ethers create challenges in their removal. PMID:23644568

Stepien, D K; Regnery, J; Merz, C; Püttmann, W

2013-08-01

301

CO, NOx and 13CO2 as tracers for fossil fuel CO2: results from a pilot study in Paris during winter 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the mole fraction of the CO2 and its isotopes were performed in Paris during the MEGAPOLI winter campaign (January-February 2010). Radiocarbon (14CO2) measurements were used to identify the relative contributions of 77% CO2 from fossil fuel consumption (CO2ff from liquid and gas combustion) and 23% from biospheric CO2 (CO2 from the use of biofuels and from human and plant respiration: CO2bio). These percentages correspond to average mole fractions of 26.4 ppm and 8.2 ppm for CO2ff and CO2bio, respectively. The 13CO2 analysis indicated that gas and liquid fuel contributed 70% and 30%, respectively, of the CO2 emission from fossil fuel use. Continuous measurements of CO and NOx and the ratios CO/CO2ff and NOx/CO2ff derived from radiocarbon measurements during four days make it possible to estimate the fossil fuel CO2 contribution over the entire campaign. The ratios CO/CO2ff and NOx/CO2ff are functions of air mass origin and exhibited daily ranges of 7.9 to 14.5 ppb ppm-1 and 1.1 to 4.3 ppb ppm-1, respectively. These ratios are consistent with different emission inventories given the uncertainties of the different approaches. By using both tracers to derive the fossil fuel CO2, we observed similar diurnal cycles with two maxima during rush hour traffic.

Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Delmotte, M.; Colomb, A.; Gros, V.; Janssen, C.; Lehman, S. J.; Mondelain, D.; Perrussel, O.; Ramonet, M.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Bousquet, P.

2013-08-01

302

Tracer Tomography: Design Concepts and Field Experiments Using Heat as a Tracer.  

PubMed

Numerical and laboratory studies have provided evidence that combining hydraulic tomography with tomographic tracer tests could improve the estimation of hydraulic conductivity compared with using hydraulic data alone. Field demonstrations, however, have been lacking so far, which we attribute to experimental difficulties. In this study, we present a conceptual design and experimental applications of tracer tomography at the field scale using heat as a tracer. In our experimental design, we improve active heat tracer testing by minimizing possible effects of heat losses, buoyancy, viscosity, and changing boundary conditions. We also utilize a cost-effective approach of measuring temperature changes in situ at high resolution. We apply the presented method to the 8?m thick heterogeneous, sandy gravel, alluvial aquifer at the Lauswiesen Hydrogeological Research Site in Tübingen, Germany. Results of our tomographic heat-tracer experiments are in line with earlier work on characterizing the aquifer at the test site. We demonstrate from the experimental perspective that tracer tomography is applicable and suitable at the field scale using heat as a tracer. The experimental results also demonstrate the potential of heat-tracer tomography as a cost-effective means for characterizing aquifer heterogeneity. PMID:25393211

Doro, Kennedy O; Cirpka, Olaf A; Leven, Carsten

2014-11-13

303

Tracer-based prediction of thermal reservoir lifetime: scope, limitations, and the role of thermosensitive tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal-lifetime prediction is a traditional endeavour of inter-well tracer tests conducted in geothermal reservoirs. Early tracer test signals (detectable within the first few years of operation) are expected to correlate with late-time production temperature evolutions ('thermal breakthrough', supposed to not occur before some decades of operation) of a geothermal reservoir. Whenever a geothermal reservoir can be described as a single-fracture system, its thermal lifetime will, ideally, be determined by two parameters (say, fracture aperture and porosity), whose inversion from conservative-tracer test signals is straightforward and non-ambiguous (provided that the tracer tests, and their interpretation, are performed in accordance to the rules of the art). However, as soon as only 'few more' fractures are considered, this clear-cut correlation is broken. A given geothermal reservoir can simultaneously feature a single-fracture behaviour, in terms of heat transport, and a multiple-fracture behaviour, in terms of solute tracer transport (or vice-versa), whose effective values of fracture apertures, spacings, and porosities are essentially uncorrelated between heat and solute tracers. Solute transport parameters derived from conservative-tracer tests will no longer characterize the heat transport processes (and thus temperature evolutions) taking place in the same reservoir. Parameters determining its thermal lifetime will remain 'invisible' to conservative tracers in inter-well tests. We demonstrate this issue at the example of a five-fracture system, representing a deep-geothermal reservoir, with well-doublet placement inducing fluid flow 'obliquely' to the fractures. Thermal breakthrough in this system is found to strongly depend on fracture apertures, whereas conservative-solute tracer signals from inter-well tests in the same system do not show a clear-cut correlation with fracture apertures. Only by using thermosensitive substances as tracers, a reliable correlation between (early) tracer signals and (later) thermal breakthrough can be re-established. Thus, thermosensitive tracers are indispensable for predicting thermal breakthrough, in such geothermal reservoirs whose 'hydrogeological personality' is given by a finite set of fractures, with flow occurring both across and along the fractures. In terms of the 'gebo benchmark-model' typology investigated by Hördt et al. (2011) [http://eposters.agu.org/abstracts/models-of-geothermal-reservoirs-as-a-basis-for-interdisciplinary-cooperation/] , such systems combine flow and transport patterns of the 'petrothermal' type and of the so-called 'deep-aquifer' type: across the fractures, heat is travelling faster than conservative-solute tracers; along the fractures, conservative-solute tracers experience much less retardation by transversal exchange (matrix diffusion), than heat; fluid (and tracer) flow is not limited to the fractures; matrix flow yields essential contribution to prolonging the fluid (and tracer) residence time. Thermal lifetime results from the opposite effects of fracture aperture as an: advection-related parameter: fluid travel time increases with increasing fracture aperture advection-unrelated parameter: fracture - matrix exchange rate increases with decreasing fracture aperture, which accelerates transport across the fracture, but retards transport along the fracture. In conservative-solute tracer signals, all these fracture aperture effects on tracer transport are masked by the very long residence time associated with the matrix flow component. Thermosensitive tracers are able to 'magnify' the visibility of fracture aperture effects against matrix flow effects. Acknowledgment: This study benefits from thermosensitive-tracer research conducted within the projects Smart Tracers and LOGRO, funded by the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU, 0327579 and 0325111B) and by Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW).

Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Karmakar, S.; Licha, T.; Nottebohm, M.; Sauter, M.

2012-04-01

304

OH as a Tracer for Molecular Gas in the Galaxy: Line Ratios and Signatures of non-LTE Findings in the ISM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While carrying out a blind survey of OH emission in a quiescent region towards the outer galaxy near l = 105 degrees, b = 1 degree using the Green Bank Telescope, we analyzed the ratios of the line strengths and identified several non-LTE emission sources in addition to the majority that were in LTE. The fact that the majority of OH features were in LTE ratios suggests that in general, OH can be a useful tracer for components of the molecular ISM that may not be traced by CO. However, the several non-LTE OH features observed demonstrate that such a blind survey can also be put to other uses. One of the non-LTE features was identified as a known OH-IR star, which we found could be easily identified with 1665 and 1667 MHz spectra alone, even though OH-IR stars are most prominent in 1612 MHz. We also identified several 1720 MHz masers features in the local ISM, which were found at adjacent positions in the sky along an arc shape. These masers are likely to be tracing a C-shock propagating through the local ISM, covering several survey positions.

Engelke, Philip; Allen, Ronald J.; Hogg, David E.

2015-01-01

305

Estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages of groundwater from selected sites: National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2006-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Piston-flow age dates were interpreted from measured concentrations of environmental tracers from 812 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program groundwater sites from 27 Study Units across the United States. The tracers of interest include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He). Tracer data compiled for this analysis were collected from 2006 to 2010 from groundwater wells in NAWQA studies, including: * Land-Use Studies (LUS, shallow wells, usually monitoring wells, located in recharge areas under dominant land-use settings), * Major-Aquifer Studies (MAS, wells, usually domestic supply wells, located in principal aquifers and representing the shallow drinking water supply), * Flow System Studies (FSS, networks of clustered wells located along a flowpath extending from a recharge zone to a discharge zone, preferably a shallow stream) associated with Land-Use Studies, and * Reference wells (wells representing groundwater minimally impacted by anthropogenic activities) also associated with Land-Use Studies. Tracer data were evaluated using documented methods and are presented as aqueous concentrations, equivalent atmospheric concentrations (for CFCs and SF6), and tracer-based piston-flow ages. Selected ancillary data, such as redox data, well-construction data, and major dissolved-gas (N2, O2, Ar, CH4, and CO2) data, also are presented. Recharge temperature was inferred using climate data (approximated by mean annual air temperature plus 1°C [MAAT +1°C]) as well as major dissolved-gas data (N2-Ar-based) where available. The N2-Ar-based temperatures showed significantly more variation than the climate-based data, as well as the effects of denitrification and degassing resulting from reducing conditions. The N2-Ar-based temperatures were colder than the climate-based temperatures in networks where recharge was limited to the winter months when evapotranspiration was reduced. The tracer-based piston-flow ages compiled in this report are provided as a consistent means of reporting the tracer data. The tracer-based piston-flow ages may provide an initial interpretation of age in cases in which mixing is minimal and may aid in developing a basic conceptualization of groundwater age in an aquifer. These interpretations are based on the assumption that tracer transport is by advection only and that no mixing occurs. In addition, it is assumed that other uncertainties are minimized, including tracer degradation, sorption, contamination, or fractionation, and that terrigenic (natural) sources of tracers, and spatially variable atmospheric tracer concentrations are constrained.

Shapiro, Stephanie D.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Widman, Peggy K.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Wayland, Julian E.; Runkle, Donna L.

2012-01-01

306

GAS COOLED, MOLTEN SALT HEAT EXCHANGER--DESIGN STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

BS> One of the major problems in the economic evaluation of the ; application of forced circulation, gas cooling to high temperature, molten salt ; power reactor systems is the definition of the required heat transfer equipment, ; its size and operating cost. A design study of the saltto-gas heat exchangers ; for such a gas-cooled system has recently been

MacPherson

1958-01-01

307

Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In enhanced oil recovery (EOR), chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

Dugstad, Ø.; Viig, S.; Krognes, B.; Kleven, R.; Huseby, O.

2013-05-01

308

Use of radioactive tracers in the evaluation of penile hemodynamics: history, methodology and measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide tracer techniques are intimately associated with some of the early ground-breaking investigations in erectile dysfunction and have evolved along with the field. At the present time, the various investigations can be grouped into four categories: labeled blood-pool; tracer washout; tracer washin and combined blood-pool\\/tracer and tracer washout examinations. Blood pool studies are most useful in assessing the integrity of

LS Zuckier

1997-01-01

309

DETECTION OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC TRACERS IN VEGETATION SMOKE SAMPLES BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. (R823990)  

EPA Science Inventory

High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique wit...

310

Sedimentation, bioturbation, and sedimentary fabric evolution on a modern mesotidal mudflat: A multi-tracer study of processes, rates, and scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of muddy tidal-flat sedimentation and bioturbation was undertaken in the Waitetuna Arm of Raglan Harbor, New Zealand, to evaluate the physical and biological processes that control cycling of sediment between the intertidal seabed and sediment-water interface, and also the formation of tidal flat sedimentary fabric and fine-scale stratigraphy. Cores were collected along an intertidal transect, and analyzed for sedimentary fabric, 210Pb and 7Be radiochemical distributions, and grain size. At the same locations, a new approach for time-series core-X-radiography study was undertaken (spanning 191 days), using magnetite-rich sand as a tracer for sedimentation and bioturbation processes in shallow tidal flat sediments. Sedimentary fabric consists of a shallow stratified layer overlying a deeper zone of intensely bioturbated shelly mud. Bioadvection mixes the deeper zone and contributes fine sediment to the surface stratified layer, via biodeposition. Physical resuspension and deposition of surface muds by wave and tidal flow are also likely contributors to formation of the surficial stratified layer, but physical stratification is not observed below this depth. The deliberate tracer study allowed calculation of bioadvection rates that control strata formation, and can be used to model diagenetic processes. Results suggest that the upper ˜15 cm of seabed can be fully mixed over timescales <1.75 y. Such mixing will erase pre-existing sedimentary fabric and transport buried sediment and chemical compounds back to the tidal-flat surface. Shallow biodiffusion also exists, but produces much slower and shallower mass transport. Best fits for 210Pb profiles using a diagenetic bioadvection/sedimentation model and independently measured tiered bioadvection rates suggest that sediment accumulation rates (SARs) on the tidal flat are ˜0.25 cm/y, near the low end of contemporary New Zealand muddy intertidal SARs. Frequent deposition and erosion of the surface layer demonstrates that long-term sediment accumulation captures only a small fraction of sediment deposited at any one time. Model results also suggest that our magnetite tracer method may slightly underestimate short-term shallow mixing rates (demonstrated by 7Be profiles), and slightly overestimate longer-term, deeper bioturbation rates (demonstrated by 210Pb profiles).

