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A brainabscess is defined as a localized collection of pus within the parenchyma of the brain or meninges. Brainabscesses are a complication of ear, sinus, and/or dental infections. Although they may occur in many brain locations, the most common sites are frontal and temporal lobes. Modern neuroimaging and laboratory analysis have led to prompt diagnosis and have decreased the mortality rates from brainabscess. Critical care nurses have a vital role in performing accurate neurologic assessments, timely administration of antibiotics, and management of fever. PMID:23981454
Brainabscess is a serious and life-threatening disease among children despite advances in diagnosis and management. Changes in the epidemiology of predisposing conditions for brainabscess are associated with changes in the patient population and causative organisms. Though still a potentially fatal infection, there have been recent improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Although mortality appears to be decreasing, a significant percentage of children continue to have residual neurological deficits, including epilepsy, permanent motor or sensory dysfunction, visual field defects, and personality change. Some children also require placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The most common origin of microbial infection in children remains direct or indirect cranial infection arising from the middle ear, paranasal sinuses, or teeth. No prospective clinical trials have compared the various surgical and medical treatment strategies available to guide the management of cerebral abscesses in children. Most surgical and medical treatment guidelines are based on populations consisting primarily of adult patients. The use of corticosteroids for treatment of brainabscess is controversial. Anticonvulsants are recommended in children who have developed seizures potentially to prevent further episodes. Duration of anticonvulsant therapy should be individualized and guided by electroencephalographic (EEG) study in the follow-up phase of disease. PMID:23622320
We describe an immunocompromised patient who developed a large frontal brainabscess caused by Legionella micdadei. This is, to our knowledge, a rare case of culture-proven Legionella central nervous system infection.
Johnson, Edward; Macyk-Davey, Andrea; Henry, Monica; Nilsson, Jan-Erik; Miedzinski, Lil
Ten patients with clostridial abscesses of the brain are presented. Despite the presence of gas within the cerebral hemispheres and Clostridium welchii cultured from the pus obtained, the outcome of all patients managed with burrhole aspiration of the abscess was good. There were no deaths and eight of the ten patients had no residual deficit. Clostridial infections of the brain, unlike those of the soft tissues of the body, have a good outcome with conservative surgery and appropriate antibiotics. PMID:7718165
Brainabscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA.
Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael
Pasteurella infections are common in domestic animals and very rare in human. We report a hematogenously acquired Pasteurella haemolytica brainabscess, mimicking brain tumor on magnetic resonance imaging, in an 18-year-old female patient known with cardiac interventricular communication, without recent history of animal contact. The outcome was good after abscess complete removal and antimicrobials therapy for 6 weeks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of P. haemolytica brainabscess.
Aspergillus brainabscess is a rare clinical entity, which remains a challenge to diagnose and treat. Most fungi are low virulence organisms, often living as commensals. They however, pose a considerable challenge in an immune-compromised host. Systemic steroids are commonly used in treatment of various inflammatory conditions. Despite their relatively safe profile, one peril of such treatment is immune suppression. It is prudent that physicians remain aware of the risk of various opportunistic infections in such patients. We present a case of fatal intra-cranial aspergillosis in an immuno-compromised patient on systemic steroids. PMID:24015447
We experienced a case of liver abscess due to Clostridium perfringens (CP) complicated with massive hemolysis and rapid death in an adequately controlled type 2 diabetic patient. The patient died 6 h after his first visit to the hospital. CP was later detected in a blood culture. We searched for case reports of CP septicemia and found 124 cases. Fifty patients survived, and 74 died. Of the 30 patients with liver abscess, only 3 cases survived following treatment with emergency surgical drainage. For the early detection of CP infection, detection of Gram-positive rods in the blood or drainage fluid is important. Spherocytes and ghost cells indicate intravascular hemolysis. The prognosis is very poor once massive hemolysis occurs. The major causative organisms of gas-forming liver abscess in diabetic patients are Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Although CP is relatively rare, the survival rate is very poor compared with those of K. pneumoniae and E. coli. Therefore, for every case that presents with a gas-forming liver abscess, the possibility of CP should be considered, and immediate aspiration of the abscess and Gram staining are important. PMID:24748935
We experienced a case of liver abscess due to Clostridium perfringens (CP) complicated with massive hemolysis and rapid death in an adequately controlled type 2 diabetic patient. The patient died 6 h after his first visit to the hospital. CP was later detected in a blood culture. We searched for case reports of CP septicemia and found 124 cases. Fifty patients survived, and 74 died. Of the 30 patients with liver abscess, only 3 cases survived following treatment with emergency surgical drainage. For the early detection of CP infection, detection of Gram-positive rods in the blood or drainage fluid is important. Spherocytes and ghost cells indicate intravascular hemolysis. The prognosis is very poor once massive hemolysis occurs. The major causative organisms of gas-forming liver abscess in diabetic patients are Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Although CP is relatively rare, the survival rate is very poor compared with those of K. pneumoniae and E. coli. Therefore, for every case that presents with a gas-forming liver abscess, the possibility of CP should be considered, and immediate aspiration of the abscess and Gram staining are important.
A 64-year-old man presented with diarrhea, fever, and disturbance of consciousness; he was subsequently diagnosed with acute renal and hepatic disorder. Abdominal computed tomography identified a gas-forming liver abscess, and the patient underwent emergency drainage. However, his condition did not improve, and Clostridium perfringens was observed in his blood culture. Continuous perfusion drainage was performed by placing an additional drainage tube, which resulted in abscess shrinkage and improved the patient's general condition. Despite the low survival rate in patients with gas-forming liver abscesses caused by C. perfringens, therapy was successful in this patient. PMID:24998733
Posttraumatic brainabscesses are usually caused by Gram-negative bacilli, notably Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Although Aeromonas hydrophila is a recognized cause of trauma-related sepsis, it has not been previously isolated from posttraumatic brainabscesses. We describe the first case of Aeromonas hydrophila brainabscess. PMID:24622098
We report a case of multiple brainabscesses (BAs) in a 67-year-old man with symptoms of progredient disorientation and amnestic aphasia. Onset of symptoms occurred one week after surgical treatment of a perianal abscess. No other source of infection was identified and the abscesses were limited to the brain. The immune status was normal but a patent foramen ovale (pFO)
Florian Doepp; Stephan J. Schreiber; Klaus-Peter Wandinger; George Trendelenburg; José M. Valdueza
Nocardia cerebral abscess is rare, constituting approximately 1-2% of all cerebral abscesses. Mortality for a cerebral abscess of Nocardia is three times higher than that of other bacterial cerebral abscesses, therefore, early diagnosis and therapy is important. Nocardia cerebral abscess is generally occur among immunocompromised patients, and critical infection in immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We report on a case of a brainabscess by Nocardia farcinica in an immunocompetent patient who received treatment with surgery and antibiotics. This is the second case of a brainabscess caused by N. farcinica in an immunocompetent patient in Korea. PMID:24693470
Kim, Suyoung; Lee, Kang Lock; Lee, Dong Min; Jeong, Ji Hun; Moon, Song Mi; Seo, Yiel-Hae; Yoo, Chan Jong; Yang, Dongki; Cho, Yong Kyun; Park, Yoon Soo
The incidence of solitary brain stem abscess is less than 4% of all posterior fossa abscesses, and probably less than 1% of all intracranial abscesses. Two cases are reported, both presenting as chronic progressive clinical problems and initially diagnosed as gliomas. It is suggested that aspiration is a more suitable treatment than excision, and that in cases secondary to otogenic disease, radical mastoidectomy might have been an adequate method of prophylaxis. Images
Tuberculous brainabscess (TBA) is one of the rare forms of central nervous system tuberculosis. A case of tuberculous cerebellar abscess in a young immunocompetent adult male is being described. There was no clinical or radiological evidence of active tuberculosis elsewhere in the body. The diagnosis of tubercular abscess was confirmed by demonstration of acid fast bacilli in the abscess material aspirated via a burr hole. High index of suspicion and timely intervention is required to diagnose and treat this potential fatal but easily treatable condition. PMID:24678219
Tuberculous brainabscess (TBA) is one of the rare forms of central nervous system tuberculosis. A case of tuberculous cerebellar abscess in a young immunocompetent adult male is being described. There was no clinical or radiological evidence of active tuberculosis elsewhere in the body. The diagnosis of tubercular abscess was confirmed by demonstration of acid fast bacilli in the abscess material aspirated via a burr hole. High index of suspicion and timely intervention is required to diagnose and treat this potential fatal but easily treatable condition.
Three children with intracerebral abscesses were treated endoscopically. Two of the treated abscesses were located in the left temporal lobe and one in the right parietal lobe. The presenting symptoms included headaches, seizures, hemiparesis and signs of infection. Burr hole craniotomy, insertion of a peelaway sheath, obtaining of a specimen, introduction of endoscope, and complete irrigation under view was performed. After this a draining catheter was positioned in the abscess. All three abscesses grew multiple organisms. The patients received longstanding intravenous treatment with antibiotics. The follow-up period in this group ranges between 5 and 32 months. The initial neurological deficits were relieved in all three patients. The follow-up MRI studies revealed minor residual changes without evidence of significant sequelae. Neuroendoscopic treatment of brainabscesses has additional advantages compared to stereotactic aspiration or more complete drainage and lavage. PMID:9359089
Background: Nocardial brainabscesses are a rare central nervous system infection with high morbidity and mortality. Infection is acquired through inhalation or direct innoculation and then spreads hematogenously. They are usually associated with immunocompromised patients but may appear in otherwise healthy individuals. Treatment is based on surgical aspiration and antibiotics for several months. Case Description: We present four cases of nocardial brainabscesses treated at our institution and review the literature regarding these lesions. Ages ranged from 22 to 71 years. One patient was a healthy individual without any predisposing condition. Patients were treated with surgical evacuation and long term parenteral antibiotics. Two patients made a full recovery; one patient died and one recovered with significant morbidity. In one case malignancy was suspected, probably delaying diagnosis. Conclusions: Nocardial brainabscesses are a rare condition that needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain lesions. They are not necessarily associated with predisposing factors such as immunosupresion. Treatment must be started as soon as possible with surgical evacuation and long term parenteral antibiotics in order to avoid significant morbidity.
Tamarit, Martin; Poveda, Pedro; Baron, Manuel; Del Pozo, Jose Manuel
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ca-MRSA) has been implicated as a major cause of cutaneous skin infections. Invasive infections from ca-MRSA have also been reported, including endocarditis, pneumonia, and necrotizing fasciitis. We describe a case of a missed ca-MRSA epidural brainabscess in a patient with a recent furunculosis who underwent a lumbar puncture for meningitis workup without a prior head
Lactococcus lactis cremoris infections are very rare in humans. It is recognized as a commensal organism of mucocutaneous surfaces of cattle, and is occasionally isolated from human mucocutaneous surfaces. We report a brainabscess caused by L. lactis cremoris in an immunocompetent child. A 19-month-old female patient was admitted with fever and vomiting. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed brainabscess. L. lactis cremoris was isolated from culture of the abscess material. The patient was treated with pus drainage from brainabscess and antibiotics including vancomycin and meropenem. The patient recovered completely. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a L. lactis cremoris infection in children. PMID:21953033
Topçu, Yasemin; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Bayram, Erhan; H?z, Semra; Türkmen, Mehmet
Introduction Mycoplasma hominis is mostly known for causing urogenital infections. However, it has rarely been described as an agent of brainabscess. Case presentation We describe a case of M. hominis brainabscess in a 41-year-old Caucasian woman following uterus curettage. The diagnosis was obtained by 16S rDNA amplification, cloning and sequencing from the abscess pus, and confirmed by a specifically designed real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Conclusions Findings from our patient's case suggest that M. hominis should be considered as a potential agent of brainabscess, especially following uterine manipulation.
In this report, we review two cases of brain infection due to Dialister pneumosintes in previously healthy patients. The bacterium was isolated from the first patient by blood culture and directly from a brainabscess in the second patient. In both cases, the infection was suspected to be of nasopharyngeal or dental origin. The patients had favorable outcomes following surgical debridement and antibiotic treatment. After in vitro amplification and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, two strains were classified as D. pneumosintes. However, traditional biochemical tests were not sufficient to identify the bacteria. In addition to causing periodontal and opportunistic infections, D. pneumosintes, contained in mixed flora, may behave as a clinically important pathogen, especially in the brain. In addition to phenotypic characterization, 16S rRNA partial sequencing was used to identify D. pneumosintes definitively.
Rousee, J. M.; Bermond, D.; Piemont, Y.; Tournoud, C.; Heller, R.; Kehrli, P.; Harlay, M. L.; Monteil, H.; Jaulhac, B.
We report a case of clinically unsuspected nocardia brainabscess detected by /sup 111/In-labeled autologous leukocytes. Clinical and computed tomographic findings supported the diagnosis of primary or metastatic tumor and the patient was treated with dexamethasone for 30 days prior to the leukocyte scan. Labeled leukocytes may provide a sensitive discriminator for brainabscess despite previous therapy with steroids.
Odontogenic infections are rarely implicated in the causes of brainabscess formation. As such, there are very few reports of brainabscesses secondary to odontogenic infections in the literature. This is due partly to the relative rarity of brainabscesses but also to the difficulty in matching the causative organisms of a brainabscess to an odontogenic source. The authors report a case of a 50-year-old woman whose brainabscess may potentially have been secondary to an odontogenic infection. The patient's early diagnosis, supported by imaging and microbiologic assessment, along with early minicraniotomy and extraction of infected dentition followed by a course of cephalosporins and metronidazole, contributed to a successful outcome. PMID:24157081
Yang, Joseph; Liu, Stanley Y; Hossaini-Zadeh, Mehran; Pogrel, M Anthony
Dermal sinuses have been associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to drainage of purulent material from the sinus tract, inclusion tumors, meningitis, and spinal abscess. To date, there has been no documented report of brainabscess as a complication of spinal dermal sinus. Here, we report an 8-month-old girl who was presented initially with a brainabscess at early infancy but lumbar dermal sinus and associated spinal abscess were discovered afterwards. The probable mechanisms of this rare association have been discussed.
Background Ischemic stroke by septic embolism occurs primarily in the context of infective endocarditis or in patients with a right-to-left shunt and formation of a secondary cerebral abscess is a rare event. Erosion of pulmonary veins by a pulmonary abscess can lead to transcardiac septic embolism but to our knowledge no case of septic embolic ischemic stroke from a pulmonary abscess with secondary transformation into a brainabscess has been reported to date. Case presentation We report the case of a patient with a pulmonary abscess causing a septic embolic cerebral infarction which then transformed into a cerebral abscess. After antibiotic therapy and drainage of the abscess the patient could be rehabilitated and presented an impressive improvement of symptoms. Conclusion Septic embolism should be considered as cause of ischemic stroke in patients with pulmonary abscess and can be followed by formation of a secondary cerebral abscess. Early antibiotic treatment and repeated cranial CT-scans for detection of a secondary abscess should be performed.
This retrospective study analyzed 29 cerebral abscesses of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) origin. The mean follow-up of patients was 37 months. ENT etiologies included 45% otitis media (n = 13), 48% sinusitis (n = 14), and 7% ethmoidal sinus tumors (n = 2). Thirty-eight percent (n = 5) of otogenic abscesses occurred within 15 days after a mastoidectomy. Sinogenic abscesses were never due to surgery but were associated in 31% of cases (n = 5) with anterior skull base defects. The main locations of otogenic abscesses were the temporal lobe (54%; n = 7) and the cerebellum (23%; n = 3), whereas sinogenic abscesses were located in the frontal lobe in 75% of cases (n = 12). Because of this location, sinogenic abscesses were less symptomatic than otogenic ones and had greater size and encapsulation at the time of diagnosis. Thus, they required longer antibiotic treatment (p = 0.05) and more numerous surgical drainages (p = 0.02). Bacteriologic abscesses samples were positive in 90% of cases. Bacteria found in brainabscesses were different from the ones found in ENT samples in 62% of cases. Thus, the results of ENT bacteriologic samples were not helpful for choosing adequate antibiotic agents in case of negative brainabscess samples. Although mortality was not significantly higher in otogenic abscesses (31%; n = 4) than in sinogenic ones (6%; n = 1, p = 0.08), otogenic abscesses appeared more threatening. Indeed, they represented 80% (n = 4) of lethal cases and encompassed more clinical or radiological prognosis pejorative factors than sinogenic ones (p = 0.006). In conclusion, higher danger of otogenic abscesses mainly resulted both from their temporal or cerebellous locations and from the bacteria that were more frequently resistant to antibiotics.
We report a case of Scedosporium apiosporum brainabscesses in an immunocompetent 69-year-old man with a history of silicosis. Delayed diagnosis and institution of antifungal therapy was associated with neurological impairment, with subsequent complications resulting in death, highlighting the need for early diagnostic aspiration of brainabscesses non-responsive to antibiotics. We propose that, in the absence of identifiable immunosuppression, silicosis may have been a contributing factor to the development of central nervous system infection. PMID:24432222
Background: Brainabscess carries a high morbidity and mortality despite medical advances. In this paper, we present a single institution's experience with the surgical treatment of brainabscess. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 33 cases of intracranial abscess who underwent surgical treatment between January 2001 and December 2009. Patients were treated with aspiration through a single burr hole, open aspiration with ultrasound guidance, or complete abscess resection. The medical records were analyzed for demographics, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, imaging, microbiological investigations, treatment, and outcomes. Results: There were 26 male and 7 female patients, aged between 12 and 78 years. The most common predisposing factor was head trauma. Surgical excision of the abscess was performed in 22 patients, open aspiration in 9 patients, and burr-hole aspiration in 2 patients. Repeat surgical procedure was required in six patients. Mortality in this series was 21%. A favorable outcome (Glasgow outcome scale 4 and 5) was achieved in 54%. There was no significant correlation between outcome and age, predisposing factor, treatment modality, or culture results. Conclusions: In this series, most patients were treated with an open technique, either by surgical excision or open aspiration of brainabscess. An open technique may reduce the need for additional imaging, surgical treatment, and length of antibiotic therapy. In resource-limited settings, excision of brainabscess may play a more important role in patient management while maintaining favorable outcomes.
Gadgil, Nisha; Patel, Akash J.; Gopinath, Shankar P.
The authors reviewed six cases of multiple brainabscesses that were treated at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) over an eight year period. This represented 22% of the total brainabscesses treated during the same period. The series is unusual in that the infective pathogens were fungi (Fonsecaea pedrosoi) in two patients (33%) and an aerobic actinomycete (Nocardia asteroides) in one patient (16%). Two patients treated elsewhere with antibiotics empirically for one month died at three and 28 days following admission. The poor outcome was probably related t the delay in obtaining a microbiological diagnosis and commencing the appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The importance of early identification of the pathogen in patients with multiple brainabscesses is stressed. PMID:17589050
Jamjoom, A; Jamjoom, Z A; Shameena, A; Al-Hedaithy, S; Tahan, A; Ur Rahman, N
Endovascular embolization has become an important treatment option for cerebral aneurysms, along with surgical clipping. But few literatures mentioned infectious complications after coiling of aneurysms. We present a patient with a brainabscess that developed after endosaccular embolization of a left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. The brainabscess was located adjacent to the aneurysm and discovered more than 2 months after embolization. We discuss the clinical implications of this rare complication and review the literature for infections related to the coils used for embolization of aneurysms. PMID:23845261
Precontrast and postcontrast computed tomograp(hic (CT) scans of patients with brainabscesses were quantitatively studied to determine if the degree of encapsulation could be predicted. The findings in these cases correlated closely to the CT criteria for encapsulation previously established in an experimental model. Time-density curves of serial delayed postcontrast CT scans and the precontrast CT appearance yielded accurate criteria for determining the degree of encapsulation. The effect of corticosteroid treatment on contrast enhancement of brainabscess was also studied in one patient.
Background Kocuria, established by Stackebrandt et al., previously was classified into Micrococcus. Only two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae are reported to be associated as pathogenic and found with catheter-related bacteremia and acute cholecystitis. Case presentation We herein report the first case of brainabscess caused by Kocuria varians, a gram-positive microorganism, in a 52-year-old man. Hematogenous spread is the probable pathogenesis. Conclusions This report presents a case of Kocuria varians brainabscess successfully treated with surgical excision combined with antimicrobial therapy. In addition, Vitek 2 system has been used to identify and differentiate between coagulase-negative staphylococcus.
Introduction: Tuberculous brainabscess (TBA) is a rare but serious condition. It resembles a pyogenic brainabscess clinically and radiologically and poses a problem in diagnosis and treatment. A final diagnosis is established by smear or culture demonstration of acid fast bacilli (AFB) within the abscess. Here, we report four such cases in our five-year study on brainabscesses, along with the different diagnostic modalities used. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 brainabscess pus specimens were collected during neurosurgery, either by burr hole or by craniotomy. These specimens were further subjected to Gram stain, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain, and conventional microbiological culture. Only those cases which showed presence of AFB on ZN stain along with the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were considered as TBAs. Such TBA cases were further presented along with their In vitro Proton Magnetic Resonance (MR) Spectroscopic findings. Results: Of these four patients, three were males. Though this condition is more commonly seen in immunocompromised patients, three of the patients in this study were immunocompetent. All the four pus specimens showed presence of AFB in the ZN stain. Three of them grew M. tuberculosis as sole isolate. The fourth case was of concomitant tuberculous and pyogenic brainabscess. In vitro Proton MR spectroscopy of the pus specimens showed absence of multiple amino acids at 0.9 ppm, which was found to be hallmark of TBA. One patient died of four. Conclusions: TBA always poses a diagnostic dilemma. ZN stain and conventional microbiological culture for Mycobacteria always help to solve this dilemma. In vitro Proton MR Spectroscopy also seems to have the diagnostic utility.
Menon, Sarala; Bharadwaj, Renu; Chowdhary, AS; Kaundinya, DV; Palande, DA
Background Right-to-left vascular shunts are associated with brainabscess. Case Report We present a 47-year-old female with a cryptogenic left thalamic abscess on which Streptococcus mitis grew upon aspiration. Computed tomography of the chest with contrast agent revealed an anomalous connection between the left superior pulmonary and brachiocephalic veins. A right-to-left shunt was confirmed in a transthoracic echocardiogram study in which bubbles were injected into the left arm; this shunt had not previously been noted upon right-arm injection. Conclusions We recommend aggressive evaluation for right-to-left shunts in patients who present with cryptogenic brainabscesses. In addition to imaging, this should include a bubble-based study with left-arm saline injection.
Sachdev, Amit; Yazbeck, Moussa F; Bell, Rodney D; Farrellc, Christopher
A bacteriologically proven case of brainabscess, due to Streptococcus oralis is being reported in a 12-year-old girl who is a known case of congenital heart disease. The patient presented with fever, headache and vomiting. Pus cultures yielded S. oralis. PMID:24713909
Solanki, R; Subramanian, S; Lakshmi, V; Bhushanam, V; Kumar, A
Ureaplasma urealyticum is a fastidious bacterium usually residing in the female genitourinary tract. We present an exceedingly complicated case of a brainabscess secondary to mastoiditis by U. urealyticum in an adult hypogammaglobulinemic patient after rituximab treatment 3 years earlier. PMID:24478517
Introduction The treatment of brainabscess remains a challenging topic usually involving a multimodal concept.Methods We report our experience with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in five children presenting with brainabscesses between 1995 and 2002 at the Department of Neurosurgery, Graz. Mean age was 14.8 (range 11–17 years). All abscesses were located supratentorially. One child had a single abscess and one had
Senta Kurschel; Amir Mohia; Verena Weigl; Hans Georg Eder
In this report, we describe a case of brainabscess due to odontogenic infection. A 53-year-old female who had been suffering from headache and trismus for two weeks visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Sun Dental Hospital (Daejeon, Korea). Even after several routine tests, we still could not make a diagnosis. However, after the combined multidisciplinary efforts of oral surgeons and neurosurgeons, the patient was treated for odontogenic infection and made an uneventful recovery. Therefore, patients with infections in the head and neck region showing symptoms such as headache, changes in mental state, nausea, vomiting, seizures, hemiplegia, speech disturbance, and visual disturbance, a brainabscess should be included in the list of differential diagnoses. PMID:25045643
Park, Sung Yong; Suh, Dong Won; Park, Chul Min; Oh, Min Seok; Lee, Dong-Kun
In this report, we describe a case of brainabscess due to odontogenic infection. A 53-year-old female who had been suffering from headache and trismus for two weeks visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Sun Dental Hospital (Daejeon, Korea). Even after several routine tests, we still could not make a diagnosis. However, after the combined multidisciplinary efforts of oral surgeons and neurosurgeons, the patient was treated for odontogenic infection and made an uneventful recovery. Therefore, patients with infections in the head and neck region showing symptoms such as headache, changes in mental state, nausea, vomiting, seizures, hemiplegia, speech disturbance, and visual disturbance, a brainabscess should be included in the list of differential diagnoses.
Park, Sung Yong; Suh, Dong Won; Park, Chul Min; Oh, Min Seok
Despite significant advances in the treatment of all forms of chronic otitis media (COM), complications still can and do occur, with intracranial complications representing the most life-threatening cases, often requiring immediate therapeutic intervention. Herein, we present a rare case of rapidly progressing facial paralysis with concomitant severe headache and ipsilateral hearing loss secondary to an otogenic brainabscess, treated with the transmastoid approach, drainage, and facial nerve decompression.
Despite significant advances in the treatment of all forms of chronic otitis media (COM), complications still can and do occur, with intracranial complications representing the most life-threatening cases, often requiring immediate therapeutic intervention. Herein, we present a rare case of rapidly progressing facial paralysis with concomitant severe headache and ipsilateral hearing loss secondary to an otogenic brainabscess, treated with the transmastoid approach, drainage, and facial nerve decompression. PMID:24851158
Brainabscesses can be highly lethal if appropriate treatment is not administered, and reports of such an abscess caused by Enterococcus avium are very rare. Here,we report a case of a 48-year-old man presenting with chronic otitis media. He initially presented with a headache and right otalgia. An otoscopic evaluation performed on the day of admission showed exudation of fresh pus from the right ear. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a hypodense area in the right temporoparietal lobe, suggestive of a brainabscess. A culturing of the ear discharge and brainabscess aspirate proved of E. avium infection. Following stereotactic aspiration of the brainabscess and proper antimicrobial treatment, the patient recovered completely. In this report, we also review and discuss the available medical literature on previous cases of E. avium infection associated with brainabscess.
Brainabscesses can be highly lethal if appropriate treatment is not administered, and reports of such an abscess caused by Enterococcus avium are very rare. Here,we report a case of a 48-year-old man presenting with chronic otitis media. He initially presented with a headache and right otalgia. An otoscopic evaluation performed on the day of admission showed exudation of fresh pus from the right ear. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a hypodense area in the right temporoparietal lobe, suggestive of a brainabscess. A culturing of the ear discharge and brainabscess aspirate proved of E. avium infection. Following stereotactic aspiration of the brainabscess and proper antimicrobial treatment, the patient recovered completely. In this report, we also review and discuss the available medical literature on previous cases of E. avium infection associated with brainabscess. PMID:24396636
Park, So-Youn; Park, Ki-Ho; Cho, Young Hyun; Choi, Sang-Ho
Rapid development within the field of massive parallel sequencing (MPS) is about to bring this technology within reach for diagnostic microbiology laboratories. We wanted to explore its potential for improving diagnosis and understanding of polymicrobial infections, using bacterial brainabscesses as an example. We conducted a prospective nationwide study on bacterial brainabscesses. Fifty-two surgical samples were included over a 2-year period. The samples were categorized as either spontaneous intracerebral, spontaneous subdural, or postoperative. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from the specimens and sequenced using Ion Torrent technology, with an average of 500,000 reads per sample. The results were compared to those from culture- and Sanger sequencing-based diagnostics. Compared to culture, MPS allowed for triple the number of bacterial identifications. Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Streptococcus intermedius or combinations of them were found in all spontaneous polymicrobial abscesses. F. nucleatum was systematically detected in samples with anaerobic flora. The increased detection rate for Actinomyces spp. and facultative Gram-negative rods further revealed several species associations. We suggest that A. aphrophilus, F. nucleatum, and S. intermedius are key pathogens for the establishment of spontaneous polymicrobial brainabscesses. In addition, F. nucleatum seems to be important for the development of anaerobic flora. MPS can accurately describe polymicrobial specimens when a sufficient number of reads is used to compensate for unequal species concentrations and principles are defined to discard contaminant bacterial DNA in the subsequent data analysis. This will contribute to our understanding of how different types of polymicrobial infections develop. PMID:24671797
Kommedal, Řyvind; Wilhelmsen, Marianne Thulin; Skrede, Steinar; Meisal, Roger; Jakovljev, Aleksandra; Gaustad, Peter; Hermansen, Nils Olav; Vik-Mo, Einar; Solheim, Ole; Ambur, Ole Herman; Sćbř, Řystein; Hřstmćlingen, Christina Teisner; Helland, Christian
A 56-year-old man developed an abscess within a right parietal cystic anaplastic astrocytoma 3 days after removal of iodine-125 sources placed 9 days earlier for interstitial radiation therapy. After treatment with cephalosporin antibiotics proved unsuccessful, the patient was treated with intravenous vancomycin and intermittent percutaneous drainage of the abscess. Vancomycin levels obtained from the brainabscess fluid, both before and
Background and Purpose: Brainabscess is an uncommon intracranial suppuration, especially in children. We reviewed the records of children with brainabscess admitted to Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, and analyzed data on presenting symptoms, predisposing factors and outcomes. Methods: Information was obtained retrospectively from medical records of children diagnosed with brain ab- scess. Demographic data, presenting symptoms, predisposing
... in several ways: Through trauma (food or debris embedded deep in the gum) Through decay (a cavity) ... or abscessed. If you have a weakened immune system because of a medicine you are taking or ...
... of bacteria that can cause serious skin infections. MRSA infections need to be specially treated because they are ... kinds of antibiotics. The good news is that MRSA infections are rare. Can Abscesses Be Prevented? Good hygiene ...
Brainabscess with bacteremia caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a young woman with immune thrombocytopenic purpura was reported. The clinical features included fever, headache, and left-side weakness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large single abscess at the right frontoparietal area. L. monocytogenes was isolated from a blood culture. The patient promptly received a surgical
A 66-year-old man with a recent radiographic diagnosis of a parietal brain tumour presented with severe left thigh pain that prevented ambulation. On examination, his left anterior thigh was mildly swollen without erythema. Initial concern was for deep vein thrombosis in the setting of brain malignancy or necrotising soft tissue infection. Subsequent imaging and biopsies revealed methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) pyomyositis of the left thigh and MSSA brainabscess. PMID:23997073
Narayanan, Maya; Mookherjee, Somnath; Spector, Tara B; White, Andrew Austin
Streptococcusanginosusis a member of the Streptococcus millerigroup, known to cause suppurative infections of the deep tissues. There have been very few case reports of the bacteria presenting with concomitant lung and brainabscesses. We describe a patient with new, onset seizures, subsequently diagnosed with S. anginosuslungandbrain abscesses. PMID:24600777
We report a rare case of a brainabscess which drained spontaneously in a temporomandibular joint damaged by osteoarthritis. The female patient presented to our hospital with a severe headache and pain in the temporomandibular joint. She showed elevated inflammatory parameters with unknown cause. Magnetic resonance imaging of her whole body revealed a large temporal brainabscess extending into the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint. The brainabscess was incised and drained by neurosurgeons in our hospital and in the same operation we resected the articular disc and the affected part of the right temporomandibular joint. Histological examination confirmed a chronic arthrosis in the resected bone of the temporomandibular joint and an inflammatory abscess in the resected brain tissue. The patient recovered well and the inflammation resolved as seen in postoperative investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging a month later confirmed local consolidation in the brain with no sign of residual inflammation. PMID:22440320
Klatt, J; Heiland, M; Gröbe, A; Westphal, M; Schmelzle, R; Pohlenz, P
Background: Nocardial brainabscess is a rare central nervous system (CNS) infection with high morbidity and mortality. The infection is acquired through inhalation or direct contact with the bacteria, and could spreads through blood transmission. Nocardial brainabscess is usually associated with immunocompromised patients, but sometimes may appear in healthy individuals. Treatment is based on stereotaxic aspiration or surgical resection, and antibiotics therapy for several months. Clinical presentation: We presented one case of nocardial brainabscess treated at our department with review the literature. The patient was 65-year-old with ANCA polyangitis. She had oral methylprednisolone tablets treatment for over 6 months. The patient was treated with surgical evacuation and long-term antibiotics. The patient recovered well at discharge. Conclusion: Nocardial brainabscess is a rare CNS infection that needs to be differentiated from other brain lesions. It could occur in immunocompromised patients or healthy individuals. Treatment includes surgical intervention and long-term antibiotics therapy.