Bentley, Samuel J.; Swales, Andrew; Pyenson, Benjamin; Dawe, Justin

2014-03-01

311

Novel and non-traditional use of stable isotope tracers to study metal bioavailability from natural particles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We devised a novel tracing approach that involves enriching test organisms with a stable metal isotope of low natural abundance prior to characterizing metal bioavailability from natural inorganic particles. In addition to circumventing uncertainties associated with labeling natural particles and distinguishing background metals, the proposed "reverse labeling" technique overcomes many drawbacks inherent to using radioisotope tracers. Specifically, we chronically exposed freshwater snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) to synthetic water spiked with Cu that was 99.4% 65Cu to increase the relative abundance of 65Cu in the snail’s tissues from 32% to >80%. The isotopically enriched snails were then exposed to benthic algae mixed with Cu-bearing Fe–Al particles collected from the Animas River (Colorado), an acid mine drainage impacted river. We used 63Cu to trace Cu uptake from the natural particles and inferred their bioavailability from calculation of Cu assimilation into tissues. Cu assimilation from these particles was 44%, indicating that 44% of the particulate Cu was absorbed by the invertebrate. This demonstrates that inorganic particulate Cu can be bioavailable. The reverse labeling approach shows great potential in various scientific areas such as environmental contamination and nutrition for addressing questions involving uptake of an element that naturally has multiple isotopes.

Croteau, Marie-Noële; Cain, Daniel J.; Fuller, Christopher C.

2013-01-01

312

3-D numerical evaluation of density effects on tracer tests.  

PubMed

In this paper we present numerical simulations carried out to assess the importance of density-dependent flow on tracer plume development. The scenario considered in the study is characterized by a short-term tracer injection phase into a fully penetrating well and a natural hydraulic gradient. The scenario is thought to be typical for tracer tests conducted in the field. Using a reference case as a starting point, different model parameters were changed in order to determine their importance to density effects. The study is based on a three-dimensional model domain. Results were interpreted using concentration contours and a first moment analysis. Tracer injections of 0.036 kg per meter of saturated aquifer thickness do not cause significant density effects assuming hydraulic gradients of at least 0.1%. Higher tracer input masses, as used for geoelectrical investigations, may lead to buoyancy-induced flow in the early phase of a tracer test which in turn impacts further plume development. This also holds true for shallow aquifers. Results of simulations with different tracer injection rates and durations imply that the tracer input scenario has a negligible effect on density flow. Employing model cases with different realizations of a log conductivity random field, it could be shown that small variations of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of the tracer injection well have a major control on the local tracer distribution but do not mask effects of buoyancy-induced flow. PMID:16183165

Beinhorn, M; Dietrich, P; Kolditz, O

2005-12-01

313

NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as to how they could serve multiple applications, both in terms of incorporation of technology into current products, as well as to an NGGT product. In summary, potential program costs are shown for development of the candidate systems along with the importance of future DOE enabling participation. Three main conclusions have been established via this study: (1) Rapid recent changes within the power generation regulatory environment and the resulting ''bubble'' of gas turbine orders has altered the timing and relative significance associated with the conclusions of the ADL study upon which the original DOE NGGT solicitation was based. (2) Assuming that the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity circa 2010, the top candidate system that meets or exceeds the DOE PRDA requirements was determined to be a hybrid aero-derivative/heavy duty concept. (3) An investment by DOE of approximately $23MM/year to develop NGGT technologies near/mid term for validation and migration into a reasonable fraction of the installed base of GE F-class products could be leveraged into $1.2B Public Benefit, with greatest benefits resulting from RAM improvements. In addition to the monetary Public Benefit, there is also significant benefit in terms of reduced energy consumption, and reduced power plant land usage.

Unknown

2001-12-05

314

Past leaded gasoline emissions as a nonpoint source tracer in riparian systems: A study of river inputs to San Francisco Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Variations in the isotopic composition of lead in 1995-1998 river waters flowing into San Francisco Bay trace the washout of lead deposited in the drainage basin from leaded gasoline combustion. At the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers where they enter the Bay, the isotopic compositions of lead in the waters define a linear trend away from the measured historical compositions of leaded gas in California. The river waters are shifted away from leaded gasoline values and toward an isotopic composition similar to Sierra Nevadan inputs which became the predominant source of sedimentation in San Francisco Bay following the onset of hydraulic gold mining in 1853. Using lead isotopic compositions of hydraulic mine sediments and average leaded gasoline as mixing end members, we calculate that more than 50% of the lead in the present river water originated from leaded gasoline combustion. The strong adsorption of lead (log K(d) > 7.4) to particulates appears to limit the flushing of gasoline lead from the drainage basin, and the removal of that lead from the system may have reached an asymptotic limit. Consequently, gasoline lead isotopes should prove to be a useful nonpoint source tracer of the environmental distribution of particle- reactive anthropogenic metals in freshwater systems.

Dunlap, C.E.; Bouse, R.; Flegal, A.R.

2000-01-01

315

Use of Naturally Occurring Noble Gas Tracers to Evaluate the Freshwater/Saline Water Interface of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Edwards Aquifer currently is the primary source of water in south central Texas for agriculture, municipal, industrial, and ecological needs, supplying over 1.5 million people and supporting unique habitats for endangered species. The aquifer consists of limestone with some dolostone members of the Edwards Group that dip in a southeasterly direction. The up-dip freshwater zone of the aquifer is recharged with fresh water along the northern area of the outcropping Edwards Group. Adjacent to the freshwater zone is the saline-water zone that forms an interface at the down-dip limit of the fresh water. Though the freshwater/saline-water interface is spatially defined within the aquifer, little is known about the nature of groundwater flow between and along its surface. Structural, lithologic and hydrologic features may influence the possible up-dip migration of the saline water into the freshwater zone and may adversely affect current freshwater supplies. Freshwater/saline-water monitoring well transects were sampled for dissolved gas using both conventional and un-conventional methods to establish vertical profiles across the aquifer. Data revealed two highly distinct gas compositions between the zones. The upper freshwater zone is characterized by normal, atmospherically saturated water gas concentrations with slight enrichments due to excess air (4He ~ 60 ?cc/kg). The lower saline zone displayed a very different gas composition, highlighted by extremely high concentrations of radiogenic 4He (>20,000 ?cc/kg) and minor amounts of excess 40Ar contained in a gas composition rich in CO2, H2S and other hydrocarbons. Vertical profiles of dissolved gas compositions across the interface show active flowing water along the interface, and sluggish, stagnant flow within the saline zone. These sharply contrasting zones are strongly influenced by the faulting in the aquifer and by the hydrostatic head within the freshwater zone. Both the faulting and the hydrostatic head in the freshwater zone of the aquifer appear to exert a major influence on the regional groundwater flow patterns.

Hunt, A. G.; Lambert, R. B.; Landis, G. P.; Waugh, J. R.

2002-12-01

316

Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V: Computer-simulated Tc-99m (Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role image interpretation.

Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

1981-07-01

317

Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V. Computer-simulated Tc-99m(Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure, or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role in image interpretation.

Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

1981-07-01

318

Results from air-injection and tracer testing in the upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves of the Exploratory Studies Facility, August 1994 through July 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Air-injection and tracer testing were conducted in the upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from August 1994 to July 1991. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy.

LeCain, Gary D.

1998-01-01

319

Neurotoxicity after intracarotid 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea administration in the rat: Hemodynamic changes studied by double-tracer autoradiography  

SciTech Connect

Changes in blood-brain (BBB) permeability and local cerebral blood flow after intracarotid administration of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) were examined quantitatively in rats with double-tracer autoradiography using (14C)alpha-amino-isobutyric acid and (18F)fluoroantipyrine. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The control group (Group 1) received 1 ml of 5% dextrose. The other three groups received three different doses of BCNU dissolved in 5% dextrose: Group 2 rats received 1 mg, Group 3 3 mg, and Group 4 10 mg. The tracer study was performed on Day 1 or Days 4 to 12 after intracarotid administration of BCNU. In 11 rats in Group 2, there were no changes of BBB permeability. Transient BBB permeability changes were seen in the striatum or hippocampus in 3 of the 5 rats (60%) in Group 3 within 24 hours. In 8 of 9 rats (89%) in the same group, late BBB permeability changes were observed in the hypothalamus with or without histological changes. BBB permeability changes were seen in all rats of Group 4. Focal increase of local cerebral blood flow on the infused side compared with the non-infused side of the brain was observed, although not at a significant level, in 5 of 25 rats examined with (18F)fluoroantipyrine. The results of BBB permeability and histological examinations and study of heterogenous distribution by (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose indicated that the ipsilateral subcortical structures such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, internal capsule, and caudate putamen have the highest incidence of neurotoxicity, which are closely related to histopathological damage seen in human BCNU leucoencephalopathy.

Nagahiro, S.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Diksic, M.; Mitsuka, S.; Sugimoto, S.; Feindel, W. (Cone Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research, Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec (Canada))

1991-07-01

320

A review of methods for modelling environmental tracers in groundwater: Advantages of tracer concentration simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical models of varying complexity have been developed since the 1960s to interpret environmental tracer concentrations in groundwater flow systems. This review examines published studies of model-based environmental tracer interpretation, the progress of different modelling approaches, and also considers the value of modelling tracer concentrations directly rather than estimations of groundwater age. Based on citation metrics generated using the Web of Science and Google Scholar reference databases, the most highly utilised interpretation approaches are lumped parameter models (421 citations), followed closely by direct age models (220 citations). A third approach is the use of mixing cell models (99 citations). Although lumped parameter models are conceptually simple and require limited data, they are unsuitable for characterising the internal dynamics of a hydrogeological system and/or under conditions where large scale anthropogenic stresses occur within a groundwater basin. Groundwater age modelling, and in particular, the simulation of environmental tracer transport that explicitly accounts for the accumulation and decay of tracer mass, has proven to be highly beneficial in constraining numerical models. Recent improvements in computing power have made numerical simulation of tracer transport feasible. We argue that, unlike directly simulated ages, the results of tracer mass transport simulation can be compared directly to observations, without needing to correct for apparent age bias or other confounding factors.

Turnadge, Chris; Smerdon, Brian D.

2014-11-01

321

Using chemical tracers to assess ocean models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical tracers can be used to assess the simulated circulation in ocean models. Tracers that have been used in this context include tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon, and to a lesser extent, oxygen, silicate, phosphate, isotopes of organic and inorganic carbon compounds, and certain noble gases (e.g., helium and argon). This paper reviews the use of chemical tracers in assessing the circulation and flow patterns in global and regional ocean models. It will be shown that crucial information can be derived from chemcial tracers that cannot be obtained from temperature-salinity (T-S) alone. In fact, it turns out that a model with a good representation of T-S can have significant errors in simulated circulation, so checking a model's ability to capture chemical tracer patterns is vital. Natural chemical tracers such as isotopes of carbon, argon, and oxygen are useful for examining the model representation of old water masses, such as North Pacific and Circumpolar Deep Water. Anthropogenic or transient tracers, such as tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and bomb-produced 14C, are best suited for analyzing model circulation over decadal timescales, such as thermocline ventilation, the renewal of Antarctic Intermediate Water, and the ventilation pathways of North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water. Tracer model studies have helped to reveal inadequacies in the model representation of certain water mass formation processes, for example, convection, downslope flows, and deep ocean currents. They show how coarse models can chronically exaggerate the spatial scales of open-ocean convection and deep currents while underestimating deep flow rates and diffusing downslope flows with excessive lateral mixing. Higher-resolution models typically only resolve thermocline ventilation because of shorter integration times, and most resort to high-latitude T-S restoring to simulate reasonable interior water mass characteristics. This can be seen to result in spuriously weak chemical tracer uptake at high latitudes due to suppressed convective overturn and vertical motion. Overall, the simulation of chemical tracers is strongly recommended in model assessment studies and as a tool for analyzing water mass mixing and transformation in ocean models. We argue that a cost-effective approach is to simulate natural radiocarbon to assess long-timescale processes, and CFCs for decadal to interdecadal ocean ventilation.

England, Matthew H.; Maier-Reimer, Ernst

2001-02-01

322

Tracer-dilution method indicates flowrate through compressor  

SciTech Connect

A technique for measuring compressor flowrate through an operating natural-gas centrifugal compressor has been tested and found to have a precisions approaching {plus minus}1.5%. The technique employs constant-flow tracer dilution. Testing demonstrated that use of a critical-flow nozzle to inject a constant, known flow of tracer into a flowing natural-gas stream is feasible. Effects of potential pulsation on a tracer flow measurement appear to be eliminated by this technique. With experimental and operational streamlining, the constant-flow tracer dilution technique is capable of being used to measure the flowrate through operating centrifugal compressors with sufficient precisions and accuracy to allow compressor operating characteristics to be determined. This technique is especially useful in situations in which an orifice-flow measurement cannot be performed because of physical space limits or economic considerations.

Lagus, P.L.; Flanagan, B.S. (Lagus Applied Technology Inc., San Diego, CA (US)); Peterson, M.E. (Tennessee Gas Pipeline Co., Middleton, TN (US)); Clowney, S.L. (Tenneco Gas, Houston, TX (US))

1991-02-25

323

HST/COS detection of a Ne VIII absorber towards PG 1407+265: an unambiguous tracer of collisionally ionized hot gas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the detection of Ne VIII in a zabs = 0.599 61 absorber towards the QSO PG1407+265 (zem= 0.94). Besides Ne VIII, absorption from H I Lyman series lines (H I ?1025-?915), several other low (C II, N II, O II and S II), intermediate (C III, N III, N IV, O III, S IV and S V) and high (S VI, O VI and Ne VIII) ionization metal lines are detected. Disparity in the absorption line kinematics between different ions implies that the absorbing gas comprises of multiple ionization phases. The low and the intermediate ions (except S V) trace a compact (˜410 pc), metal-rich (Z ˜ Z?) and overdense (log nH ˜ -2.6) photoionized region that sustained star formation for a prolonged period. The high ions, Ne VIII and O VI, can be explained as arising in a low density (-5.3 ? log nH ? -5.0), metal-rich (Z ? Z?) and diffuse (˜180 kpc) photoionized gas. The S V, S VI and C IV [detected in the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) spectrum] require an intermediate photoionization phase with -4.2 < log nH < -3.5. Alternatively, a pure collisional ionization model, as used to explain the previous known Ne VIII absorbers, with 5.65 < log T < 5.72, can reproduce the S VI, O VI and Ne VIII column densities simultaneously in a single phase. However, even such models require an intermediate phase to reproduce any observable S V and/or C IV. Therefore, we conclude that when multiple phases are present, the presence of Ne VIII is not necessarily an unambiguous indication of collisionally ionized hot gas.

Hussain, T.; Muzahid, S.; Narayanan, A.; Srianand, R.; Wakker, B. P.; Charlton, J. C.; Pathak, A.

2015-01-01

324

ANALYSIS OF TRACER AND THERMAL TRANSIENTS DURING REINJECTION  

E-print Network

TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDIES OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL Abstract This work studied tracer and thermal transients during reinjection in geother- mal reservoirs diffusion(MD) model, and the Avdonin(AD) model, which were developed to study tracer and heat transport

Stanford University

325

A personal exposure study employing scripted activities and paths in conjunction with atmospheric releases of perfluorocarbon tracers in Manhattan, New York  

PubMed Central

A personal exposure study was conducted in New York City as part of the Urban Dispersion Program (UDP). It examined the contact of individuals with four harmless perflourocarbon tracers (PFT) released in Midtown Manhattan with approval by city agencies at separate locations, during two types of experiments, completed during each release period. Two continuous 1 h release periods separated by a 1.5 h ventilation time were completed on 3 October 2005. Stationary site and personal exposure measurements were taken during each period, and the first half hour after the release ended. Two types of scripted exposure activities are reported: Outdoor Source Scale, and Outdoor Neighborhood Scale; requiring 1- and 10-min duration samples, respectively. The results showed that exposures were influenced by the surface winds, the urban terrain, and the movements of people and vehicles typical in urban centers. The source scale exposure data indicated that local conditions significantly affected the distribution of each tracer, and consequently the exposures. The highest PFT exposures resulted from interaction of the scripted activities with local surface conditions. The range measured for 1- min exposures were large with measured values exceeding 5000 ppqv (parts per quadrillion by volume). The neighborhood scale measurements quantified exposures at distances up to seven blocks away from the release points. Generally, but not always, the PFT levels returned quickly to zero indicating that after cessation of the emissions the concentrations decrease rapidly, and reduce the intensity of local exposures. The near source and neighborhood personal exposure route results provided information to establish a baseline for determining how a release could affect both the general public and emergency responders, and evaluate the adequacy of re-entry or exit strategies from a local area. Finally, the data also show that local characteristics can produce “hot spots”. PMID:17505505

LIOY, PAUL J; VALLERO, DANIEL; FOLEY, GARY; GEORGOPOULOS, PANOS; HEISER, JOHN; WATSON, TOM; REYNOLDS, MICHAEL; DALOIA, JAMES; TONG, SAI; ISUKAPALLI, SASTRY

2014-01-01

326

A personal exposure study employing scripted activities and paths in conjunction with atmospheric releases of perfluorocarbon tracers in Manhattan, New York.  

PubMed

A personal exposure study was conducted in New York City as part of the Urban Dispersion Program (UDP). It examined the contact of individuals with four harmless perflourocarbon tracers (PFT) released in Midtown Manhattan with approval by city agencies at separate locations, during two types of experiments, completed during each release period. Two continuous 1 h release periods separated by a 1.5 h ventilation time were completed on 3 October 2005. Stationary site and personal exposure measurements were taken during each period, and the first half hour after the release ended. Two types of scripted exposure activities are reported: Outdoor Source Scale, and Outdoor Neighborhood Scale; requiring 1- and 10-min duration samples, respectively. The results showed that exposures were influenced by the surface winds, the urban terrain, and the movements of people and vehicles typical in urban centers. The source scale exposure data indicated that local conditions significantly affected the distribution of each tracer, and consequently the exposures. The highest PFT exposures resulted from interaction of the scripted activities with local surface conditions. The range measured for 1- min exposures were large with measured values exceeding 5000 ppqv (parts per quadrillion by volume). The neighborhood scale measurements quantified exposures at distances up to seven blocks away from the release points. Generally, but not always, the PFT levels returned quickly to zero indicating that after cessation of the emissions the concentrations decrease rapidly, and reduce the intensity of local exposures. The near source and neighborhood personal exposure route results provided information to establish a baseline for determining how a release could affect both the general public and emergency responders, and evaluate the adequacy of re-entry or exit strategies from a local area. Finally, the data also show that local characteristics can produce "hot spots". PMID:17505505

Lioy, Paul J; Vallero, Daniel; Foley, Gary; Georgopoulos, Panos; Heiser, John; Watson, Tom; Reynolds, Michael; Daloia, James; Tong, Sai; Isukapalli, Sastry

2007-08-01

327

N2O As A Tracer Of Antarctic Atmospheric Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses use of natural N2O as tracer gas in effort to determine large-scale lower stratospheric air flows during 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Data essential to understanding motions of air into and out of southern polar vortex and "ozone hole". N2O chosen as tracer because it has purely tropospheric sources, has troposheric lifetime greater than 20 years, and has long chemical lifetime in lower stratosphere.

Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Chan, K. R.; Strahan, S. E.

1992-01-01

328

Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions  

SciTech Connect

A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.

Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

2006-06-01

329

Boron isotopes as an artificial tracer.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted using a combination of intrinsic and artificial tracers to estimate travel times and dilution during transport of infiltrate from a reclaimed water infiltration basin to nearby monitoring wells. A major study objective was to validate boric acid enriched in (10)B as an artificial tracer. Basin 10E at the Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Whittier, California, was the site of the test. The basin normally receives a mixture of treated municipal waste water, purchased State Project water, and local runoff from the San Gabriel River. Approximately 3.5 kg of (10)B-enriched boric acid was dispersed among 2.05 x 10(5) m(3) of basin water to initiate the experiment. The resultant median delta(11)B in the infiltration basin was -71 per thousand. Prior to tracer addition, the basin water had an intrinsic delta(11)B of +2 per thousand. Local monitoring wells that were used to assess travel times had delta(11)B values of +5 per thousand and +8 per thousand at the time of tracer addition. Analytic results supported an assumption that boron is conserved during ground water transport and that boron enriched in (10)B is a useful artificial tracer. Several intrinsic tracers were used to reinforce the boric acid tracer findings. These included stable isotopes of oxygen (delta(18)O) and hydrogen (deltaD), sulfate concentration, and the boron to chloride ratio. Xenon isotopes, (136)Xe and (124)Xe, also supported boron isotope results. Xenon isotopes were added to the recharge basin as dissolved gases by investigators from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. PMID:16681525

Quast, Konrad W; Lansey, Kevin; Arnold, Robert; Bassett, Randy L; Rincon, Martha

2006-01-01

330

Gas release and conductivity modification studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of gas clouds produced by releases from orbital velocity in either a point release or venting mode is described by the modification of snowplow equations valid in an intermediate altitude regime. Quantitative estimates are produced for the time dependence of the radius of the cloud, the average internal energy, the translational velocity, and the distance traveled. The dependence of these quantities on the assumed density profile, the internal energy of the gas, and the ratio of specific heats is examined. The new feature is the inclusion of the effect of the large orbital velocity. The resulting gas cloud models are used to calculate the characteristics of the field line integrated Pedersen conductivity enhancements that would be produced by the release of barium thermite at orbital velocity in either the point release or venting modes as a function of release altitude and chemical payload weight.

Linson, L. M.; Baxter, D. C.

1979-01-01

331

Use of L-lysine fluorescence derivatives as tracers to enhance the performance of polarization fluoroimmunoassays. A study using two herbicides as model antigens.  

PubMed

Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a convenient homogeneous assay, the use of which is restricted in environmental analysis by low sensitivity and matrix effects. We selected the herbicides 2,4D and 2,4,5T to synthesize new L-lysine-based fluorescent tracers using solid-phase chemistry. In addition, three different immunogens of 2,4,5T were prepared for immunization and antibody production. The new tracers and antibodies were adapted to FPIA. Tracers with the hapten attached to the alpha-aminogroup of L-lysine and fluorescein to the e-amino group exhibited at least a 5-fold increased sensitivity when compared to the previously reported ethylenediamine-based tracer (2,4D-EDA-F). The isomeric structure (hapten attached to the e-amino and fluorescein to the alpha-amino group) appeared 7.6 times less sensitive, and all other alternative structures exhibited even lower sensitivities. This observation was confirmed against the monoclonal anti-2,4D antibody E2/G2 and polyclonal anti-2,4,5T antibodies. The affinity constant of 2,4D-EDA-F with E2/G2 was 8.1 times higher when compared with the new tracer, suggesting the more specific nature of the L-lysine-based tracer, the use of which leads to a more sensitive assay. This type of tracer could improve performance and lower substantially the detection limits of FPIAs. PMID:12069231

Hatzidakis, George I; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Krambovitis, Elias K; Spyros, Apostolos; Eremin, Sergei A

2002-06-01

332

EPA GAS PHASE CHEMISTRY CHAMBER STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Gas-phase smog chamber experiments are being performed at EPA in order to evaluate a number of current chemical mechanisms for inclusion in EPA regulatory and research models. The smog chambers are 9000 L in volume and constructed of 2-mil teflon film. One of the chambers is co...