We describe a rare case of cerebral abscess in an immunocompetent 67-year-old male with Gemella morbillorum as the causative agent. Gemella morbillorum is an aerobic gram positive coccus and is deemed to be a normal inhabitant of the oral cavity. The aim of this report is to introduce Gemella morbillorum as the emerging pathogen involved in brainabscesses. To the best of our knowledge only eight cases of Gemella morbillorum brainabscess have been reported in the literature. An exhaustive review of the literature is included with emphasis on the primary source of infection, clinical presentation, radiological diagnosis, and treatment modalities. PMID:22665012
Chotai, Silky; Moon, Hong-Joo; Kim, Joo-Han; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Hung-Seob; Park, Youn-Kwan; Kwon, Taek-Hyun
Background Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common causative bacteria of neonatal meningitis, but hematogenous intracranial E. coli infection is rare in adults. Moreover, intracranial abscess formation owing to E. coli, including brainabscesses and subdural empyema formation, is extremely rare. We herein present a case involving a patient with a brainabscess owing to E. coli following a simple renal cyst infection. A review of the literature is also presented. Case presentation A 77-year-old Japanese woman with a history of polymyalgia rheumatica was admitted to our hospital because of persistent fever, right flank pain, and pyuria. Intravenous antibiotics were administered; however, her level of consciousness deteriorated 6 days after admission. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a brainabscess in the left occipital lobe and pyogenic ventriculitis. Enhanced abdominal computed tomography revealed a right renal cyst with heterogeneous content. Culture of urine, blood, and aspirated pus from the infected cyst revealed E. coli with identical antibiotic sensitivity in all sites, suggesting that the cyst infection and subsequent bacteremia might have caused the brainabscess. The patient recovered after a 6-week course of meropenem. Conclusion The prognosis of patients with E. coli-associated intracranial abscess is usually poor. Advanced age and immunosuppression may be potent risk factors for intracranial abscess formation owing to the hematogenous spread of E. coli.
Objective To determine the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome and confounding factors associated with the development of a brainabscess in solid organ transplant recipients. Design A 14-year retrospective survey. Setting A single, multiorgan, academic transplantation center. Patients A total of 2380 liver transplant recipients, 1650 kidney transplant recipients, and 598 heart, heart-lung, or lung transplant recipients of all ages (pediatric and adult) were included. All patients were given cyclosporine-based immunosuppression during this period. Main Outcome Measure A brainabscess was determined to be present if there was histological and/or microbiological confirmation of a brain lesion seen by a computed tomographic scan. A brainabscess was considered suspicious if radiographic findings were seen in the clinical setting of neurologic symptoms and fever without histological or microbiological confirmation. Results A brainabscess developed in a total of 28 patients (0.61%) of the total study population. The frequency of brainabscess according to organ type was as follows: 0.63%, liver; 0.36%, kidney; and 1.17%, heart and heart-lung. The overall mortality was 86%. Complicating factors associated with fungal (Candida and Aspergillus sp) abscess formation included major subsequent operations, retransplantations, antirejection therapy, associated bacteremia or viremia, and multiorgan failure. The lung was the primary site of dissemination in 18 patients. Low-dose prophylactic amphotericin was ineffective in preventing a fungal brainabscess in 10 high-risk patients. Because of the ineffective therapy and the deadly nature of established fungal abscesses, full-dose antifungal therapy and reduced immunosuppression were warranted on identification of a high-risk clinical setting. Nonfungal abscesses (Nocardia and Toxoplasma sp) occurred in healthy graft recipients long after transplantation. The existing medical therapy is usually effective in these patients, provided that rapid tissue diagnosis is established. Conclusion The epidemiological features of brainabscess formation after solid organ transplantation suggest 2 populations of patients exist that differ in timing, clinical setting, and response to therapy. For the chronically immunosuppressed outpatient, an established abscess should be empirically treated with sulfonamides until tissue diagnosis is confirmed. On the other hand, the acutely immunosuppressed posttransplant recipient, with defined risk factors, should receive full-dose therapy with amphotericin B and concomitantly lowered immunosuppression.
Selby, Rick; Ramirez, Carlo B.; Singh, Reyka; Kleopoulos, Irene; Kusne, Shimon; Starzl, Thomas E.; Fung, John
Context: Patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (cCHD) are prone to develop frequent brainabscesses. Surgery for these abscesses is often limited to aspiration under local anesthesia because excision under general anesthesia (GA) is considered a riskier option. Perioperative hemodynamic instability, cyanotic spells, coagulation defects, electrolyte and acid base imbalance, and sudden cardiac arrest are among the major anesthetic concerns. Most of our current knowledge in this area has been gained from a neurosurgical standpoint while there is a paucity of corresponding anesthesia literature. Aims: To highlight the anesthesia issues involved in cCHD children undergoing brainabscess excision under GA. Settings and Design: Retrospective study of our institutional experience over a 5 year period. Materials and Methods: Of all the children with cCHD who underwent brainabscess surgery from January 2005 to December 2009, only 4 were operated under GA. Surgery was done after correcting fever, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, coagulopathy and acid-base abnormalities, and taking appropriate intraoperative steps to maintain hemodynamic stability and prevent cyanotic spells and arrhythmias. Results: All 4 patients had a successful abscess excision though with varying degrees of intraoperative problems. There was one death, on postoperative day 34, due to septicemia. Conclusions: Brainabscess excision under GA in children of cCHD can be safely carried out with proper planning and attention to detail.
A brainabscess is a life threatening condition which can occur as a complication of various clinical conditions. An intra-cerebral abscess which occurs as a complication of pulmonary arterial hypertension is extremely rare. The present report has described such an uncommon case of an intra-cerebral abscess in a chronic pulmonary thrombo embolism patient with pulmonary hypertension. A-34-year old male who was a known case of chronic pulmonary thrombo embolism with pulmonary artery hypertension, who was diagnosed 6 months back, presented to the Out Patients Department (OPD) with headache and vomiting. He had right homonymous hemianopia. Contrast MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) of brain showed a peripherally enhancing lesion in the left temporo-occipital lobe, with oedema and a mass effect. Left parieto-occipital craniotomy and excision of the abscess was done. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the aspirated pus. PMID:24179934
Brainabscess is a focal suppurative process. Host inflammatory response in Gram type and specific bacteria has not been studied in brainabscess. A total of 57 brainabscess patients with monomicrobial infections were studied for Th1 (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL1-?), Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) and Th17 (IL-17, IL-23) cytokine response by reverse-transcriptase PCR and ELISA. Th1 and Th17 cytokines were significantly elevated in Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus intermedius) and Th2 cytokine (IL-10) in Gram negative (Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli) infections (p<0.05). Cytokine levels were significantly higher in abscess than blood (p<0.001). Elevated levels of several inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL1-?, IL-17 and IL-23) were associated with the duration of symptoms; predisposing factors also influenced the levels of several cytokines. The expression of inflammatory cytokines in abscess was influenced by the bacterial pathogen, duration of symptoms and predisposing factors. Local milieu of brain plays significant role in secretion of various cytokines. PMID:24910026
There exists high incidence of bacteremia, sepsis and meningitis in young infants with Salmonella infection. However, focal intracranial abscesses due to Salmonella infections are rare. We reported a 2-month-old male baby presenting salmonella infection with brainabscess and purpura fulminans. The patient's clinical course was fulminant. He was admitted due to fever, irritability, anemia and leukopenia. He developed cardiac arrest, shock and skin diathesis on his second hospitalization day. After resuscitation he became comatous and showed acrocyanosis and gangrenous skin over the hands, feet and left ear lobe. Both blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were Salmonella Group B. The patient got worse rapidly in spite of vigorous treatment. Subdural empyema, ventriculitis and later brainabscess were detected by serial brain sonograms. He died of central nervous system failure, gastrointestinal bleeding and renal failure on the eighteenth hospitalization day. PMID:2576904
A unique feature of Citrobacter koseri is the extremely high propensity to initiate brainabscesses during neonatal meningitis. Previous clinical reports and studies on infant rats have documented many Citrobacter-filled macrophages within the ventricles and brainabscesses. It has been hypothesized that intracellular survival and replication within macrophages may be a mechanism by which C. koseri subverts the host response and elicits chronic infection, resulting in brainabscess formation. In this study, we showed that C. koseri causes meningitis and brainabscesses in the neonatal rat model, and we utilized histology and magnetic resonance imaging technology to visualize brainabscess formation. Histology and electron microscopy (EM) revealed that macrophages (and not fibroblasts, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or neurons) were the primary target for long-term C. koseri infection. To better understand C. koseri pathogenesis, we have characterized the interactions of C. koseri with human macrophages. We found that C. koseri survives and replicates within macrophages in vitro and that uptake of C. koseri increases in the presence of human pooled serum in a dose-dependent manner. EM studies lend support to the hypothesis that C. koseri uses morphologically different methods of uptake to enter macrophages. FcgammaRI blocking experiments show that this receptor primarily facilitates the entry of opsonized C. koseri into macrophages. Further, confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrates that C. koseri survives phagolysosomal fusion and that more than 90% of intracellular C. koseri organisms are colocalized within phagolysosomes. The ability of C. koseri to survive phagolysosome fusion and replicate within macrophages may contribute to the establishment of chronic central nervous system infection including brainabscesses. PMID:14500508
Townsend, Stacy M; Pollack, Harvey A; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Badger, Julie L
We report a case of brainabscess after craniotomy and the placement of a recording chamber for electrophysiologic records in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) enrolled in visual research. Approximately 2 wk after surgery, the macaque presented with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs and showed no evidence of fever, neurologic deficits, increased intracranial pressure, suggestive alterations in the CBC, or abnormal changes in the recording chamber. The macaque responded to symptomatic and antibiotic treatment and showed no behavioral or abnormal clinical signs for 3 wk before collapsing suddenly. The macaque was euthanized, and pathologic evaluation revealed a large brainabscess immediately under the original craniotomy.
Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristy; McCort, Holly; Reuter, Jon D
Coryneform bacteria belonging to the genus Brevibacterium have emerged as opportunistic pathogens. Of the nine known species of Brevibacterium isolated from human clinical samples, Brevibacterium casei is the most frequently reported species from clinical specimens. We report the first case of B. casei brainabscess in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated by surgery and antimicrobial therapy.
Minocycline exerts beneficial immune modulatory effects in several noninfectious neurodegenerative disease models; however, its potential to influence the host immune response during central nervous system bacterial infections, such as brainabscess, has not yet been investigated. Using a minocycline-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus to dissect the antibiotic’s bacteriostatic versus immune modulatory effects in a mouse experimental brainabscess model, we found that minocycline significantly reduced mortality rates within the first 24 hours following bacterial exposure. This protection was associated with a transient decrease in the expression of several proinflammatory mediators, including interleukin-1? and CCL2 (MCP-1). Minocycline was also capable of protecting the brain parenchyma from necrotic damage as evident by significantly smaller abscesses in minocycline-treated mice. In addition, minocycline exerted anti-inflammatory effects when administered as late as 3 days following S. aureus infection, which correlated with a significant decrease in brainabscess size. Finally, minocycline was capable of partially attenuating S. aureus-dependent microglial and astrocyte activation. Therefore, minocycline may afford additional therapeutic benefits extending beyond its antimicrobial activity for the treatment of central nervous system infectious diseases typified by a pathogenic inflammatory component through its ability to balance beneficial versus detrimental inflammation.
Kielian, Tammy; Esen, Nilufer; Liu, Shuliang; Phulwani, Nirmal K.; Syed, Mohsin M.; Phillips, Napoleon; Nishina, Koren; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Schwartzman, Joseph D.; Ruhe, Jorg J.
Helcococcus kunzii was isolated from a brainabscess in a diabetic patient with cholesteatoma and demonstrated satellitism around Staphylococcus aureus in culture. This is the first reported case of severe central nervous system infection due to H. kunzii and the first description of a satelliting phenotypic variant of this organism. PMID:24172152
Sridhar, Siddharth; Chan, Jasper F W; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Neurenteric cyst (NC) is a benign epithelial cyst (BEC) of endodermal origin that mostly occurs in the spinal subdural space or posterior cranial fossa. A 28-year-old male presented with a left frontal lobe NC associated with spontaneous repetitive intracystic hemorrhage, which was initially diagnosed and treated as a brainabscess. He presented with headache and disorientation, without underlying diseases. A cystic tumor was suspected because of a hypointense signal on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One day after admission, his condition deteriorated rapidly and emergency cyst aspiration was performed. A brown viscous liquid like bloody pus comprising many neutrophils and macrophages was obtained. Although culture was negative, we initially started antibiotic treatment because of cyst content characteristics and rapid clinical course compatible with brainabscess. He was discharged without neurological deficits, but occasionally complained of intense headache. Computed tomography/MRI showed repetitive intracystic hemorrhage and gradual re-enlargement of the lesion. He underwent radical cyst excision by frontal craniotomy 34 months after aspiration. The pathological diagnosis was NC. We believe this is the first report of a supratentorial NC with spontaneous repetitive intracystic hemorrhage. BECs, especially with intracystic hemorrhage, are difficult to be distinguished from brainabscesses. In cases of cystic lesions or presumed brainabscesses refractory to treatment with aspiration and/or antibiotics, BECs should be considered, and radical cyst wall removal should be considered a treatment option. PMID:23712476
Helcococcus kunzii was isolated from a brainabscess in a diabetic patient with cholesteatoma and demonstrated satellitism around Staphylococcus aureus in culture. This is the first reported case of severe central nervous system infection due to H. kunzii and the first description of a satelliting phenotypic variant of this organism.
Brainabscesses were produced in the rat by direct intracerebral injection of agarose beads laden with Staphylococcus aureus. The method proved to be easy, reproducible, effective and was associated with a low mortality rate. The histopathologic features of the experimental abscess are similar to other animal models and to human abscesses. The encapsulation of the lesion, macrophage/microglial response, astrocytic activation, and changes in the surrounding brain parenchyma were studied by immunohistochemistry. Edema, diffuse microglial activation and diffuse astrocytosis characterized the early reaction of the injected cerebral hemisphere. After day 10, edema subsided, and the microglial and astrocytic responses became restricted to the area around the lesion. Fibronectin deposition in the capsule preceded the appearance of myofibroblasts, which was concurrent with the beginning of collagen deposition on day 9. Hypervascularity of the capsule appeared as early as day 6 and persisted through day 28. This study suggests that brainabscess formation can be separated into three components: an initial period of edema and glial activation; an intermediate phase of neovascularization and fibronectin deposition; and a final phase of collagen deposition and progressive fibrosis. This new model offers an excellent paradigm for the analysis of neural tissue reaction and de novo fibrous tissue deposition. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5
Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignancy with only 10 reports confirmed primarily involving the CNS. The diagnosis is dependent on the finding of malignant cells with histiocytic morphology and immunophenotype. The authors report a case of pathologically proven HS of the CNS. A 16-year-old boy presented with headaches, emesis, and altered sensorium. Noncontrast head CT scanning demonstrated a left parietal mass consistent with a tumor. Surgery was undertaken. Intraoperative findings revealed green-yellow exudates consistent with an abscess. Cultures were obtained and broad-spectrum antibiotics were started. The patient subsequently underwent multiple surgical procedures, including drainage and debulking of abscesses and hemicraniectomy. Two months after initial presentation, the patient's diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed. Pathological examination demonstrated necrotizing inflammation with preponderant neutrophil infiltration, variably atypical mononuclear and multinucleate histiocytes, and numerous mitoses. Additional immunohistochemistry studies confirmed immunoreactivity for CD68, CD45, CD45RO, and CD15 and were negative for CD3, CD20, melanoma cocktail, CD30, CD1a, CD34, HMB-45, and melan-A. Once the diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed, antibiotics were stopped and radiation therapy was undertaken. Despite treatment, the patient's neurological status continued to decline and the patient died 126 days after initial presentation. This case represents a rare confirmed example of CNS histiocytic sarcoma. A profound inflammatory infiltrate seen on pathology and green exudates seen intraoperatively make the condition difficult to distinguish from an abscess. Immunohistochemistry showing a histiocytic origin and negative for myeloid, dendritic, or other lymphoid markers is essential for the diagnosis. Further research is needed to establish consensus on treatment. PMID:23889356
Almefty, Rami O; Tyree, Tammy L; Fusco, David J; Coons, Stephen W; Nakaji, Peter
We describe a case of brainabscesses in a cirrhotic and diabetic 57-year-old woman showing fever, aphasia, right hemiparesis and seizures. Neuroradiological investigation revealed unilateral cerebritis evolving in multiple abscesses. From blood and surgical drainage samples Listeria monocytogenes grew in pure culture. Despite decompressive craniotomy, the patient died two months after hospital admission. PMID:23299068
The halo external orthosis has been used extensively for cervical immobilization after spine surgery or trauma, usually without serious complications. However, nine brainabscesses have been reported as complications following the use of halo orthosis. We report on a 53-year-old man who underwent anterior cervical fusion for cervical myelopathy, followed by the application of a halo orthosis. Approximately 4 weeks postfusion, loosening of the right anterior pin was recognized and the pin was tightened, as the pin-site was clean. One week later, purulent material was discharged from the pin hole when the pin was removed after it had loosened again. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an abscess on the right side of the brain. After the administration of antibiotics, the abscess resolved without surgical intervention. We describe asymptomatic brainabscess complicating the use of a halo orthosis and review the clinical features, symptoms, and outcomes; we also discuss the mechanism that induced brainabscess. Most reported cases of abscess have been associated with pin-site infection or tightening after late pin loosening. The present case indicates the importance of early recognition of symptoms and signs associated with brainabscess in patients with a halo orthosis. PMID:9914428
There are few reports in the literature of tuberculous brainabscess. Tuberculous brainabscess usually occurs in an immunocompromised host. Almost all previously documented cases have involved acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We encountered a 53-year-old right-handed immunocompetent male who was initially suspected of having a cerebrovascular accident due to acute-onset right hemiparesis and paresthesia. A tentative diagnosis of brain tumor versus brainabscess was made on imaging studies. The patient was finally diagnosed with a tuberculous brainabscess based upon deterioration on imaging and a positive tuberculosis culture. The tuberculous brainabscess was located in the left parietal lobe, which resulted in Gerstmann’s syndrome and right-sided apraxia. Stereotactic surgery was performed. He was also given antituberculosis chemotherapy and comprehensive rehabilitation. Considerable improvement was noted after rehabilitation. The patient even returned to a normal life and work. Our case demonstrates that an aggressive intensive inpatient rehabilitation program combined with stereotactic surgery and effective antituberculosis therapy play an important role in improving the outcome for patients with tuberculous brainabscess, Gerstmann’s syndrome, and right-sided apraxia.
The objective of our study is to report a rare complication of halo pin insertion associated with an epileptic seizure and\\u000a brainabscess, and to discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to its management. The treatment of unstable cervical\\u000a spine injuries with a halo vest is an established procedure. Complications of pin penetration such as brainabscess and seizure\\u000a are
Ioannis D. Gelalis; Georgios Christoforou; Efstathios Motsis; Christina Arnaoutoglou; Theodore Xenakis
Many victims of the tsunami that occurred following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 developed systemic disorders owing to aspiration pneumonia. Herein, we report a case of tsunami lung wherein Scedosporium aurantiacum was detected in the respiratory tract. A magnetic resonance image of the patient's head confirmed multiple brainabscesses and lateral right ventricle enlargement. In this case report, we describe a potential refractory multidrug-resistant infection following a tsunami disaster. PMID:24238227
Autoimmune neutropenia of infancy is characterized by recurrent infections such as pneumonia, otitis media, impetigo, purulent\\u000a skin regions, gastritis, and upper respiratory infection. However, severe bacterial infection is uncommon. This report documents\\u000a a 9-month-old boy presenting with autoimmune neutropenia in association with multiple brainabscesses during the course of\\u000a human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 infection. HHV-6 has a tendency of neurovirulence, which
Brainabscesses are mainly caused by either direct or indirect inoculation of gram positive bacteria including Stapylococcus aureus (S. aureus) or Streptococcus species into the central nervous system. In the present study, we aimed to compare potential changes in brainabscess pathogenesis induced by two different strains of S. aureus, namely the laboratory strain RN6390 and the clinical isolate Reynolds. Although the Reynolds strain was expected to be more resistant to eradication by the host, due to the existence of a polysaccharide capsule, and subsequently to be more virulent, instead we found parenchymal damage and mortality rates to be more prominent following RN6390 infection. In contrast, the Reynolds strain proliferated faster and induced early expression of the chemokine CXCL2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and complement 3a and C5. Furthermore, there were early and more abundant infiltration of PMNs, T cells and erythrocyte extravasation in brainabscesses induced by the Reynolds strain. However, several immune parameters were not different between the two strains during the later stages of the disease. These results suggest that capsular S. aureus can modulate innate immunity and complement system activation differently than the acapsular strain RN6390, and the early changes induced by Reynolds strain may have an important impact on survival.
A 56-year-old female presented with transorbital penetrating injury caused by bamboo fragments, which resulted in brainabscess 2 weeks after the injury. Initial computed tomography (CT) of the head did not reveal the foreign bodies. However, follow-up CT demonstrated a well-defined hyperdense abnormality of 1.0 cm length in the left orbit and brainabscess in the left temporal lobe. The lesion corresponding to the hyperdense abnormality on CT appeared isointense on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and hypointense on T2-weighted MR imaging. The bamboo fragments were surgically removed, and aspiration and continuous drainage were performed for the brainabscess. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was transferred to a local hospital with minor neurological deficits. Bamboo foreign bodies may show changes in properties on CT and MR imaging in the subacute stage. Careful radiological examination and follow-up monitoring are required for the correct diagnosis and treatment of such injuries. PMID:11936059
Spontaneous arteriovenous communications below the diaphragm is a very rare condition. Its association with polysplenia has perhaps not yet been reported in children. We reported a case in a 9-year-old boy presenting with acute onset of fever, vomiting, headache, seizures and altered sensorium. A CT scan revealed a large occipital abscess which was drained surgically. On examination he had marked central cyanosis and grade III clubbing of fingers and toes. Further investigations led to the discovery of a very rare finding of abdominal arteriovenous malformation associated with multiple-enhancing structures around the splenic bed suggestive of polysplenia. We believe that the most likely cause of the brainabscess was paradoxical embolism through the abdominal arteriovenous communication. Unfortunately the parents did not consent to a surgical correction of the malformation, realising the risks involved in the procedure. Subsequently the boy was lost in follow-up. PMID:23997082
We herein report on a 69-year-old male who developed lung nocardiosis and brainabscessation. In April 2011, he was diagnosed as having systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by peripheral neuropathy. Immunosuppressive therapy with high-dose prednisolone was begun. In November 2011, he developed cryptococcal pneumonia and meningitis, which was treated with liposomal amphotericin and flucytosine for 4 weeks and was maintained with fluconazole. In April 2012, consolidation and peripheral atelectasis in the right middle lobe appeared. Bronchoscopy revealed edematous mucosa in the right middle bronchus and occlusive change of the right B4 and B5, but biopsy and culture results provided no etiological information. In late June, he developed an intermittent fever, and obstructive pneumonia of the right middle lobe was suspected. Nocardia species were detected from the sputum culture and were thought to be the causative pathogen. Brain CT and MRI revealed a contrast-enhanced lesion in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The patient was diagnosed as having lung nocardiosis and brainabscessation. Considering that the nocardiosis had developed under prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia using one tablet per day of a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination, meropenem and amikacin were administered in addition to the sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination for 6 and 4 weeks, respectively. After N. elegans had been identified from the sputum, antibiotics were switched to a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination and clarithromycin based on the susceptibility results. The patient's clinical and radiological findings were improved and have been well sustained. PMID:24974451
The effect of short-term corticosteroid treatment on contrast enhancement was investigated in an experimental brainabscess model. The degree of enhancement was reduced in the cerebritis stage, unaffected in the capsule stage, and intermediate in the transitional stage. The area and pattern of enhancement were also altered in the cerebritis stage. Although the magnitude of the entire cerebritis time-density curve
D. R. Enzmann; R. H. Britt; R. C. Jr. Placone; W. Obana; B. Lyons; A. S. Yeager
Scedosporium apiospermum is a deadly fungal infection that can infect the central nervous system, particularly in immunocompromised patients. We present two cases of Scedosporium brainabscesses. The first case was fatal and relevant conventional MRI and MR spectroscopy findings are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MR spectroscopy in Scedosporium apiospermum abscesses. In the second case, the patient recovered and conventional MR findings are followed over several months. In the appropriate clinical setting, conventional MR imaging and MR spectroscopy may facilitate diagnosis, earlier initiation of antifungal pharmacotherapy and surgical intervention in this frequently fatal infection. PMID:23465993
Slone, H Wayne; Kontzialis, Marinos; Kiani, Bahram; Triola, Craig; Oettel, David J; Bourekas, Eric C
Chloramphenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is rarely used in the United States due to its well-described adverse effects. Because of its limited use, many clinicians are unfamiliar with its indications, spectrum of activity, and potential adverse drug effects. We describe a 12-year-old patient who presented after two craniotomies for a persistent brainabscess complicated by long-term chloramphenicol administration. Findings for this patient were consistent with many of the adverse drug effects associated with chloramphenicol, including elevated chloramphenicol serum concentrations, anemia, thrombocytopenia, reticulocytopenia, and severe metabolic acidosis. Rare manifestations of chloramphenicol toxicity that developed in this patient included neutropenia, visual field changes, and peripheral neuropathy. Chloramphenicol administration was discontinued, and hemodialysis was initiated for severe metabolic acidosis. The patient recovered with severe visual field deficits. Although chloramphenicol is rarely indicated, it remains an effective antibiotic. Healthcare providers should become familiar with the pharmacology, toxicology, and monitoring parameters for appropriate use of this antibiotic.
Wiest, Donald B.; Cochran, Joel B.; Tecklenburg, Fred W.
Background Brainabscesses continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in developed and developing countries. Their aetiology and management remain complex and unclear, making improvement of treatments and outcome difficult. Methods To determine the demographics, management, and the variables that affect the outcome in subjects with brainabscesses treated at a single centre over an 11-year period, we retrospectively analysed data in 60 patients with brainabscesses surgically treated with stereotactically guided aspiration or open craniotomy excision in Shanghai Changzheng Hospital between January 2001 and December 2011. Such variables as age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, clinical presentation, location, number of lesions, predisposing factors, mechanism of infection, aetiological agent, and therapy were analysed independently. Results Our analysis demonstrated that patient age and gender were factors that influence the occurrence of brainabscess; female patients and patients greater than 40 years of age were most likely to suffer a brainabscess. We also found that a patient’s GCS score upon admission did not influence outcome. While frequency of successful culturing of the infectious agent was low, positive cultures were obtained in only 8 of the cases (13.33%), in which the most common isolate was Streptococcus milleri. Outcome was favourable in 78.33% of the subjects, while the mortality rate was 20%. The outcome of one patient was poor due to the abscess in the basal ganglia region. Conclusions Stereotactically guided aspiration is an effective treatment for brainabscess with an overall favourable outcome. Mortality due to brainabscess was not directly related to surgery nor surgical technique. Additional studies will continue to reveal patients trends that may improve treatment for brainabscess.
Background Fusobacterium nucleatum is a strict anaerobic microorganism that causes disease entities such as periodontal and soft tissue abscesses, pulmonary and intraabdominal infections and very rarely intracerebral infections. Case presentation Here, we report the rare case of a previously healthy 25-year-old German man with a cerebellar abscess caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum that resulted in rapid brain death. Toxicological screening showed positivity for amphetamines and cannabis. The diagnosis was obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusions In drug users clinicians should think about rare causes of brainabscesses/meningitis. Early diagnosis is necessary and justifies the use of molecular techniques.
The effect of short-term corticosteroid treatment on contrast enhancement was investigated in an experimental brainabscess model. The degree of enhancement was reduced in the cerebritis stage, unaffected in the capsule stage, and intermediate in the transitional stage. The area and pattern of enhancement were also altered in the cerebritis stage. Although the magnitude of the entire cerebritis time-density curve (extended for 60 minutes) was decreased by the steroids, its configuration was unchanged. Prior to steroid administration, the 10- and 60-minute components of the curve discriminated between cerebritis and capsule stages, with the latter exhibiting a far lower 60-minute value. Implications for treatment of brainabscesses are discussed.
Fungal cerebral abscesses are rare and usually seen in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case and review published literature of Madurella mycetomatis as an agent of cerebral abscess. We found contiguous head and neck infections to be the principal cause of cerebral maduromycosis caused by M. mycetomatis. Early recognition of Madurella spp. as the causative agent is essential to avoid cerebral spread. PMID:24085615
Mir, Fatima; Shakoor, Sadia; Khan, Mumtaz Jamshed; Minhas, Khurram; Zafar, Afia; Zaidi, Anita K M
Cerebral mycosis is a significant cause of morbidity among immunocompromised populations. We present here a case of cerebral infection with Scedosporium apiospermum and Phaeoacremonium parasiticum in a 49-year-old renal transplant recipient. Fourteen years after renal transplantation, the patient presented with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis treated with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B. The patient had clinical and radiographic improvement. However, 6 weeks later, the patient presented with cerebral infection. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple rim enhancing brainabscesses. Brain and cerebrospinal fluid cultures ultimately grew Scedosporium apiospermum and Phaeoacremonium parasiticum. The patient was treated with voriconazole for 6 months and had clinical and radiologic improvement. We believe this is the first reported case of co-infection of the brain with scedosporiosis and phaeohyphomycosis in a renal transplant recipient, who had received intravenous liposomal amphotericin B. Voriconazole may represent a new therapeutic option for these simultaneous infections in the brain. PMID:24050081
Purpose In this study, we performed in vivo disease model animal experiments to validate the MREIT technique in terms of its capability to produce a conductivity contrast\\u000a corresponding to brain ischemia and abscess.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Injecting 5 mA imaging currents into the head of an anesthetized dog, we collected induced magnetic flux density data using\\u000a a 3T MRI scanner. Applying the harmonic B
Young Tae Kim; Woo Chul Jeong; Atul S. Minhas; Chae Young Lim; Hee Myung Park; Hyung Joong Kim; Eung Je Woo
The efficacies of two different surgical approaches, aspiration and excision, were investigated for the management of large solitary encapsulated pyogenic brainabscess located in superficial non-eloquent areas, and the impact on length of hospital stay, duration of postoperative antibiotic use, improvement in neurological status, and morbidity and mortality were compared. This retrospective study at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences included 47 patients with pyogenic brainabscess from a total of 114 patients evaluated in the Department of Neurosurgery over a period of 10 years from October 2001 to October 2011. Comparisons were made between aspiration and excision in terms of duration of antibiotic use, length of hospital stay, and overall treatment cost. Aspiration was performed in 29 patients (61.7%), of whom 7 patients needed second aspiration, and 18 patients underwent excision (38.3%) of the abscess capsule. The mean duration of antibiotic use in the excision group was significantly shorter at 2.7 weeks (standard deviation [SD]±1.1) compared to the aspiration group at 3.8 weeks (SD±1.3) (p=0.006). Similarly, mean length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the excision group at 18.1 days (SD±7.7) compared to the aspiration group at 24.9 days (SD±6.6) (p=0.002). In addition, significantly earlier improvement in neurological function (p=0.025) and significantly lower rate of re-surgery (p=0.0238) were found in the excision group compared to the aspiration group. Excision is better than aspiration as far as duration of antibiotic use, length of hospital stay, and overall cost of treatment is concerned, with no significant difference in morbidity and mortality. PMID:23095264
Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Showkat, Hakim Irfan; Kirmani, Altaf Rehman; Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Patloo, Asim Mushtaq; Ahmad, Sheikh Riyaz; Khan, Omar Masood
We report a case of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) bacteraemia and secondary brainabscess in a patient where periodontal disease was implicated as the probable source. PMID:24665546
We describe the delayed development of intracranial abscesses following emergent treatment with a covered stent-graft for carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) in a patient with head and neck cancer. The patient presented with hemoptysis and frank arterial bleeding through the tracheostomy site. A self-expandable stent-graft was deployed across a small pseudoaneurysm arising from the right common carotid artery (RCCA) and resulted in immediate hemostasis. Three months later, the patient suffered a recurrent hemorrhage. CT of the neck demonstrated periluminal fluid around the caudal aspect of the stent-graft with intraluminal thrombus and a small pseudoaneurysm. Subsequently, the patient underwent a balloon test occlusion study and endovascular sacrifice of the RCCA and right internal carotid artery. MRI of the brain demonstrated at least four ring-enhancing lesions within the right cerebral hemisphere consistent with intracranial abscesses that resolved with broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage.
Oweis, Yaseen [University of Michigan Medical School (United States); Gemmete, Joseph J., E-mail: email@example.com; Chaudhary, Neeraj [University of Michigan, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Pandey, Aditya [University of Michigan, Department of Neurosurgery (United States); Ansari, Sameer [University of Chicago, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology (United States)
... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 36. Gollapalli V, Liao J, Dudakovic A, Sugg SL, Scott-Conner CEH, Weigel RJ. Risk factors for development and recurrence of primary breast abscesses. J Am Coll Surg. 2010;211:41-48.
... biggest risk factor for perirenal abscess is kidney stones that block the flow of urine and provide ... to grow. Bacteria tend to stick to the stones and antibiotics can't kill the bacteria there. ...
Splenic abscesses are rare entities (autopsy incidence between 0.14-0.7%). The most frequent etiology is the septic emboli seeding from bacterial endocarditis (about 20% of cases) or other septic foci (typhoid fever, malaria, urinary tract infections, osteomielitis, otitis). The treatment of splenic abscesses was until recently splenectomy with antibiotherapy. The actual trends are more conservative (mini invasive or non-invasive) because the immunologic role of the spleen has been better understood over the last year PMID:12096316
A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brainabscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported.