333

Major challenges loom for natural gas industry, study says  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1994 edition of Natural Gas Trends, the annual joint study by Cambridge Energy Research Associates and Arthur Anderson Co., says that new oil-to-gas competition, price risks and the prospect of unbundling for local distribution companies loom as major challenges for the natural gas industry. With a tighter supply-demand balance in the past two years compounded by the fall in

ODriscoll

1994-01-01

334

Tracer for circulation determinations  

SciTech Connect

An improved tracer particle is described comprising an ion exchange core having a polymer coating thereon, the coated ion exchange core having a reaction site capable of reacting with a compound containing an oxirane group, said coated ion exchange core having been treated with a compound containing an oxirane group to react with said coated ion exchange core causing an increase in mass of the tracer particle. Preferably, the ion exchange core is labelled with a radionuclide. These particles have improved characteristics including improved stability against leaching and improved handling properties. Such particles are useful in circulatory determinations involving the injection of the particles as a suspension in a physiologically acceptable carrier or medium into the circulatory system of animals.

Moore, H.; Santos, S.; Wysong, R. D.

1985-03-19

335

A Comparison of Hydrogeologic Models, Tritium/helium-3, and Deliberate Tracer Experiments to Understand Ground Water Residence Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of subsurface residence time of ground water, used for determining flow paths and travel times, is an important criterion for understanding and monitoring water quality and in situ biogeochemical reactions. Established methods of determining travel time include hydrogeologic modeling, transient tracers and deliberate tracers. This paper presents a comparison of these three methods near the Montebello Forebay recharge site in Los Angeles County, California. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas tracer was injected into the Rio Hondo and San Gabriel recharge basins in early 2003. During this two-year experiment, SF6 was detected at nine monitoring wells, indicating that SF6 was successfully transferred from surface water to groundwater during percolation at spreading basins. SF6 tracer was detected at 11 of the 18 production wells sampled during this study, indicating travel time for recharge water to some of the wells is less than two years. All tritium/3He ages are greater than 10 years for the production wells, indicating mixing of young and old ground water. Because tritium/3He ages do not mix linearly - the mixed age is weighted by each flow path's initial tritium content - this technique leads to over-estimation of ground water age. At four of the eleven wells with SF6 detections, the hydrogeologic travel times determined in a previous study by Bookman-Edmonston Engineering were less than 10 weeks and are in basic agreement with the SF6 travel times determined in the present study. However, at the other seven wells, estimated hydrogeologic travel times were greater than 200 weeks, significantly longer than indicated by the tracer data. Leakage through low permeability layers leading to earlier tracer arrival provides a likely explanation. At all wells with no detected tracer, the hydrogeologic times were greater than three years.

McDermott, J.; Clark, J.; Avisar, D.; Hudson, G.

2005-12-01

336

Experimental Study of Metastability of Gas Hydrate in Frozen Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability zone of natural gas hydrates formations in cryolitozone where methane gas hydrates can be formed and exist, begins with depths of 200-250 meters and extends in sub-permafrost layers up to depths of 800-1500 meters. Recently obtained data allow to consider methane gas hydrates existence in thicknesses of frozen sediments above zone of its thermodynamic stability (up to depths of 200-250 meters) This zone may be called the zone of gas hydrate's metastability or zone of "relict hydrate" existence. The relict natural gas hydrate accumulations in permafrost may have formed under favorable thermodynamic conditions during glacial periods. Subsequently, glacial retreat induced metastable hydrate preservation due to self-preservation effect. At present the existence of natural gas hydrates at shallow depth at nonequilibrium conditions leads to a serious geological hazard during exploration drilling. The dissociation of shallow metastable methane hydrate may contribute to global warming by adding significant amount of a greenhouse gas (methane) to the atmosphere. Up to now relict natural gas hydrates are poorly understood, so the experimental research of gas hydrates decomposition in frozen sediments under non-equilibrium conditions is of significant importance. The experimental technique included the following stages: i) artificial saturation of sediments by methane or carbon dioxide hydrates, ii) freezing of the hydrate-containing samples, iii) studying of the hydrate decomposition process including self-preservation in frozen samples after the reducing gas pressure below line of three phase equilibrium (gaseous phase - gas hydrate - ice). Core samples of different composition and porous structure recovered from gas-showing horizons of permafrost sediments were used. Experimental data on the influence of temperature, pressure, hydrate- and ice-saturation on the kinetics of methane gas hydrates dissociation in natural sediments from permafrost zone was obtained. The experiments show that self-preservation of gas hydrates in frozen sediments is enhanced by low temperatures, high ice content, and low sediment gas permeability. Residual (preserved) hydrate saturation of frozen samples after pressure release below equilibrium reached 20-25%. Experimental researches on kinetics of gas hydrate dissociation in frozen sediments samples selected from gas showing horizons in permafrost confirm the opportunity of long preservation of pore methane gas hydrate in frozen sediments at negative temperatures and pressures below equilibrium due to self-preservation effect. Relic gas hydrates could be source of significant methane emission from shallow permafrost at rise of temperature and thawing.

Chuvilin, E. M.; Buhanov, B. A.; Guryeva, O. M.; Istomin, V. A.; Takeya, S.; Hachikubo, A.

2011-12-01

337

Isotopes and Tracers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This assignment offers students several problems that help them understand the basic of mixing models and their use in understanding the controls on water quality in the environment. The purpose of the assignment is to help students integrate across the various topics in environmental chemistry in the context of flow and transport. Students will hopefully learn how reactive and non-reactive tracers can be used in conjunction to fully understand a chemical system.

Thomas Meixner

338

Tracers and Tracer Testing: Design, Implementation, Tracer Selection, and Interpretation Methods  

SciTech Connect

Conducting a successful tracer test requires adhering to a set of steps. The steps include identifying appropriate and achievable test goals, identifying tracers with the appropriate properties, and implementing the test as designed. When these steps are taken correctly, a host of tracer test analysis methods are available to the practitioner. This report discusses the individual steps required for a successful tracer test and presents methods for analysis. The report is an overview of tracer technology; the Suggested Reading section offers references to the specifics of test design and interpretation.

G. Michael Shook; Shannon L.; Allan Wylie

2004-01-01

339

Analysis of multicomopnent groundwater flow in karst aquifer by CFC, tritium, tracer test and modelling, case study at Skaistkalnes vicinity, Latvia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater in karst environments tends to have difficulties to distinguish multiple flows if several sources of water are present. Skaistkalne vicinity faces with such situation where old groundwater, fresh groundwater and inflow from river Iecava occurs. Attempts were made to distinguish groundwater residence time of multiple components of water applying CFC and tritium dating techniques supplied by tracer test and numerical model of study area. Study area covers territory between two rivers Iecava and Memele with water level difference of 7 meters and horizontal distance of 2.2 kilometres between both. Study area consists of karst affected Devonian gypsum and carbonaceous rocks covered by Quaternary low to high permeable deposits. Confined groundwater at depth of 10-25 meters where analysed by CFC's and tritium. At this depth groundwater exhibits anoxic reducing environment that has caused degradation of CFC's at similar degree in all samples. Taking it into account, mean residence time based on CFC piston flow model is 22 - 42 years and 28 - 34 years based on binary mixing model. Tritium results show signs of incensement of groundwater residence time towards discharge area. CFC combined with tritium proved increased vertical velocity in middle part between the rivers likely caused by hydrogeological window in Quaternary deposits created by karst processes. Numerical model (Delina et al. 2012) was applied and calculations yielded groundwater flow velocity rate at 0.3 - 1 m/day in area between the rivers. Investigation of CFC data resulted in possible groundwater flow rate of at a minimum of 0.2 m/day although it's not applicable to all sampled wells due to specific hydrogeological conditions. Tracer test was made between the rivers in order to distinguish main water flow paths and flow velocity. Results showed that very high permeable conduits connect rivers and karst lakes with velocity rates of 800 - 1300 m/day. Complex investigation leads to conclude that three different sources of groundwater occur characterized by different flow velocity, recharge age and chemical composition. Although CFC's has been degraded, it is possible to use the results to distinguish groundwater different components and even to estimate groundwater flow velocity because of near located recharge and discharge areas. Tritium results doesn't show considerable variations along flow path with 6 TU in average confirming conclusions based on CFC's. Tracer test approve very high groundwater velocity zones in study area that supposedly doesn't mix with groundwater in matrix. References Delina A., Babre A., Popovs K., Sennikovs J., Grinberga B. 2012. Effects of karst processes on surface water and groundwater hydrology at Skaistkalne vicinity, Latvia. - Hydrology Research, 43(4), IWA Publishing, pp. 445-459, doi:10.2166/nh.2012.123. This study is supported by ERAF project Nr. 1013/00542DP/2.1.1.1.0/13/APIA/VIAA/007

Bikshe, Janis; Babre, Alise; Delina, Aija; Popovs, Konrads

2014-05-01

340

PAC Probes as Diffusion Tracers in Solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perturbed angular correlation (PAC) probe atoms have been used as tracers to study diffusion in solids. The method works for diffusion on a sublattice for which the point symmetry is noncubic and the electric field gradient (EFG) at the probe nucleus reorients in each jump. Such motion leads to relaxation of the nuclear quadrupole interaction. Precise values of the tracer jump frequency have been obtained from fits of measured PAC perturbation functions. Results obtained to date are reviewed for Cd tracer atoms in rare-earth indides such as LaIn3 that have the L12 crystal structure, for which each jump on the In-sublattice reorients the EFG by 90°. New results are presented for LaSn3 and prospects for future studies are outlined.

Collins, Gary S.; Favrot, AuréLie; Kang, Li; Nieuwenhuis, Egbert Rein; Solodovnikov, Denys; Wang, Jipeng; Zacate, Matthew O.

2004-12-01

341

[NMR studies of water-gas interactions].  

PubMed

The analysis of reported data concerning the solubility of different gases in water depending on a temperature was carried out. These dependences could be described by mono- or biexponential function. Solubilities of nitrogen and oxygen are additive and depend on their percentage in the atmosphere above the fluid. The temperature dependence of oxygen and nitrogen dissolved in water corresponds to that in the atmospheric air. The measurements of water spin-lattice relaxation times changing upon the concentration of dissolved paramagnetic oxygen showed that the oxygen could be significantly but not completely eliminated by saturation with any gases. The best method is the contact with a water immiscible liquid with higher gas capacity than water. However, it results in unstable state of a gas-water system converging to equilibrium. PMID:24455877

Kutyshenko, V P; Vorob'ev, S I

2013-01-01

342

Metabolic flux analysis of Arthrobacter sp. CGMCC 3584 for cAMP production based on 13C tracer experiments and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Arthrobacter sp. CGMCC 3584 are able to produce cAMP from glucose by the purine synthesis pathway via de novo or salvage biosynthesis. In order to gain an improved understanding of its metabolism, (13)C-labeling experiment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were employed to determine the metabolic network structure and estimate the intracellular fluxes. GC-MS analysis helps to reflect the activity of the intracellular pathways and reactions. The metabolic network mainly contains glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the inactive glyoxylate shunt. Hypoxanthine as a precursor of cAMP and sodium fluoride as an inhibitor of glycolysis were found to increase the cAMP production, as well as the flux through the PP pathway. The effects of adding hypoxanthine and sodium fluoride are discussed based on the enzyme assays and metabolic flux analysis. In conclusion, our results provide quantitative insights into how cells manipulate the metabolic network under different culture conditions and this may be of value in metabolic regulation for desirable production. PMID:24056081

Niu, Huanqing; Chen, Yong; Yao, Shiwei; Liu, Lixia; Yang, Chen; Li, Bingbing; Liu, Dong; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Wu, Jinglan; Ying, Hanjie

2013-12-01

343

Vapor-phase transport of trichloroethene in an intermediate-scale vadose-zone system: retention processes and tracer-based prediction.  

PubMed

Gas-phase transport experiments were conducted using a large weighing lysimeter to evaluate retention processes for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water-unsaturated (vadose-zone) systems, and to test the utility of gas-phase tracers for predicting VOC retardation. Trichloroethene (TCE) served as a model VOC, while trichlorofluoromethane (CFM) and heptane were used as partitioning tracers to independently characterize retention by water and the air-water interface, respectively. Retardation factors for TCE ranged between 1.9 and 3.5, depending on water content. The results indicate that dissolution into the bulk water was the primary retention mechanism for TCE under all conditions studied, contributing approximately two-thirds of the total measured retention. Accumulation at the air-water interface comprised a significant fraction of the observed retention for all experiments, with an average contribution of approximately 24%. Sorption to the solid phase contributed approximately 10% to retention. Water contents and air-water interfacial areas estimated based on the CFM and heptane tracer data, respectively, were similar to independently measured values. Retardation factors for TCE predicted using the partitioning-tracer data were in reasonable agreement with the measured values. These results suggest that gas-phase tracer tests hold promise for characterizing the retention and transport of VOCs in the vadose-zone. PMID:23333418

Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Carlson, Tyson D; Brusseau, Mark L

2013-02-01

344

LANDFILL GAS ENERGY UTILIZATION: TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS AND CASE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses technical, environmental, and other issues associated with using landfill gas as fuel, and presents case studies of projects in the U.S. illustrating some common energy uses. he full report begins by covering basic issues such as gas origin, composition, and ...

345

High Performance Simulation of Environmental Tracers in Heterogeneous Formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tracers provide information on fluid flux, yielding important information for use in groundwater studies. Currently environmental tracer interpretation has been limited by computational expense. Here we use a scalable, massively parallel, flow and reactive transport code PFLOTRAN to simulate the concentrations of 3H, 3He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 39Ar, 81Kr , 4He and the mean groundwater age in 2D and 3D heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the spatial distribution of environmental tracer concentration, tracer derived ages and modeled mean ground water age in heterogeneous aquifers. Modeled concentrations are then used to calculate tracer derived ages. The deviation of the tracer derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. The separation between the apparent age derived from different tracers also increases with increasing system heterogeneity. Age distributions in 3D aquifers differ significantly from 2D simulations with similar spatial statistics. The addition of the 3rd dimension increases connectivity, decreasing mean age and reducing age variability. High performance computation allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age spatial distribution in unprecedented detail, providing a foundation for the next generation of environmental tracer interpretation.

Gardner, P.; Hammond, G. E.; Lichtner, P. C.; Arnold, B. W.

2013-12-01

346

Cumulus cloud transport of transient tracers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical framework is developed for including cumulus cloud transport, rainout of water soluble gases, and aqueous phase chemistry into gas phase photochemical models. Cloud populations are represented as ensemble distributions of individual clouds of various heights. An individual cloud is represented as a one-dimensional, steady state plume with height-independent radius entraining air from the boundary of the cloud. The model is applied to several hypothetical atmospheric tracers to show how clouds may affect the tropospheric distributions of ozone, NO(y), SO2, peroxyacetylnitrate, hydrocarbons, and other gases. Although the numerical experiments were based on cloud mass fluxes from diagnostic studies in the tropics and thus are not representative of the entire globe, it was found that an increasing mixing ratio with height in the free troposphere can be produced for some gases with only a surface source when clouds are present. This suggests that some reactive tropospheric species with primarily surface sources may play a somewhat more important role in tropospheric chemistry than is presently believed depending on the global distribution of cloud mass fluxes. Deficiencies in existing photochemical models due to the way clouds are typically treated are discussed.

Gidel, L. T.

1983-01-01

347

Tracer experiments in Eastern Devonian shale  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of characterizing the properties of the Eastern Devonian gas shale, a seven-day tracer experiment was carried out in August of 1981 by the Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of the DOE's Offset-Well Test. Two wells had been drilled in a Columbia Gas Company field in southeastern Ohio, each with a downhole separation of approximately 120 feet from an existing production well. The isoceles triangle formed by the three wells had an apex angle of approximately 110 degrees. About 56,000 SCF of nitrogen were injected into a producing zone located at a depth of 3300 feet in one of the wells. Gas was then produced from the various wells at different rates and pressures for the duration of the test. Both pressure and gas composition in the three wells were monitored throughout the test.

Cook, T.L.; Brown, L.F.; Meadows, W.R.

1982-01-01

348

General method for the (11)C-labeling of 2-arylpropionic acids and their esters: construction of a PET tracer library for a study of biological events involved in COXs expression.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a critical enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis that modulates a wide range of biological functions, such as pain, fever, and so on. To perform in vivo COX imaging by positron emission tomography (PET), we developed a method to incorporate (11)C radionuclide into various 2-arylpropionic acids that have a common methylated structure, particularly among nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Thus, we developed a novel (11)C-radiolabeling methodology based on rapid C-[(11)C]methylation by the reaction of [(11)C]CH(3)I with enolate intermediates generated from the corresponding esters under basic conditions. One-pot hydrolysis of the above [(11)C]methylation products also allows the synthesis of desired (11)C-incorporated acids. We demonstrated the utility of this method in the syntheses of six PET tracers, [(11)C]Ibuprofen, [(11)C]Naproxen, [(11)C]Flurbiprofen, [(11)C]Fenoprofen, [(11)C]Ketoprofen, and [(11)C]Loxoprofen. Notably, we found that their methyl esters were particularly useful as proradiotracers for a study of neuroinflammation. The microPET studies of rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain inflammation clearly showed that the radioactivity of PET tracers accumulated in the inflamed region. Among these PET tracers, the specificity of [(11)C]Ketoprofen methyl ester was demonstrated by a blocking study. Metabolite analysis in the rat brain revealed that the methyl esters were initially taken up in the brain and then underwent hydrolysis to form pharmacologically active forms of the corresponding acids. Thus, we succeeded in general (11)C-labeling of 2-arylpropionic acids and their methyl esters as PET tracers of NSAIDs to construct a potentially useful PET tracer library for in vivo imaging of inflammation involved in COXs expression. PMID:20222090

Takashima-Hirano, Misato; Shukuri, Miho; Takashima, Tadayuki; Goto, Miki; Wada, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Doi, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masaaki

2010-04-12

349

On the characterisation of tracer particles for thermographic particle image velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that thermographic phosphor particles are suitable tracers for simultaneous temperature and velocity imaging in gas flows. For the development of this thermographic particle image velocimetry technique, the choice of phosphor is a key consideration and new phosphor materials need to be identified and their luminescence properties thoroughly characterised. This paper describes a method for investigating phosphor particles for gas thermometry. The method consists of performing spectroscopic experiments on particles dispersed in the gas, while simultaneously measuring the number density of tracer particles using a particle counting system, which is based on high-resolution Mie-scattering images. The measurement of the seeding density allows a direct comparison of different phosphors on a "per particle" basis and estimation of the effect of the particles on the gas thermal properties. The effect of parameters such as the excitation fluence, gas composition and temperature on the luminescence emission intensity can be studied independently of the seeding density. As a demonstration, this system is used to investigate micron-size BAM:Eu2+ particles. The necessary seeding density for precise temperature measurements is determined, and a nonlinear dependence of the luminescence emission intensity on the excitation fluence is identified.

Fond, Benoit; Abram, Christopher; Beyrau, Frank

2015-03-01

350

Study on the MEMS-type gas sensor for detecting a nitrogen oxide gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, MEMS-based micro gas sensors were prepared by adopting MEMS technology and using sol–gel process. These sensors can be used for application of the air quality system monitoring the automobile indoor atmosphere. An array of MEMS-based gas sensors was designed to achieve low power consumption and high efficiency; this was done by adjusting the heater pattern and line

Jin-Ho Yoon; Jung-Sik Kim

2011-01-01

351

Development of a mobile tracer correlation method for assessment of air emissions from landfills and other area sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A standardized version of a mobile tracer correlation measurement method was developed and used for assessment of methane emissions from 15 landfills in 56 field deployments from 2009 to 2013. Using cavity ring-down spectroscopy and acetylene tracer gas, this method has potential implementation and cost advantages over other mobile tracer correlation approaches. The field deployment, data acquisition and analysis procedures, and a range of use conditions are discussed. To test real-world method application, the field studies were conducted by engineering technician-level personnel under randomly-encountered daytime atmospheric conditions. A total of 1876 mobile tracer correlation measurement transects were attempted over 131 field sampling days. Of these, 1366 transect (73%) were successfully completed and passed basic data acceptance criteria as valid measurement attempts. Invalid data were caused primarily by equipment failures, transect execution errors, or poor plume transport conditions. Valid transects were further analyzed using signal-to-noise ratio, plume correlation, and emission rate difference method quality indicators described here. Encountered scenarios that can result in high emission measurement uncertainty or bias are discussed in term of these indicators. Reasonable values for the acceptance levels of the method quality indicators that help protect against method errors and reduce measurement noise are discussed. The application of a default indicator set to the valid data yield 456 transects (33%) that pass data acceptance criteria. Transects that fail were associated with insufficient advected plume transport, poor correlation between the tracer and source plumes, and potential emissions pooling conditions.

Foster-Wittig, Tierney A.; Thoma, Eben D.; Green, Roger B.; Hater, Gary R.; Swan, Nathan D.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

2015-02-01

352

A study of water driven oil encroachment into gas caps  

E-print Network

A STUDY OF WATER DRIVEN OIL ENCROACHMENT INTO GAS CAPS LIBRARY A S I COLLEGE OF TEXAS A Thesis By HARLAN J. RITCH ~ ~ ~ Submitted to the Graduate School oi' the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1958 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A STUDY OF WATER DRIVEN OIL ENCROACHMENT INTO GAS CAPS A Thesis By HARLAN J. RITCH Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

Ritch, Harlan J

1958-01-01

353

North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. (eds.)

1989-04-01

354

North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

1989-04-01

355

Isotope tracer studies of diffusion in silicates and of geological transport processes using actinide elements. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The following are reported: high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer for U-Th studies; {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th disequilibrium in recent lavas from Iceland; water-rock interaction from U-Th studies; resonance ionization mass spectrometry of Os and Ti isotopes; and self-diffusion of Mg.

Wasserburg, G.J.

1992-12-31

356

Microfluidic study of fast gas-liquid reactions.  

PubMed

We present a new concept for studies of the kinetics of fast gas-liquid reactions. The strategy relies on the microfluidic generation of highly monodisperse gas bubbles in the liquid reaction medium and subsequent analysis of time-dependent changes in bubble dimensions. Using reactions of CO(2) with secondary amines as an exemplary system, we demonstrate that the method enables rapid determination of reaction rate constant and conversion, and comparison of various binding agents. The proposed approach addresses two challenges in studies of gas-liquid reactions: a mass-transfer limitation and a poorly defined gas-liquid interface. The proposed strategy offers new possibilities in studies of the fundamental aspects of rapid multiphase reactions, and can be combined with throughput optimization of reaction conditions. PMID:22176612

Li, Wei; Liu, Kun; Simms, Ryan; Greener, Jesse; Jagadeesan, Dinesh; Pinto, Sascha; Günther, Axel; Kumacheva, Eugenia

2012-02-15

357

Water quality studies in Kranji Catchment, Singapore : use of organic tracer and PEDs for identifying potential sewage sources  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to identify organic compounds that could serve as indicators of potential human fecal contamination sources to the Kranji Reservoir in Singapore that could be used as confirmation indicators ...