Erol, Ilknur [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Neurology Unit (Turkey)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Cetin, I. Ilker [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology Unit (Turkey); Alehan, Fuesun [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Neurology Unit (Turkey); Varan, Birguel [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology Unit (Turkey); Ozkan, Sueleyman [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey); Agildere, A. Muhtesem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Tokel, Kursad [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology Unit (Turkey)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play central roles in the innate reaction to bacterial products and transmit specific immune responses against these pathogens. TLRs are expressed on numerous cell types, including innate immune cells, and on astrocytes, neurons, and microglial cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharides are specifically recognized by TLR2 and TLR4, respectively. We examined the in vivo role of TLR2 and TLR4 in Staphylococcus aureus-induced brainabscess. Phenotypically, 87% of TLR2?/? mice and 43% of TLR4?/? mice died whereas all wild-type (WT) mice recovered. Clearance of bacteria from the CNS was significantly delayed in TLR2?/? mice compared with TLR4?/? and WT animals. Recruitment of granulocytes and macrophages to the CNS, as well as microglial activation and expansion, was up-regulated in TLR2?/? mice. Although inflammation persisted especially in the CNS of TLR2?/? mice, but also of TLR4?/? mice, WT mice terminated the infection more effectively. Collectively, these data show that the immune response to experimental S. aureus-induced brainabscess depends crucially on the recognition of S. aureus by TLR2 but that TLR4 is also required for an optimal intracerebral immune response in this disorder.
Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many potential causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...
Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This is the same parasite that causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection ...
We enrolled 22 patients with gas-forming pyogenic liver abscess in a study to assess the mechanism of gas formation. Klebsiella pneumoniae was cultured from specimens from all patients. Gas and pus samples from abscesses revealed four major components: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen; this implicates mixed acid fermentation of glucose as the mechanism of gas formation.
During the approximately 20 years that percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) has been an extant procedure and as the millennium begins, PAD has become, by consensus, the treatment of choice for abscesses. Indications for PAD continue to expand, and currently almost all abscesses are considered amenable. On occasion, PAD is an adjunctive procedure that provides a beneficial temporizing effect for the
Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.
Al-Salem, Khalil M; Alsarayra, Fawaz A; Somkawar, Areej R
The authors present a case of splenic abscess rupture postappendicectomy. Splenic abscess is rare with a reported incidence of 0.05%–0.7%. It is extremely unusual for a splenic abscess to result in splenic rupture. Contiguous spread, in this case from postappendix perforation, can cause splenic abscess formation. Postemergency splenectomy, the patient required admission to intensive therapy unit for 5 days but made a good postoperative recovery. This case is important to report as this is a rare postoperative complication of generalised peritonitis and this case highlights that astute diagnosis and management of the deteriorating surgical patient and rapid mobilisation of theatre are lifesaving.
Patel, Roshani; Pai, Aakash; Al-Shoek, Ihsan; Evans, Charles; Gordon, Andrew
Fusobacterium is well characterized as an oropharyngeal pathogen that may induce a septic thrombophlebitis by direct extension of abscess into an adjacent neck vessel (Lemierre's syndrome); its potential for visceral abscess formation, however, remains under-recognized. A 65-year-old man with a recent history of multiple rim-enhancing liver lesions presented to the emergency room with fever and abdominal pain. Based on interval increase in the size of the lesions, abscess was suspected. A liver biopsy was performed, and although no organism could be identified on routine microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain revealed Gram-negative bacilli consistent with an anaerobic Fusobacterium species as the underlying etiology of liver abscess formation. Subsequent anaerobic culture results confirmed the diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of consideration for Fusobacterium infection in the setting of liver abscess if anaerobic organisms have not yet been excluded on initial culture evaluation. PMID:24348321
Fusobacterium is well characterized as an oropharyngeal pathogen that may induce a septic thrombophlebitis by direct extension of abscess into an adjacent neck vessel (Lemierre's syndrome); its potential for visceral abscess formation, however, remains under-recognized. A 65-year-old man with a recent history of multiple rim-enhancing liver lesions presented to the emergency room with fever and abdominal pain. Based on interval increase in the size of the lesions, abscess was suspected. A liver biopsy was performed, and although no organism could be identified on routine microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain revealed Gram-negative bacilli consistent with an anaerobic Fusobacterium species as the underlying etiology of liver abscess formation. Subsequent anaerobic culture results confirmed the diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of consideration for Fusobacterium infection in the setting of liver abscess if anaerobic organisms have not yet been excluded on initial culture evaluation.
A 50-year-old man presented with altered mental status during hospitalization for pneumonia. MRI showed multifocal ring-enhanced lesions, which consisted of multiple cerebral abscesses. We started empirical antibiotic therapy, but the following morning, his condition rapidly deteriorated and a CT scan revealed acute hydrocephalus, which required ventricular drainage. Gram staining of cerebro-spinal fluid from the ventricular drainage showed gram-positive cocci in chains, but culture results were negative. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing with broad-range PCR of the cerebro-spinal fluid identified Streptococcus intermedius. On the basis of this identification, the antibiotic regimen was changed to ampicillin monotherapy. After 1 year of antibiotic therapy, all the abscesses had disappeared and the patient was discharged without any sequelae. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis with broad-range PCR is a very useful method for facilitating the etiological diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment for culture-negative infections. PMID:24101431
Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood disease, especially in infants and preschool children. Onset of AOM encourage frequent upper respiratory infections and debilitating conditions that cause nasal patency and trumpets auditory dysfunction. Complications of AOM currently are rare. We present a case of complications of acute otitis media in form of acute cerebral abscess in a 7-year-old previously healthy girl. PMID:24519780
Clostridium perfringens sepsis with intravascular haemolysis is a catastrophic process with a reported mortality of between 90 to 100%. We successfully treated a case of severe clostridial infection with a liver abscess following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the first to our knowledge. A 59-year-old man presented one week after an uneventful laparoscopic cholecystectomy with jaundice, peritonism, sepsis and acute renal failure. He was found to have a haemolytic anaemia, unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and blood cultures grew Clostridium perfringens. A CT revealed a large gasformingabscess in the gallbladder fossa and right lobe of liver. He was treated with directed antibiotic therapy and underwent emergency laparotomy, drainage of the abscess and peritoneal washout. He required intensive care support, parenteral nutrition and inotropic support for a limited period. CT liver angiogram post op was normal. Continued renal dysfunction necessitated protracted haemofiltration. This resolved and the patient was discharged home at 2 months.
Qandeel, H; Abudeeb, H; Hammad, A; Ray, C; Sajid, M; Mahmud, S
Prostatic abscesses are an increasingly rare clinical entity. They are commonly caused by spread of a gram-negative urinary tract infection. Most cases reported in urologic studies have occurred in older men and are the result of bladder outlet obstruction. To date, very few cases of pediatric prostatic abscesses have been reported in published studies, and most of these occurred in neonates. We present a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prostatic abscess in an adolescent and review the related data for this unusual process. PMID:23102776
Kiehl, Nicholai; Kinsey, Sara; Ramakrishnan, Venkat; Dajusta, Daniel G
To characterize patients with parapharyngeal abscess admitted to a Danish tertiary care centre and evaluate our management. This is a retrospective chart review. All records of patients with parapharyngeal abscess admitted to the Ear-Nose-Throat Department at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from January 2001 through December 2011 were reviewed. In total, 63 patients (41 males), aged 4-89 years (median, 45 years) were included in the study. The mean annual incidence of parapharyngeal abscess was 0.9 cases/100,000 population. Thirty-three (52%) patients had concomitant peritonsillar abscess. In two patients the parapharyngeal abscess was accompanied by necrotizing fasciitis. The most frequent surgical approach used was intrapharyngeal incision in combination with tonsillectomy. The most commonly used antibiotic regimen was benzylpenicillin plus metronidazole. Seven (13%) patients returned to the operating theatre due to post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage or insufficient abscess drainage. Tonsillectomy and internal incision of the abscess in combination with a narrow-spectrum intravenous penicillin and metronidazole is a safe and efficient approach for managing parapharyngeal abscesses. This approach, however, carries a relatively high complication rate, requiring close surveillance in the early post-operative period. This is especially true for parapharyngeal abscess patients without peritonsillar abscess. In our series, these patients were more ill, more likely to experience complications, require intensive care, intubation, and tracheotomy, than parapharyngeal abscess patients with concurrent peritonsillar abscess. The frequent co-existence of parapharyngeal abscess and peritonsillar abscess favours careful consideration of addition of tonsillectomy to intrapharyngeal incision. PMID:23982668
Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Fischer, Anne Sophie Lind; Antonsen, Christine; Rusan, Maria; Eskildsen, Helle; Ovesen, Therese
Benign anorectal diseases, such as anal abscesses and fistula, are commonly seen by primary care physicians, gastroenterologists, emergency physicians, general surgeons, and colorectal surgeons. It is important to have a thorough understanding of the complexity of these 2 disease processes so as to provide appropriate and timely treatment. We review the pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options for both anal abscesses and fistulas. PMID:24280399
PURPOSE: Perianal disease is frequent in patients with Crohn's disease, and many of these patients will eventually have abscess formation. In a prospective follow-up study, we evaluated factors influencing the occurrence and recurrence of perianal abscesses. METHODS: Of 126 consecutive patients with perianal Crohn's disease seen regularly in an outpatient clinic, 61 (48.4 percent) had at least one perianal abscess
Frank Makowiec; Ekkehard C. Jehle; Horst-Dieter Becker; Michael Starlinger
The case presented herein is of an 8-year-old female with nine large brainabscesses of unknown etiology. One lesion was excised by craniotomy. Two days later, in view of impending brain herniation, the remaining eight abscesses were treated on an urgent basis by stereotactic aspiration. Immediate postoperative CT showed total disappearance of all lesions. This case demonstrates that some brainabscesses can be successfully treated utilizing a minimally invasive technique and aggressive antibiotic therapy, without necessitating surgical removal of abscess capsule, multiple aspirations, or implantation of an irrigation system. PMID:24244982
Tubercular abscess is a rare presentation of central nervous system tuberculosis (TB), which commonly presents as tuberculoma or meningitis. Most of the published cases of tubercular brainabscess have been dealt with by surgical treatment along with medical management. We here report a case of intracranial tubercular abscess in a 17-year-old girl presenting with fever, headache and right hemiparesis who showed significant clinicoradiological improvement with medical management alone. Thus, in a country like India where TB is highly endemic, TB should be considered as a possible aetiology for any intracranial lesion with radiological appearance suggestive of an abscess and surgical treatment can be kept as an option in case of neurological deficits, hydrocephalus or treatment failure. PMID:24744068
Shewanella putrefaciens is a facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-fermentative bacterium. It is found in various environments and has been isolated worldwide. S. putrefaciens is a rare cause of brainabscesses and meningitis. This is a case report of a cerebellar abscess and meningitis caused by Shewanella putrefaciens and Klebsiella pneumoniae in a river trap fisherman. PMID:17965359
BACKGROUNDNocardia asteroides cerebral abscesses are rare intracranial lesions. They account for only 2% of brainabscesses. Existing literature takes the form of anecdotal reports, small case series, and retrospective studies. An optimal treatment approach has not been established. However, there is evidence that the size of the lesion and clinical and immune status of the patient are relevant to surgical
Ian G Fleetwood; John M Embil; F. R. C. P C; Ian B Ross; F. R. C. S C
We report the first case of cerebral abscess due to a novel species of Nocardia in a heart transplant patient and describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of this isolate. As our patient was intolerant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, we also discuss alternative therapeutic options in brainabscess due to Nocardia sp.
Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.
We report the case of a young patient with typhoid fever who complained of pain in his left hypochondrium and shoulder and recrudescence of fever after 21 days of treatment with tiamphenicol and ampicilline. Ultrasonography lead to the diagnosis of splenic abscess; the patient was splenectomized and S. typhi was cultured from the pus. Splenic abscess was frequently observed before 1940; since then only 6 more cases are reported in literature. PMID:1831093
In Mexico liver abscesses are frequent and most of them are produced by amibas. Sometimes the ethiology is caused by bacterias and its ethiological diagnosis is difficult therefore the specifics treatment takes longer and this may increase mortality. In this issue, the clinical laboratory scand caracteristics are presented on six patients having liver abscess caused by Salmonella as well as its evolution and reaction to treatment. PMID:548959
Olivares López, F; Cruz Carranza, G; Vázquez Espinoza, A M; Peredo López Velarde, A; Choperena Muńóz, T de J; Ramírez Rodríguez, M
A patient with a peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis mimicking pancreatic pseudocyst is reported, which was diagnosed on exploration to be a tuberculous cold abscess. The patient responded to antituberculous drugs after drainage of the cold abscess. PMID:10855077
We report a case of thyroid abscess caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in a patient with cirrhosis of liver and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. To date, there are no reports of isolation of this fungus from thyroid abscess. PMID:20966586
Epidural abcessess can involve the intercranial or spinal compartments and can result in potentially devastating neurological injuries. Although rare, incidence of spinal epidural abscesses (SEAs) is increasing as predisposing factors such as injected-drug use, chronic immunosuppression, and spinal surgery become more common. Whereas symptoms of SEAs can include fever, back pain, and neurological dysfunction, the presentation of intracranial epidural abscesses (ICEAs) is less well defined. Neuroimaging narrows the potential diagnoses and enables prompt empirical therapy until specific microbiological diagnosis is made. Surgical intervention is an integral part of treatment for epidural abscesses in patients with neurological symptoms or who have not responded to medical management. Prognosis for both SEAs and ICEAs is typically poor because of delayed diagnosis and intervention and is dependent on the neurological status at the time of diagnosis. Increased clinical awareness can greatly improve outcomes by helping to diagnose patients earlier. PMID:19233039
Involvement of the skeletal system is a common complication of brucellosis. However, muscle involvement or paraspinal abscess formation are rare complications. Paraspinal abscess usually develops secondary to spondylitis. A case is reported here of a 33-year-old woman with symptoms of night sweats, fever and low back pain. Rose-Bengal test for brucellosis was positive and Brucella standard tube agglutination test was positive at a titre of 1/160. The diagnosis was made on MRI. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampin daily for 16 weeks. On day 14 of treatment, decline was observed in the patient's symptoms. In the presence of inflammatory lower back pain and fever, brucellosis should be considered particularly in the endemic areas. Furthermore, tuberculosis should be remembered in the differential diagnosis when a spinal epidural abscess is determined. PMID:24072838
Boyaci, Ahmet; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Dokumaci, Dilek Sen
Dermoid cysts are uncommon tumors, and posterior fossa dermoid cysts may rarely cause abscess formation or formation of daughter abscesses within the cerebellum. At present, there are only 16 cases with posterior fossa dermoid cysts causing cerebellar abscesses reported in the literature. Two cases, 22 and 14 months old, with posterior fossa dermoid cysts and dermal sinus causing multiple cerebellar
Feyza Karagöz Güzey; N. Serdar Bas; Altay Sencer; Erhan Emel; M. Kemal Hamamcioglu; Nezih Özkan; Kemal Hepgul; Abdurrahman Aycan
Median sternotomy is the most commonly used incision in cardiothoracic procedures. Development of breast abscess after sternotomy is a very rare situation. We present a case of sternal wound infection with recurrent bilateral breast abscess after sternotomy. Our case is the first and only case in the literature due to the presence of sternal wound infection with recurrent bilateral breast abscess after sternotomy.
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare but serious condition, characterized by disseminated infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum, most often originating from the oropharynx. Thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and septic embolisms to various organs is the typical clinical picture. We describe a 16-year-old man with peritonsillar abscess who developed abscesses in lungs, liver and spleen. The patient was admitted to the ICU and treated with surgical drainage of infectious foci, antibiotics and anticoagulant therapy. After six weeks of antibiotic treatment the patient was discharged with no sequelae. PMID:22668650
A 60-year-old man on chronic corticosteroids developed diplopia, gait instability and facial weakness. Brain MRI revealed a multiloculated pontine lesion. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis demonstrated a neutrophil-predominant pleocytosis with elevated protein and low glucose. CSF cultures were negative, as was an extensive infectious diseases evaluation. Neurosurgical intervention was deferred in favour of empiric antimicrobial therapy due to the lesion's inaccessible location. After discontinuation of therapy, the patient reported a severe headache. A subsequent MRI demonstrated intraventricular pus. CSF culture grew Nocardia farcinica. The patient received parenteral therapy followed by oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. At 9 months, he is symptom free. This case illustrates the importance of including Nocardia in the differential diagnosis of brainstem abscesses, especially in immunocompromised patients. The availability of antimicrobial agents with excellent Nocardia activity and CSF penetration may enable treatment of brainstem abscesses for which surgical intervention has traditionally been considered necessary with medical management alone. PMID:24311420
Brainabscesses are a rare but serious complication and have been documented in transplant recipients. Aspergillus is by far the most frequent etiology of post-transplant brainabscesses. Bacteria, apart from Nocardia, have a low association with brainabscesses in transplant recipients. We report herein the case of a 52-year-old man who had undergone orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma secondary to chronic hepatitis, and who developed a cerebellar abscess (CA) from Listeria monocytogenes. Three months after transplantation, he presented with a 1-week history of headache and vomiting. Computed tomography scan of the brain revealed a space-occupying lesion in the right cerebellum, which was further confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Emergency surgery was planned because of pressure effect on the surrounding structures. The patient recovered smoothly from the surgery. To our knowledge, no reports of Listeria CA following OLT have been published in the English literature. This case shows that, although extremely rare, L. monocytogenes may cause CA in liver transplant recipients, and clinicians should be aware of this, so that prompt diagnosis and treatment can be instituted before serious brain damage can occur. PMID:24298984
Choudhury, N; Khan, A B; Tzvetanov, I; Garcia-Roca, R; Oberholzer, J; Benedetti, E; Jeon, H
A week after onset of a pharyngo-tonsillitis a previously healthy 23-year-old man developed high fever (41.4 degrees C), leukocytosis (12,200/microliters) with marked shift to the left, thrombocytopenia (86,000/microliters) and increased transaminases (GOT 83 U/l, GPT 113 U/l). Chest x-ray film suggested intrapulmonary abscesses with left-sided pleural effusion. The suspected diagnosis of "post-tonsillitis" septicaemia (Lemierre's syndrome) was confirmed by demonstrating anaerobic, fusiform, gram-negative bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum and necrophorum) in several blood cultures. Despite antibacterial treatment (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem/cilastatin, clindamycin) he had recurrent pain referred to the kidney region and persisting fever. Repeated ultrasound and radiological examinations revealed new foci in the spleen, which were enlarging. Laparotomy with splenectomy performed on day 17 after the begin of treatment confirmed multiple splenic abscesses, but abscess pus and splenic tissue were sterile. After altogether 6 weeks of antibiotic treatment, finally with chloramphenicol, the patient was discharged in a good general state. PMID:1396137
Kern, W; Dolderer, M; Krieger, D; Büchler, M; Kern, P
An eighty-six-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for bacterial septic shock due to splenic abscess. He had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention 3 weeks earlier. Percutaneous splenic abscess drainage was urgently performed under ultrasonography, and then the general state of the patient rapidly improved. Staphylococcus hemolyticus was isolated from the splenic abscess. We reported that percutaneous catheter drainage was effective for splenic abscess. PMID:19194100
We report a case of liver abscess secondary to appendicitis which was due to a wire within the appendix. Appendicitis was asymptomatic, probably because of its retrocaecal position and/or previous antibiotic treatment. The abscess was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and percutaneous drainage, followed by a second stage appendicectomy. This case illustrates the value of gastrointestinal radiological investigations before considering the abscess as cryptogenetic. PMID:1816016
Paul, G; Buysschaert, M; De Canničre, L; Trigaux, J P; Donckier, J; Coche, E
We present a rare case of acute pancreatitis in a 50-year-old man with amoebic liver abscess. He had a right lobe liver abscess along with markedly elevated serum lipase and amylase levels and edematous pancreas. Liver abscess was aspirated. The patient was managed conservatively with antibiotics and improved without any complications. Acute pancreatitis associated with ALA is not reported in the literature till date.
A lung abscess is a circumscribed collection of pus in the lung as a result of a microbial infection, which leads to cavity formation and often a radiographic finding of an air fluid level. Patients with lung abscesses commonly present to their primary care physician or to the emergency department with "nonresolving pneumonia." Although, the incidence of lung abscess has declined since the introduction of antibiotic treatment, it still carries a mortality of up to 10%-20%. This article discusses in detail the up-to-date microbiology and the management of lung abscesses. PMID:22248872
Yazbeck, Moussa F; Dahdel, Maher; Kalra, Ankur; Browne, Alexander S; Pratter, Melvin R
The first reported case of prostatic abscess caused by Streptococcus mutans isolated in pure culture is described. Urethral dilation for obstruction was unsuccessful, so suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Perineal aspiration under ultrasonic guidance resulted in 10 mL of pus containing pure Strep mutans. Diagnosis of prostatic abscess is difficult since the clinical manifestations are nonspecific.
SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease.
The abscess of parapharyngeal space is very dangerous health condition graving numerous complications such as: jugular vein thrombosis, mediastinitis, arterial bleeding. This state originates most frequent during the acute pharyngitis, and especially acute tonsillitis. The aim of our study was to review the clinical sings, computed tomography scans and outcome of parapharyngeal space infection. 3 patients treatment in our Department were underwent surgical drainage and aggressive antibiotic therapy. One patient was treated solely with intravenous antibiotic therapy. The average time of hospitalization was 16 days. No one complication was observed. PMID:18837231
Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are treated with endovascular embolization either as a definitive treatment or as an adjunct to surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy. Complications of AVM embolization are well known but infection of the embolised AVM nidus is extremely rare. On Pubmed search we found only a single case report of an infected brain AVM after embolization. We report a case of pyogenic cerebral abscess with superior sagittal sinus extension complicating an embolised AVM and discuss the possible etiopathogenesis. PMID:16733429
Pendarkar, H; Krishnamoorthy, T; Purkayastha, S; Gupta, A K
Nerve abscess is an infrequently reported complication of leprosy. We describe a patient with a pure neuritic type of leprosy with multiple nerve abscesses, who presented with tingling and numbness in the medial aspect of his right forearm and hand. Subsequently he developed pain, redness and swelling over the medial side of his right elbow and the flexor aspect of his right wrist. High-resolution ultrasound showed diffuse thickening of the right ulnar nerve with hypoechoic texture housing a cystic lesion with internal debris suggesting an abscess, at the cubital tunnel. Histopathological examination of the pus and tissue obtained from the abscess revealed presence of granulomas with lepra bacilli. The patient responded to surgery and multidrug therapy. In conclusion, the nerve abscess as the first manifestation of leprosy is uncommon and a high index of suspicion is required to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:24171239
Literature review was carried out and studies reporting on treatment of breast abscesses were critically appraised for quality and their level of evidence using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy guidelines, and key recommendations were summarized. Needle aspiration either with or without ultrasound guidance should be employed as first line treatment of breast abscesses. This approach has the potential benefits of: superior cosmesis, shorter healing time, and avoidance of general anaesthesia. Multiple aspiration sessions may be required for cure. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter placement may be considered as an alternative approach for treatment of larger abscesses (>3 cm). Surgical incision and drainage should be considered for first line therapy in large (>5 cm), multiloculated, or long standing abscesses, or if percutaneous drainage is unsuccessful. All patients should be treated concurrently with antibiotics. Patients with recurrent subareolar abscesses and fistulas should be referred for consideration of surgical treatment. PMID:24791941
Acute lingual abscess is a rare yet life-threatening clinical entity. Lingual abscess must be appropriately diagnosed and treated in the emergency department to avoid acute airway compromise. A 68-year-old woman on immunomodulatory medication for rheumatoid arthritis presented to the emergency department with left facial pain and swelling. An anterior lingual abscess was diagnosed on computed tomographic scan. The most common cause of lingual abscess is direct trauma, although immunocompromised state is a predisposing risk factor. Intravenous antibiotics are the primary treatment modality, with consideration given to adjunctive surgical drainage. We present this case to increase awareness surrounding this diagnosis among emergency physicians. Spontaneous lingual abscess should be considered in immunocompromised patients who present to the emergency department with tongue pain and edema even in the absence of lingual trauma. PMID:24332904
Pyogenic liver abscesses are rare but a life-threatening important condition. Dental procedures constitute only rare cases of pyogenic liver abscesses, with only a few cases in the literature. We report a patient with liver abscess following a dental procedure. A 74 years old diabetic male patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of fatigue, 40?°C fever, rigors and right upper quadrant pain, 3-4 d after a dental procedure. Physical examination revealed fever and tenderness in the right upper quadrant. Laboratory examination revealed leucocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein and moderately elevated transaminases. An abscess was detected in radiological examination in the medial part of the left lobe of liver, neighboring the gall bladder. He was successfully treated with percutaneous abscess drainage and antibiotherapy.
We describe four cases of multiple, cryptogenic, and streptococcal liver abscesses which were cured with antibiotic therapy. Two of the patients were referred for medical management as a last resort after open surgical drainage failed to eradicate the suppurative process. The other two patients were treated from the time of diagnosis with antimicrobial agents alone. Blood cultures or needle aspirates of the abscesses yielded a pure growth of streptococci in all instances. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G. Cryptogenic streptococcal abscesses may represent a subset of multiple hepatic abscesses particularly amenable to successful medical therapy consisting of a minimum of 6 weeks parenteral antibiotic therapy followed by a period of oral antibiotics until clinical, biochemical, and radiological resolution of the abscesses has occurred.
We report a case of a patient who developed fulminant sepsis and respiratory distress caused by a gas-forming Escherichia coli intrauterine infection following premature rupture of the membranes and fetal death. Such gas-forming infections are rare, and, when they occur, they are usually caused by Clostridium welchii. This patient was treated with antibiotics, ventilator support, and hysterectomy, and at follow-up was in good health. PMID:8048986
Catanzarite, V; Schibanoff, J M; Chinn, R; Mendoza, A; Weiss, R
Lemierre’s disease is characterized by sepsis, often with an oropharyngeal source, secondary septic emboli and internal jugular vein thrombosis (Lancet 1:701–3, 1936. Clin Microbiol Rev 20(4):622–59, 2007). Septic emboli affecting many bodily sites have been reported, including the lungs, joints, bones, and brain. The case report describes an unusual case of Lemierre’s disease in a 64 year old gentleman causing profound sepsis, acute kidney injury, bilateral iliopsoas abscesses and a right hand abscess. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Lemierre’s disease in the context of bilateral psoas abscesses, and highlights the ambiguity surrounding the definition of Lemierre’s disease. The clinical literature review highlights the difficulty in definitively diagnosing the condition and offers some suggestions for recognising and refining the diagnostic criterion of Lemierre’s.
Lemierre's disease is characterized by sepsis, often with an oropharyngeal source, secondary septic emboli and internal jugular vein thrombosis (Lancet 1:701-3, 1936. Clin Microbiol Rev 20(4):622-59, 2007). Septic emboli affecting many bodily sites have been reported, including the lungs, joints, bones, and brain. The case report describes an unusual case of Lemierre's disease in a 64 year old gentleman causing profound sepsis, acute kidney injury, bilateral iliopsoas abscesses and a right hand abscess. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Lemierre's disease in the context of bilateral psoas abscesses, and highlights the ambiguity surrounding the definition of Lemierre's disease. The clinical literature review highlights the difficulty in definitively diagnosing the condition and offers some suggestions for recognising and refining the diagnostic criterion of Lemierre's. PMID:24904685
Bird, Nicholas Te; Cocker, Derek; Cullis, Paul; Schofield, Richard; Challoner, Ben; Hayes, Alastair; Brett, Martin
Liver abscesses in slaughtered beef cattle result from aggressive grain-feeding programs. The incidence, averaging from 12 to 32% in most feedlots, is influenced by a number of dietary and management factors. Liver abscesses represent a major economic liability to producers, packers, and ultimately consumers. Besides liver condemnation, economic impacts include reduced feed intake, reduced weight gain, decreased feed efficiency, and decreased carcass yield. Fusobacterium necrophorum, a member of the ruminal anaerobic bacterial flora, is the primary etiologic agent. Actinomyces pyogenes is the second most frequently isolated pathogen. Ruminal lesions resulting from acidosis generally are accepted as the predisposing factors for liver abscesses. F. necrophorum possesses or produces a number of virulence factors that participate in the penetration and colonization of the ruminal epithelium and subsequent entry and establishment of infection in the liver. However, only a few virulence factors have been characterized well. Control of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle generally has depended on the use of antimicrobial compounds. Five antibiotics (i.e., bacitracin methylene disalicylate, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin) are approved for prevention of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle. Tylosin is the most effective and the most commonly used feed additive. Tylosin feeding reduces abscess incidence by 40 to 70%. The mode of action of antibiotics in preventing liver abscesses is believed to be via inhibition of ruminal F. necrophorum. Protective immunity against F. necrophorum induced by a variety of antigenic components has ranged from ineffectual to significant protection. PMID:9464910
Background:Intracranial abscesses account for 2% of the intracranial mass even in advanced countries. Because of the variety of causative organisms and symptoms, a standard treatment for intracranial abscess has not yet been established. Materials and methods:We retrospectively reviewed the treatment outcomes for intracranial brainabscess and subdural abscess to assess the risk factors for poor prognosis and problems related to treatment. Results:In total, 28 patients were included in this study. Preceding craniocervical infections were found in 35.7% of patients. In 39.3% of patients, causative organisms were not identified. The treatment outcome evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale was 0 in 17 patients, 1 in 1 patient, 2 in 2 patients, 4 in 3 patients, 5 in 1 patient, and 6 in 4 patients. All mortality was noted in patients older than 60 years. Advanced age and the development of ventriculitis were significantly associated with poor outcome, i.e., a modified Rankin Scale score of 4 or worse. In contrast, the presence of fever or headache as initial symptoms, severity of neurological deficit, location of the abscess, and lack of identification of causative organism were not related to poor outcome. Compared with our previous treatment results, diffusion-weighted MR imaging has significantly contributed to the improvement of outcomes. Conclusion:Early administration of antibiotic therapy based on MR findings was critical in obtaining a good outcome in the treatment of brainabscess. Based on our experience, treatment should be continued, even for patients in a critical condition. PMID:24598870
Background Brainabscess in young infants is extremely rare and usually associated with a previous history of bacterial meningitis or septicemia. Case Presentation Here we report a cerebellar abscess mimicking brain tumor with atypical clinical and paraclinical presentations. A two-month old previously well-baby boy was referred to us with persistent vomiting, strabismus and developmental regression. The brain imaging showed a right cerebellar mass with multiple small cysts inside the lesion. Elevated serum alfa-fetoprotein associated with cystic and solid posterior fossa mass proposed the preoperative diagnosis of teratoma but tumor cells were not found inside the pathology specimen. The culture of the sample was positive for staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion The interest of this case lies in the atypical features of clinical and radiological evaluations in a young infant associated with an abnormal alfa-fetoprotein level of serum.
El-Khashab, Mostafa; Zonouzi, Taraneh Hashemi; Naghani, Iman Moeini; Nejat, Farideh
Despite the rarity of lung abscess in children, 24 patients were treated at Harare Central Hospital during the 10 year period (1979 to 1988). The bacteriology and clinical findings of the 24 patients are presented. Bacteria were isolated from 18 patients. The most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, group A beta haemolytic streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most of the abscesses followed measles, empyema or an episode of aspiration. The patients were managed with bronchoscopy, physiotherapy, and appropriate antibiotics, and had a mortality of 25%. Efforts at controlling measles as well as early and appropriate management of empyema are likely to reduce the number of lung abscesses in children. PMID:1473506
An 18-month-old Caucasian female began with a high fever. She developed swelling in one finger and one toe. Abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple abscesses in her spleen. Multiple blood culture and splenic abscess aspirations grew no pathogens. She had transient response to multiple antibiotics and splenic abscess drainage, but fever returned along with subcutaneous nodules. Culture of splenic tissue from her second splenic drainage eventually grew one organism identified as Actinomyces naeslundii. Therapy with high dose penicillin followed by amoxicillin p.o. and total splenectomy led to complete recovery. PMID:9272309
A 67 year old man with longstanding rheumatoid disease was referred to the regional spinal surgery unit with acute onset of paraparesis due to an extensive spinal epidural abscess of the lumbar spine. Ten months previously, he had started antibiotic treatment at another hospital for an epidural abscess arising at the level of the L2-3 disc space. Despite completing seven months of medical treatment with appropriate antibiotics, he had a recrudescence of acute back pain shortly after restarting methotrexate treatment. Urgent anterior spinal decompression with excision of the necrotic vertebral bodies of L1-3 was performed. The indications for the surgical management of spinal epidural abscess are reviewed.??
Introduction: Application of oxidized regenerated cellulose is commonly performed in laparoscopy to achieve hemostasis during surgery. The appearance of an abscess resembles oxidized regenerated cellulose, causing imaging studies to be difficult to interpret. Case Description: We describe the cases of 3 patients who underwent oxidized regenerated cellulose placement during laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. They subsequently presented with signs and symptoms resembling an abscess. Computed tomographic imaging can be challenging to interpret in such cases; radiologic findings can be used to differentiate between the characteristics of oxidized regenerated cellulose and those of abscess formation on the vaginal cuff. Discussion: Oxidized regenerated cellulose has an appearance that often mimics postsurgical abscess formation. There are distinct characteristics that distinguish both findings. It is essential that patients' records accurately describe the presence and location of regenerated oxidized cellulose when placed intraoperatively, and this information must be relayed to the interpreting radiologist to facilitate medical diagnosis and guide clinical management.