Mendez Sagel, Adriana (Adriana Raquel)

2010-01-01

358

Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban activities generate solid and liquid waste, and the handling and aftercare of the waste results in the emission of various compounds into the surrounding environment. Some of these compounds are emitted as gasses into the atmosphere, including methane and nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide are strong greenhouse gases and are considered to have 25 and 298 times the greenhouse gas potential of carbon dioxide on a hundred years term (Solomon et al. 2007). Global observations of both gasses have shown increasing concentrations that significantly contribute to the greenhouse gas effect. Methane and nitrous oxide are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources and inventories of source specific fugitive emissions from the anthropogenic sources of methane and nitrous oxide of are often estimated on the basis of modeling and mass balance. Though these methods are well-developed, actual measurements for quantification of the emissions is a very useful tool for verifying the modeling and mass balance as well as for validation initiatives done for lowering the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. One approach to performing such measurements is the tracer dilution method (Galle et al. 2001, Scheutz et al. 2011), where the exact location of the source is located and a tracer gas is released at this source location at a known flow. The ratio of downwind concentrations of the tracer gas and the methane and nitrous oxide gives the emissions rates of the greenhouse gases. This tracer dilution method can be performed using both stationary and mobile measurements and in both cases, real-time measurements of both tracer and quantified gas are required, placing high demands on the analytical detection method. To perform the methane and nitrous oxide measurements, two robust instruments capable of real-time measurements were used, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and operating in the near-infrared spectral region. One instrument measured the methane and tracer gas concentrations while another measured the nitrous oxide concentration. We present the performance of these instruments at different waste treatment facilities (waste water treatment plants, composting facilities, sludge mineralization beds, anaerobic digesters and landfills) in Denmark, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the method of the method for quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the different sources. Furthermore, we have measured the methane emissions from 10 landfills with emission rates ranging from 5 to 135 kg/h depending on the age, state, content and aftercare of the landfill. In addition, we have studied 3 waste water treatment plants, and found nitrous oxide emission of 200 to 700 g/h from the aeration tanks and a total methane emission ranging from 2 to 15 kg/h, with the primary emission coming from the sludge treatment. References Galle, B., Samuelsson, J., Svensson, B.H., and Börjesson, G. (2001). Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (1), 21-25 Scheutz, C., Samuelsson, J., Fredenslund, A. M., and Kjeldsen, P. (2011). Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique. Waste Management, 31(5), 1009-17 Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R.B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N.L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J.M. Gregory, G.C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B.J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T.Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J.Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T.F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R.A.Wood and D. Wratt, 2007: Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

2013-04-01

359

Small Gas Turbine Combustor Primary Zone Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A development process is described which consists of design, fabrication, and preliminary test evaluations of three approaches to internal aerodynamic primary zone flow patterns: (1) conventional double vortex swirl stabilization; (2) reverse flow swirl stabilization; and (3) large single vortex flow system. Each concept incorporates special design features aimed at extending the performance capability of the small engine combustor. Since inherent geometry of these combustors result in small combustion zone height and high surface area to volume ratio, design features focus on internal aerodynamics, fuel placement, and advanced cooling. The combustors are evaluated on a full scale annular combustor rig. A correlation of the primary zone performance with the overall performance is accomplished using three intrusion type gas sampling probes located at the exit of the primary zone section. Empirical and numerical methods are used for designing and predicting the performance of the three combustor concepts and their subsequent modifications. The calibration of analytical procedures with actual test results permits an updating of the analytical design techniques applicable to small reverse flow annular combustors.

Sullivan, R. E.; Young, E. R.; Miles, G. A.; Williams, J. R.

1983-01-01

360

Using predictive uncertainty analysis to optimise tracer test design and data acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracer injection tests are regularly-used tools to identify and characterise flow and transport mechanisms in aquifers. Examples of practical applications are manifold and include, among others, managed aquifer recharge schemes, aquifer thermal energy storage systems and, increasingly important, the disposal of produced water from oil and shale gas wells. The hydrogeological and geochemical data collected during the injection tests are often employed to assess the potential impacts of injection on receptors such as drinking water wells and regularly serve as a basis for the development of conceptual and numerical models that underpin the prediction of potential impacts. As all field tracer injection tests impose substantial logistical and financial efforts, it is crucial to develop a solid a-priori understanding of the value of the various monitoring data to select monitoring strategies which provide the greatest return on investment. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of linear predictive uncertainty analysis (i.e. “data worth analysis”) to quantify the usefulness of different tracer types (bromide, temperature, methane and chloride as examples) and head measurements in the context of a field-scale aquifer injection trial of coal seam gas (CSG) co-produced water. Data worth was evaluated in terms of tracer type, in terms of tracer test design (e.g., injection rate, duration of test and the applied measurement frequency) and monitoring disposition to increase the reliability of injection impact assessments. This was followed by an uncertainty targeted Pareto analysis, which allowed the interdependencies of cost and predictive reliability for alternative monitoring campaigns to be compared directly. For the evaluated injection test, the data worth analysis assessed bromide as superior to head data and all other tracers during early sampling times. However, with time, chloride became a more suitable tracer to constrain simulations of physical transport processes, followed by methane. Temperature data was assessed as the least informative of the solute tracers. However, taking costs of data acquisition into account, it could be shown that temperature data when used in conjunction with other tracers was a valuable and cost-effective marker species due to temperatures low cost to worth ratio. In contrast, the high costs of acquisition of methane data compared to its muted worth, highlighted methanes unfavourable return on investment. Areas of optimal monitoring bore position as well as optimal numbers of bores for the investigated injection site were also established. The proposed tracer test optimisation is done through the application of common use groundwater flow and transport models in conjunction with publicly available tools for predictive uncertainty analysis to provide modelers and practitioners with a powerful yet efficient and cost effective tool which is generally applicable and easily transferrable from the present study to many applications beyond the case study of injection of treated CSG produced water.

Wallis, Ilka; Moore, Catherine; Post, Vincent; Wolf, Leif; Martens, Evelien; Prommer, Henning

2014-07-01

361

Feasibility study of full-reactor gas core demonstration test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Separate studies of nuclear criticality, flow patterns, and thermodynamics for the gas core reactor concept have all given positive indications of its feasibility. However, before serious design for a full scale gas core application can be made, feasibility must be shown for operation with full interaction of the nuclear, thermal, and hydraulic effects. A minimum sized, and hence minimum expense, test arrangement is considered for a full gas core configuration. It is shown that the hydrogen coolant scattering effects dominate the nuclear considerations at elevated temperatures. A cavity diameter of somewhat larger than 4 ft (122 cm) will be needed if temperatures high enough to vaporize uranium are to be achieved.

Kunze, J. F.; Lofthouse, J. H.; Shaffer, C. J.; Macbeth, P. J.

1973-01-01

362

The study of displacement of immiscible fluids in porous media with constant pressure drop by meansof nuclear tracers  

E-print Network

553 The study of displacement of immiscible fluids in porous media with constant pressure drop effects in the slow invasion experiments performed by us under a constant pressure head ; it is shown a constant driving pressure technique to induce the flow : this is closer to slow oil recovery con

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

Tracer studies of transport processes in the tidal Hudson River: A comparison of SF6 and a fluorescent dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent dyes have frequently been used to study transport processes such as net advection and longitudinal dispersion in rivers. Recently, it has been shown that sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a viable alternative to dyes, while offering many advantages. For example, SF6 is less expensive than dye, and has a greater dynamic range. As a result, experiments can be conducted on

D. T. Ho; P. Schlosser; R. Houghton; T. Caplow

2004-01-01

364

Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

Not Available

1987-01-01

365

Assessment of surface water resources availability using catchment modelling and the results of tracer studies in the mesoscale Migina Catchment, Rwanda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, we developed a catchment hydrological model which can be used to inform water resources planning and decision making for better management of the Migina Catchment (257.4 km2). The semi-distributed hydrological model HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Center - the Hydrologic Modelling System) (version 3.5) was used with its soil moisture accounting, unit hydrograph, liner reservoir (for baseflow) and Muskingum-Cunge (river routing) methods. We used rainfall data from 12 stations and streamflow data from 5 stations, which were collected as part of this study over a period of 2 years (May 2009 and June 2011). The catchment was divided into five sub-catchments. The model parameters were calibrated separately for each sub-catchment using the observed streamflow data. Calibration results obtained were found acceptable at four stations with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency index (NS) of 0.65 on daily runoff at the catchment outlet. Due to the lack of sufficient and reliable data for longer periods, a model validation was not undertaken. However, we used results from tracer-based hydrograph separation from a previous study to compare our model results in terms of the runoff components. The model performed reasonably well in simulating the total flow volume, peak flow and timing as well as the portion of direct runoff and baseflow. We observed considerable disparities in the parameters (e.g. groundwater storage) and runoff components across the five sub-catchments, which provided insights into the different hydrological processes on a sub-catchment scale. We conclude that such disparities justify the need to consider catchment subdivisions if such parameters and components of the water cycle are to form the base for decision making in water resources planning in the catchment.

Munyaneza, O.; Mukubwa, A.; Maskey, S.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Wenninger, J.

2014-12-01

366

ISM chemistry in metal rich environments: molecular tracers of metallicity  

E-print Network

In this paper we use observations of molecular tracers in metal rich and alpha-enhanced galaxies to study the effect of abundance changes on molecular chemistry. We selected a sample of metal rich spiral and star bursting objects from the literature, and present here new data for a sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs). We conducted the first survey of CS and methanol emission in ETGs, detecting 7 objects in CS, and 5 in methanol emission. We find evidence to support the hypothesis that CS is a better tracer of dense star-forming gas than HCN. We suggest that the methanol emission in these sources is driven by dust mantle destruction due to ionisation from high mass star formation, but cannot rule out shocks dominating in some sources. The derived source averaged CS/methanol column densities and rotation temperatures are similar to those found in normal spiral and starburst galaxies, suggesting dense clouds are little affected by the differences between galaxy types. Finally we used the total column density ra...

Davis, Timothy A; Crocker, Alison; Topal, Selcuk; Bureau, Martin

2013-01-01

367

High performance simulation of environmental tracers in heterogeneous domains.  

PubMed

In this study, we use PFLOTRAN, a highly scalable, parallel, flow, and reactive transport code to simulate the concentrations of (3) H, (3) He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6 , (39) Ar, and the mean groundwater age in heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the concentration of multiple tracers in high-resolution, heterogeneous 2D and 3D domains, and calculate tracer-derived ages. Tracer-derived ages show systematic biases toward younger ages when the groundwater age distribution contains water older than the maximum tracer age. The deviation of the tracer-derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. However, the effect of heterogeneity is diminished as the mean travel time gets closer to the tracer age limit. Age distributions in 3D domains differ significantly from 2D domains. 3D simulations show decreased mean age, and less variance in age distribution for identical heterogeneity statistics. High-performance computing allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age systematics in high-resolution domains, providing a platform for understanding and utilizing environmental tracer and groundwater age information in heterogeneous 3D systems. PMID:24372403

Gardner, William P; Hammond, Glenn; Lichtner, Peter

2015-04-01

368

New Multifunctional Diagnostic Method with Tracer-encapsulated Pellet Injection on LHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tracer-Encapsulated Solid PELlet (TESPEL) injection is one of the simplest new ideas to study the impurity confinement and other plasma properties. The special features of this method are: (a) local deposition inside the plasma, (b) precise knowledge of the deposited tracer amount, (c) wide selection of tracer materials. The achievements of the multi-functional diagnostics using TESPEL injection on LHD

S. Sudo; N. Tamura; D. V. Kalinina; K. Sato; A. Matsubara; S. Inagaki; P. R. Goncharov; T. Ozaki; D. Stutman

2005-01-01

369

An investigation of longwall gob gas behavior and control methods  

SciTech Connect

The National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has initiated the use of a tracer gas in field studies to characterize geologic and mining factors influencing the migration of longwall gob gas. Three studies have been conducted using sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) at a coal mine in the Northern Appalachian Basin operating in the Pittsburgh Coalbed. Eight underground tracer gas releases and one gob gas venthole release are summarized. The results indicate that the gas flow in the bleeder network and in the interior regions of longwall panel gobs do not strongly interact and that the negative pressure provided by gob gas venthole exhausters is very significant in maintaining this behavior. The data also show that ventilation practices employed in a large multi-panel gob area are functioning in accordance with the intent of the engineering design, a fact which would be difficult to evaluate using conventional mine ventilation measurement methods.

Schatzel, S.J.; Diamond, W.P.; Garcia, F.; LaScola, J.C.; McCall, F.E.; Jeran, P.W.; Mucho, T.P.

1999-07-01

370

Tight gas sands study breaks down drilling and completion costs  

SciTech Connect

Given the high cost to drill and complete tight gas sand wells, advances in drilling and completion technology that result in even modest cost savings to the producer have the potential to generate tremendous savings for the natural gas industry. The Gas Research Institute sponsored a study to evaluate drilling and completion costs in selected tight gas sands. The objective of the study was to identify major expenditures associated with tight gas sand development and determine their relative significance. A substantial sample of well cost data was collected for the study. Individual well cost data were collected from nearly 300 wells in three major tight gas sand formations: the Cotton Valley sand in East Texas, the Frontier sand in Wyoming, and the Wilcox sand in South Texas. The data were collected and organized by cost category for each formation. After the information was input into a data base, a simple statistical analysis was performed. The statistical analysis identified data discrepancies that were then resolved, and it helped allow conclusions to be drawn regarding drilling and completion costs in these tight sand formations. Results are presented.

Brunsman, B. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)); Saunders, B. (S.A. Holditch Associates Inc., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-06-06

371

Isotope tracer studies of diffusion in silicates and of geological transport processes in aqueous systems using actinide elements  

SciTech Connect

This research program has moved ahead with success in several areas. The isotopic composition of osmium in seawater and in some rivers was directly determined for the first time. The concentration of osmium was first estimated in both seawater and rivers. A major effort was directed toward the transport of the U,Th series nuclides in a watershed in Sweden. A serious effort was directed at developing a transport model for the U,Th series nuclides in aquifers. A detailed study of {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th dating of a cave in Israel was carried out collaboratively. The Os-Re fractionation between silicate and sulfide melts were determined in MORB basalts and glasses and the isotopic composition of Os was measured in sulfide samples.

Wasserburg, G.J.

1999-02-01

372

Nuclei of origin of monoaminergic, peptidergic, and cholinergic afferents to the cat trigeminal motor nucleus: a double-labeling study with cholera-toxin as a retrograde tracer.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the brainstem afferents and the location of neurons giving rise to monoaminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic inputs to the cat trigeminal motor nucleus (TMN). This was done in colchicine treated animals by using a very sensitive double immunostaining technique with unconjugated cholera-toxin B subunit (CT) as a retrograde tracer. After CT injections in the TMN, retrogradely labeled neurons were most frequently seen bilaterally in the nuclei reticularis parvicellularis and dorsalis of the medulla oblongata, the alaminar spinal trigeminal nucleus (magnocellular division), and the adjacent pontine juxtatrigeminal region and in the ipsilateral mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. We further observed that inputs to the TMN arise from the medial medullary reticular formation (the nuclei retricularis magnocellularis and gigantocellularis), the principal bilateral sensory trigeminal nucleus, and the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum. In addition, the present study demonstrated that the TMN received 1) serotonergic afferents, mainly from the nuclei raphe obscurus, pallidus, and dorsalis; 2) catecholaminergic afferent projections originating exclusively in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum, including the Kölliker-Fuse, parabrachialis lateralis, and locus subcoeruleus nuclei; further, that 3) methionin-enkephalin-like inputs were located principally in the medial medullary reticular formation (nuclei reticularis magnocellularis and gigantocellularis and nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis), in the caudal raphe nuclei (Rpa and Rob) and the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum; 4) substance P-like immunoreactive neurons projecting to the TMN were present in the caudal raphe and Edinger-Westphal nuclei; and 5) cholinergic afferents originated in the whole extent of the nuclei reticularis parvicellularis and dorsalis including an area located ventral to the nucleus of the solitary tract at the level of the obex. In the light of these anatomical data, the present report discusses the possible physiological involvement of TMN inputs in the generation of the trigeminal jaw-closer muscular atonia occurring during the periods of paradoxical sleep in the cat. PMID:1702107

Fort, P; Luppi, P H; Sakai, K; Salvert, D; Jouvet, M

1990-11-01

373

Beryllium-7 as a tracer to study mechanisms and rates of metal scavenging from lake surface waters  

SciTech Connect

The removal of Be-7 from lake surface waters (Lake Lugano, Switzerland/Italy) was studied from September 1995 to May 1996. During this period the atmospheric input and sedimentary flux of Be-7, as well as concentrations of dissolved (< 10 kD), colloidal (10 kD-1{micro}m), and particulate (> 1 {micro}m) Be-7 in the epilimnion were measured. The separation of dissolved, colloidal, and particulate fractions of Be-7 was carried out using continuous flow centrifugation (CFC) and tangential flow filtration (TFF) techniques. Lacustrine colloids were shown to be much more efficient sorbents for Be-7 than the suspended particles. Particle concentrations C{sub p} ranged from 0.5 to 2 mg/L. The ratio of colloid (> 10 kD) to particle concentration C{sub c}/C{sub p} was close to 0.09 during winter months when detrital inputs are dominant, but was higher (0.16) in summer and in spring after an algal bloom. The Be-7 data were used to estimate coagulation rates of colloids. The highest coagulation rates along with the lowest K{sub c} were found after an algal bloom in spring.

Steinmann, P.; Billen, T.; Loizeau, J.L.; Dominik, J. [Univ. de Geneve, Versoix (Switzerland)] [Univ. de Geneve, Versoix (Switzerland)

1999-06-01

374

Leakage detection of Marcellus Shale natural gas at an Upper Devonian gas monitoring well: a 3-d numerical modeling approach.  

PubMed

Potential natural gas leakage into shallow, overlying formations and aquifers from Marcellus Shale gas drilling operations is a public concern. However, before natural gas could reach underground sources of drinking water (USDW), it must pass through several geologic formations. Tracer and pressure monitoring in formations overlying the Marcellus could help detect natural gas leakage at hydraulic fracturing sites before it reaches USDW. In this study, a numerical simulation code (TOUGH 2) was used to investigate the potential for detecting leaking natural gas in such an overlying geologic formation. The modeled zone was based on a gas field in Greene County, Pennsylvania, undergoing production activities. The model assumed, hypothetically, that methane (CH4), the primary component of natural gas, with some tracer, was leaking around an existing well between the Marcellus Shale and the shallower and lower-pressure Bradford Formation. The leaky well was located 170 m away from a monitoring well, in the Bradford Formation. A simulation study was performed to determine how quickly the tracer monitoring could detect a leak of a known size. Using some typical parameters for the Bradford Formation, model results showed that a detectable tracer volume fraction of 2.0 × 10(-15) would be noted at the monitoring well in 9.8 years. The most rapid detection of tracer for the leak rates simulated was 81 days, but this scenario required that the leakage release point was at the same depth as the perforation zone of the monitoring well and the zones above and below the perforation zone had low permeability, which created a preferred tracer migration pathway along the perforation zone. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the time needed to detect CH4 leakage at the monitoring well was very sensitive to changes in the thickness of the high-permeability zone, CH4 leaking rate, and production rate of the monitoring well. PMID:25144442

Zhang, Liwei; Anderson, Nicole; Dilmore, Robert; Soeder, Daniel J; Bromhal, Grant

2014-09-16

375

Stable isotope tracers of water vapor sources in the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile: a pilot study on the Chajnantor Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subtropical deserts form in response to the interaction of large-scale processes, including atmospheric circulation and oceanic currents, with local features like topography. The degree to which each of these factors controls desert formation and the anticipated impacts of variations in each as climate changes, however, are poorly understood. Stable isotope compositions of water vapor in desert air can help to distinguish between moisture sources and processes that control aridity. The Atacama Desert, located in northern Chile between latitudes 23S and 27S, provides a natural laboratory in which to test the degree to which water vapor isotopologues enable the distinction between processes that control humidity, including the Hadley Circulation, the cold Humboldt Current off the coast of Chile, and the orographic effect of the Andes, in this subtropical desert. Water vapor isotopologues and concentrations were measured in real time using a cavity-ringdown spectrometer deployed on the Chajnantor Plateau over a three-week period from mid-July early August 2010. The elevation of the Plateau, 5000 m amsl (~550 hPa), places it above the boundary layer, allowing the evaluation of the Rayleigh fractionation model from the coast inland. Values reported by the instrument were verified with air samples taken at the coast and the Plateau, which were analyzed on an MAT-252 mass spectrometer. Water vapor concentrations and ?D values varied spatially and temporally. Water vapor concentrations on the Plateau ranged from 200 to 3664 ppmv with a mean value of 536 ppmv. In contrast, water vapor concentrations at the coast were approximately 10000 ppmv, and at Yungay, 60 km inland, water vapor concentrations ranged from 1300 to 2000 ppmv from morning to evening. ?D values on the Plateau ranged from -526‰ to -100‰ with a mean value of 290‰ with enriched values correlated to periods with higher water vapor concentrations. There are no strong diurnal variations in water vapor concentrations and corresponding ?D values on the Plateau, however, water vapor concentrations generally increase after sunrise and reach their maxima in the evening. Temperatures on the Plateau were consistently around 0 degrees C during the pilot study with dewpoint temperatures around -20 degrees C and specific humidity ranging from 0.20 to 2.0 g/kg. Within this range of specific humidity, the Rayleigh fractionation model predicts ?D values between -570‰ and -300‰. Preliminary results from this pilot study show that ?D values are more enriched than predicted by a Rayleigh fractionation curve for water originating at the ocean and moving inland to an elevation of 5000 m. Instead, ?D for water vapor on the Chajnantor Plateau falls along a mixing curve between upper- and lower-troposphere sources. Long term monitoring is necessary to understand the complex interplay between atmospheric and oceanic processes combined with topography responsible for the both water vapor concentrations and ?D values observed on the Chajnantor Plateau.

Samuels, K. E.; Galewsky, J.; Sharp, Z. D.; Rella, C.; Ward, D.

2010-12-01

376

Estimate derived using the average WWTP tracer concentration from this analysis Estimate derived using average value from a previous study, Torres et. al (2800 ng/l)  

E-print Network

the percentage ­ during average flow conditions. During drought conditions, Colorado River water may contain 14 been analyzed as a tracer of wastewater effluent. The Colorado River contains 1-2% wastewater from Las balance linked to online river flow data. Validation through the Analysis of Sucralose Grab samples

Hall, Sharon J.

377

/sup 18/F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose as a tracer in the positron emission tomographic study of senile dementia  

SciTech Connect

Using /sup 18/F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose as a tracer, the authors obtained positron emission tomographic scans of 11 patients with senile dementia and 6 age-matched controls. The rate of glucose metabolism was significantly lower in the patients with senile dementia and significantly correlated with the degree of cognitive impairment.

Farkas, T.; Ferris, S.H.; Wolf, A.P.; De Leon, M.J.; Christman, D.R.; Reisberg, B.; Alavi, A.; Fowler, J.S.; George, A.E.; Reivich, M.

1982-03-01

378

Using Neural Networks to Describe Tracer Correlations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and CH4 volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.). In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation co- efficient of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) which has continuously observed CH4, (but not N2O) from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

Lary, D. J.; Mueller, M. D.; Mussa, H. Y.