Harkins, Gerald; Dykes, Thomas; Gockley, Allison; Davies, Matthew
Bacterial and viral infection of the intraparotideal and periparotideal lymph nodes, or of the glandular parenchyma, can lead to inflammatory and subsequently suppurative changes, which can result in abscess formation. Sonography allows a detailed morphological evaluation of the gland and has an important value, complementary to clinical examination, in the study of parotid inflammatory diseases. Specifically, sonography defines lesion's characteristics and, in a large number of cases, also its nature and, among the various imaging techniques, it is considered first-line imaging for the evaluation of parotid abscesses, which are characterized by hypo-anechoic lesions, with irregular margins. Color Doppler signals are peripheral to the abscess. If combined with color Doppler, sonography is important not only in diagnosis, but also in the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and as a guide to the aspiration and drainage of abscesses. The rarity of some of these lesions led us to publish this mini-pictorial essay. PMID:24046794
Viselner, G; van der Byl, G; Maira, A; Merico, V; Draghi, F
Though amoebic liver abscess and liver cirrhosis occur very commonly in hospital practice in the tropics, they have not to the knowledge of the present authors hitherto been reported to occur simultaneously in the same patient. The patient described here, who had clear-cut clinical and histological features of chronic liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension and ascites, presented somewhat acutely with liver pain and an amoebic liver abscess that contained 'chocolate sauce' on needle aspiration. The amoebic abscess, although, no doubt, superimposed on chronic irreversible cirrhosis, rapidly regressed on metronidazole therapy. The infrequency with which liver abscess and liver cirrhosis coexist cannot be satisfactorily explained. It is probable, however, that extensive scarring in the liver may prevent entamoeba histolytica from thriving. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2
Actinomyces israelii is a gram-positive, filamentous anaerobic bacteria colonizing the oral and gastrointestinal tracts. Retroperitoneal actinomycotic abscess is uncommon and its rare presentation as a hemorrhagic mass may be confused with malignancy. We present a case of this unusual infection complicating pregnancy. Increased awareness of actinomycotic abscess in the differential diagnosis of renal mass concerning for malignancy is critical to early recognition and treatment of this rare infection and most importantly, avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:24757509
Smid, Marcela C; Bhardwaj, Neha R; Di Giovanni, Laura M; Eggener, Scott; Torre, Micaela Della
Epiglottic abscess is rare sequelae of acute epiglottitis. It occurs commonly in adult although acute epiglottitis commonly occur in children. The presentation includes fever with odynophagia. The diagnosis is based on high index of suspicion especially when oral examinations reveal normal findings. We report a case of adult epiglottic abscess which was treated with incision and drainage. The outline of management was discussed. PMID:23770882
This study aims to review our experience with deep neck abscesses, identify key trends, and improve the management of this condition. This is a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with deep neck abscesses in the Department of ENT (Otorhinolaryngology) at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore between 2004 and 2009. Patient demographics, etiology, bacteriology, systemic disease, radiology, treatment, complications, duration of hospitalization, and outcomes were reviewed. 131 patients were included (64.9% male, 35.1% female) with a median age of 51.0 years. 54 (41.2%) patients had diabetes mellitus. The parapharyngeal space (23.7%) was the most commonly involved space. Odontogenic and upper airway infections were the leading causes of deep neck abscesses (28.0% each). Klebsiella pneumoniae (27.1%) was the most commonly cultured organism in this study and among the diabetic patients (50.0%). 108 (82.4%) patients underwent surgical drainage. 42 patients suffered complications. All 19 patients, who had upper airway obstruction, had either a tracheostomy or intubation. Patients with multi-space abscesses, diabetes mellitus, and complications had prolonged hospitalizations. Old age and diabetes are risk factors for developing deep neck abscesses and their sequelae. The empiric choice of antibiotics should recognize that a dental source is likely, and that Klebsiella is most common in diabetics. Surgical drainage and adequate antibiotic coverage remains the cornerstone of treatment of deep neck abscesses. Therapeutic needle aspiration may successfully replace surgical drainage, if the abscesses are small and no complications are imminent. Airway obstruction should be anticipated in multi-space and floor of mouth abscesses. PMID:20857130
Actinomyces israelii is a gram-positive, filamentous anaerobic bacteria colonizing the oral and gastrointestinal tracts. Retroperitoneal actinomycotic abscess is uncommon and its rare presentation as a hemorrhagic mass may be confused with malignancy. We present a case of this unusual infection complicating pregnancy. Increased awareness of actinomycotic abscess in the differential diagnosis of renal mass concerning for malignancy is critical to early recognition and treatment of this rare infection and most importantly, avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention.
Smid, Marcela C.; Bhardwaj, Neha R.; Di Giovanni, Laura M.; Eggener, Scott; Torre, Micaela Della
We present a case of iliopsoas abscess in an immunocompetent patient. She experienced three weeks of worsening right hip pain, which was initially misdiagnosed as degenerative joint disease. This led to admission to the Intensive Care Unit for severe sepsis. The patient improved with intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous abscess drainage. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-08.asp, free with no login]. PMID:25083956
Mannino, Courtney M; Salhab, Mohammed; Schmidhofer, Sarah; Pop-Vicas, Aurora
Forty hepatic abscesses were examined with dynamic computed tomography (CT). A double target sign, consisting of a hypodense central area surrounded by first a hyperdense ring and then a hypodense zone, seems to be highly suggestive of abscess formation. In 12 cases, the hepatic parenchyma surrounding the lesion demonstrated transient hyperdensity after contrast injection, possibly due to localized hepatic venous obstruction secondary to acute hepatic inflammation. This is similar to the appearance of an arterioportal fistula.
A case report of a patient who underwent submucosal injection sclerotherapy for hemorrhoids is presented. Subsequent necrosis of the underlying tissues produced a rectal perforation and retroperitoneal abscess, which necessitated emergency laparotomy and defunctioning colostomy. Healing of the perforation allowed later closure of the stoma. A brief review of the known complications of this technique has been made. It would appear that necrosis and perforation with abscess formation can be added to this list. PMID:3882366
Nocardiosis is an acute or chronic infectious disease caused by the soil-borne filamentous bacteria belonging to the genus Nocardia. The organisms opportunistically infect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The lungs are the primary site of infection and brainabscess is, by far, the most common complication following nocardial metastasis from pulmonary lesions. Although surgical intervention must always be considered in the treatment of nocardial brainabscess, it can obviously be cured by antibiotic therapy alone. This report describes a case infected by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica. Identification of the infectious agent was achieved by conventional and semi-nested PCR techniques. A 55-year-old woman with fever was referred to the infect disclinic of Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran and was hospitalized after clinical assessment. She was a kidney transplant recipient for 4 years and was taking immunosuppressive treatment including azathioprine and methylprednisolone. Follow-up of the patient by CT scan revealed pulmonary infection and cerebral lesions. Specimens of the brain lesions contained filamentous bacteria. The patient received a combination of co-trimoxazole and ceftriaxone and brainabscesses as well as lung inflammation disappeared gradually during the course of antibiotic therapy within 3 months. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 2 months of therapy. PMID:24385294
The infratemporal fossa (ITF) is a potential space bounded by bony structures that can be occupied by both benign and malignant tumors. It is also a potential area of abscess development, most commonly of dental origin. As with any abscess, the treatment of an ITF abscess is surgical drainage. We present a case of an ITF abscess involving the pterygoid muscles following dental extraction in a poorly controlled diabetic patient. The ITF was accessed with an endoscopic transseptal approach through the maxillary sinus to drain the abscess. This case of successful management supports the feasibility of the endoscopic approach in dealing with abscesses of the ITF.
Brain metastases are the most frequent neurological complication of cancer and the most common brain tumour type. Lung and breast cancers, and melanoma are responsible for up to three-quarters of metastatic brain lesions. Most patients exhibit either headache, seizures, focal deficits, cognitive or gait disorders, which severely impair the quality of life. Brain metastases are best demonstrated by MRI, which is sensitive but non-specific. The main differential diagnosis includes primary tumours, abscesses, vascular and inflammatory lesions. Overall prognosis is poor and depends on age, extent and activity of the systemic disease, number of brain metastases and performance status. In about half of the patients, especially those with widespread and uncontrolled systemic malignancy, death is heavily related to extra-neural lesions, and treatment of cerebral disease doesn't significantly improve survival. In such patients the aim is to improve or stabilize the neurological deficit and maintain quality of life. Corticosteroids and whole-brain radiotherapy usually fulfill this purpose. By contrast, patients with limited number of brain metastases, good performance status and controlled or limited systemic disease, may benefit from aggressive treatment as both quality of life and survival are primarily related to treatment of brain lesions. Several efficacious therapeutic options including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are available for these patients. PMID:24365409
Forty cases of brainabscesses in patients under 15 years of age observed between 1960 and 1982 are reported in this study. There has been a progressive decrease in the number of admissions due to that disease. The typical clinical picture was subacute and characterized by intracranial hypertension, fever, alterations in the level of consciousness, seizures and signs of localization in a decreasing order of frequency. Otites and sinusites predominated as primary foci and the most common localizations were frontal and parietal. Electroencephalogram and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid were useful. Currently, computerized tomography is indicated as the test of choice. Thirty-four patients underwent surgeries and the mortality rate was 35.2%. PMID:6497711
Filariasis is a parasitic infectious disease caused by filarial nematode worms. These worms mainly dwell in subcutaneous tissues and lymphatics of the human host, with a predilection for lower limbs, retroperitoneal tissues, spermatic cord, and epididymis. Oral or perioral involvement of the filarial nematode is rare. This case report describes a filarial abscess in the right submandibular region. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the abscess revealed the presence of microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti species. The parasite was also present in the peripheral blood smear. Filarial infection presenting in this region is unusual and can cause diagnostic dilemma. The clinician can consider filariasis as one of the differential diagnosis while treating those abscesses in the orofacial region that are unresponsive to routine management, especially, patients hailing from endemic areas.
Liver abscesses in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are typically difficult to treat and often require surgery. We describe 9 X-linked CGD patients with staphylococcal liver abscesses refractory to conventional therapy successfully treated with corticosteroids and antibiotics. Corticosteroids may have a role in treatment of Staphylococcus aureus liver abscesses in CGD.
Leiding, Jennifer W.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Marciano, Beatriz E.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Uzel, Gulbu; Malech, Harry L.; DeRavin, SukSee; Wilks, David; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Zerbe, Christa S.; Heller, Theo
Background: Experience with endoscopic transmural drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts prompted the use of a similar technique for the primary treatment of pancreatic abscess. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of endoscopic transmural drainage for the treatment of pancreatic abscesses compressing the gut lumen. Methods: In 9 patients, a total of 11 pancreatic abscesses
Jong Jae Park; Sun Suk Kim; Yang Seoh Koo; Duck Joo Choi; Hyun Chul Park; Ju Hyun Kim; Jae Sun Kim; Jin Hai Hyun
Bartholin gland cysts and abscesses are common problems in females during their reproductive time. Majority of Bartholin's gland abscesses described are of polymicrobial nature, but not necessarily involves opportunistic microbes that colonize the perineal region. In this report, we describe a case of Bartholin's abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a 25-year-old non-diabetic primigravida.
It has only been in the last several decades that abscesses within deep compartments, particularly within the abdomen and pelvis, have become safely accessible with imaging guidance. Since that time, percutaneous abscess drainage has become the standard of care in children. We review the clinical features, diagnosis, and image-guided management of abdominal and pelvic abscesses in children.
An 11-year-old boy with septic arthritis of both knees presented with an anterior mediastinal abscess extending suprasternally. This was drained through a suprasternal incision and the mediastinal cavity was intermittently irrigated with povidone iodine solution and packed with gauze. Staphylococcus aureus was the responsible organism. Antibiotic therapy comprised of cloxacillin and gentamycin. Recovery was uneventful. This is, most probably, the first report on an anterior mediastinal abscess complicating a distant septic arthritis. As for any infective mediastinitis, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is mandatory for a patient's survival. PMID:1552425
We report a case of endocarditis and associated paravalvular abscess due to Rothia dentocariosa which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Nine case reports describing endocarditis caused by this organism, formerly thought to be non-pathogenic, have been recorded in the literature. The isolates were extremely sensitive to penicillin, and eight patients responded to this agent which, in most cases, was used in combination with an aminoglycoside. Surgery is recommended for an associated abscess, as the outcome in the two recorded cases has been fatal. PMID:9892536
A 6-year-old, male castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of lethargy, vomiting, anorexia, and constipation. Physical examination revealed an elevated body temperature and an extramural colonic mass. Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic mass measuring 2.2 cm in maximum dimension immediately caudal to the bladder. Cytological evaluation of a fine-needle aspirate confirmed the mass was a prostatic abscess. Abdominal celiotomy and prostatic omentalization were successful in resolving clinical abnormalities. Feline prostatic abscessation is a rare condition that has not been previously reported and may have a good outcome if treated early and appropriately. PMID:18316446
Mordecai, Adam; Liptak, Julius M; Hofstede, Tamara; Stalker, Margaret; Kruth, Stephen
Bronchial carcinoid tumours is a rare group of pulmonary malignant neoplasm that is derived from neuroendocrine system. Bronchial carcinoid usually present with hilar masses, atelactasis, bronchiectasis, or post-obstructive pneumonia. This case describes a very unusual presentation of bronchial carcinoid tumour with multiple lung abscesses involving the whole lung. This report is of an adult lady who presented with multiple lung abscesses involving her whole of the right lung. She was found to have an endo-bronchial lesion in her right main bronchus which eventually turned out to be carcinoid tumour. She responded to resection and antibiotic therapy. PMID:23458053
During a 15 year period, 18 patients with 28 mamillary fistulas were treated. In eight women, periareolar abscess had preceded recognition of a fistula. Ten patients were primarily diagnosed as having mamillary fistula. In six patients, when the underlying fistula tract was not identified and excised at the time of operation, discharging sinus reoccurred. Twenty-two fistulas were completely excised together with an extensive lactiferous duct system. Operative wound was primarily closed using antibiotic cover. Periareolar abscess and mamillary fistula should be treated primarily by complete excision of the fistula tract and extensive duct system of the breast. PMID:1411885
Background Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group. Clinical disease with S. intermedius is characterized by abscess formation and rarely endocarditis. Identification of Streptococcus intermedius is difficult, leading to the development of molecular methods to more accurately identify and characterize this organism. Case presentation Over a period of 6 months we encountered three cases of invasive Streptococcus intermedius infection presenting as hepatic abscesses, brainabscess, and endocarditis. We confirmed our microbiologic diagnosis through 16S sequencing and found a common virulence gene in each case. Conclusion Our report illustrates three different clinical manifestations due to Streptococcus intermedius infection that can be encountered in healthy individuals in a community hospital setting. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Streptococcus intermedius endocarditis confirmed by 16S sequencing analysis. The use of molecular methods may allow a better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this organism.
Tran, MaryAnn P; Caldwell-McMillan, Molly; Khalife, Walid; Young, Vincent B
A 14-year-old girl presented with symptoms and signs of left otomastoiditis and meningitis. CT and MRI revealed a largely expanded cavum septum pellucidum with enhancing walls and findings suggesting left otomastoiditis and meningitis. At surgery, an abscess was found within the cavum septum pellucidum. Five similar cases have been reported in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first
Gur Akansel; Sedat Dalbayrak; Mesut Yilmaz; Dilek Yavuzer; Muberra Seymen; Isik Gurel; Ali Demirci
Objectives To identify the variables that predict the failure to treat amoebic liver abscesses. Methods We prospectively carried out a case–control study on a cohort of patients who had been diagnosed with amoebic liver abscesses using clinical, ultrasonic, and serologic methods. Patients with pyogenic abscesses, negative ELISA tests for amoebiasis, immunosuppression status, or previous abdominal surgery were excluded. All patients received metronidazole, and those who demonstrated 4 days of unfavorable clinical responses received percutaneous or surgical draining of the abscess. Demographic, laboratory, and ultrasonographic characteristics were assessed as prognostic indications of failure. Results Of 40 patients with amoebic liver abscess, 24 (mean age: 36.7±11.2 years) responded to medical treatment and 16 (41.8±11.6 years) required drainage, including 14 patients who underwent percutaneous drainage and two patients who required surgery. The albumin level, abscess volume, abscess diameter, and alkaline phosphatase level were all statistically significant (P<0.05) on the bivariate analysis. The highest (>99%) sensitivity and negative predictive value were observed for an abscess volume >500 ml and diameter >10 cm, while the best specificity and positive predictive value were achieved with the combination of low serum albumin level, high alkaline phosphatase level, and large abscess volume or diameter. Conclusions The prognostic indications of the failure to treat amoebic liver abscesses include low albumin, high alkaline phosphatase, and large abscess volume or diameter. The combination of these variables is a useful and easy tool for determining appropriate therapy.
Sanchez-Aguilar, Martin; Moran-Mendoza, Onofre; Herrera-Hernandez, Miguel F; Hernandez-Sierra, Juan Francisco; Mandeville, Peter B; Tapia-Perez, J Humberto; Sanchez-Reyna, Martin; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Jose Juan; Gordillo-Moscoso, Antonio
Acute apical abscesses and cellulitis are severe endodontic diseases caused by opportunistic bacteria with possible co-infection with latent herpesviruses. The objectives of this study are to identify herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and Varicella zoster virus (VZV), in patients (n=31) presenting with acute apical abscesses and cellulitis of endodontic origin. Primary and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using virus-specific primers and DNA isolated from cell-free abscess fluid. From patients exhibiting concurrent spontaneous pain (n=28), nine abscesses contained HCMV, two abscesses contained EBV, one abscess contained HSV-1, and no abscesses contained VZV. Control PCR using genomic or recombinant templates demonstrated detection limits to a single genomic copy of HCMV, 100 genomic copies for EBV, and 1-10 copies for HSV-1, with no cross-amplification between herpesviral DNA targets. Nested PCR was required for detection of herpesviral DNA in the abscess specimens, indicating that these viruses were present in low copy number. Filtration of abscess specimens and virus transfer experiments using human fibroblastic MRC-5 cells confirmed the presence of HCMV particles in several abscess specimens. We conclude that herpesviruses are present, but not required for development of acute apical abscesses and cellulitis of endodontic origin.
Chen, Vicky; Chen, Yanwen; Li, Hong; Kent, Karla; Baumgartner, J. Craig; Machida, Curtis A.
Although acute appendicitis is a common disease, retroperitoneal abscesses are rarely observed. Here, we report a case consisting of a psoas abscess and cutaneous fistula caused by appendicitis. The patient was a 56-year-old male who was introduced to our institution due to an intractable right psoas abscess. Imaging tests had been performed over the previous 3 years; however, clinicians could not find the origin of the abscess and failed to resolve the problem. A successful operation was performed via a laparoscopic approach, and 17 mo have passed without recurrence. The advantage of laparoscopic surgery is well understood in cases of appendicitis with abscesses. However, the indication for laparoscopic approach is not clear for retroperitoneal abscesses. From our experience, we can conclude that appendicitis with retroperitoneal abscesses can be managed and treated using a laparoscopic approach.
This review of 299 cases of breast abscesses seen over a 10-year period (1981-1990) at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital in Nigeria seeks to establish the current status of breast abscesses in the tropics. Lactational breast abscess constitutes 95% of breast abscesses while non-lactational breast abscess constitutes only 5% in this review. The commonest pathogen cultured from lactational breast abscess is Staphylococcus aureus and the disease responds to incision and drainage and systemic antibiotics, while non-lactational breast abscess is caused mostly by anaerobic organisms, usually with underlying mammary duct ectasia. The low incidence of non-lactational breast abscess corresponds to the low incidence of cigarette smoking and mammary duct ectasia in Nigerian women. While the high incidence of lactational breast abscess corresponds to the high rate of breast feeding and low level of personal hygiene in the low income group Nigerian women in which the disease is commonest. Economic recession has also reduced patronage of artificial feeds thus intensifying breast feeding and consequent lactational breast abscess. PMID:7738892
Breast abscess is mostly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. A 26-year-old immunocompetent lady was admitted with breast abscess. Incision and drainage (I/D) was done and Pneumococci were isolated from the drained pus. The patient was earlier treated with Augmentin which was later changed to linezolid after testing for antibiotic susceptibility. This strain showed a high level of resistance to penicillin. It had been noticed that there was a slow increase in the number of penicillin resistant Pneumococci isolated in our hospitals. The increase in penicillin-resistant Pneumococci correlates with the intensive use of beta-lactam antibiotics. Hence, antibiotics should be used judiciously, avoiding their use particularly in mild self-limiting upper respiratory infections. Attention therefore, should focus on monitoring resistance in Pneumococci to prevent mortality and morbidity associated with this organism, which continues to take a heavy toll on children and the elderly.
Gout is the most common crystal-induced arthritis. Gouty tophi typically deposit in the extremities, especially toes and fingers. We present an unusual case of intrapelvic tophaceous gout in a patient suffering from chronic gouty arthritis. CT and MRI of the abdomen and pelvic cavity disclosed calcified gouty tophi around both hips, and a cystic lesion with peripheral enhancement in the pelvic cavity along the course of the iliopsoas muscle. The intra-abdominal tophus mimicked pelvic abscess. PMID:15778870
Little is known about preexisting lesions in livers of children with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Study of these lesions\\u000a may elucidate possible predisposing factors for the disease. In Vitória, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, PLA in children\\u000a is frequently associated with helminthic infections and eosinophilia. We hypothesize that nematode infection with larvae migrating\\u000a through the liver is a predisposing factor
Fausto E. L. Pereira; Carlos Musso; Jane S. Castelo
A 59-year-old male diabetic was admitted with an acute myocardial infarction and had recurrent. Propionibacterium acnes bacteremia. Fifteen months after the initial admission a splenectomy was required for removal of a large splenic abscess caused by P. acnes. Although this organism represents part of the normal skin flora, its presence of blood cultures requires serious evaluation since it may signify clinical disease, not merely contamination of blood cultures by skin flora. Images FIG. 1
Gekowski, K. M.; Lopes, R.; LiCalzi, L.; Bia, F. J.
Hepatogastric fistula is very rare. We report a case of hepatogastric fistula as a complication of pyogenic liver abscess. A 40-year-old man presented with upper abdominal pain and high-grade fever of 2?weeks. Evaluation revealed multiple liver abscesses. On an empirical diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscess, he was treated with antibiotics. During hospital stay he developed intermittent large quantity bilious vomiting. Gastroduodenoscopy and contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen showed rupture of left lobe liver abscess into the stomach. As expectant management failed to resolve the abscess, endoscopic retrograde papillotomy and stenting of common bile duct was performed. After endoscopic stenting, symptoms subsided. Imaging repeated after 2?weeks of endoscopic stenting showed resolving abscess. He was discharged and is doing well on regular follow-ups. We conclude that hepatogastricfistula can be managed by endoscopic stenting as bile flow through the stent hastens resolution and healing of the fistula. PMID:25035445
Psoas muscle abscess is rare and presents a diagnostic challenge requiring a high index of suspicion. We report an unusual case of primary psoas abscess caused by Proteus mirabilis. Primary psoas abscess is most commonly present in children and is usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 434 cases of psoas abscess has been reported. The subject is discussed noting the differences between primary and secondary cases, and emphasizing the importance of ultrasound and computerized tomography guided drainage of psoas abscess. A flow chart for the evaluation and management of primary and secondary abscess is presented, taking into consideration the success rate of the various methods of treatment described in the literature. PMID:1593704
Intradural spinal cord abscesses especially in the cervical spine are a rare occurrence. We report a rare presentation of an intradural extramedullary abscess at the atlantoaxial level, initially misdiagnosed as an epidural collection. The patient presented with worsening quadriparesis preceded by a 2-week history of upper respiratory tract infection and neck pain. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of an epidural abscess on the left side abutting the cervicomedullary junction. We performed occipitocervical fixation and surgical decompression. Absence of a suspected epidural abscess led us to consider a durotomy, and an intradural abscess was recognized and drained. Presence of an intradural abscess, though extremely rare, must always be considered in suspected spinal epidural collections as radiological and clinical findings are indistinguishable between the two conditions. PMID:24436877
Hasan, Muhammed Yaser; Kumar, K Karuppiah; Lwin, Sein; Lau, Leok-Lim; Kumar, Naresh
A 26-year-old man was admitted with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasound eventually revealed portal vein thrombosis and a pyogenic liver abscess (17x11x11 cm). Lactococcus lactis was isolated from a culture of the abscess material. This organism is not a common pathogen in humans. This is the first published description of portal vein thrombosis and pyogenic liver abscess due to L. lactis. PMID:16830302
Papilledema is an uncommon presentation of spinal cord processes. Spinal subdural abscess (SSA) is a rare site of post-operative infection. We report a patient who developed papilledema as the primary manifestation of a post-operative lumbar subdural abscess. A spinal abscess should be considered in the post-operative spinal surgery patient who develops papilledema in the setting of persistent back pain. The
Melissa W. Ko; Benjamin Osborne; Sungmi Jung; Dina A. Jacobs; Paul Marcotte; Steven L. Galetta
. \\u000a We report the case of a melioidosis-like abscess of the liver caused by Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia infection in a Chinese man living in Hungary. Although this appears to be the first documentation of a liver abscess of this\\u000a origin in a nonimmunocompromised patient, our case report demonstrates that this common facultative pathogen can also cause\\u000a liver abscess and sepsis.
András Petri; László Tiszlavicz; Erzsébet Nagy; Zita Morvay; Erzsébet László Kókai; Gábor Kocsis Savanya; Ádám Balogh
In a five year period 227 patients with anal abscesses and\\/or fistulas of suspected cryptoglandular origin were observed and treated by one surgeon. In 201 patients the primary opening or the crypt of origin of the abscesses and\\/or fistulas were identified. These lesions were evaluated according to two classifications [1, 2]. The aim was to verify whether primary abscesses and\\/or
Hepatic ultrasonography not only can be used to detect amebic liver abscess, but can follow its resolution. Twenty-five patients with 32 abscesses had hepatic sonography performed repeatedly. Sonography clearly demonstrated abscesses of 1-22 cm, 19 patien...
The characteristics, history, clinical signs, treatment and outcome of nine horses with abscesses caused by Actinomyces species were reviewed. dna sequencing was used to determine the species of one of the isolates. The horses were one to 11 years of age, and the abscesses were most commonly located in the submandibular and retropharyngeal regions. The bacterium was usually cultured as the sole isolate and the horses were most often affected in the autumn. Most of the abscesses were treated with antimicrobials and drainage, but some of them recurred. The horses with submandibular abscesses had residual scar tissue that in some cases did not resolve. PMID:18178933
Fielding, C L; Magdesian, K G; Morgan, R A; Ruby, R E; Sprayberry, K A
We encountered a case of ruptured splenic abscess presenting as peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum. Our patient did not have an underlying neoplasm nor was she immunosuppressed. In our case, splenectomy was the treatment of choice in combination with antibiotics, which proved to be a good outcome for the patient. Work-up for the cause of the abscess was negative, although bacteria predominately found in the oral flora were isolated from the abscess. We strongly encourage that splenic abscess be considered on the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with pneumoperitoneum and peritonitis, although a clinical rarity.
Prostatic abscess is traditionally considered a rare disease that is caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has recently emerged as an important cause of prostatic abscesses. Symptoms are nonspecific and include dysuria, urinary frequency, fever, chills, and perineal and low back pain. Morbidity and mortality increase with delays in identification and proper treatment. We present two cases of community acquired MRSA prostatic abscesses with bacteremia. One of these cases may be the first reported septic shock fatality resulting from a prostatic abscess source in an immunocompetent patient. As the number of community acquired MRSA bacteremia cases increases, this potential site of infection should be recognized.
Lachant, Daniel J.; Apostolakos, Michael; Pietropaoli, Anthony
It is suggested that major variations in the relative oxygen fugacity of a basaltic magma are caused primarily by gas-forming elements, especially carbon and hydrogen. According to this theory, carbon, present in the source region of a basaltic magma, reduces the host magma during ascent, as isothermally carbon becomes more reducing with decreasing pressure. For an anhydrous magma such as lunar basalts, this reduction continues through the extrusive phase and the relative oxygen fugacity decreases rapidly until buffered by the precipitation of a metallic phase. For hydrous magmas such as terrestrial basalts, reduction by carbon is eventually superceded by oxidation due to loss of H2 generated by the reaction of C with H2O and by thermal dissociation of H2O. The relative oxygen fugacity of a hydrous magma initially decreases as a magma ascends from the source region and then increases until magnetite crystallization curbs the rising trend of the relative oxygen fugacity.
A patient with multiple pyogenic abscesses in both lobes of the liver secondary to asymptomatic sigmoid diverticulitis is presented. The rarity of this illness is noted. It is suggested that barium enema be performed in patients who present with pyogenic liver abscess of unknown etiology because of the association with asymptomatic sigmoid diverticulitis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
The characteristics, history, clinical signs, treatment and outcome of nine horses with abscesses caused by Actinomyces species were reviewed. dna sequencing was used to determine the species of one of the isolates. The horses were one to 11 years of age, and the abscesses were most commonly located in the submandibular and retropharyngeal regions. The bacterium was usually cultured as
C. L. Fielding; K. G. Magdesian; R. A. Morgan; R. E. Ruby; K. A. Sprayberry
Reported is the case of a patient who had an appendiceal abscess revealed by right renal colic with fever and general fatigue. The abdominal computed tomography scan showed hydronephrosis and an appendiceal abscess surrounding and compressing the ureter. The appendix contained a stercolith and was perforated.
The authors report a case of a 70-year-old lady who was on steroids for over 40 years for asthma and presented with a subcutaneous abscess related to diverticular disease of the colon. This case illustrates how steroids can mask the disease process and also highlights that diverticular abscess perforation is one of the many complications of corticosteroid therapy.
We report an unusual case of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses containing Ascariasis lumbricoides in a 35-year-old post-partum female who had delivered 1 month back. Open drainage of liver abscess along with liver worm was done. Patient did well post-operatively.
Dentigerous cyst is one of the most prevalent types of odontogenic cysts and is associated with crown of an unerupted or developing tooth. Dentigerous cysts are usually asymptomatic, so facial swelling may be the first clinical sign of a dentigerous cyst. A dentigerous cyst forming a septal abscess is uncommon. We report a case of dentigerous cyst presenting as a septal abscess. PMID:16823561
That a female patient with abdominal pain is often considered to have pelvic inflammatory disease until proven otherwise is ubiquitous in the medical literature. This view is dangerous and should be challenged because it has resulted in episodes of ruptured appendix, death from ruptured ectopic pregnancies, and serious morbidity from delayed diagnoses of such entities as diverticulitis and endometriosis. Proper diagnostic steps should be taken for all patients with abdominal pain of unclear etiology. This article reviews the pathogenesis of tubo-ovarian abscesses so as to separate and clearly identify fact from fiction. Diagnostic steps and management guidelines are discussed.
The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of microorganisms in 39 intraoral abscesses. The samples were place in transport medium. The materials were inoculated on adequate enrichment and selective media and cultivated under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The microorganisms were found in all samples (100%), Anaerobic bacteria most frequently were recovered. The predominant anaerobes were from genus Prevotella, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus. Among aerobic bacteria, the most frequent were gram-positive cocci. The microaerophilic bacteria and fungi most rarely were isolated from pus samples. PMID:16134393
A 23-year-old male patient with sickle-cell disease reported his third episode of priapism complicated by the presence of a corpus cavernosum abscess after the performance of a Winter procedure 20 days prior to his presentation. While in hospital for 11 days, two penile needle aspirations and three surgical drainages were performed with associated antibiotic therapy. He evolved with erectile dysfunction refractory to drug therapy and his infectious condition improved. An early penile prosthesis implantation followed after the use of a vacuum pump in an attempt to decrease the fibrotic process of the corpora cavernosa. Final results were positive. PMID:24515231
Paladino, Joao Roberto; Nascimento, Fabio Jose; Gromatsky, Celso; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima
A 66-year-old man with long-standing type 2 diabetes, nephropathy and neuropathy was admitted acutely with an infected left big toe neuropathic ulcer, with underlying osteomyelitis. His condition rapidly deteriorated with sepsis and right lobar pneumonia. Microbiology grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Shortly into his admission, he developed flaccid paraparesis, and an MRI showed multiple epidural abscesses with likely cord infarction, not amenable to surgical intervention. His sepsis resolved, but his paraparesis remained severe, requiring spinal rehabilitation. PMID:24920514
Shaho, Shang; Khan, Shaila; Huda, Ms Bobby; Chowdhury, Tahseen Ahmad
Tuberculous mastitis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian sub-continent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically and radiologically, may both co-exist. Routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in its diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) / biopsy are essential for diagnosis and tuberculosis culture when positive may be very useful to guide antimicrobial therapy. Antitubercular drugs in combination with aspiration or surgical drainage are usually associated with an excellent outcome. PMID:22043382
Tauro, Leo Francis; Martis, John S; George, Celine; Kamath, Aroon; Lobo, Geover; Hegde, B Rathnakar
Tuberculous mastitis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian sub-continent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically and radiologically, may both co-exist. Routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in its diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) / biopsy are essential for diagnosis and tuberculosis culture when positive may be very useful to guide antimicrobial therapy. Antitubercular drugs in combination with aspiration or surgical drainage are usually associated with an excellent outcome.
Tauro, Leo Francis; Martis, John S.; George, Celine; Kamath, Aroon; Lobo, Geover; Hegde, B. Rathnakar
A dermal sinus is a congenital defect arising from a closure failure of the neural tube that results in different degrees of communication between the skin and the central nervous system. A dermal sinus can occur anywhere from the root of the nose to the conus medullaris, and the occipital location is the second most common. Dermal sinuses are often found in association with dermoid or epidermoid cysts and less frequently with teratomas. Patients with an occipital dermoid cyst associated with a dermal sinus can develop meningitis and/or abscesses as the first clinical manifestation of the disease due to the dermoid cyst itself becoming abscessed or to the formation of secondary abscesses; few cases of the formation of secondary abscesses have been reported. We present a case of a dermoid cyst associated with an infected dermal sinus and posterior development of cerebellar abscesses and hydrocephalus. PMID:22130510
García Galera, A; Martínez León, M I; Pérez da Rosa, S; Ros López, B
Intramedullary spinal cord abscess in children is rare and holocord abscess is rarer. An 18-month-old girl presented with rapidly progressive paraplegia with fever for 2 months. The patient had complete flaccid paraplegia with absent sensation below D4 level. There was very small dermal sinus discharging pus in the lower lumbar region. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of extensive multiloculated intramedullary abscess extending from D4 to L5 with cord edema upto cervical level. Laminotomy, excision of the dermal sinus and myelotomy, and evacuation of intramedullary abscess was performed. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas were grown on culture. The child was treated with long-term parenteral antibiotics and started showing neurological improvement. Holocord abscess secondary to congenital dermal sinus is extremely rare and this is only the fourth report of such an instance.
Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes skin and soft tissue abscesses. Abscess formation is not unique to staphylococcal infection and purulent discharge has been widely considered a physiological feature of healing and tissue repair. Here we present a different view, whereby S. aureus deploys specific virulence factors to promote abscess lesions that are distinctive for this pathogen. In support of this model, only live S. aureus are able to form abscesses, requiring genes that act at one or more of four discrete stages during the development of these infectious lesions. Protein A and coagulases are distinctive virulence attributes for S. aureus, and humoral immune responses specific for these polypeptides provide protection against abscess formation in animal models of staphylococcal disease.
Cheng, Alice G.; DeDent, Andrea C.; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique
Bulkamid is a periurethral bulking agent used to treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Manufacturers describe it as nontoxic, nonbiodegradable and biocompatible. Periurethral abscesses are one of the known complications of bulking agents. We present the first reported case of periurethral abscess following Bulkamid injection. The woman had previously had a transobturator tape (TOT) and total vaginal mesh repair. At 6 weeks after injection of the bulking agent, she reported 100 % cure of her SUI. Transperineal ultrasound was used to diagnose and monitor an abscess that developed anterior and lateral to the urethra and separate from the TOT. Magnetic resonance imaging was helpful in delineating the extent of the abscess into the retropubic space but was not able to identify the urethra or the TOT. Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed vaginally, resulting in successful resolution of pain but recurrence of incontinence. PMID:22527560
Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess is an emerging infectious disease. This syndrome was unknown before the late 1980s when it was first recognized in Taiwan. Over the next two decades it increased in prevalence in Taiwan and was reported from other nations of East Asia. It was then that the rest of the world became aware of this interesting new syndrome. The disease is no longer confined to East Asia, and is now an emerging infection in North America and Europe. How did this come about? We now understand some of the genetic changes that turn commensal E. coli into extra-intestinal pathogens. K pneumoniae is another member of the Enterobacteriaceae that is usually normal flora in the gut, but we know relatively little about how it evolved into an invasive pathogen capable of causing abscesses in normal livers. The phenotype of the liver-invasive strains is hyperviscosity of the polysaccharide capsules, but while the gene that determines that property is required it is not sufficient to create the pathogen, and more research is needed to discover the other virulence genes, and thus to potentially target them therapeutically.
The common infectious agents in the chest wall include Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Actinomyces, fungi, Nocardia, Entamoeba histolytica, and other aerobes and anaerobes. Klebsiella pneumoniae is an uncommon etiological agent. We describe a case of ankylosing spondylitis in a 45-year-old man, who had exhibited a painless lump in the left posterior chest wall for 3 months and who presented with acute-onset pain, erythematous change, and fever in the 2 weeks before admission. Cultures of the blood and chest wall abscess both showed Gram-negative bacilli, which were classified as K. pneumoniae. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a nonenhancing cystic abscess measuring 4.9 × 6.5 × 6.4 cm in segment 6 of the liver and communicating with the chest wall. Drainage of the liver abscess under ultrasound guidance and open surgical drainage of the chest wall abscess combined with adequate antibiotic treatment resolved the abscess. PMID:23526295
Background: A common intraoperative complication during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is gallbladder perforation with spillage of gallstones. The undesirable consequence of spilled gallstones is the formation of abscesses months or years after an operation. Case Description: Our clinical report describes an intraabdominal abscess formation in an 82-year-old man that developed 8 years after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed an elongated fluid collection in the right abdominal compartment musculature at the level of the internal oblique muscle. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed a large fluid collection, with 2 echogenic masses in the dependent portion. Incision and drainage of the abscess were performed, and 2 gallstones were found. Conclusion: Any unusual collection of fluid in the perihepatic space and abdominal wall in the area of the surgical incision in a patient with a remote history of cholecystectomy should be evaluated for abscess related to retained gallstone. Early abscess formation is usually diagnosed and treated by the surgeon. However, the late manifestation might be a clinical problem seen in the primary care physician's office. Therefore, the primary care physician should incorporate diagnosis of gallstone-related abscess in patients with abdominal abscess formation of unknown etiology.
Background The incidence of prostatic abscess (PA) has markedly declined with the widespread use of antibiotics and the decreasing incidence of urethral gonococcal infections. Objectives To evaluate different treatment methods for prostatic abscess and to describe technical points that will improve the outcome of transurethral (TUR) drainage of prostatic abscess. Patients and Methods We performed a retrospective study of a series of 11 patients diagnosed with prostatic abscess, who were admitted and treated in Farwaniya Hospital, Kuwait, between February 2008 and November 2010. Drainage was indicated when antibiotic therapy did not cause clinical improvement and after prostatic abscess was confirmed by TRUS (Transrectal ultrasonography) and/or CT computed Tomographyscan. TUR drainage was indicated in 7 cases, ultrasound-guided transrectal drainage was performed in 2 cases, and ultrasound-guided perineal drainage was performed in 2 cases. Results All patients that underwent TUR-drainage had successful outcomes, without the need of secondary treatment or further surgery. Conclusions TUR drainage of a prostatic abscess increases the likelihood of a successful outcome and lowers the incidence of treatment failure or repeated surgery. Less invasive treatment, with perineal or transrectal aspiration, may be preferred as a primary treatment in relatively young patients with localized abscess cavities.
In the absence of antibiotic therapy, viable bacteria can persist within intra-abdominal abscesses in mice for at least 10 weeks. The mechanisms contributing to this survival are unknown, but abscess-derived neutrophils have impaired abilities to kill, in vitro, organisms engulfed in vivo. In order to determine whether subpopulations of abscess neutrophils might be discernible on the basis of phenotypic or functional criteria, cells from murine intra-abdominal abscesses were examined for phagocytic activity, CR3 expression, and H2O2 production in response to soluble and particulate stimuli. With respect to phagocytosis of Proteus mirabilis, abscess cells were no less efficient than peritoneal exudate neutrophils; no significant subpopulation of cells was incapable of phagocytosis in the presence of normal mouse serum. Using flow cytometry to examine abscess neutrophils for CR3 expression, we found that no subpopulations of cells were observed with unstimulated cells or with cells incubated with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or bacteria and serum. Intracellular H2O2 levels were measured by using the probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. In general, incubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate resulted in similar increases in H2O2 production in all cells of the population. However, stimulation with bacteria and serum revealed a variable but consistent, poorly responsive subpopulation of neutrophils in abscess cell populations. Cell-sorting experiments showed that cells from the poorly responsive section of the FACS profile contained significantly higher numbers of abscess-derived bacteria, suggesting the presence of a subpopulation of viable abscess neutrophils harboring persisting viable bacteria.
Kenny, P A; Spencer, L K; McDonald, P J; Finlay-Jones, J J
The purpose of this study is to describe the appearance of bowel-related abscesses on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Sixteen consecutive patients who had bowel-related abscesses underwent MR examination at 1.5T. MR sequences included T1-weighted fat-suppressed imaging pre- and post-intravenous gadolinium chelate administration (all patients) and breathing-independent single-shot T2-weighted half Fourier turbo (fast) spin echo (6 patients). Patients with pelvic abscesses also underwent sagittal imaging with post-gadolinium T1-weighted images (9 patients) and T2-weighted turbo (fast) spin echo (8 patients). Abscesses were confirmed by open surgery or surgical drainage (6 patients), percutaneous drainage (8 patients), or combined physical examination, fluoroscopic fistulogram, and clinical follow-up (2 patients). Oval-shaped fluid collections were identified in all of the patients, which ranged in diameter from 2 cm to 18 cm, mean: 8 cm. Abscesses were low to intermediate in signal on T1-weighted images, heterogenous and moderately high signal on T2-weighted images, and low signal on post-gadolinium images. A layering effect of lower signal material in the dependent portion of the abscess was noted in abscesses in 6 of 14 patients on T2-weighted images. Post-gadolinium images demonstrated a definable 3- to 7-mm thick abscess wall, which enhanced substantially with contrast. Definition of the wall was best shown on fat-suppressed images post-gadolinium. Substantial enhancement of surrounding periabscess tissues was demonstrated in all cases and was most clearly defined on fat-suppressed images. Image acquisition in two orthogonal planes was of value to demonstrate that fluid collections were oval, and separate from bowel. Image acquisition in the sagittal plane was useful in the evaluation of pelvic abscesses. The results from this preliminary study show that bowel-related abscesses are demonstrable on MR images using gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted and turbo (fast) spin-echo T2-weighted sequences. The presence of a thickened, enhancing lesion wall and enhancement of perilesional tissues on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images were observed in all abscesses. A layering effect of low signal intensity material in the dependent portion of the abscess was an important ancillary feature. PMID:9814766
Semelka, R C; John, G; Kelekis, N L; Burdeny, D A; Worawattanakul, S; Ascher, S M
Tropical pyomyositis is a suppurative infectious disease of skeletal muscles. The most common causative organism is Staphylococcus aureus. Penicillin-resistant strains are frequently encountered. Abscesses may develop in muscle groups or body cavities remotely located from one another. We report a case of tropical pyomyositis presenting as a suppurative process in the left foreleg. Further workup, including CT scanning, demonstrated large, multi-loculated intraabdominal and pelvic abscesses. The abdominal and pelvic components were managed by laparoscopic exploration and drainage. This is the first known report of laparoscopic management of abdominopelvic abscesses associated with tropical pyomyositis.
Focal hepatosplenic candidiasis has been increasingly recognized as a variant of disseminated candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. It rarely presents as Candida splenic abscess. Its occurrence in non-leukemic patients is quite rare. A patient with diabetes mellitus and previously undiagnosed sickle cell trait presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Candida splenic abscess was diagnosed. She was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage and fluconazole. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of Candida splenic abscess is reviewed, and its relationship to diabetes mellitus and sickle cell disease without major immunodeficiency is discussed. PMID:9068481
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon breast disease often mistaken for breast infection or abscess. We present a case of IGM diagnosed after prolonged ineffective treatment of presumed infectious mastitis with abscess. Once the diagnosis was made with biopsy and further evaluation to exclude other causes of granulomatous disease, sinus tract debridement and closure by secondary intent resulted in resolution of symptoms in our patient. Many cases of IGM require immunosuppression with steroids, methotrexate or extensive surgery. To prevent morbidity, IGM should be considered in the differential diagnosis when presumed infectious mastitis with breast abscess does not respond to usual treatment. PMID:22687677
A 77-year-old man with diabetes mellitus presented with a 2-month history of lumbago radiating to the right lower limb as well as high fever spikes. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen with right lower quadrant tenderness. A computed tomographic scan of the abdomen revealed a large right retroperitoneal cavity containing an air-fluid level that was consistent with a gas-producing abscess. The patient began receiving intravenous antibiotics, but fever and abdominal pain persisted and a large, fluctuating, tender swelling appeared on the medial aspect of his right thigh and right calf. The patient underwent surgical exploration: a right lateral abdominal incision was performed, and the pus collection in retroperitoneal space was completely evacuated. We also made 3 separate incisions on the medial aspect of the right thigh and 1 incision on the upper calf, resulting in the drainage of pus. The patient made a slow but steady recovery. PMID:16365248
Salmonella neck infections represent an uncommon cause of focal salmonellosis. While the incidence of nontyphoid salmonellosis is estimated at over 2 million cases annually, extraintestinal manifestations account for less than 1% of cases. This paper describes two patients with Salmonella neck abscesses as the initial presentation of diabetes mellitus. The first patient was diagnosed as having Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis sternocleidomastoid pyomyositis and the second patient Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium parapharyngeal abscess. Both patients had elevated hemoglobin A1c levels and had not been previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Salmonella spp. should be on the differential as a causative pathogen in patients presenting with neck abscesses and poorly controlled glucose levels. Diabetes may be a risk factor for salmonellosis due to decreased gastric acidity and prolonged gastric transit time. Prompt incision and drainage accompanied by antibiotics remains the treatment of choice for infected neck abscesses.
Retropharyngeal abscess is a rare, deep seated infection of the neck that usually affects young children. Chronic retropharyngeal abscess is rare and results from tuberculosis of the spine. Such swelling in the neck gradually increases in size and is detected during the routine radiological screening for symptoms like pain, dysphagia, fever, dyspnoea, progressive inspiratory stridor (from laryngeal obstruction), neck hyperextension etc, but rarely leads to sudden death due to airway obstruction. Thus the forensic pathologist rarely comes across such type of cases. Present case concerns obstruction of upper airway by a large retropharyngeal cold abscess leading to death in a 13-year-old female child from a lower socio-economic family. The possible explanation for the progression and fatal outcome of such abscesses associated with the Pott's disease is being discussed in the light of available literature. PMID:23910833
Hugar, Basappa S; Chandra, Y P Girish; Babu, P R Sreenivasa; Jayanth, S H; Vinay, J
A clinically silent fungal thyroid abscess was identified by Ga-67 citrate scanning and successfully drained surgically in a young leukemic patient. Whole-body radionuclide scanning remains a valuable method to help diagnose persistent fever in the immunocompromised host.
Bach, M.C.; Blattner, S. (Maine Medical Center, Portland, OR (USA))
In four patients with an adult chlamydial ophthalmia small, marginal corneal abscesses were detected. These corneal abscesses were associated with unilateral papillary and follicular conjunctivitis and punctate keratitis. In these patients no bacteria was isolated from the abscesses, but Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from materials collected from the abscesses and from the conjunctival swabbings. In addition all patients had microbiologically proved concomitant chlamydial genital infections. The clinical signs resolved after topical treatment with rifampicin or tetracycline eye ointment for six weeks or systemic treatment with tetracycline for two weeks. Because of concomitant chlamydial genital infection it is advisable to treat patients with adult chlamydial ophthalmia with systemic tetracycline and to refer these patients and their consorts for investigation and treatment of their genital infection. PMID:3191080
Lactococcus lactis cremoris infections are very rare in humans. We experienced liver abscess and empyema due to L. lactis cremoris in an immunocompetent adult. A 42-yr-old man was admitted with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a liver abscess and chest CT showed loculated pleural effusion consistent with empyema. L. lactis cremoris was isolated from culture of the abscess material and blood. The patient was treated with pus drainage from liver abscess, video-assisted thoracoscopic decortications for empyema, and antibiotics including cefotaxime and levofloxacin. The patient was completely recovered with the treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a L. lactis cremoris infection in Korea. PMID:21060760
Kim, Hye Sook; Park, Dae Won; Youn, Young Kyoung; Jo, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Song, Joon Young; Sohn, Jang-Wook; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo; Kim, Min Ja; Choi, Won Suk
We describe the first case reported in the literature of liver abscess due to Lactococcus lactis cremoris in an immunocompetent adult patient. The patient was treated with catheter drainage and antibiotics, which resulted in improvement and resolution. PMID:15307576
Supralevator abscesses are the rarest manifestation of anorectal suppurative disease. We report a supralevator abscess in a 60-year-old male whose earliest presentation included poorly localized abdominal and pelvic pain, tenesmus, urinary retention and weight loss, initially treated as diverticular disease based upon imaging and presentation. Progressive symptoms led to the discovery of a pelvic abscess with subsequent percutaneous drainage, later followed by emergent laparotomy, where a single perforated diverticulum was revealed to be the source fistulization. He underwent a Hartmann procedure with concomitant drainage of supralevator and ischiorectal collections. Perirectal pain with neurological involvement is part of a constellation of signs and symptoms that should invoke a high index of clinical suspicion for supralevator abscess formation. Percutaneous attempts at drainage are often inadequate; definitive surgical therapy is the best approach to prevent recurrence and associated morbidity.
We report the case of a melioidosis-like abscess of the liver caused by Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia infection in a Chinese man living in Hungary. Although this appears to be the first documentation of a liver abscess of this origin in a nonimmunocompromised patient, our case report demonstrates that this common facultative pathogen can also cause liver abscess and sepsis. After repeated negative blood cultures, histological examinations of liver biopsies suggested the possibility of chronic melioidosis, but the microbiological examination performed directly on the same specimen identified a Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection. Surgical drainage was performed and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim therapy was commenced, after which the patient recovered fully. The facultative pathogen S. maltophilia, which most often causes nosocomial infections, may cause severe sepsis and liver abscess. We wish to draw attention to the fact that the antibiotic sensitivity of S. maltophilia is not necessarily the same in vivo and in vitro. This can create difficulties in both diagnosis and treatment. PMID:12658392
Petri, András; Tiszlavicz, László; Nagy, Erzsébet; Morvay, Zita; Kókai, Erzsébet László; Savanya, Gábor Kocsis; Balogh, Adám
Submandibular sialadenitis is exceptionally rare in neonates. We describe a case of submandibular sialadenitis progressing to submandibular abscess in a term neonate. The aetiology, investigations and treatment for this very rare condition are discussed.
BACKGROUNDHydrocephalus and cerebellar abscesses as the principal manifestations of posterior fossa dermoid cyst are rare. In addition, extradural dermoid cyst of the posterior fossa has been described in only 9 cases in the literature. We present an unusual case of obstructive hydrocephalus due to cerebellar abscesses induced by an adjacent extradural dermoid cyst with complete occipital dermal sinus.CASE DESCRIPTIONA 14-month-old
Ali Akhaddar; Mohamed Jiddane; Noureddine Chakir; Rachid El Hassani; Brahim Moustarchid; Fouad Bellakhdar
Bacterial infection often results in the formation of tissue abscesses, which represent the primary site of interaction between invading bacteria and the innate immune system. We identify the host protein calprotectin as a neutrophil-dependent factor expressed inside Staphylococcus aureus abscesses. Neutrophil-derived calprotectin inhibited S. aureus growth through chelation of nutrient Mn2+ and Zn2+: an activity that results in reprogramming of
Brian D. Corbin; Erin H. Seeley; Andrea Raab; Joerg Feldmann; Michael R. Miller; Victor J. Torres; Kelsi L. Anderson; Brian M. Dattilo; Paul M. Dunman; Russell Gerads; Richard M. Caprioli; Wolfgang Nacken; Walter J. Chazin; Eric P. Skaar
Purpose Appendicitis is the most common abdominal inflammatory process in children which were sometimes followed by complications including intra-abdominal abscess. This later needs classically a surgical drainage. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage. Methods Hospital records of children treated in our unit for intra-abdominal post appendectomy abscesses over a 6 years period were reviewed retrospectively. Results This study investigates a series of 14 children from 2 to 13 years of age with one or many abscesses after appendectomy, treated between 2002 and 2007. Seven underwent surgery and the others were treated with triple antibiotherapy. The two groups were comparable. For the 7 patients who receive medical treatment alone, it was considered efficient in 6 cases (85%) with clinical, biological and radiological recovery of the abscess. There was one failure (14%). The duration of hospitalization from the day of diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess was approximately 10.28 days (range 7 to 14 days). In the other group, the efficacy of treatment was considered satisfactory in all cases. The duration of hospitalization was about 13 days (range: 9 to 20). Conclusion Compared to surgical drainage, antibiotic management of intra-abdominal abscesses was a no invasive treatment with shorter hospitalization.
Intra-abdominal abscess, which carries significant rates of death and complications, may complicate the postoperative course. Treatment options include percutaneous needle aspiration, placement of an external drain under ultrasonic guidance, or surgical drainage, depending on the size, site, and nature (simple or complicated) of the abscess. Laparoscopic drainage may be a treatment option. A retrospective review of patients who underwent laparoscopic drainage of postoperative complicated intra-abdominal abscesses at the authors' institution from January 1997 to July 1999 was performed. Seven patients had complicated intra-abdominal abscesses 7 to 17 (mean 11) days after their initial operation. All abscesses were successfully drained by laparoscopy. The mean operative time was 64 minutes. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The postoperative analgesic requirement was minimal. The suction drain was removed on average 5 days after laparoscopy, and the mean hospital stay was 6 days. There was no recurrence of symptoms at a mean follow-up of 23 months. Laparoscopic drainage, in combination with systemic antibiotics, is a safe and effective treatment option in patients with postoperative complicated intra-abdominal abscesses. PMID:11083215
Background/Aims Many parasites induce changes in the lipid profiles of the host. Cholesterol increases the virulence of Entamoeba histolytica in animal models and in vitro culture. This study aimed to determine, in patients with an amebic liver abscess, the correlation between cholesterol and other features, such as the size and number of abscesses, standard hematological and serum chemistry profiles, liver tests, and duration of hospital stay. Methods A total of 108 patients with an amebic liver abscess and 140 clinically healthy volunteers were investigated. Cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in the sera. The data from medical observations and laboratory tests were obtained from the clinical records. Results A total of 93% of patients with an amebic liver abscess showed hypocholesterolemia not related to any of the studied parameters. Liver function tests correlated with the size of the abscess. The most severe cases of amebic liver disease or death were found in patients whose cholesterol levels continued to decrease despite receiving antiamebic treatment and hospital care. Conclusions Our results show that the hypocholesterolemia observed in patients with an amebic liver abscess is not related to any of the clinical and laboratory features analyzed. This is the first study relating hypocholesterolemia to severity of hepatic amebiasis.
Flores, Maria S.; Obregon-Cardenas, Adriana; Tamez, Eva; Rodriguez, Elba; Arevalo, Katiushka; Quintero, Isela; Tijerina, Rolando; Bosques, Francisco; Galan, Luis
Deep neck abscess is very rare in neonatal period. We reported a deep neck abscess caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection (MSSA) in a neonate. A 10-day male infant was admitted to our neonatal unit with the complaints of fever, irritability, and refused to food intake. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed as an abscess in the neck. Needle aspiration from abscess revealed pus. Antibiotics and drainage were applied. We also reviewed the neonatal deep neck abscess reported in English literature and clinical presentation, risk factors, causing microorganisms, treatment, complication and outcome of deep neck abscesses were discussed. PMID:24512784
Tumours of the perianal region and anal canal are uncommon and can present in a variety of ways. Acute anorectal sepsis is a common condition that usually presents as a painful lump close to the anal margin. Tumours in the perianal region may mimic the symptoms and signs of anorectal sepsis, thereby leading to a delay in diagnosis and management. We report three patients who presented to our department with symptoms and signs suggestive of perianal abscess but which on further investigation were discovered to be due to unusual perianal tumours. Only one of the tumours was found to be malignant--a primary perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma; the other two were benign, a leiomyoma and an aggressive angiomyxoma. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to the diagnosis of perianal tumours when assessing patients with painful perianal lumps, particularly those with a long history and those of ethnic origin. Every effort should be made to establish a preoperative diagnosis so that correct treatment can be delivered. PMID:12800470
Bracey, E E; Mathur, P; Dooldeniya, M; Joshi, A; Dawson, P M
Thoracic actinomycosis can resemble bronchogenic carcinoma in its clinical presentation and radiographic appearance. We report a case of pulmonary actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces meyeri in which hematogenous dissemination caused multiple brainabscesses resembling metastatic lung cancer. The correct diagnosis was made by thin-needle aspiration of a pleura-based lung mass. The pathogen isolated was further identified with the use of 16S rDNA sequencing. Antibiotic therapy resulted in rapid improvement of the lung lesion; however, the brain lesions required surgical drainage. Antibiotics were continued for more than a year before magnetic resonance images showed complete resolution of the cerebral abscesses. PMID:14501233
Management of a resilient diverticular abscess poses a big challenge. Currently there are no guidelines for the number of percutaneous drainages to be performed in resilient diverticular abscesses before attempting surgery. All patients (n = 117) who presented with a computed tomography scan-proven diverticular abscess from July 2008 to June 2011 were studied. They were divided into four groups based on the number of percutaneous drainages they underwent for their diverticular abscess: six patients underwent three or more drainages, nine patients underwent two drainages, 27 patients had one drainage, and 75 patients had no drainage. Readjustment, flushing, and upgrading size of the drain were not considered as separate drainage procedures. The size of abscess cavity was significantly higher for the patients who had three or more drainages (mean 8 cm, P < 0.001). A Hartmann's procedure was performed in the majority of patients in the three or more drainage group (83%) but in decreasing frequency as the number of drainages performed dropped: two drainage group (44%), one drainage group (15%), and no drainage group (19%). There was a significantly higher preoperative hospital stay for drainage and antibiotics in the patients from the three or more drainage group (P < 0.001). Patients with a resilient diverticular abscess are very likely to undergo a Hartmann's procedure after two attempted drainages. By performing additional percutaneous drainages in an attempt to avoid ostomy, patients are at an increased risk of sepsis and peritonitis with prolonged antibiotics and increased healthcare costs. We recommend limiting percutaneous drainage procedures to two attempts to cool down a resilient diverticular abscess before definitive surgery. PMID:24987892
Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resembled a lung abscess on CT. Case Report: We herein describe the case of 64-year-old male who was diagnosed with lung cancer using surgery. In this case, it was quite difficult to distinguish between the lung cancer and a lung abscess on CT images, and a lung abscess was initially suspected due to symptoms, such as fever and coughing, contrast-enhanced CT image findings showing a ring-enhancing mass in the right upper lobe and the patient’s laboratory test results. However, a pathological diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed according to the results of a rapid frozen section biopsy of the lesion. Conclusions: This case suggests that physicians should not suspect both a lung abscesses and malignancy in cases involving masses presenting as ring-enhancing lesions on contrast-enhanced CT.
Although the majority of dental abscesses in children originate from dental caries or trauma, a few are associated with unusual conditions which challenge diagnosis and management. Recent research findings have shed light on these unusual entities and greatly improved understanding of their clinical implications. These conditions include developmental abnormalities such as dens invaginatus in which there is an invagination of dental tissues into the pulp chamber and dens evaginatus in which a tubercle containing pulp is found on the external surface of a tooth crown. In addition, inherited conditions which show abnormal dentine such as dentine dysplasia, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and osteogenesis imperfecta predispose the dentition to abscess formation. Furthermore, 'spontaneous' dental abscesses are frequently encountered in familial hypophosphataemia, also known as vitamin D-resistant rickets, in which there is hypomineralization of dentine and enlargement of the pulp. In addition to developmental conditions, there are also acquired conditions which may cause unusual dental abscesses. These include pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption which was previously known as 'pre-eruptive caries' or the 'fluoride bomb'. In addition, some undiagnosed infections associated with developing teeth are now thought to be the mandibular infected buccal cysts which originate from infection of the developing dental follicles. In the present paper, these relatively unknown entities which cause unusual abscesses in children are reviewed with the aim of updating the general practitioner in their diagnosis and management. PMID:14640368
A 36-year-old male patient presented with the complaints of palpitations and breathlessness. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a bicuspid aortic valve; severe aortic regurgitation with dilated left ventricle (LV) and mild LV systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction 50%). He was scheduled to undergo aortic valve replacement. History was not suggestive of infective endocarditis (IE). Preoperative TTE did not demonstrate any aortic perivalvular abscess. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination using the mid-esophageal (ME) long-axis view, showed an abscess cavity affecting the aortic valve, which initially was assumed to be a dissection flap, but later confirmed to be an abscess cavity by color Doppler examination. The ME aortic valve short-axis view showed two abscesses; one was at the junction of the non-coronary and left coronary commissure and the other one above the right coronary cusp. Intraoperatively, these findings were confirmed by the surgeons. The case report demonstrates the superiority of TEE over TTE in diagnosing perivalvular abscesses. PMID:24732616
Datt, Vishnu; Diwakar, Anitha; Malik, Indra; Geelani, M A; Tomar, A S; Virmani, Sanjula
Single gas-containing pyogenic liver abscesses in 11 patients were studied by ultrasound and computed tomography (CT). On ultrasound, all abscesses were predominantly echogenic compared to the normal liver parenchyma. The gas collections appeared as hyperreflective areas arranged in clusters associated with acoustic shadowing and ring-down artifacts. Ten abscesses (90%) had ill-defined margins on ultrasound, causing underestimation of their sizes in these patients. All abscesses were shown to be multiloculated and had clearly defined borders on CT, not appreciated or mistaken for multiplicity of abscesses on ultrasound. Ultrasound may be inadequate in the evaluation of gas-containing liver abscesses, as they have complex echotexture in addition to ring-down artifacts, acoustic shadows and poorly-defined margins; leading to underestimation of abscess size, difficulty in identifying loculations and erroneous interpretation of multiplicity of abscess cavities. PMID:8341170
The authors had under observation 318 patients who were subjected to operation and suffered from various inflammatory diseases of the bile tract; perivesical and cholangiogenic abscesses of the liver were found in 33 of them. Bacteriological tests of the contents of the abscesses demonstrated most frequently the presence of Bacteroides fragilis as a monoculture in cholangiogenic abscesses and associations of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in perivesical abscesses. Early operation with obligatory consideration for the anaerobic component of the microflora is recommended. PMID:2704166
Zemskov, V S; Arik'iants, M S; Tyshko, A G; Kadashchuk, T A; Kolesova, N A
Pyogenic liver abscess is a rarely seen extraintestinal complication of Crohn's disease. It has different features from other liver abscesses. Its clinical and laboratory findings are not specific and mimic the reactivation of Crohn's disease and diagnosis can be delayed. The radiological methods are very useful in diagnosis and treatment of liver abscess. In this paper, we present a patient with pyogenic liver abscess which developed in the course of Crohn's disease. PMID:15264121
Splenic abscess is uncommon and is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Gram-negative bacilli are the most commonly isolated organisms, followed by Gram-positive cocci. However, the predominant organisms found depend on the geographic location. Shewanella putrefaciens is a Gram-negative non-fermentative oxidative bacillus found in the environment. Infection usually manifests with a number of clinical syndromes, most commonly as skin or soft tissue infections, typically in patients whose immune system is compromised. Intra-abdominal abscess is extremely rare. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with S. putrefaciens splenic abscesses as the first manifestation of diabetes mellitus, which was successfully managed with a course of antibiotic therapy. PMID:22154677
Basir, Norwani; Yong, Alice Moi Ling; Chong, Vui Heng
Spinal epidural abscess is a rare clinical entity, presenting insidiously with nonspecific clinical manifestations. The diagnosis is usually difficult and, if not made early, the consequences may be disastrous. The therapeutic strategy consists of surgical drainage and systemic antibiotherapy for 4 to 6 weeks; in carefully selected patients, the surgical intervention may be avoided. We describe the case of a diabetic woman who presented with a spinal epidural abscess due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, a group C Streptococcus, treated successfully with parenteral antibiotherapy followed by oral antibiotherapy. Group C streptococci are bacteria typically associated with disease in animals, nowadays emerging as important human pathogens. This is the first reported case of spinal epidural abscess due to a Group C Streptococcus. PMID:17928789
Renal abscesses are rare conditions in children, but they must be remembered in differential diagnosis of fever and abdominal pain. The authors report two paediatric cases with unusual presentation. Case 1: a 15-year-old girl was admitted following a period of fever, vomiting and left hypochondrium pain which became more localised to the left lower ribs. Blood tests suggested bacterial infection, but urinalysis and culture were negative. Renal CT scan presented features of bilateral pyelonephritis and left renal abscesses, while ultrasound remained normal until the ninth day of disease. Case 2: a 2-year-old girl, with diagnosis of ?-thalassemia minor, had intermittent diffuse abdominal pain with 2 weeks of evolution. Renal ultrasonography and CT scan showed a heterogeneous mass compatible with Willms tumour. Intraoperative diagnosis was compatible with renal abscess with isolation of Proteus mirabilis in the fluid. Both responded well to long-term antibiotics and to surgical drainage (in the second case). PMID:24671317
Cancelinha, Candida; Santos, Lea; Ferreira, Carmen; Gomes, Clara
Urachal disease, a disorder where embryonic remnant of the cloaca and the allantois present after birth as a midline fibrous cord, is usually detected in infancy and childhood. But urachal disease in adults is rare. We report a case of a huge abscess derived from a urachal cyst in an adult. A 52-year-old man presented with peri-umbilical distension and abdominal pain for 2 weeks. Ultrasonography and abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated a huge abscess derived from the abdominal wall. After prompt incision and drainage, the remaining abscess cavity was removed completely under general anesthesia. Pathologic report was consistent with urachal duct cyst, and the patient was discharged in a week without complication. PMID:23091800
Puerperal mastitis often occurs in younger primiparous women. Most cases occur between 3 and 8 weeks postpartum. If mastitis results in the formation of a breast abscess, surgical drainage or needle aspiration is most commonly performed. We report a case of an extremely large breast abscess in a primiparous 20-year-old woman, which presented 6 weeks postpartum. Surgical incision and evacuation of 2 liters of exudate were performed, and intravenous antibiotics therapy was administered. On the sixth day after incision, we secondarily closed the wound. Examination after 3 months showed symmetrical breasts with a small scar in the incision area of the right breast. A high degree of suspicion and adequate diagnostic procedures are essential to avoid delay in the treatment of mastitis and breast abscess and thereby prevent unnecessary surgical treatment. PMID:22596060
Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as a leading pathogen that causes pyogenic liver abscesses (PLAs) in Korea. K. pneumoniae liver abscess (KLA) is potentially life threatening, and the diagnosis is difficult. In developed countries, PLA is rarely observed in children and is frequently associated with disorders of granulocyte function and previous abdominal infection. We observed a case of KLA in a healthy 12-year-old boy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of KLA in an immunocompetent child without an underlying disease in Korea. The patient was treated with percutaneous catheter drainage and antibiotics. The catheter was placed in the intrahepatic abscess for 3 weeks and parenteral antibiotics (ceftriaxone and amikacin) were administered for 4 weeks, followed by oral antibiotics (cefixime) for 2 weeks. We reported this case to raise awareness of KLA in immunocompetent children among physicians, and to review the diagnosis, risk factors, potential complications, and appropriate treatment of KLA.