2003-01-01

379

Single-scan dual-tracer FLT+FDG PET tumor characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid multi-tracer PET aims to image two or more tracers in a single scan, simultaneously characterizing multiple aspects of physiology and function without the need for repeat imaging visits. Using dynamic imaging with staggered injections, constraints on the kinetic behavior of each tracer are applied to recover individual-tracer measures from the multi-tracer PET signal. The ability to rapidly and reliably image both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) would provide complementary measures of tumor metabolism and proliferative activity, with important applications in guiding oncologic treatment decisions and assessing response. However, this tracer combination presents one of the most challenging dual-tracer signal-separation problems—both tracers have the same radioactive half-life, and the injection delay is short relative to the half-life and tracer kinetics. This work investigates techniques for single-scan dual-tracer FLT+FDG PET tumor imaging, characterizing the performance of recovering static and dynamic imaging measures for each tracer from dual-tracer datasets. Simulation studies were performed to characterize dual-tracer signal-separation performance for imaging protocols with both injection orders and injection delays of 10-60 min. Better performance was observed when FLT was administered first, and longer delays before administration of FDG provided more robust signal-separation and recovery of the single-tracer imaging measures. An injection delay of 30 min led to good recovery (R > 0.96) of static image values (e.g. SUV), Knet, and K1 as compared to values from separate, single-tracer time-activity curves. Recovery of higher order rate parameters (k2, k3) was less robust, indicating that information regarding these parameters was harder to recover in the presence of statistical noise and dual-tracer effects. Performance of the dual-tracer FLT(0 min)+FDG(32 min) technique was further evaluated using PET/CT imaging studies in five patients with primary brain tumors where the data from separate scans of each tracer were combined to synthesize dual-tracer scans with known single-tracer components; results demonstrated similar dual-tracer signal recovery performance. We conclude that rapid dual-tracer FLT+FDG tumor imaging is feasible and can provide quantitative tumor imaging measures comparable to those from conventional separate-scan imaging.

Kadrmas, Dan J.; Rust, Thomas C.; Hoffman, John M.

2013-02-01

380

Characterizing building ventilation with the pollutant concentration index: Results from field studies  

SciTech Connect

A new method for characterizing ventilation in commercial buildings using the Pollutant Concentration Index (PCI) was evaluated via field studies in four buildings. The PCI parameter quantifies the effectiveness of ventilation in controlling air pollutant exposures for pollutants released continuously and spatially uniformly within the building. For the measurements, passive tracer gas sources spaced uniformly per unit floor area, simulated an indoor pollutant. The sources continuously released the tracer gas at a known rate. During the occupied periods of several days, air samples from seated breathing-level locations were collected in gas storage bags. The PCI values were based on the tracer gas concentrations in the sample storage bags and on the indoor tracer gas emission rate. The technique was successfully implemented in buildings ranging in floor area from 129 m{sup 2} to 4475 m{sup 2}. Results of these studies indicated that the spacing of tracer gas sources, between 8 and 73 m{sup 2}/source, had little effect upon measured values of the PCI. The agreement between PCI values measured simultaneously with two different tracers was usually within 15%. The precision of PCI measurements made with a single tracer gas was approximately 5%. Measured PCI values were referenced to predicted values for buildings that meet minimum ventilation standards. PCI values also indicated the spatial and temporal variability of the effectiveness of ventilation in controlling pollutant exposures.

Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Thomas, J.M. Jr.

1997-04-01

381

Crystallographic studies of gas sorption in metal–organic frameworks  

PubMed Central

Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous crystalline materials of modular design. One of the primary applications of these materials is in the adsorption and separation of gases, with potential benefits to the energy, transport and medical sectors. In situ crystallography of MOFs under gas atmospheres has enabled the behaviour of the frameworks under gas loading to be investigated and has established the precise location of adsorbed gas molecules in a significant number of MOFs. This article reviews progress in such crystallographic studies, which has taken place over the past decade, but has its origins in earlier studies of zeolites, clathrates etc. The review considers studies by single-crystal or powder diffraction using either X-rays or neutrons. Features of MOFs that strongly affect gas sorption behaviour are discussed in the context of in situ crystallographic studies, specifically framework flexibility, and the presence of (organic) functional groups and unsaturated (open) metal sites within pores that can form specific interactions with gas molecules. PMID:24892587

Carrington, Elliot J.; Vitórica-Yrezábal, Iñigo J.; Brammer, Lee

2014-01-01

382

Comparison of different tracers for PIV measurements in EHD airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a proposed method for selecting a tracer for particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurement in electrohydrodynamics flows was developed. To begin with, several published studies were identified that exploit different tracers, such as oil smoke, cigarette smoke and titanium dioxide (TiO2). An assortment of tracers was then selected based on comparisons with conventional dimensionless numbers; Stokes number ( St), Archimedes number ( Ar) and electrical mobility ratio ( M). Subsequently, an experimental study for testing tracers was developed, which enabled the velocity profile of an ionic wind generated by a needle/ring configuration to be measured. Air velocity measurements carried out with a Pitot tube, considered as the reference measurements, were compared to PIV measurements for each tracer. In addition, the current-voltage curves and the evolution of the current during seeding were measured. All the experimental results show that TiO2, SiO2 microballoons and incense smoke are the ideal tracers in the series of tracers investigated.

Hamdi, M.; Havet, M.; Rouaud, O.; Tarlet, D.

2014-04-01

383

Technique for elevated release of sulfur hexafluoride tracer  

SciTech Connect

Study of the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants has benefited greatly in the past from the use of artificial tracers. The study described in this paper used tethered balloons which carry one end of a hose aloft, through which a gaseous tracer can be dispensed. From the field tests it was concluded that the tandem balloon system is useful in atmospheric tracer experiments where a single balloon has insufficient lift to provide a release at the desired elevation. The SF/sub 6/ release system proved to be portable, easy to use, and suitable for simulating continuous elevated pollutant releases. 3 figures. (DP)

Whiteman, C.D.; Glover, D.W.

1983-08-01

384

USE OF PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER (PFT) TECHNOLOGY FOR SUBSURFACE BARRIER INTEGRITY VERIFICATION AT THE WALDO TEST SITE.  

SciTech Connect

Testing of perfluorocarbon gas tracers (PFT) on a subsurface barrier with known flaws was conducted at the Waldo Test Site operated by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc (SEA). The tests involved the use of five unique PFTs with a different tracer injected along the interior of each wall of the barrier. A fifth tracer was injected exterior to the barrier to examine the validity of diffusion controlled transport of the PFTs. The PFTs were injected for three days at a nominal flow rate of 15 cm{sup 3}/min and concentrations in the range of a few hundred ppm. Approximately 65 liters of air laced with tracer was injected for each tracer. The tracers were able to accurately detect the presence of the engineered flaws. Two flaws were detected on the north and east walls, and one flaw was detected on the south and west walls. In addition, one non-engineered flaw at the seam between the north and east walls was also detected. The use of multiple tracers provided independent confirmation of the flaws and permitted a distinction between tracers arriving at a monitoring port after being released from a nearby flaw and non-engineered flaws. The PFTs detected the smallest flaw, 0.5 inches in diameter. Visual inspection of the data showed excellent agreement with the known flaw locations and the relative size of the flaws was accurately estimated. Simultaneous with the PFT tests, SEA conducted tests with another gas tracer sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}).

SULLIVAN,T.

1999-06-01

385

Assessment of a Geothermal Doublet in the Malm Aquifer Using a Push-Pull Tracer Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal exploration of the Malm aquifer in Bavaria is highly successful. Data about the long-term operation, however, is still scarce, although detailed knowledge about the processes occurring in the aquifer is a key requirement to run geothermal facilities efficiently and economically. While there usually is a constant flow of data from the production well (temperatures, hydraulic data, hydrochemical conditions, gas composition) not even the temperatures in the immediate surrounding of the reinjection well are accessible or known. In 2011 the geothermal facility in Pullach was extended with a third geothermal well reaching into the Malm aquifer which is now used as a reinjection well. The former reinjection well was converted to a production well after 5 years of operation. This setting offers a unique opportunity to study the processes in the vicinity of a reinjection well and provides the data base to describe the hydraulic, thermal and hydrochemical performance of the reservoir. The viscosity of the reinjected cold water is increasing by 60% compared to the production well, thus one would expect an increase of the reinjection pressure as the cold water plume spreads around the reinjection well. Measurements, however, show a significant decrease of the reinjection pressure, suggesting processes in the aquifer which positively change the hydraulic properties and overcompensate the viscosity effects. Hydrochemical data and modeling indicate that a dissolution of the matrix along the flow pathways is responsible for the decreasing reinjection pressures. The change of the flow direction from reinjection to production was used to conduct a push-pull tracer test. Here, a series of fluorescent dye pulses was added to the reinjected water before the former reinjection well was shut down (push phase). These tracers included a conservative tracer (Fluorescein), surface-sensitive tracers (Eosin/Sulforhodamin B), and a NAPL-sensitive tracer (Na-Naphthionate). After changing to production mode in October 2012 the pull phase was started. The different behavior of the tracers within the reservoir delivers data about dispersion, sorption properties, matrix interaction and the regional flux. First tracer breakthrough curves point to a significant heterogeneity of the flow pathways and that regional flow is not negligible.

Lafogler, Mark; Somogyi, Gabriella; Nießner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

2013-04-01

386

Broadband Seismic Studies at the Mallik Gas Hydrate Research Well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 3L-38, 4L-38 and 5L-38 scientific wells were drilled in the MacKenzie Delta, NWT, Canada in early 2002 primarily for carrying out initial tests of the feasibility of producing methane gas from the large gas hydrate deposits there [1]. As part of this study, high resolution seismic profiles, a pseudo-3D single fold seismic volume and broadband (8~180Hz) multi-offset vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were acquired at the Mallik site. Here, we provide details on the acquisition program, present the results of the 2D field profile, and discuss the potential implications of these observations for the structure of the permafrost and gas hydrate zones. These zones have long been problematic in seismic imaging due to the lateral heterogeneities. Conventional seismic data processing usually assume a stratified, weak-contrast elastic earth model. However, in permafrost and gas hydrate zones this approximation often becomes invalid. This leads to seismic wave scattering caused by multi-scale perturbation of elastic properties. A 3D viscoelastic finite difference modeling algorithm was employed to simulate wave propagation in a medium with strong contrast. Parameters in this modeling analysis are based on the borehole geophysical log data. In addition, an uncorrelated Vibroseis VSP data set was studied to investigate frequency-dependent absorption and velocity dispersion. Our results indicate that scattering and velocity dispersion are important for a better understanding of attenuation mechanisms in heterogeneous permafrost and gas hydrate zones. [1] Dallimore, S.R., Collett, T.S., Uchida, T., and Weber, M., 2005, Overview of the science program for the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program; in Scientific Results from Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate production Research Well Program, MacKenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, (ed.) S.R. Dallimore and T.S. Collett; Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 585, in press.

Sun, L. F.; Huang, J.; Lyons-Thomas, P.; Qian, W.; Milkereit, B.; Schmitt, D. R.

2005-12-01

387

Chemical Tracers as an Indicator of Transport in the UT/LS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous airborne studies have proven the scientific value of chemical tracers in examining transport of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS). ESRL scientists operated two airborne gas chromatographs on the NCAR G-V during the NSF sponsored Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport START-08 campaign over the midlatitudes of central North America. The Unmanned aircraft systems Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) is comprised of a two-channel electron capture detection-gas chromatograph (ECD-GC), an ozone absorption photometer, and a water vapor tunable diode laser spectrometer. It measures N2O and SF6 every 70 seconds on one EC-GC channel, and H2, CO, and CH4 every 140 seconds on the second channel. PAN and Trace Hydrohalocarbon ExpeRiment (PANTHER) is a six-channel gas chromatograph with four ECD-GC channels and two mass selective detector-gas chromatograph (MSD-GC) channels that double the sampling rate to 180 seconds by using two traps and columns. The ECD-GC channels measure N2O, SF6, CFC-11, CFC-12, halon-1211, and PAN once every 70 seconds, H2, CH4, and CO once every 140 seconds. The two MSD-GC channels measure methyl halides (CH3I, CH3Cl, CH3I), HCFCs (22, 141b, 142b), HFC-134a, sulfur gases (COS and CS2) once every 180 seconds. These data represent a diversity of atmospheric lifetimes and are useful in examining transport in UT/LS. One example is the tracer-tracer correlation plot of N2O versus SF6, which s