Kwon, Jang-Mi; Shim, Jae Won; Kim, Deok Soo; Shim, Jung Yeon; Park, Moon Soo
Background: Intramedullary and subarachnoidal tubercular abscesses are rare forms of spinal tuberculosis as compared with extradural collections secondary to vertebral tuberculosis. Case Description: We herein present a 33-year-old, apparently healthy male patient who presented clinically as transverse myelitis, with a lesion at detected at conus cauda, developing fulminant holocord intramedullary tubercular abscess, treated with surgical evacuation and much later with anti-tubercular drugs. Atypical clinical, serological, imaging findings in addition to lack of knowledge of occurrence of fulminant intramedullary tuberculosis led to the delay in starting anti-tubercular treatment. Conclusion: Early diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, search for a primary focus of tubercular infection, investigation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spinal cord, biopsy, and confirmation with microscopy and culture, even in immunocompetent individuals. Early diagnosis, prompt treatment with surgical evacuation of abscess, and anti-tubercular drugs can lead to a good neurological recovery.
Using a recently developed, low mortality model of an intra-abdominal abscess in the Wistar rat, we have studied the penetration of fleroxacin into the abscess. Maximum serum concentration was 1.83 +/- 0.39 mg l and occurred 1 h after iv injection (20 mg/kg), but even at 4 h after administration the mean serum level was 1.21 +/- 0.27 mg/l. By contrast, levels in pus were 6.27 +/- 0.83 mg/l at 1 h rising steadily to a value of 12.7 +/- 3.69 mg/l at 4 h. The study has confirmed exceptional antibiotic penetration into the abscess, with levels at all time intervals between 0.5 and 8 h after administration in excess of the MIC50 for Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Clostridium perfringens. PMID:3144528
Youngs, D J; Tudor, R G; Yoshioka, K; Keighley, M R
Summary Sacral epidural abscesses are rare infections, often managed with open surgery, especially in the presence of acute neurological symptoms. We report a novel approach for minimally invasive drainage of sacral epidural abscesses. A 51-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of low back pain, generalized muscle pain, pain across several large joints, low-grade fever, and weakness of both legs for ten days. MRI of the patient's lumbosacral spine showed osteomyelitis involving his L5, S1 vertebrae, L5-S1 discitis, as well as anterior and posterior epidural abscesses extending from L5-S1 disc space to the S2 vertebral level. Under CT fluoroscopic guidance a 20-gauge spinal needle was inserted into the sacral hiatus, parallel to the pelvic surface of the sacral canal, and directed cranially. A 0.18-gauge microwire was then advanced through the 20-gauge needle. The 20-gauge needle was exchanged over the guidewire for an 18-gauge blunt tipped needle which was curved to approximate the contours of the sacral canal. The curved needle was inserted through the sacral hiatus with its concavity initially facing upwards, and then rotated 180° to gain access to epidural abscess. Once anatomic access was established 5cc of thick purulent material was evacuated. The patient tolerated the procedure well, and no focal nerve root symptoms were noted following the procedure. Image guided aspiration of sacral epidural abscesses can be carried out in a safe and effective manner using CT fluoroscopy. Aspiration of these abscesses combined with intravenous antibiotics may be an alternative to open surgery in select patients.
Background: Hepatic abscesses develop in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) because the liver is a site of constant bacterial challenge. The authors investigated the roles of drainage and hepatic resection in the management of liver abscesses in CGD patients. Methods: Medical records of CGD patients with hepatic abscesses from 1990 to 2001 were reviewed. Results: There were 6 patients.
Li Ern Chen; Robert K. Minkes; Penelope G. Shackelford; Steven M. Strasberg; Elbert Y. Kuo; Jacob C. Langer
Corpus cavernosum abscesses are uncommon with only 23 prior reports in the literature. Several precipitating factors for cavernosal infections have been described including injection therapy for erectile dysfunction, trauma, and priapism. Common causal organisms include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci, and Bacteroides. We report a unique case of a corpus cavernosum abscess due to proctitis with hematological seeding and review the literature on cavernosal abscesses.
Dugdale, Caitlin M.; Tompkins, Andrew J.; Reece, Rebecca M.; Gardner, Adrian F.
We present a patient with the rare association of a retroperitoneal abscess and infected bipolar hemiarthroplasty diagnosed by metallosis in the abscess preoperatively. T1 and T2 weighted magnetic resonance images revealed a very low signal area, suggesting the presence of particulate metal in the abscess. Critical interpretation of imaging may be useful in such cases. PMID:20640995
Background and Purpose: Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, spinal epidural abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus remains a challenge to clinicians. In this study, we describe the clinical features and outcomes of patients with spinal epidural abscess due to S. aureus. Methods: Thirty one cases of spinal epidural abscess due to S. aureus treated at the National Taiwan University Hospital
Thyroid abscess is rare in children but the presence of previous thyroid disease, and congenital remnants such as a pyriform sinus fistula, are predisposing factors. The classical presentation consists of fever, cervical pain and a painful mass. The diagnosis is confirmed through clinical findings, and by diagnostic imaging (ultrasound and computerized axial tomography). A barium swallow must be performed in order to detect a fistula and to consider surgical drain. We present the cases of thyroid abscess in five patients who were admitted in four medical centers (Fundación Cardioinfantil, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Clínica infantil de Colsubsidio and Hospital de la Misericordia) in Bogotá, Colombia between 2000 and 2010. PMID:23177094
Buruli ulcer is still a public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. Its physiopathology is poorly described and suggests a new clinical form. We report a clinical case in a 18-year-old patient who had a cold abscess on the right elbow. The histopathology test revealed a Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. The treatment consisted in antimycobacterial therapy and surgical care. The clinical healing was observed during 4 months of hospitalization. This form of Mycobacterium ulcerans with cold abscess, the first case described so far, requires great vigilance in clinical detection of cases and underlines the importance to intensify microbiological research mainly in endemic areas. PMID:19343911
Kassi, K; Kouamé, K; Ahogo, K C; Kacou, D E; Ecra, E; Gbéry, I P; Kanga, J M
A case of acute inflammatory enlargement of gingival tissue in the form of a gingival abscess is presented in this paper. Its clinical features and histopathologic presentation are described. The etiology of this condition could be a variety of sources such as microbial plaque infection, trauma, and foreign body impaction. In this case, treatment included complete excision by the means of a 810-nm soft-tissue diode laser, which resulted in resolution of the abscess and clinical wound healing within approximately 2 to 3 weeks. Prognosis was excellent due to early diagnosis and immediate treatment. PMID:21400991
Prasad, Soni; Monaco, Edward A; Andreana, Sebastiano
Septic pericarditis and myocardial abscess are rare conditions in dogs. They are usually caused by foreign bodies, penetrating wounds, systemic infections or extension of local infections such as endocarditis, pleuritis or pulmonary infections to the myocardial tissue. Here we report a septic pericardial effusion and myocardial abscess in a young English Springer spaniel presenting with a long history of pyrexia and lethargy. No cause could clearly be identified although a penetrating injury or dissolving foreign body was highly suspected. The patient was successfully treated with a surgical approach in combination with broad spectrum antibacterials resulting in resolution of clinical signs without recurrence of the infection. PMID:24444896
OBJECTIVE: The authors document changes in the etiology, diagnosis, bacteriology, treatment, and outcome of patients with pyogenic hepatic abscesses over the past 4 decades. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pyogenic hepatic abscess is a highly lethal problem. Over the past 2 decades, new roentgenographic methods, such as ultrasound, computed tomographic scanning, direct cholangiography, guided aspiration, and percutaneous drainage, have altered both the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. A more aggressive approach to the management of hepatobiliary and pancreatic neoplasms also has resulted in an increased incidence of this problem METHODS: The records of 233 patients with pyogenic liver abscesses managed over a 42-year period were reviewed. Patients treated from 1952 to 1972 (n = 80) were compared with those seen from 1973 to 1993 (n = 153). RESULTS: From 1973 to 1993, the incidence increased from 13 to 20 per 100,000 hospital admissions (p < 0.01. Patients managed from 1973 to 1993 were more likely (p < 0.01) to have an underlying malignancy (52% vs. 28%) with most of these (81%) being a hepatobiliary or pancreatic cancer. The 1973 to 1993 patients were more likely (p < 0.05) to be infected with streptococcal (53% vs. 30%) or Pseudomonas (30% vs. 9%) species or to have mixed bacterial and fungal 26% vs. 1%) infections. The recent patients also were more likely (p < 0.05) to be managed by percutaneous abscess drainage (45% vs. 0%). Despite having more underlying problems, overall mortality decreased significantly (p < 0.01) from 65% (in 1952 to 1972 period) to 31% (in 1973 to 1993 period). The reduction was greatest for patients with multiple abscesses (88% vs. 44%; p < 0.05) with either a malignant or a benign biliary etiology (90% vs. 38%; p < 0.05). Mortality was increased (p < 0.02) in patients with mixed bacterial and fungal abscesses (50%). From 1973 to 1993, mortality was lower (p = 0.19) with open surgical as opposed to percutaneous abscess drainage (14% vs. 26%). CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes have occurred in the etiology, diagnosis, bacteriology, treatment, and outcome patients with pyogenic hepatic abscesses over the past 4 decades. However, mortality remains high, and proper management continues to be a challenge. Appropriate systemic antibiotics and fungal agents as well as adequate surgical, percutaneous, or biliary drainage are required for the best results.
Huang, C J; Pitt, H A; Lipsett, P A; Osterman, F A; Lillemoe, K D; Cameron, J L; Zuidema, G D
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The introduction of a number of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors has revolutionized the management of metastatic disease. Surgery is the mainstay of management for localized disease. Patients with high risk tumors are treated with adjuvant imatinib. We report the rare presentation of a localized primary small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor in association with multiple liver abscesses. Cystic liver lesions should be fully evaluated in gastro intestinal tumor patients to exclude an infective cause. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics resulted in clinical and radiological improvement of the liver abscesses. The small bowel tumor was treated with surgical resection.
E. Chang, Amy; N. Mann, Gary; Hoch, Benjamin; T. Loggers, Elizabeth; M. Pollack, Seth; Kolokythas, Orpheus; L. Jones, Robin
Pilonidal sinus is a common entity, most often occurring in the natal cleft. Pilonidal sinus with abscess formation has also been described in hairdressers in the interdigital space. We report a case of pilonidal abscess of the breast in a hairdresser, a rarely reported site, which requires awareness on the clinician's part of this occupational risk, for appropriate management and post-surgery advice on prevention. It is particularly important to impart such information to the reporting pathologist who is key to making this histological diagnosis.
Lahiri, Rashmi; Mullen, Russell; Ashton, Mark A.; Abbott, Nick C.; Pollock, Anne Marie
A 42-year-old man with Behçet's disease developed a rapidly growing mass under his right lower eyelid a week after transconjunctival cryotherapy. He underwent surgical drainage of the mass following imaging studies. Magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated the abscess, which did not violate the orbital septum. Cultures from drained material yielded Staphylococcus aureus. He recovered completely with systemic antibiotics. Preseptal abscess may occur as a complication of intense transconjunctival cryotherapy for intraocular disorders, and patients should be followed closely within the first few weeks postoperatively. PMID:10976565
A 62-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of central lower backache and a 2-week history of progressive bilateral leg weakness. She also complained of numbness on her left thigh and gluteal region, associated with urinary hesitancy and constipation. On examination, she had bilateral partial foot drop, absent knee and ankle reflexes and a negative Babinski's reflex and associated hyperaesthesia in L3 distribution bilaterally with decreased anal tone. Laboratory results revealed normal inflammatory markers. MRI scan demonstrated a large uniformly enhancing lesion in the filum terminale suggestive of a lumbar spinal tumour. An emergency spinal laminectomy from L3 to S2 was performed. Per operatively, the duramater was thickened and hyperaemic. The histopathology report suggested inflammation with no evidence of malignancy. Tissue specimen of cultured Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to flucloxacillin. A final diagnosis of lumbar spinal abscess was made and subsequent antibiotic treatment led to good clinical recovery. PMID:22669871
Sajjad, Jahangir; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O'Sullivan, Michael
BACKGROUND: Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) and pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) appear identical by ultrasound and other imaging techniques. Collection of blood or liver abscess pus for diagnosis of liver abscesses is an invasive procedure, and the procedure requires technical expertise and disposable syringes. Collection of urine is a noninvasive procedure. Therefore, there has been much interest shown towards the use
Yersinia enterocolitica is an important cause of multiple liver abscesses in iron-overloaded or debilitated patients. The condition has a high mortality rate and causes diagnostic and therapeutic problems. The successful management of an iron-overloaded patient presenting with jaundice and chronic renal failure is described. PMID:3616822
Ismail, M H; Hodkinson, H J; Patel, M; Koornhof, H J
This report concerns a case of an 80-year-old man with progressive dysphagia and stridor. Patient's clinical and radiological evaluation revealed a mass of the hypopharynx and a large cervical osteophyte. Microlaryngoscopy under general anaesthesia demonstrated the presence of a hypopharynx abscess that was drained. A tracheotomy was performed in order to secure the airway, and 6 weeks later, the patient
We present a 46-year-old psychiatric patient presenting with a lingual abscess. This paper covers the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis with a view to assisting emergency physicians in the timely recognition and management of this rare but potentially life-threatening condition.
Kikidis, D.; Marinakis, K.; Sengas, J.; Chrysovergis, A.
A 43-year-old Filipino male was admitted to a Manila hospital with a 1 month history of epigastric pain and fever, and was found to have a palpable epigastric mass. Computerized tomography revealed a large hepatic abscess which serologically was shown to ...
A 58-year-old woman, who had write infull (ITP) and angina, developed a rash similar to an insect bite on the left Achilles tendon one week before visiting our hospital. The rash evolved into pustule. Three or 4 days later she had redness and swelling on her left leg, which was pain full.She went to a clinic, where she was given cefdinir (CFDN) and referred to our hospital.When she came to our hospital, she had an abscess on her left heel, and linear redness and heat along lymph ducts in her left leg and lymph node swelling in her left groin.We diagnosed bacterial lymphangitis, and gave her cefcapene (CFPN-PI) and gentamicin (GM) ointment. Six days later, she recovered.Later abscess culture yielded an organism which was suspected to be Nocardia sp. We identified the organism as Nocardia brasiliensis and diagnosed abscess-type cutaneous nocardiosis. We administered sulfametthoxazole / trimethoprim for one week and checked her whole body on CT, which revealed no lesions.This case was considered to be cutaneous nocardiosis, for which beta-lactam antimicrobial drug or external application of GM ointment would be effective, and abscess-type cutaneous nocardiosis, which recovered with medical treatment for a general bacterial infection was suggested. PMID:24682099
A 39-year-old woman with tubarian sterility fell ill with acute pelvic inflammatory disease 2 months after transvaginal oocyte recovery. Laparotomy revealed a large tuboovarian abscess, from which Atopobium vaginae, an anaerobic gram-positive coccoid bacterium of hitherto unknown clinical significance, was isolated. The microbial etiology and the risk of pelvic infections following transvaginal punctures are discussed.
Acupuncture treatment is generally regarded as a relatively safe procedure. However, most procedures have some complications and acupuncture treatment is no exception. Reported complications of acupuncture treatment were mostly mild or temporary symptoms, but certain severe adverse effects were also observed. We report here for the first time a case of liver abscess following acupuncture and moxibustion treatment.
Choi, Eun Jung; Jeong, Dong Wook; Cho, Young Hye; Lee, Su Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Kim, Yun Jin; Yi, Yu Hyun; Lim, Ji Yong
Angiosarcomas of the small intestine are rare and present non-specifically. They usually manifest with abdominal discomfort, altered bowel habits, anaemia and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis is often challenging and occurs at an advanced tumour stage. We describe a case of a terminal ileum angiosarcoma masquerading as an appendiceal abscess, and discuss salient clinicopathological features in diagnosing and managing this disease.
Septic epiglottic chondritis with abscessation diagnosed in 2 Thoroughbred racehorses. Infected cartilage removed videoendoscopically followed by systemic antibiotics. The infectious process was successfully controlled, but permanent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) with a shortened, deformed epiglottic cartilage developed. Surgery for the DDSP using bilateral partial sternothyroidectomy or laryngeal tie-forward failed. PMID:17078251
Infernuso, Tomas; Watts, Ashlee E; Ducharme, Norm G
Intra-abdominal disease can present as an extra-abdominal abscess and can follow several routes, including the greater sciatic foramen, obturator foramen, femoral canal, pelvic outlet, and inguinal canal. Nerves and vessels can also serve as a route out of the abdomen. The psoas muscle extends from the twelfth thoracic and fifth lower lumbar vertebrae to the lesser trochanter of the femur, which means that disease in this muscle group can migrate along the muscle, out of the abdomen, and present as a thigh abscess. We present a case of a primary pelvic staphylococcal infection presenting as a thigh abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man who presented with left posterior thigh pain and fever. Physical examination revealed a diffusely swollen left thigh with overlying erythematous, shiny, and tense skin. X-rays revealed no significant soft tissue lesions, ultrasound was suggestive of an inflammatory process, and MRI showed inflammatory changes along the left hemipelvis and thigh involving the iliacus muscle group, left gluteal region, and obturator internus muscle. The abscess was drained passively via two incisions in the posterior left thigh, releasing large amounts of purulent discharge. Subsequent bacterial culture revealed profuse growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The patient recovered uneventfully except for a moderate fever on the third postoperative day.
We describe a case of an adult patient with cystic fibrosis who developed chronic pulmonary infection and multiple episodes of soft tissue abscesses with Burkholderia gladioli; this organism should be added to the list of potential pathogens for individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:11243758
Jones, A M; Stanbridge, T N; Isalska, B J; Dodd, M E; Webb, A K
Burkholderia gladioli, a bacterial pathogen, causes a variety of infectious ailments in immunocompromised individuals. We present a case report of foreign body associated Burkholderia gladioli related abscess in an immunocompetent type 1 diabetic patient. Relevant medical literature is reviewed to understand this unusual mode of presentation of this bacterium in our patient. PMID:18626540
Waseem, Mohiuddin; Al-Sherbeeni, Suphia; Al-Malki, Mussa H; Al-Ghamdi, Mubarak S
Ewing's sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that comprises approximately 4-6% of primary bone tumors. In most cases, femur and pelvis are affected, and less commonly the head and neck areas (in the jaws, usually the mandible). These tumors have been reported more frequently in males, mostly aged 5-20 years old. Systemic symptoms and signs such as fever, weight loss, anemia, leukocytosis, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) may be the first signs in oral Ewing's sarcoma. Such signs and symptoms are also seen in odontogenic infections and abscess. In one case, the patient went to a dentist with pain, swelling, and abscess similar to odontogenic infection and patient's tooth was pulled due to misdiagnosis. This tumor has an aggressive clinical behavior and is identified with rapid growth and high probability of metastasis at diagnosis. Thus, it is necessary to differentiate it from a dental abscess. As for the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma, first the tumor must undergo chemotherapy to reduce its size and, eventually, it undergoes extensive surgery. This case report deals with a 16-year-old patient wrongly diagnosed with odontogenic infection and abscess, and hospitalized. As the symptoms did not remit, biopsy was carried out and the patient was operated on with Ewing's sarcoma diagnosis. PMID:24627870
Summary: We report an extremely unusual iatrogenic in- fection of the spinal canal with Aspergillus fumigatus that resulted in intradural abscess formation following epidural steroid injection in an immunocompetent young individual. Although the imaging findings of the infection were rela- tively nonspecific, MR imaging not only allowed for a prompt diagnosis, but also helped in surgical localization to the intradural
Gaurav Saigal; M. Judith; Donovan Post; Dusko Kozic
A 39-year-old woman with tubarian sterility fell ill with acute pelvic inflammatory disease 2 months after transvaginal oocyte recovery. Laparotomy revealed a large tuboovarian abscess, from which Atopobium vaginae, an anaerobic gram-positive coccoid bacterium of hitherto unknown clinical significance, was isolated. The microbial etiology and the risk of pelvic infections following transvaginal punctures are discussed. PMID:12791933
A 39-year-old woman with tubarian sterility fell ill with acute pelvic inflammatory disease 2 months after transvaginal oocyte recovery. Laparotomy revealed a large tuboovarian abscess, from which Atopobium vaginae, an anaerobic gram-positive coccoid bacterium of hitherto unknown clinical significance, was isolated. The microbial etiology and the risk of pelvic infections following transvaginal punctures are discussed.
Christoph Bohmer; Klaus Pelz; Christoph Schoerner; Wolfgang Frobenius; Christian Bogdan
This is a case report of an odontogenic keratocyst of the maxilla initially diagnosed and treated as a periodontal abscess. The occurrence of odontogenic keratocyst in the maxilla with involvement of the antrum is relatively rare. The radiological appearance of this lesion on both conventional and panoramic radiography can be misinterpreted and emphasizes the usefulness of the computed tomography in this region. PMID:11699363
Background: A 70-year-old male approximately 3 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy presented to his primary care physician with a 4-month history of generalized malaise. Methods: A workup included magnetic resonance imaging that revealed a perihepatic abscess. The patient underwent ultrasound-guided drainage, with the removal of 1400 mL of purulent fluid and placement of 2 drains. Computed tomographic scanning showed resolution, and he was discharged home on oral antibiotics. At 2-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic, denying any constitutional symptoms. However, abdominal computed tomographic scanning revealed recurrence of the abscess, which measured approximately 18x9x7.5 cm, with mass effect on the liver. The patient was placed on intravenous antibiotics and scheduled for operative drainage. The abdomen was entered with a right subcostal incision, and 900 mL of purulent fluid was drained. We also noted abscess erosion through the inferolateral aspect of the right diaphragm into the pleural space. The pleural abscess was loculated and isolated from the lung parenchyma. Palpation within the abscess cavity revealed 9 large gallstones. Following copious irrigation and debridement of necrotic tissue, 3 drains were placed and the incision was closed. Results: The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged home on postoperative day number 6. Follow-up imaging at 3 months demonstrated resolution of the collection. Conclusion: Spillage of gallstones is a complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, occurring in 6% to 16% of all cases. Retained stones rarely result in a problem, but when complications arise, aggressive surgical intervention is usually necessary.
Varker, Kimberly A.; Zaydfudim, Victor; McKee, Jason
Although amoebic liver abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide, invasive disease remains uncommon in industrialized countries. Metronidazole is the standard of care for complicated and uncomplicated invasive amoebiasis. Puncture of amebic liver abscesses is a treatment option primarily for complicated abscesses (localized in left lobe, multiple, and/or pyogenic abscesses). The role of image-guided percutaneous puncture in initially uncomplicated liver abscess formations still remains unanswered. A subset of patients with uncomplicated amoebic liver abscesses, however, fails to respond to conservative treatment alone. We report two cases of amoebic liver abscess formations in Austrian travelers. Two males, aged 67 and 43, presented with fever, chills and fatigue. Four months prior to admission both patients travelled together to Goa, India, for 4 weeks. Computed tomography showed uncomplicated liver abscess formations and serology for E. histolytica was positive in both patients. Therapy with metronidazole 500 mg four times daily was initiated. Computed tomography then showed an increase in size of liver abscess formations in both patients after 13 and 10 days of intravenous metronidazole therapy, respectively. Patient 1 developed pleural effusion and patient 2 additional liver abscess formations. Therefore CT-guided percutaneous therapeutic catheter drainage of liver abscess formations was performed in both patients without complications. Real time PCR of abscess drainage was positive for E. histolytica in both patients. After completion of metronidazole, paromomycin 500 mg three times daily was initiated for seven days for elimination of cysts and both patients were discharged without further complaints. This report highlights that conservative monotherapeutic treatment alone may not be sufficient in some patients with initially uncomplicated E. histolytica liver abscess. Implementation of additional image guided percutaneous puncture may reduce mortality and disease related costs. PMID:23064858
Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Seeber, Katharina; Salzer, Helmut J F; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Flick, Holger; Raggam, Reinhard B; Wagner, Jasmin; Grisold, Andrea J; Spreizer, Christopher; Krause, Robert
Candida albicans is found frequently as a commensal organism in the gastrointestinal tract. Despite this, it is rarely found in pancreatic abscesses, there being only a few cases in the literature and in most of these cases the significance of Candida spp. as a pathogen was not initially recognized at the time of diagnosis. In most of the earlier reported pancreatitis associated with candida, C. albicans was the commonest isolate. We report the case of a patient in whom computed tomography was used initially to diagnose a pancreatic abscess, aspiration of which showed growth of Candida tropicalis and Escherichia coli on culture. The patient was started on amphotericin B and imipenem, but the condition of the patient deteriorated, for which the patient underwent surgical necrosectomy and continued treatment with imipenem and amphotericin B led to the satisfactory recovery of the patient.
First described in 1768, the Pott's puffy tumor is a subperiosteal abscess associated with frontal bone osteomyelitis, resulting from trauma or frontal sinusitis. The classic clinical presentation consists of purulent rhinorrhea, fever, headache, and frontal swelling. The diagnosis is confirmed by CT scan and treatment requires intravenous antibiotics, analgesia, and surgical intervention. Early diagnosis and aggressive medical and surgical approach are essential for a good outcome. It rare and the early diagnosis is important; we describe the case of a 14-year-old adolescent with Pott's puffy tumor who was initially treated inadequately, evolving with extensive frontoparietal abscess. The patient underwent surgical treatment with endoscopic endonasal and external approaches combined. Intravenous antibiotics were prescribed for a prolonged time, with good outcome and remission of the complaints.
Lauria, Raquel Andrade; Laffitte Fernandes, Fernando; Brito, Thiago Pires; Pereira, Pablo Soares Gomes; Chone, Carlos Takahiro
OBJECTIVES—To remind clinicians of the dangers of delayed diagnosis and the importance of early treatment of spinal epidural abscess.?METHODS—A review of the literature on spinal epidural abscess and a comparison of the published literature with local experience.?RESULTS—Imaging with MRI or CT enables early diagnosis of spinal epidural abcess and optimal therapy is surgical evacuation combined with 6-12 weeks (median 8 weeks) of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinical features are fever, pain, and focal neurological signs and may be associated with preceding and pre-existing bone or joint disease. The commonest aetiological organism is S aureus.?CONCLUSION—Early diagnosis and appropriate early antimicrobial chemotherapy with surgery is associated with an excellent prognosis.??
Mackenzie, A; Laing, R; Smith, C; Kaar, G; Smith, F
This is a report of the clinical characteristics and therapeutic response to treatment of 51 patients with hepatic amebic abscess, studied at a general hospital in a two year period. In this group of patients without complications, the 100% cure was achieved in 5.5 days with metronidazole I.V.; the next effective regimen was metronidazole. I.V. plus emetine I.M., that gave a 100% cure in 7.4 days, so it became obvious that other kind of treatment or the addition of antibiotics are of no benefit and are potentially dangerous. The response to the different therapeutic regimens in this study, agree with what is known about the effectiveness of metronidazole used either by the oral or I.V. route in hepatic amebic abscess. PMID:555809
A case of actinomycosis of the abdomen ten years after surgery for acute appendicitis is reported. The patient, a 2 1/2 years old girl at the time of operation, presented with acute abdominal pain ten years after appendectomy. Computed tomography (CT) showed a mass in the region of the right psoas muscle. Fine needle aspiration revealed pus which on culture was found to contain Actinomyces israeli. Since surgery is a well known probable cause of abdominal actinomycosis, we must assume the appendectomy and the formation of the actinomycotic abscess to be related. Discovery of an abdominal mass even years after violation of the gastrointestinal tract should arouse suspicion of an abscess involving these otherwise infrequent pathogens. PMID:1412325
A preterm infant with isolated fetal ascites was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit due to the appearance of respiratory distress at birth. An umbilical venous catheter (UVC) was inserted. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) showed localization of the catheter tip in the portal vein. It was removed and replaced with a newer one. UVC tip location was confirmed with X-ray. His condition had been improving until he worsened suddenly on the sixth day of life. US showed hepatic abscess and intraabdominal hemorrhage derived from the malpositioned UVC. A drainage catheter was inserted to the abscess and paracentesis was applied. Practitioners should be cautious about any signs of UVC complications, even if true localization of the catheter tip is proven at the first application. Furthermore, if it is difficult to decide whether the catheter tip is in the right location, confirmation with US can be considered. PMID:23692799
Bayhan, Cihangül; Takc?, ?ahin; Ciftçi, Türkmen Turan; Yurdakök, Murat
Nicolau syndrome-also known as Embolia Cutis Medicamentosa-is a rare complication of intramuscular and subcutaneous injections manifesting as necrosis of skin and the underlying tissues. The exact pathogenesis is uncertain. There are several hypotheses including direct damage to the end artery, cytotoxic effects of the implicated drug or additives in the injectable preparations. Naltrexone is a long-acting opioid antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol and opioid dependence. The patient received intramuscular naltrexone for treatment of alcoholism. A week later, she presented with what appeared to be cellulitis at the site of injection. It progressed in spite of antibiotics and mimicked an abscess. Attempted incision and drainage however yielded no pus. Deep tissue necrosis was seen and histopathology was consistent with Nicolau syndrome. As per our knowledge, this is the first reported case of naltrexone associated Nicolau syndrome that masqueraded as a buttock abscess. PMID:23242099
Introduction Mycobacterium fortuitum is a rapidly growing group of nontuberculous mycobacteria more common in patients with genetic or acquired causes of immune deficiency. There have been few published reports of Mycobacterium fortuitum associated with breast infections mainly associated with breast implant and reconstructive surgery. Case presentation We report a case of a 51-year-old Caucasian woman who presented to our one-stop breast clinic with a two-week history of left breast swelling and tenderness. Following triple assessment and subsequent incision and drainage of a breast abscess, the patient was diagnosed with Mycobacterium fortuitum and treated with antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement. Conclusion This is a rare case of a spontaneous breast abscess secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum infection. Recommended treatment is long-term antibacterial therapy and surgical debridement for extensive infection or when implants are involved.
This report concerns a case of an 80-year-old man with progressive dysphagia and stridor. Patient's clinical and radiological evaluation revealed a mass of the hypopharynx and a large cervical osteophyte. Microlaryngoscopy under general anaesthesia demonstrated the presence of a hypopharynx abscess that was drained. A tracheotomy was performed in order to secure the airway, and 6 weeks later, the patient was decannulated and returned to full consistency diet. PMID:22707552
We report the case of a 24-year-old man, presenting with fever, headache, vomiting and seizures, subsequently diagnosed with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Evaluation revealed non-obstructive supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) as the underlying disorder. Surprisingly, the patient denied any past cardiac symptoms. Presentation in adulthood is infrequent for TAPVC, and primary manifestation with cerebral abscesses is still more unusual. PMID:23845677
Serious infections caused byCandida glabrata, once rarely encountered, have become common. We report a case of pelvic abscess and fungemia caused byC. glabrata. A52-year-old woman developed fever, abdominal pain, and abdominal distention after a gynecologic operation. Empiric treatment\\u000a with broadspectrum antimicrobial agents was not successful. Her blood culture was positive forC. glabrata, and the ultrasound examination revealed an encapsulated pelvic
Hiroshige Mikamo; Kyoko Kawazoe; Yasumasa Sato; Koji Izumi; Teruhiko Tamaya
Most lung abscesses (80–90%) are now successfully treated with antibiotics; however, this conservative approach may occasionally fail. When medical treatment fails, pulmonary resection is usually advised. Alternatively, percutaneous transthoracic tube drainage or endoscopic drainage can be considered, though both remain controversial. In this communication, the medical literature focusing on percutaneous tube drainage efficacy, indications, techniques, complications, and mortality, as well as available data regarding endoscopic drainage are reviewed.
Cardiobacterium hominis is a member of the HACEK (Haemophilus sp., Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group commonly associated with endocarditits and is normally present in the respiratory tract. We describe the first case of acute dacryocystitis with lacrimal abscess caused by C. hominis along with a brief review of the literature. The patient responded to oral and topical ciprofloxacin after incision and drainage and awaits dacryocystorhinostomy.
Manderwad, Guru Prasad; Kodiganti, Manjulatha; Ali, Mohammad Javed
Hemorrhoidal banding is a well-established and safe outpatient procedure. Septic complications of hemorrhoidal banding are rare but can be fatal. The first case of pylephlebitis (septic portal vein thrombosis) and pyogenic liver abscess following hemorrhoidal banding in a 49-year-old man with diabetes is reported in the present study. Risk factors, management and the role of prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients are discussed. Caution against hemorrhoidal banding in immunosuppressed patients, including patients with diabetes, is warranted.
This report concerns a case of an 80-year-old man with progressive dysphagia and stridor. Patient's clinical and radiological evaluation revealed a mass of the hypopharynx and a large cervical osteophyte. Microlaryngoscopy under general anaesthesia demonstrated the presence of a hypopharynx abscess that was drained. A tracheotomy was performed in order to secure the airway, and 6 weeks later, the patient was decannulated and returned to full consistency diet.
A false-positive latex agglutination test for cryptococcal antigen occurred in a patient with a cervical prevertebral abscess and vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Using a commercial latex agglutination test kit, a cryptococcal antigen titer of 1:32 was found in the CSF, but no cryptococcal antigen was found when the CSF was retested at a reference laboratory. The false-positive test resulted in unnecessary therapy with amphotericin B and delay in appropriate diagnostic studies and therapy. PMID:357768
Summary Anal fissures, fistulas, abscesses, and hemorrhoids over a seven-year period in a tropical environment are reviewed. It is\\u000a suggested that these diseases may be commoner in urban and city dwellers than in villagers. Increasing sophistication and\\u000a changing food habits in the cities and towns and the attendant limitations on defecating at will are suggested as responsible\\u000a etiologic factors. If diet,
This study shows the relationship between lymphocyte subpopulations and their response to non-specific stimulant phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and specific stimulant (amoebic antigen) in cases of amoebic liver abscess in relation to the duration of disease, based on the first appearance of symptoms and/or signs, 26 patients with amoebic liver abscess and 20 normal, healthy controls were studied. Five of the patients gave a history of alcohol intake for the last 10 to 15 years. Eight had a solitary abscess and five had multiple abscesses, as seen on liver scan. No change in the B cell count was noticed in any of the patients. Depression of the T cell number and function was noticed from two weeks onwards. A history of alcohol intake made no difference. Cases with multiple liver abscesses were more immunologically depressed than were those with a solitary abscess. PMID:6977210
The synthetic, tension-free midurethral sling procedure using transobturator tape (TOT) was introduced in 2001 and has become the most widely used procedure for the treatment of female urinary incontinence worldwide. However, infectious complications associated with erosions have occasionally been reported because of a foreign body reaction to the polypropylene mesh. We observed a case of a bilateral recurrent thigh abscess manifesting 5 years after a TOT sling procedure. The patient had recurrent thigh abscesses with repeated incisions and drainages in the past 1 year. Five months earlier, she had undergone a procedure to remove the eroded suburethral mesh, but incompletely. The right thigh abscess recurred, and ultimately the residual mesh was completely excised with abscess drainage. Complete mesh removal is very important to prevent abscess recurrence, and it is necessary for any urologist treating women who have undergone the TOT procedure to be aware of the possibility of abscesses occurring for a long time after the operation.
Lee, Shin Young; Kim, Joon Young; Park, Se Joon; Kwon, Yong Wook; Nguyen, Hoai Bac; Chang, In Ho; Kim, Tae Hyoung
Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is a common hereditary bleeding disorder resulting from a quantitative and/or qualitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor (vWF). We report two cases of peritonsillar abscess complicated by vWD. A 46-year-old Japanese man was intravenously administered factor VIII clotting antigen (500U×3 days)and platelet transfusion (10U), when before puncture was performed. After puncture, his symptoms promptly improved with the administration of the antibiotic doripenem (DRPM, 1.5g/day). He left our facility one week later and had no recurrence of symptoms. A 24-year-old Japanese woman was intravenously administered factor VIII clotting antigen (4500U×3 days) and desmopressin (DDAVP) before undergoing a puncture. Her symptoms promptly improved with DRPM treatment (1.5g/day). The patient left our facility one week later. However, the peritonsillar abscess recurred in three weeks. Afterwards, tonsillectomy was enforced three months later. Intravenous factor VIII clotting antigen (4500U×2 days) and platelet transfusion (10U×1 day) had been used before tonsillectomy. We therefore suggest that a peritonsillar abscess in patients with vWD can be safely treated by factor VIII clotting antigen and DDAVP at the appropriate disease stage and by performing paracentesis for the acute phase or tonsillectomy for the chronic phase. PMID:22075138
Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), caused by genetic defects in components of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase pathway, leads to recurrent life-threatening bacterial and invasive fungal infections. While a number of unique pathogens have been associated with this disease, the causative organisms may be difficult to identify. Here, we present a 24 year old male with known X-linked CGD who concurrently developed a cervical abscess and an abscess in the subcutaneous tissues of the right hip, both of which were surgically drained. Cultures failed to identify any organisms. He was treated empirically with ertapenem but the hip abscess recurred at the original site and in contiguous dependent areas in the posterior thigh and knee. A filamentous organism was observed microscopically, initially considered a contaminant, but on culture yielded a mold growth, identified as Phellinus tropicalis (synonym: Inonotus tropicalis) based on phenotypic and molecular methods. This is the third case report of human infection with P. tropicalis, all in subjects with CGD. The patient was treated with voriconazole with resolution of his symptoms.
Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), caused by genetic defects in components of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase pathway, leads to recurrent life-threatening bacterial and invasive fungal infections. While a number of unique pathogens have been associated with this disease, the causative organisms may be difficult to identify. Here, we present a 24 year old male with known X-linked CGD who concurrently developed a cervical abscess and an abscess in the subcutaneous tissues of the right hip, both of which were surgically drained. Cultures failed to identify any organisms. He was treated empirically with ertapenem but the hip abscess recurred at the original site and in contiguous dependent areas in the posterior thigh and knee. A filamentous organism was observed microscopically, initially considered a contaminant, but on culture yielded a mold growth, identified as Phellinus tropicalis (synonym: Inonotus tropicalis) based on phenotypic and molecular methods. This is the third case report of human infection with P. tropicalis, all in subjects with CGD. The patient was treated with voriconazole with resolution of his symptoms. PMID:24310980
Ramesh, Manish; Resnick, Elena; Hui, Yiqun; Maglione, Paul J; Mehta, Harshna; Kattan, Jacob; Bouvier, Nicole M; LaBombardi, Vincent; Victor, Tanya R; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte
Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is the most frequent complication of acute tonsillitis and a prevalent cause for acute admission to otorhinolaryngology departments. Our aim was to examine the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of PTA, as this has not previously been considered. We examined both palatine tonsils from 25 patients undergoing acute tonsillectomy for PTA, using PCR-based assays for herpes simplex virus-1 and -2 (HSV-1 and -2), adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), influenza A and B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B. We similarly examined tonsils from 55 patients undergoing elective tonsillectomy due to chronic tonsillar conditions. These patients served as a control group, as they did not have a clinically apparent infection at the time of surgery. Only HSV-1 (5/80, 6.3%), adenovirus (11/80, 13.8%), and EBV (71/80, 88.8%) were detected in our study population. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of these viruses across different diagnostic groups. Quantification of EBV load demonstrated no differences between the PTA and the elective tonsillectomy group, nor between the abscessed and non-abscessed tonsil of PTA patients. In summary, our data do not support a significant role for the examined viruses in the pathogenesis of PTA. PMID:22373896
Rusan, M; Klug, T E; Henriksen, J J; Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Fuursted, K; Ovesen, T
The appendicular origin of an intermesenteric abscess is rarelysuspected prior to surgery, due to atypical clinical presentationand poor sensitivity of exploratory methods. A 43-year-oldmale was admitted for recent pain and mild tenderness in theepigastrium, slight emesis, leucocytosis (C-reactive protein wasnot determined), with no pathological findings on simpleabdominal radiological examination (Rx). Abdominal ultrasound(US) and endoscopy were irrelevant. The abdomenbecame moderately tender, distended; diffuse enteric gas,slightly impaired bowel movement could be demonstrated by anew Rx. CT (oral contrast) was performed in the 3rd day:edematous infiltration of the mesentery and of a left-flankdigestive loop (jejunal, sigmoidian?), small-size fluid collection(with extraluminal air-level) and paretic loops in theproximity, but normal wall-appearance of the caecum and itssurrounding fat; the CT result was inconclusive (perforateddiverticulosis or malignancy?). Barium enema: normal,including the caecum. Installation of vesperal fever, progressivemid-abdominal pain, tenderness and formation of a mass werethe rationale for open mid-line laparotomy, discovering a largeintermesenteric abscess, secondary to perforated gangrenousintermesenteric appendicitis. Surgical outcome of appendectomy was normal. A high index of suspicion may besuggested by: atypical clinical presentation (fever; ileus;presence or formation of a tender, periumbilical, mass) and CTfindings (abscess; extraluminal air; ileus). PMID:24742426
Corpus cavernosum abscesses are uncommon with only 23 prior reports in the literature. Several precipitating factors for cavernosal infections have been described including injection therapy for erectile dysfunction, trauma, and priapism. Common causal organisms include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci, and Bacteroides. We report a unique case of a corpus cavernosum abscess due to proctitis with hematological seeding and review the literature on cavernosal abscesses. PMID:24917758
Dugdale, Caitlin M; Tompkins, Andrew J; Reece, Rebecca M; Gardner, Adrian F
Orbital complications secondary to acute rhinosinusitis can result in permanent blindness or death if not treated promptly and appropriately. Many authors have reported that almost all such patients had abscesses adjacent to the infected sinuses. However, the authors experienced an orbital abscess secondary to contralateral sinusitis. Here, the authors report an 8-year-old patient who had a left superior orbital abscess secondary to a right ethmoidomaxillary sinusitis. PMID:23584446
Yim, Hye Bin; Yoo, Young Sik; Oh, Seung Hoon; Lee, Na Young
An unexplained increase in the frequency of pyogenic liver abscesses of unknown etiology has, fourtunately, been paralleled by significant advances in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. This report reviews experience with 14 patients operated upon at NYU Medical Center since 1971. Eight cases (57%) were cryptogenic. Other abscesses were associated with biliary disease (3); abdominal sepsis (2); and trauma (1). Abscesses were present on hospitalization in 12 patients. Clinical findings included fever (101-108 F); 100%; leucocytosis, 71%; anorexia and vomiting, 50%; localized tenderness and hepatomegaly, 50%; hypoalbuminemia, 86%; hypocholesterolemia, 78%; elevated SGOT, 71%; and elevated aikaline phosphatase, 43%. Technetium hepatic scintiscans showed focal defects in 10 of 12 patients (83%), but did not detect multiple abscesses in 2 of these. Hepatic arteriography performed in 10 patients was highly accurate, outlining single abscesses in 6 and multiple abscesses in 4. Furthermore, in one patient a false positive scintiscan was demonstrated by negative arteriography, confirmed by autopsy. In 4 patients, arteriography indicated an abscess in the posterior-superior area of the right hepatic lobe. With precise anatomical localization, a trans-thoracic approach permitted uncomplicated drainage in each case. This approach provides excellent exposure and direct drainage for abscesses in this area. An additional therapeutic adjunct in two patients, with 4 and 11 abscesses each, was postoperative intraportal infusion of antibiotics through the umbilical vein. Thirteen patients (83%) recovered, one dying from pulmonary embolism. Primary hepatic abscesses occur with increasing frequency. Primary hepatic abscesses occur with increasing frequency. Primary hepatic abscesses occur with increasing frequency. The methods described allow more precise preoperative diagnosis and direct surgical drainage. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2.
Ranson, J H; Madayag, M A; Localio, S A; Spencer, F C
Summary and Conclusions A critical analysis of the records of 623 patients who had fistulas or fistulous abscesses and of three patients who had supralevator\\u000a abscesses of extrarectal origin was made. The 626 patients had a total of 657 fistulas or abscesses; 24 patients had two separate\\u000a fistulas, two patients had three fistulas, and one patient had four fistulas.\\u000a \\u000a Sixty-five per
Malignancies, which present as deep neck abscesses are uncommon and may result in a delayed diagnosis or potentially a misdiagnosis. The present study describes a patient who exhibited a deep neck abscess as the initial manifestation of carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP). The aim of the present study was to raise awareness of this unusual presentation of CUP and emphasize the importance of repeating targeted fine-needle aspiration cytology or biopsies in patients presenting with a deep neck abscess suspicious for malignancy.
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (?-GT) is a microsomal enzyme. Its activity in serum is assayed in alcoholics with liver abscess\\u000a and alcoholics without liver abscess after screening by ultrasonography. The enzyme activity in serum is increased by 334%\\u000a in the patients with liver abscess compared to normal control subjects (p<0.0001), and 172% when compared to patients with\\u000a chronic alcoholism without liver
The present study was performed to evaluate the ability of fosfomycin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, to penetrate into abscess fluid. Twelve patients scheduled for surgical or computer tomography-guided abscess drainage received a single intravenous dose of 8 g of fosfomycin. The fosfomycin concentrations in plasma over time and in pus upon drainage were determined. A pharmacokinetic model was developed to estimate the concentration-time profile of fosfomycin in pus. Individual fosfomycin concentrations in abscess fluid at drainage varied substantially, ranging from below the limit of detection up to 168 mg/liter. The fosfomycin concentrations in pus of the study population correlated neither with plasma levels nor with the individual ratios of abscess surface area to volume. This finding was attributed to highly variable abscess permeability. The average concentration in pus was calculated to be 182 ± 64 mg/liter at steady state, exceeding the MIC50/90s of several bacterial species which are commonly involved in abscess formation, such as streptococci, staphylococci, and Escherichia coli. Hereby, the exceptionally long mean half-life of fosfomycin of 32 ± 39 h in abscess fluid may favor its antimicrobial effect because fosfomycin exerts time-dependent killing. After an initial loading dose of 10 to 12 g, fosfomycin should be administered at doses of 8 g three times per day to reach sufficient concentrations in abscess fluid and plasma. Applying this dosing regimen, fosfomycin levels in abscess fluid are expected to be effective after multiple doses in most patients.
A non-healing peri-anal abscess can be difficult to manage and is often attributed to chronic disease. This case documents a male in his seventh decade who presented with multiple peri-anal collections. The abscess cavity had caused necrosis of the internal sphincter muscles resulting in faecal incontinence. Biopsies were conclusive for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A de-functioning colostomy was performed and the patient was initiated on CHOP-R chemotherapy. Anal lymphoma masquerading as a peri-anal abscess is rare. A high degree of suspicion must be maintained for an anal abscess which does not resolve with conservative management. PMID:24898408
A non-healing peri-anal abscess can be difficult to manage and is often attributed to chronic disease. This case documents a male in his seventh decade who presented with multiple peri-anal collections. The abscess cavity had caused necrosis of the internal sphincter muscles resulting in faecal incontinence. Biopsies were conclusive for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A de-functioning colostomy was performed and the patient was initiated on CHOP-R chemotherapy. Anal lymphoma masquerading as a peri-anal abscess is rare. A high degree of suspicion must be maintained for an anal abscess which does not resolve with conservative management.
Objective. To describe the clinical profile, microbiological aetiologies, and management outcomes in patients with liver abscess. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May, 2011, to April, 2013, on 200 consecutive liver abscess patients at PGIMER and Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi. History, examination, and laboratory investigations were recorded. Ultrasound guided aspiration was done and samples were investigated. Chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis were performed to test association. Results. The mean age of patients was 41.13 years. Majority of them were from lower socioeconomic class (67.5%) and alcoholic (72%). The abscesses were predominantly in right lobe (71%) and solitary (65%). Etiology of abscess was 69% amoebic, 18% pyogenic, 7.5% tubercular, 4% mixed, and 1.5% fungal. Percutaneous needle aspiration was done in 79%, pigtail drainage in 17%, and surgical intervention for rupture in 4% patients. Mortality was 2.5%, all reported in surgical group. Solitary abscesses were amoebic and tubercular whereas multiple abscesses were pyogenic (P = 0.001). Right lobe was predominantly involved in amoebic and pyogenic abscesses while in tubercular abscesses left lobe involvement was predominant (P = 0.001). Conclusions. The commonest presentation was young male, alcoholic of low socioeconomic class having right lobe solitary amoebic liver abscess. Appropriate use of minimally invasive drainage techniques reduces mortality.
Ghosh, Soumik; Sharma, Sourabh; Gadpayle, A. K.; Gupta, H. K.; Mahajan, R. K.; Sahoo, R.; Kumar, Naveen
Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of rRNA genes was employed to genetically compare Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolates from multiple abscesses of the same liver and isolates from liver abscesses, the ruminal wall, and ruminal contents from the same animal. Four livers with multiple abscesses and samples of ruminal contents, ruminal walls, and liver abscesses were collected from 11 cattle at slaughter. F. necrophorum was isolated from all liver abscesses, nine ruminal walls, and six ruminal content samples. Chromosomal DNA of the isolates was extracted and single or double digested with restriction endonucleases (EcoRI, EcoRV, SalI, and HaeIII); then restriction fragments were hybridized with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe transcribed from a mixture of 16S and 23S rRNAs from Escherichia coli. EcoRI alone or in combination with EcoRV yielded the most discriminating ribopatterns for comparison. Within the subspecies multiple isolates from the same liver were indistinguishable based on the ribopattern obtained with EcoRI. The hybridization patterns of liver abscess isolates were concordant with those of the corresponding isolates from ruminal walls in eight of nine sets of samples. None of the six ruminal content isolates matched either the liver abscess isolates or the ruminal wall isolates. The genetic similarity between the isolates from liver abscesses and ruminal walls supports the hypothesis that F. necrophorum isolates of liver abscesses originate from the rumen. PMID:9406386
Narayanan, S; Nagaraja, T G; Okwumabua, O; Staats, J; Chengappa, M M; Oberst, R D
Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of rRNA genes was employed to genetically compare Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolates from multiple abscesses of the same liver and isolates from liver abscesses, the ruminal wall, and ruminal contents from the same animal. Four livers with multiple abscesses and samples of ruminal contents, ruminal walls, and liver abscesses were collected from 11 cattle at slaughter. F. necrophorum was isolated from all liver abscesses, nine ruminal walls, and six ruminal content samples. Chromosomal DNA of the isolates was extracted and single or double digested with restriction endonucleases (EcoRI, EcoRV, SalI, and HaeIII); then restriction fragments were hybridized with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe transcribed from a mixture of 16S and 23S rRNAs from Escherichia coli. EcoRI alone or in combination with EcoRV yielded the most discriminating ribopatterns for comparison. Within the subspecies multiple isolates from the same liver were indistinguishable based on the ribopattern obtained with EcoRI. The hybridization patterns of liver abscess isolates were concordant with those of the corresponding isolates from ruminal walls in eight of nine sets of samples. None of the six ruminal content isolates matched either the liver abscess isolates or the ruminal wall isolates. The genetic similarity between the isolates from liver abscesses and ruminal walls supports the hypothesis that F. necrophorum isolates of liver abscesses originate from the rumen.
Narayanan, S; Nagaraja, T G; Okwumabua, O; Staats, J; Chengappa, M M; Oberst, R D
Two patients with tuberculous abscess in the hepatoduodenal ligament were studied. Both patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan. The abscess showed a low density with an irregular thick wall in the hepatoduodenal ligament on CT images, the margin was poorly defined. Contrast-enhanced CT images showed the contrast-enhanced thick wall, homogeneous and peripheral-enhanced lymph nodes. Although features of the tuberculous abscess in the hepatoduodenal ligament could be conspicuously shown with contrast-enhanced CT, further experience is needed to evaluate the potential value of CT in detecting early tuberculous abscess in relation to other entities in the hepatoduodenal ligament.
Several hepatobiliary complications secondary to gastrointestinal perforation after ingestion of a fish bone have been described in the literature, the most common being liver abscess, which can be potentially fatal. Treatment involves removal of the foreign body if possible (endoscopically or surgically), drainage of the abscess (radiologically or surgically), and appropriate antibiotic therapy. To our knowledge, no cases of hepatic hilar abscesses secondary to gastrointestinal perforation by a fish bone have been described in the literature. We report surgical management of two cases of abscess localized in the hepatic hilum secondary to the ingestion of fish bones.
A case of recurrent abscesses in an immunocompetent patient is reported, involving the opportunistic human pathogen Dermabacter hominis, the virulent anaerobic pathogen Finegoldia magna and Staphylococcus aureus.
J. Martin; P. Bemer; S. Touchais; N. Asseray; S. Corvec
Aortic root abscess in patients with aortic endocarditis is not uncommon. Aortic root abscess may cause persistent sepsis, worsening heart failure, conduction abnormalities, fistula formation, and an increased need for surgery. We present a young patient with aortic root abscess presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin. She had acute severe aortic and mitral regurgitation which produced very soft murmurs that were easily missed. This report reiterates that a high index of suspicion is needed in suspecting valvular endocarditis as well as a comprehensive transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic examination to diagnose complications like aortic root abscess.
HIV infection has changed the scenario of infectious disease. HIV-associated immunodeficiency resulted in a wide spectrum of new opportunistic infections. After introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) became an important challenge in management of 10% to 25% of the patients. Meta-analyses of IRIS from various reports published worldwide by Monika Muller et al described 12% IRIS incidence and 15.7% IRIS tuberculosis. Among IRIS tuberculosis, central nervous system involvement with IRIS tuberculous meningitis forms only 7%. Only 9 cases of tuberculous brainabscess is reported in patients with AIDS so far. The IRIS tuberculous brainabscess is very rare, and so far only 1 case is reported as a paradoxical reaction after ART initiation. Here, we report a case of recurrent IRIS tuberculosis meningitis and brainabscess. PMID:23803566
Klebsiella pneumoniae K1 is a major agent of hepatic abscess with metastatic disease in East Asia, with sporadic reports originating elsewhere. We report a case of abscess complicated by septic endophthalmitis caused by a wzyAKpK1-positive Klebsiella strain in a U.S. resident, raising concern for global emergence.
Sachdev, Darpun D.; Yin, Michael T.; Horowitz, Jason D.; Mukkamala, Sri Krishna; Lee, Song Eun
We report on a 20-month-old infant with a complicated lung and liver abscess caused by Pasteurella multocida after the child had been in close contact with a domestic cat. Surgical drainage confirmed lung and liver abscesses connected to each other, with involvement of the diaphragm. PMID:16429437
Goussard, P; Gie, R P; Steyn, F; Rossouw, G J; Kling, S
Department of Obstetrics Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna - Kaduna State, Nigeria Background: This study was carried out to study the demographic variables, treatment options and mortality in cases of abortion related pelvic abscess. Methods: A retrospective study of patients that had pelvic abscess as a complication of unsafe abortion. The retrieved case files were scrutinized for the
Staphylococcus aureus infections are asso- ciated with abscess formation and bacterial persistence; however, the genes that enable this lifestyle are not known. We show here that following intravenous infec- tion of mice, S. aureus disseminates rapidly into organ tissues and elicits abscess lesions that develop over weeks but cannot be cleared by the host. Staphylococci grow as communities at the
Alice G. Cheng; Hwan Keun Kim; Monica L. Burts; Thomas Krausz; Olaf Schneewind; Dominique M. Missiakas
Spinal subdural abscess caused by spread of infection with the dermal sinus tract is rare in children. This article reports on a 1-year-old male with prolonged fever, progressive paraplegia, and bowel and bladder dysfunction resulting from a spinal subdural abscess secondary to an infected spinal dermoid cyst with a dermal sinus tract. This is the youngest patient to be reported
Chen-Yin Chen; Kuang-Lin Lin; Huei-Shyong Wang; Tai-Ngar Lui
Endoluminal sonography was performed in 31 patients with suspected perianal or perirectal abscesses or fistulas. Patients with unequivocal clinical findings underwent surgical treatment without preceding sonography. The aim of the sonographical examination was to identify the abscesses, their topographical location, and the internal opening of the fistulas. These results were compared with operative findings. An abscess was diagnosed in 22 patients and could be confirmed by surgery in 21. In one patient a hypoechogenic scar resulting from previous surgery was erroneously interpreted as an intersphincteric abscess. The remaining 9 patients suffered from a fistula without abscess. In all 21 abscesses the sonographic examination showed the correct topographical location. There were 5 perianal, 8 intersphincteric and 8 ischiorectal abscesses. The operation demonstrated the internal opening of the fistula in 17 of 35 cases. Only 9 of these 17 openings (53%) had been identified by preoperative ultrasonography. The endoluminal sonography is a good method to find a perianal or perirectal abscess and to show the topographical location. It should be performed in all cases with an obscure preoperative clinical situation. PMID:8581815
The authors presented a rare case of huge gravitation abscess. 67Ga scintigraphy was useful in the evaluation of the extent and activity of the disease. CT showed clearly the location and shape of the abscess. Enhanced MRI showed vertebral lesions as characteristic geographic and ring-like enhancement. PMID:9310178
Objective: peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep neck infection in adults and children. However, pediatric patients with their smaller anatomy and often inability to cooperate with exam and treatment, provide a challenge. This study reviews the experience over the last 10 years at a children's hospital in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric peritonsillar abscess. Methods: a retrospective chart
Scott Schraff; Johnathan D. McGinn; Craig S. Derkay
Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and the less virulent organism F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme are recognized. We present here a draft genome sequence of the bovine liver abscess isolate F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme strain B35, which affords a genomic perspective of virulence and bovine adaptation.
Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G.
Splenic abscesses caused by Streptococcus bovis are rarely reported in the literature and are mainly seen in patients with endocarditis and associated colonic neoplasia/carcinoma. We report the first case of splenic abscess caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (Streptococcus bovis biotype II/2) as presentation of a pancreatic cancer.
The pyogenic liver abscess is a potentially life-threatening disease with low incidence, which has undergone significant changes in epidemiology, management and mortality over the past decades. Usually, patients with pyogenic liver abscesses present to the emergency department with fever of unknown origin. The computed tomography (CT) is basic to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:17384970
Perez, Manuel J Soriano; Carrillo, Jose Luis Serrano; Montín, Inmaculada Marín; Castellano, Angel Domínguez
Background In small children, retropharyngeal abscesses usually occur after upper respiratory tract infections. Unlike in adults, these abscesses are difficult to diagnose in small children, and can rapidly develop into deep neck or mediastinal abscesses. Case presentation A 2-year-old Japanese boy recently presented to our department with a chief complaint of neck swelling. Physical examination revealed bilateral tonsillitis and swelling of the left posterior pharyngeal wall. Emergency neck computed tomography angiography showed a contrast-enhanced abscess cavity posterior to the left retropharyngeal space, and a low-density area surrounded by an area without contrast enhancement in the posterior neck. The latter was suspected to be a deep neck infection secondary to a retropharyngeal abscess. After surgery, the patient was diagnosed with a retropharyngeal abscess and concurrent cystic lymphangioma. The lesions improved after intraoral incision and drainage, and administration of antibiotics. Conclusion Lymphangiomas and retropharyngeal abscesses are both known to be more common in children than in adults. However, we found no other reports of concomitant presentation of lymphangioma and retropharyngeal abscess in the literature.
We report a case of chest wall abscess caused by Mycobacterium bovis BCG that arose as a complication 1 year after intravesical BCG instillation. We identified M. bovis BCG Tokyo 172 in the abscess by PCR-based typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and analysis of variable number of tandem repeats data.
We report an 18-month-old female child with ventriculo-peritoneal shunt related thalamic abscess treated with stereotactic aspiration. Deep seated abscesses are complex due to difficult access and are associated with an increased risk of intra-ventricular rupture as well as antibiotic resistance, a fact which justifies a more aggressive and immediate neurosurgical management.
A series of 65 patients suffering from acute inflammatory disease of the orbit was studied by CT. Ethmoiditis was the cause in the vast majority; trauma and dental extraction played a lesser role in causation. Orbital cellulitis was diagnosed in 17 and subperiosteal abscess in the remaining 48. It was not possible to differentiate 33 pus-containing abscesses from the six
L. C. Handler; I. C. Davey; J. C. Hill; C. Lauryssen
Abscess formation associated with secondary peritonitis causes severe morbidity and can be fatal. Formation of abscesses requires the presence of CD4+ T-cells. Zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs) represent a novel class of immunomodulatory bacterial antigens that stimulate CD4+ T-cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-dependent manner. The capsular polysaccharide Sp1 of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 possesses a zwitterionic charge with free amino groups and promotes T-cell-dependent abscess formation in an experimental mouse model. So far, nothing is known about the function of Interleukin (IL)-6 in intraperitoneal abscess formation. Here, we demonstrate that macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), the most prevalent professional antigen-presenting cells involved in the formation of abscesses, secrete Interleukin (IL)-6 and are incorporated in the abscess capsule. Sp1 inhibits apoptosis of CD4+ T-cells and causes IL-17 expression by CD4+ T-cells in an IL-6-dependent manner. Abrogation of the Sp1-induced pleiotropic effects of IL-6 in IL-6-deficient mice and mice treated with an IL-6-specific neutralizing antibody results in significant inhibition of abscess formation. The data delineate the essential role of IL-6 in the linkage of innate and adaptive immunity in polysaccharide-mediated abscess formation. PMID:19897529
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Preauricular sinus abscess is a common congenital external ear disease. This abscess is usually misdiagnosed because it is commonly overlooked during physical examination. In Nigeria, the prevalence was 9.3% in Ilorin, north central Nigeria This study is to determine the distribution and clinical presentation of the preauricular sinus abscess in Ekiti, south west Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective hospital based study of all patients with diagnosis of preauricular sinus abscess seen in our clinic carried out between April 2008 to March 2010. Detailed clinical history, administered interviewer’s assisted questionnaires full examination and. Data obtained were collated and analysed. RESULTS: Preauricular sinus were noticed in 184 (4.4%) out of 4170 patients seen during the study period. Preauricular sinus abscess were noticed in 21 (11.4%) of the preauricular sinuses especially in children. Unilateral preauricular sinus abscess accounted for 90.5%. Common presenting complaints were preauricular swelling (81.0%), 90.5% with recurrent earaches, 76.2% with ear discharges. All patients had antibiotic / analgesic while 17 out of 21 (81.0%) had surgical excisions. CONCLUSION: Preauricular sinus abscess were noticed among 11.4% of the preauricular sinuses especially in children, unilateral preauricular sinus abscess accounted for 90.5%. Common complaints were otorrhoea, earaches, and swelling and they were mostly managed surgically.
Adegbiji, W. A.; Alabi, B. S.; Olajuyin, O. A.; Nwawolo, C. C.
Background: To review our experience in the treatment of deep neck abscesses, including analysis of the contributing factors related to the life-threatening complications and the effects of empiric antibiotics on the outcomes. Methods: A retrospective study and statistical analysis of patients with deep neck abscesses treated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between April 2000 and April 2006. Results: A total
Eosinophilic necrotizing granulomas in the liver, known as visceral larva migrans (VLM), are a rare cause of liver abscesses. The term VLM refers to infections in human tissues caused by the larval stages of ascarid worms of dogs and cats. We report two cases of VLM which presented with high grade fever and abdominal pain for 3-4 months. Marked peripheral eosinophilia, multiple confluent perivenous lesions in the right lobe of liver with characteristic migratory tracts on imaging and biopsy evidence of necrotizing eosinophilic granulomas led to the diagnosis. Complete recovery was achieved with repeated courses of a combination of anthelmintics. PMID:24100348
Ramachandran, Jeyamani; Chandramohan, Anuradha; Gangadharan, Sajith Kattiparambil; Unnikrishnan, L S; Priyambada, Leena; Simon, Anna
A report is given of two infants who developed an orbital abscess within their first month of life. Generally they were unaffected, and malignancies were initially suspected. Ultrasonography showed partly cystic, partly solid lesions. The likely infectious foci were conjunctival malformations, a mucosal fistula in case No. 1, a conjunctival cyst in case NO. 2. There was rapid and complete recovery after surgery. The infections were caused by Staph. aureus and by diplococcus pneumoniae, respectively. Additional findings: Infant No. 1 had a fibroma of the tongue. Infant No. 2 had pes equino-varus. PMID:525288
We report the case of a long-lasting cutaneous side effect after inappropriate use of Octenisept® solution (containing octenidine and phenoxyethanol). Following lavage of an abscess in the inguinal region, a painful erythematous induration mimicking cellulitis persisted for several months. Manual lymphatic drainage considerably improved the symptoms. Octenisept® shows considerable tissue toxicity in vivo including - but not restricted to - blood vessel damage. Deterioration of endothelial cells followed by oedema and continued tissue damage can be seen histologically. Despite the fact that there is a circular letter issued by the manufacturer as well as a boxed warning on the bottles, the awareness to avoid this misuse of Octenisept® is still lacking. PMID:22101779
Bauer, B; Majic, M; Rauthe, S; Bröcker, E-B; Kerstan, A
Two patients with pain referable to the low back and sacroiliac regions had bone scans with similar findings. In each, one sacroiliac joint was warm (uptake on that side was slightly greater than that in the contralateral area). Ga-67 imaging also demonstrated increased uptake in the same locale. Subsequent CT scanning revealed pelvic abscesses adjacent to the affected joints. Asymmetric uptake of bone imaging agent may have been related to hyperemia and heating of the sacroiliac joint. Rapid defervescence with antibiotics and drainage (and no CT evidence of bone involvement) suggested that osteomyelitis was not involved in these cases.
Slavin, J.D. Jr.; Epstein, N.; Negrin, J.A.; Spencer, R.P. (Saint Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Hartford, CT (USA))
Abdominal wall abscess secondary to spontaneous cholecystocutaneous gallstone fistulation is an uncommon presentation of a rare pathological process. Having been described relatively frequently in the 19th century, it is now much less common in the late 20th and early 21st century, probably due to earlier recognition of symptoms, better imaging and surgical treatment of biliary tract disease. Here we describe a report of a case with an unusual clinical presentation of the already rare pathological disease process of spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula.
Murphy, John A.; Vimalachandran, C. Dale; Howes, Nathan; Ghaneh, Paula
We present herein an autopsy case of 63-year-old Japanese man who died as a result of pancreatic abscess, suppurative pylethrombosis,\\u000a and multiple liver abscesses that had developed 10 years after a pancreato- and cystojejunostomy with side-to-side anastomosis\\u000a for chronic pancreatitis. Even after this operation, the patient had continued to consume excessive amounts of alcohol. He\\u000a had first experienced back pain
A 38 year old gentleman presented with fever and right hypochondrial pain. On further evaluation he was detected to have an amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in the right lobe of the liver. The abscess yielded anchovy sauce pus on percutaneous drainage. Following the percutaneous drainage the patient developed tachycardia. Electrocardiogram revealed atrial flutter with rapid ventricular rate and ST elevation in all leads suggestive of pericarditis. The atrial flutter was reverted to sinus rhythm by cardioversion. The patient then had an uncomplicated convalescence. Amoebic pericarditis, though rare, is a serious complication of amoebic liver abscess. Pericardial complications are usually seen with left lobe liver abscess due to its proximity. Both pericarditis and cardiac arrhythmias due to amoebic liver abscess especially from right lobe are very rare. PMID:22390111
Liver abscess following ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting occurs very rarely. We report an unusual case of multiple liver abscesses caused by Staphylococcus capitis in a 50-year-old compromised woman due to a complicating VP shunt infection. We reviewed the nine cases of VP shunt complications reported in the English literature, and speculated that the most likely pathogenetic mechanism in our case is an infected peritoneal tip that migrated to and penetrated the liver, which subsequently caused the formation of multiple liver abscesses. The patient was successfully treated with percutaneous aspiration, drainage of the abscesses, intravenous antibiotics, and shunt revision. Awareness and vigilance of the possibility of liver abscess formation caused by VP shunt infection will help establish an early accurate diagnosis and therapeutic strategy.
This report presents an extremely rare case of nasal septal abscess complicating acute sphenoiditis in a non-immunocompromised adult patient. A 56-year-old woman came to our emergency service with a 2 wk history of nasal obstruction, headache, and facial pain. A nontraumatic nasal septal abscess complicating acute isolated sphenoiditis was diagnosed. Under general anaesthesia, we drained the septal abscess and performed an endoscopic transnasal sphenoidotomy. Bacteriological cultures revealed viridans streptococci in the septal abscess and sphenoid cavity. We discuss the patient's diagnosis, possible complications, and treatment. There are limited reports in the literature on this subject. Our report emphasizes the need to determine whether an infection is associated with a non-traumatic nasal septal abscess. The incidence of severe complications is directly related to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, a prompt and correct diagnosis immediately followed by appropriate treatment is necessary. PMID:21302696
Tyrosine derivatives labeled with a short-living fluorine 18 isotope (T(1/2) 110 min), namely 2-[(18)F]fluoro-L-tyrosine (FTYR) and O-(2'-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET), promising radiopharmaceutical products (RPP) for positron emission tomography (PET), were obtained by asymmetric synthesis. Accumulation of FTYR and FET in the rat tumor "35 rat glioma" and in abscesses induced in Vistar mouse muscles was studied and compared with that of a well-known glycolysis radiotracer 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). It was shown that the relative accumulation indices of amino acid RPP were considerably lower than those of FDG. At the same time, tumor/muscle ratios were high enough (2.9 for FET and 3.9 for FTYR 120 min after injection) for reliable tumor visualization. The data obtained indicated a possibility in principle to use FTYR and FET for differentiated PET diagnostics of brain tumors and inflammation lesions. Of the tyrosine derivatives studied, FET seems to be the most promising agent due to a simple and easily automated method of preparation based on direct nucleophilic substitution of the leaving tosyloxy group of an enantiomerically pure Ni-(S)-BPB-(S)-Tyr(CH2CH2OTs) precursor by an activated [(18)F]fluoride. PMID:19621048
Fedorova, O S; Kuznetsova, O F; Shatik, S V; Stepanova, M A; Belokon', Iu N; Maleev, V I; Krasikova, R N
Introduction: Bile and gallstones are spilled during 13% to 40% of all laparoscopic cholecystectomies. They can act as a septic focus and cause complications. We present 2 cases of perihepatic abscess formation due to dropped gallstones presenting some years later. Delayed diagnosis resulted in unnecessary investigations and had negative economic consequences. Case Description: In 1 patient a posterolateral cutaneous fistula had developed that was initially biopsied by cardiothoracic surgeons before computed tomography showed the cause. The other patient presented with recurrent Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) causing repeated absence from work and was diagnosed only after 18 months of medical investigation. Both patients were treated with laparoscopic drainage of the abscess and successful retrieval of all stones. Discussion: Radiologic and open drainage and retrieval of stones have been well described in these cases. We suggest that a laparoscopic approach is superior because the cavity can be clearly identified and stones visualized and removed under direct vision. The need for a formal laparotomy is avoided. We also highlight the economic burden to both patient and health care professional of delayed diagnosis, as shown in these 2 cases. Spilled gallstones are a recognized complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All stones should be actively sought and removed to avoid complications. Laparoscopic drainage is preferable to open or radiologic drainage. Dropped gallstones should be considered a possible diagnosis in patients who have had a previous cholecystectomy and present with unusual symptoms.
Liver abscess is an emergent public health burden with considerable morbidity. Its prevalence varies from country to country. This prospective study was carried out in the Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh and Sher-E-Bangla Medical College Hospital, Barishal, Bangladesh from January 2004 to December 2009 to asses clinical pictures of 250 cases of amoebic liver abscess. Majority of patients were male (84%) presenting with upper abdominal pain (96.8%). High grade fever was present in 74% cases. Vomiting & nausea in 29.2% while loss of appetite in 42% patients. Only 4% patients showed diarrhea. On examination, tenderness in right hypochondriac was the predominant signs (95%) associated with hepatomegaly in 80% cases. Seventy eight percent cases showed leucocytosis. Serum alkaline phosphatase was raised in 66% patients. Colour of the aspirate was chocolate/brown in 80% cases. It is our experience that although complications are found hardly, they may take a menacing course if diagnosed, managed or both at the eleventh hour. PMID:24292301
Debnath, C R; Debnath, M R; Khalid, M S; Mahmuduzzaman, M
... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...
Purpose\\u000a : Experiments were carried out to assess the potential of artificial neural network (ANN) analysis in the differential diagnosis\\u000a of brain tumours (low- and high-grade gliomas) from non-neoplastic focal brain lesions (tuberculomas and abscesses), using\\u000a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) as input data. Methods\\u000a : Single-voxel stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) (echo time of 20?ms) spectra were acquired
Harish Poptani; Jouni Kaartinen; Rakesh K. Gupta; Matthias Niemitz; Yrjö Hiltunen; Risto A. Kauppinen
Introduction: Focal intradural infections of the brain include empyema and abscess in the supratentorial and infratentorial spaces. These are amenable to surgical management. Various other issues may complicate the course of management, e.g. hydrocephalus with infratentorial lesions or cortical venous thrombosis with supratentorial lesions. Here, we review the management and identify factors affecting outcome in these patients. Materials and Methods:
Venkatesh S. Madhugiri; B. V. Savitr Sastri; Umesh Srikantha; Anirban Deep Banerjee; Sampath Somanna; B. Indira Devi; B. A. Chandramouli; Paritosh Pandey
The purpose of the study is to highlight the varied presentation of tuberculosis (TB) simulating a brain tumour. Headache and seizures are becoming frequent presenting complaints without any history of tuberculosis. The study comprises 1200 patients of both sexes with ages ranging from ten to sixty years. CT scan and MRI brain control with and without contrast medium were the investigations performed in these cases. In some patients Electroencephalography (EEG), cerebral angiography (DSA) and spectroscopy were also performed. The final diagnosis of tuberculosis was made on the basis of craniotomy, stereotactic and burr hole biopsies with histopathology in most of the cases. Forty per cent of the patients were followed up for eight months. They were put on anti-tuberculosis treatment with symptomatic and anti-epileptic drugs. The incidence was 544 and 757 per 100,000 in Africa and Indo Pakistan respectively. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Tuberculosis, especially with CNS involvement, is not only common in immunosuppressed patients in our setting, but TB has been and remains an important public health problem. TB may involve the CNS either as meningitis or as parenchymal granulomas or abscesses. Patients with brain TB usually present with fever, multiple cranial nerve involvement and occasional behavioural changes. CSF findings remain non specific in most cases. The most common sites are the cerebral hemisphere and basal ganglion in adults and the cerebellum in children. Tuberculosis has unique findings on brain CT and MRI. Cortical and subcortical locations are typical whereas the brain stem is a less common site. Tuberculosis lesions are usually solitary but multiple in 10% to 35% of cases. In spite of all these facts some cases of brain TB still need aggressive neurointervention to reach the final diagnosis of brain TB. Tuberculosis in the CNS may manifest in many different ways. So one should always include tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis in the etiology of delayed onset epilepsy and acute on chronic headache. In case of a discrepancy between clinical manifestations and CT/MRI findings, one can always anticipate tuberculous lesion in the brain. PMID:24059657
Wild-caught box turtles (Terapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses were observed over a period of several years. Histopathologic evaluation of epithelial tissues (conjunctiva, pharynx, trachea, auditory tube) revealed mucosal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, and accumulated keratin-like material in the middle ear cavity. These manifestations suggested the possibility of vitamin A deficiency. A nonsignificant trend toward reduced serum and hepatic vitamin A levels was observed in turtles with abscesses (mean serum and hepatic vitamin A levels 71 and 49% of respective levels in turtles without abscesses). Three organochlorine (OC) compounds (alpha-benzene hexachloride, heptachlor epoxide, and oxychlordane) and total (microg/g) OC compounds were significantly higher in turtles with abscesses compared with turtles without abscesses. No OC compounds were higher in turtles without abscesses compared with turtles with abscesses. These data suggest a possible effect of environmental chemicals on metabolism or utilization of vitamin A in wild box turtles, resulting in hypovitaminosis A. PMID:11161683
Holladay, S D; Wolf, J C; Smith, S A; Jones, D E; Robertson, J L
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A method of producing lateral confinement of an electron gas has been realized by using molecular beam epitaxy to grow a high mobility heterostructure on a (100) n+-GaAs layer selectively etched to create a two-dimensional array of cavities through the n+-GaAs, which are bound by higher index facets. Far-infrared cyclotron resonance (CR) spectra unambiguously demonstrate that the electron gasformed
D. D. Arnone; S. Cina; J. H. Burroughes; S. N. Holmes; T. Burke; H. P. Hughes; D. A. Ritchie; M. Pepper
We report here three cases of amoebic liver abscess with biochemical abnormalities of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). All three patients were febrile and had pain in the right upper abdomen radiating to the right shoulder. Liver function tests were disturbed. Chest X-ray showed raised right hemidiaphragm with obliteration of the right costophrenic angle. On ultrasound, an abscess 710 cm in diameter was located in the upper right lobe. SIADH was transient and improved with treatment. We believe this to be the first reported association of SIADH with amoebic liver abscess. PMID:9120331
Bursae or abscess cavities communicating with the hip joint were demonstrated by hip arthrography or by computed tomography (CT) in 40 cases. The bursae or abscess cavities were associated with underlying abnormalities in the hip, including painful hip prostheses, infection, and inflammatory or degenerative arthritis. Symptoms may be produced directly as a result of infection or indirectly as a result of inflammation or pressure on adjacent structures. Hip arthrography can confirm a diagnosis of bursae and abscess cavities communicating with the hip joint in patients with hip pain or soft-tissue masses around the groin. Differentiation of enlarged bursae from other abnormalities is important to avoid unnecessary or incorrect surgery.
Acute otitis media with complications is a persistent problem in the modern antibiotic era with a relatively high mortality rate. Acute mastoiditis is a serious complication of acute otitis media with potentially grave consequences and the epidural abscess constitutes the commonest of all intracranial complications, arising from middle ear infections. We report two cases of children with acute mastoiditis without evidence of intracranial complication or subperiosteal abscess, in whom the early evaluation with computed tomography (CT) disclosed an unsuspected epidural abscess. Therefore, we stress the use of CT as a rule of thumb for every child with acute mastoiditis. PMID:9849684
Bizakis, J G; Velegrakis, G A; Papadakis, C E; Karampekios, S K; Helidonis, E S
Background. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (Ck) was first described in 1998 from human sputum. Contrary to what is observed in ethnic groups such as Maori, Ck is rarely isolated from breast abscesses and granulomatous mastitis in Caucasian women. Case Presentation. We herein report a case of recurrent breast abscesses in a 46-year-old Caucasian woman. Conclusion. In the case of recurrent breast abscesses, even in Caucasian women, the possible involvement of Ck should be investigated. The current lack of such investigations, probably due to the difficulty to detect Ck, may cause the underestimation of such an aetiology. PMID:23008788
Le Flčche-Matéos, Anne; Berthet, Nicolas; Lomprez, Fabienne; Arnoux, Yolande; Le Guern, Anne-Sophie; Leclercq, India; Burguičre, Ana Maria; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude
Background. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (Ck) was first described in 1998 from human sputum. Contrary to what is observed in ethnic groups such as Maori, Ck is rarely isolated from breast abscesses and granulomatous mastitis in Caucasian women. Case Presentation. We herein report a case of recurrent breast abscesses in a 46-year-old Caucasian woman. Conclusion. In the case of recurrent breast abscesses, even in Caucasian women, the possible involvement of Ck should be investigated. The current lack of such investigations, probably due to the difficulty to detect Ck, may cause the underestimation of such an aetiology.
Le Fleche-Mateos, Anne; Berthet, Nicolas; Lomprez, Fabienne; Arnoux, Yolande; Le Guern, Anne-Sophie; Leclercq, India; Burguiere, Ana Maria; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude
We describe a case of a 19-year-old male who presented to the South West Health Service with a septic knee, secondary to haematogenous spread from an iliacus abscess. Thus far, there have been no reported cases of haematogenous spread of infection from an iliacus abscess to an ACL reconstructed knee, let alone in a healthy young person with no risk factors. The patient has had several washouts of the knee along with the drainage of the abscess. The ACL graft was saved with the patient making a complete recovery.
Bacillus species are aerobic, gram-positive, spore forming rods that are usually found in the soil, dust, streams, and other environmental sources. Except for Bacillus. anthracis (B. anthracis), most species display low virulence, and only rarely cause infections in hosts with weak or damaged immune systems. There are two case reports of B. cereus as a potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing a liver abscess in an immunologically competent patient. We herein report a case of liver abscess and sepsis caused by B. pantothenticus in an immunocompetent patient. Until now, no case of liver abscess due to B. pantothenticus has been reported.
Na, Jung Sik; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Heung Su; Park, Sang Hyun; Song, Ho Sup; Cha, Sang Woo; Yoon, Hee Jung
We report a 60-year-old woman who presented with orbital cellulitis, restricted ocular motility, proptosis, and visual acuity of counting fingers in her left eye 3 days after strabismus surgery. Although she initially responded well to antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy, visual acuity in the left eye again decreased on postoperative day 5. Radiographic imaging revealed an intraconal orbital abscess, and she underwent left lateral orbitotomy with abscess drainage, with continued antibiotics and a tapering dose of steroids. To our knowledge, this is the first case of orbital cellulitis and intraconal abscess after strabismus surgery in an adult. PMID:24568992
Strul, Sasha; McCracken, Michael S; Cunin, Kathryn
Four years after an orthoptic liver transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma secondary to alcoholic liver disease, the patient presented in a crescendo manner with skin infections and finally a septic right arm wound. The abscess was drained and cultures grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patient reported a previous episode of 'pneumonia' and subsequent hospitalisations for recurrent chest infections, and following further investigation, he was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis. The infection responded to triple therapy, but primary closure of the arm wound was unsuccessful and it was treated conservatively with negative pressure wound therapy. The patient remains an inpatient 3 months after his presentation, responding well to therapy and anticipating imminent discharge. The patient's case serves as a reminder that infections are common in solid organ transplant recipients and clinicians should be aware of unusual or recurrent presentations in these patients, to allow for early diagnosis and timely management. PMID:24510698
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous drainage of fluid collections following pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure). Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 19 patients referred to our service with fluid collections following pancreaticoduodenectomy. The presence of associated enteric or biliary fistulas, the route(s) of access for image-guided drainage, the incidence of positive bacterial cultures, and the duration and success of percutaneous management were recorded. Results: Fistulous communication to the jejunum in the region of the pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis was demonstrable in all 19 patients by gentle contrast injection into drainage tubes. Three patients had concurrent biliary fistulas. In 18 of 19 patients, fluid samples yielded positive bacterial cultures. Successful percutaneous evacuation of fluid was achieved in 17 of 19 patients (89%). The mean duration of drainage was 31 days. Conclusion: Percutaneous drainage of abscess following pancreaticoduodenectomy is effective in virtually all patients despite the coexistence of enteric and biliary fistulas.
AAssar, O. Sami; LaBerge, Jeanne M.; Gordon, Roy L.; Wilson, Mark W.; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Way, Lawrence W.; Kerlan, Robert K. [Department of Radiology, Box 0252, UCSF Medical Center, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco CA 94143-0252 (United States)
The use of a tracheo-esophageal voice prosthesis is a well-established procedure to restore the voice in total laryngectomees. The insertion of the prosthesis is not a risk-free procedure, various complications having been reported especially in irradiated patients. Here described is a case of an esophageal rupture after secondary tracheo-esophageal puncture with mediastinal abscess in a patient previously treated with pharyngo-laryngectomy and subsequent radiotherapy for a left pyriform sinus carcinoma, which required immediate surgical drainage through a left cervical approach. Few weeks after surgical drainage an esophageal stricture at the site of the rupture developed, which was only temporarily resolved after the insertion of biodegradable esophageal stents, followed by re-stenosis once the reabsorption of the stent took place. PMID:24210965
A 72-year-old man was admitted with a lower abdominal mass, occasionally detected during a previous laparoscopy. The cystoscopy revealed a bulging mass 5 cm in diameter at the vesical dome. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed an extravescical extension in close relationship with the posterior abdominal wall. Two consecutive endoscopic biopsies and a CT-guided percutaneous biopsy were not helpful. At surgery, a mass about 10 cm in diameter was found at the vesical dome and removed "en-block". The microscopic examination showed a chronic urachal abscess. To our knowledge, this is the second case of asymptomatic urachal abcess mimicking a bladder neoplasm. The reasons of a surgical approach are discussed. PMID:20608152
Baldassarre, Emanuele; Lillaz, Beatrice; Vittoria, Ivano; Pierini, Paolo
Acinetobacter baumannii strains are isolated in up to 1% of nosocomial infections mostly from intensive care units immunocompromised patients and are associated with high mortality rates. A baumannii infections include pneumonia, urinary tract infection, endocarditis, skin and soft-tissue infections, surgical-site infection, meningitis, osteomyelitis, and septicemia. We report an extremely rare case of deep neck abscess due to multidrug-resistant A baumannii infection. The isolate strain was analyzed by a repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction typing method: the isolate profile was compared with other strains obtained from isolates recovered in the hospital in that period. Our patient underwent 2 neck explorations and antibiotic treatment (tigecycline 50 mg, twice per day). Five weeks after admission, the patient was discharged in good general conditions. Considering the other obtained strains, 4 different profiles were identified, one as prominent (profile A, 18 isolates), the index case (B), and 2 others (C, D) as divergent. PMID:20015765
We present the case of a 49-year-old woman, with previous clinical antecedents of recent hepatic metastasis, who was admitted to the ICU due to respiratory failure and hemodynamic instability. She was found to have purulent pericarditis complicated by pericardial tamponade and pleural effusion, as well as surgical site infection, which was the origin of the disease. Cultures of the surgical wound and the pericardial effusion were positive for Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. A pericardial tap was performed and the intra-abdominal abscess was surgically drained. Pleural effusion was also evacuated. She received antibiotic treatment and recovered successfully. The only after-effect was a well-tolerated effusive-constrictive pericarditis.
Fidalgo Garcia, Maria; Rodriguez Sanjuan, Juan Carlos; Riano Molleda, Maria; Gonzalez Andaluz, Marta; Real Noval, Hector; Gomez Fleitas, Manuel
A previously healthy 64-year-old man developed an Escherichia coli spinal epidural abscess (SEA) isolated to the cervical vertebrae posturinary tract infection 9 days previously. He subsequently underwent emergent surgical decompression followed by a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics. He is symptom free at 1-year follow-up. SEA is an uncommon condition. Even with modern surgical techniques and antimicrobial agents, the mortality remains significant. Intravenous drug use, spinal procedures and medical conditions such as diabetes, Crohn's disease and chronic renal failure are all known risk factors for SEA and the majority of cases are associated with at least one of these risk factors. The case report highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for this condition even in patients without established risk factors who present with red flag symptoms: back pain, fever and neurological deficit, as the consequences of a delayed diagnosis can be severe. PMID:24473426
O'Neill, Shane C; Baker, Joseph F; Ellanti, Prasad; Synnott, Keith
We present a case of a 44-year-old man who visited his general practitioner for recurrent neck swelling, which was found to be a neck abscess. It was aspirated, later recurred, and then surgically excised. Histology was consistent with an infected branchial cyst. Eight months after discharge, the patient presented with a history of progressive neck pain and stiffness and eventually bilateral upper limb weakness. MRI demonstrated a prevertebral abscess complicated by cervical osteomyelitis and atlanto-axial instability. The abscess was drained and appropriate antibiotic treatment was administered. The patient responded well with full recovery of his upper limb strength and resolution of the abscess. However, he had mild persistent neck stiffness.
A 48-year-old man with an unremarkable medical history was admitted with vague conditions of fever, chills, myalgias and malaise. Physical examination was remarkable for only scleral icterus. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Imaging demonstrated two masses in the right lobe of his liver, which were ultimately drained and cultures demonstrated Actinomyces and Eikenella. He continued to have fever on broad-spectrum antibiotics until catheter drainage of the abscesses was performed. He was eventually discharged in improved condition on amoxicillin-clavulanate. His aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin continued to improve and he remained afebrile and asymptomatic. A repeat CT 2 months after discharge demonstrated resolution of the abscesses. Actinomyces and Eikenella are rare causes of liver abscesses and treatment requires drainage and an extended course of antibiotics. The polymicrobial character typical of liver abscesses makes antibiotic therapy challenging when cultures reveal rare organisms such as Actinomyces and Eikenella. PMID:23867879
Jaqua, Nathan Thomas; Smith, Adam J; Shin, Terry T; Jahanmir, Jay
A review was made of the charts of 94 patients who underwent ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and gallium citrate Ga 67 (Gall) scan to rule out intra-abdominal abscesses. Of all the clinical and laboratory data, only the presence of pain and tenderness differentiated patients with and without abscesses. A review of radiologic data showed that CT was superior to US, and that US was superior to Gall scan with regard to sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values. When multiple radiologic tests were performed, results agreed in 72% of cases; therefore, the additional tests were essentially redundant. When radiologic test results disagreed, accuracy rates were CT, 0.86; US, 0.00; and Gall scan, 0.44. These findings suggest that, except to rule out pelvic abscesses in the presence of pelvic inflammatory disease, CT is usually the only special radiologic test that should be performed to localize a suspected intra-abdominal abscess.
One of the complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstone disease that seems to exceed that of the traditional open method is the gallbladder perforation and gallstone spillage. Its incidence can occur in up to 40% of patients, and in most cases its course is uneventful. However in few cases an abdominal abscess can develop, which may lead to significant morbidity. Rarely an abscess formation due to spilled and lost gallstones may occur in the retroperitoneal space. We herein report the case of a female patient who presented with clinical symptoms of sepsis six months following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Imaging investigations revealed the presence of a retroperitoneal abscess due to retained gallstones. Due to patient's decision to refuse abscess's surgical drainage, she underwent CT-guided drainage. The 24-month followup of the patient has been uneventful, and the patient remains in good general condition.
We report the unusual case of a patient with chronic carriage of Salmonella typhi who presented with partially calcified splenic abscess linked to colic fistula and ascitis. The colic fistula could be secondary to ischemic necrosis by left colon compression due to spleen large abscess. Fistula was evidenced by abdominal computed tomography scan and confirmed by barium enema. The possible etiologies of ascitis are either tuberculosis or ascitic peritonitis secondary to the fistulisation; nevertheless, the role of segmentary portal located hypertension cannot be completely excluded. The splenic abscess was probably due to Salmonella typhi which was only isolated from stool specimens. The calcified splenic abscess was the evidence that the infection had occurred first. In addition, the isolation of Salmonella typhi in stool cultures six months after the subject had returned from the Comores proved the chronic carriage. Treatment by splenectomy and left colectomy was successful in this patient. PMID:10051988
A solitary brainstem abscess is a rare fatal intracranial infection, which can be mistaken for an acute stroke complicated with a systemic infection. Dental caries without abscess formation can be a possible source of infection. Herein, we describe the case of a 59-year-old man with dental caries who presented with a 4-day history of progressive dizziness, double vision, gait ataxia, emesis, and left facial and body numbness. Fever, suboccipital headache, and difficulties in urinating and defecating were noted on admission. Acute brainstem infarction and suspected aspiration pneumonia were then diagnosed. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging demonstrated a solitary pontine abscess. The neurologic deficits continued improvement after he completed 8 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. The successful nonsurgical treatment of the brainstem abscess in this case was based on high clinical suspicion, early diagnosis, and early combination of corticosteroids and broad spectrum antibiotics. PMID:23399347
Tuberculous liver abscesses are rare. Paradoxical response in tuberculosis is common and occurred between 2 weeks and 12 weeks after anti-tuberculous medication. We report here a case of tuberculous liver abscess that developed in a paradoxical response during chemotherapy for tuberculous peritonitis in a 23-year-old male. He was hospitalized, complaining of ascites, epigastric pain. He was diagnosed tuberculous peritonitis by expiratory laparoscopic biopsy and took medication for tuberculosis. After 2 months, a hepatic lesion was detected with CT scan incidentally. Chronic granulomatous inflammation was seen in ultrasound-guided liver biopsy, and tuberculous liver abscess was diagnosed. It was considered as paradoxical response, rather than treatment failure or other else because clinical symptoms of peritoneal tuberculosis and CT scan improved. After continuing initial anti-tuberculous medication, he was successfully treated. Herein, we report a case of tuberculous liver abscess as paradoxical response while treating peritoneal tuberculosis without changing anti-tuberculous treatment regimen. PMID:23954963
Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Cheol Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Jang, Hyung Ha; Park, Su Bum; Kim, Hyung Wook; Kang, Dae Hwan
A case of recurrent abscesses in an immunocompetent patient is reported, involving the opportunistic human pathogen Dermabacter hominis, the virulent anaerobic pathogen Finegoldia magna and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:19332143
Martin, J; Bemer, P; Touchais, S; Asseray, N; Corvec, S
A 38-year-old male German traveller returning from Asia presented with fever, night sweats and abdominal complaints. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed several fast-growing abscesses of the liver. Three blood cultures as well as serologic investigations for the detection of antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, performed on day 3 and 7 after the onset of clinical symptoms, remained negative. Stool microscopy revealed the presence of amoeba cysts compatible with E. histolytica infection. Taking both the amoebic and bacterial etiology of the abscesses into consideration, the patient was treated with metronidazole and ciprofloxacin followed by paromomycin. Antibodies to E. histolytica tested positive shortly after anti-amoebic therapy was initiated. The patient fully recovered, and ultrasound follow-up showed complete resolution of the abscesses within 50 days. This case leads to the conclusion that amoebic liver abscess should be considered despite negative amoeba serology and that ultrasonography is an important diagnostic tool for the early diagnosis of extraintestinal amoebiasis. PMID:21735108
Marn, H; Ignatius, R; Tannich, E; Harms, G; Schürmann, M; Dieckmann, S
A young pregnant woman hospitalized in our department with sepsis due to a paranephric abscess, and treated successfully with a nephrostomy under the guidance of low-dose CT, is presented. Based on this successful and safe treatment for the fetus, it is proposed that low-dose CT can be applied without any risk to pregnant women with special urological problems such as paranephric and splenic abscesses, dysmorphic and ectopic or horseshoe kidneys. PMID:15331907
Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and the less virulent organism F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme are recognized. We present here a draft genome sequence of the bovine liver abscess isolate F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme strain B35, which affords a genomic perspective of virulence and bovine adaptation. PMID:24786958
Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Stewart, George C
Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is rare in healthy children. We report a case of PLA in an immunocompetent 12-year-old boy. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed for the abscess. In addition, parenteral antibiotics were administered for 3 weeks. Klebsiella pneumoniae was detected in the culture of blood and drained fluid. Here, we present this case and a brief review of the literature on this subject.
Yoon, Da Hye; Jeon, Yeon Jin; Bae, E Young; Jeong, Dae Chul
We report a case of recurrent chest wall abscesses overlying a right thoracotomy scar four years after a pneumonectomy for a right middle lobe bronchus squamous cell carcinoma. Exploration of the abscess cavities revealed no intra-thoracic or intra-abdominal communication. The patient developed sinuses in his thoracotomy scar and two years later, two gallstones were expelled from these sinuses. A cholecystocutaneous fistula was confirmed on a fistulogram. PMID:20139203
Infectious complications after yttrium-90 (y-90) radioembolization of hepatic tumors are rare. Most reports describe hepatic\\u000a abscesses as complications of other locoregional therapies, such as transcatheter arterial embolization or chemoembolization.\\u000a These usually occur in patients with a history of biliary intervention and present several weeks after treatment. We report\\u000a a case of hepatic abscess formed immediately after y-90 radioembolization of a
Neil B. Mascarenhas; Mary F. Mulcahy; Robert J. Lewandowski; Riad Salem; Robert K. Ryu
Potentially life threatening diseases can mimic a groin hernia. We present an unusual case of diverticulitis with perforation and a resulting abscess presenting as a strangulated inguinal hernia. The features demonstrated were not due to strangulation of the contents of the hernia but rather pus tracking into the hernia sac from the peritoneal cavity. The patient underwent sigmoid resection and drainage of retroperitoneal and pericolonic abscesses. Radiological and laboratory studies augment in reaching a diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of inguinal swellings is discussed.
Imran, S; Andrabi, H; Pitale, Ashish; El-Hakeem, Ahmed AS
Infectious complications after yttrium-90 (y-90) radioembolization of hepatic tumors are rare. Most reports describe hepatic abscesses as complications of other locoregional therapies, such as transcatheter arterial embolization or chemoembolization. These usually occur in patients with a history of biliary intervention and present several weeks after treatment. We report a case of hepatic abscess formed immediately after y-90 radioembolization of a hepatic metastasis in a patient who had no history of previous biliary instrumentation.
Mascarenhas, Neil B., E-mail: email@example.com [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology (United States); Lewandowski, Robert J.; Salem, Riad; Ryu, Robert K., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)
We report a case of “dry tap” during spinal anaesthesia in a patient posted for incision and drainage of lower limb with cellulitis. When the patient was being given sub-arachnoid block (SAB) for regional anaesthesia, it turned out to be a case of pyogenic ilio-psoas abscess extended up to the paravertebral and epidural spaces. The causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus. This is probably the first case reported when epidural abscess is diagnosed during SAB.
Aseptic abscesses syndrome (AA) is an emerging clinicopathological entity characterized by visceral sterile collections of mature neutrophils that do not respond to antibiotics but regress quickly when treated with corticosteroids. Although most previous case reports of AA have been restricted to Europe, we present here a Japanese woman with AA showing recurrence of splenic abscesses, ileocolitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and arthritis. Although both steroid therapy and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha blockade were effective, relapses remained frequent. PMID:22526827
Amoebiasis is a common protozoal infection that is endemic in South Asia. Hepatic involvement that manifests as abscess formation occurs in approximately 10% of all patients. Identified expeditiously, this can be treated with metronidazole. We present a case of multiple, large amoebic liver abscesses, that were complicated by thrombus formation in the inferior vena cava extending to the right atrium, requiring surgical removal. PMID:19535761
Introduction Amebiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica. It most commonly results in asymptomatic colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, but some patients develop intestinal invasive or extra-intestinal diseases. Liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation. The large number of clinical presentations of amebic liver abscess makes the diagnosis very challenging in non-endemic countries. Late diagnosis of the amebic abscess may lead to perforation and amebic peritonitis, resulting in high mortality rates. Case presentation This report describes a 37-year-old white man, suffering from hepatitis B, with a gigantic amebic liver abscess presenting as an acute abdomen due to its rupture. Rapid deterioration of the patient's condition and acute abdomen led to an emergency operation. A large volume of free fluid together with debris was found at the moment of entry into the peritoneal cavity because of a rupture of the hepatic abscess at the position of the segment VIII. Surgical drainage of the hepatic abscess was performed; two wide drains were placed in the remaining hepatic cavities and one on the right hemithorax. The patient was hospitalized in the ICU for 14 days and for another 14 days in our department. The diagnosis of amebic abscess was made by the pathologists who identified E. histolytica in the debris. Conclusion Acute abdomen due to a ruptured amebic liver abscess is extremely rare in western countries where the parasite is not endemic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are fundamental to preserving the patient's life since the mortality rates remain extremely high when untreated, even nowadays.
Brain oedema is a major clinical problem produced by CNS diseases (e.g. stroke, brain tumour, brainabscess) and systemic diseases that secondarily affect the CNS (e.g. hyponatraemia, liver failure). The swollen brain is compressed against the surrounding dura and skull, which causes the intracranial pressure to rise, leading to brain ischaemia, herniation, and ultimately death. A water channel protein, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is found in astrocyte foot processes (blood-brain border), the glia limitans (subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid-brain border) and ependyma (ventricular cerebrospinal fluid-brain border). Experiments using mice lacking AQP4 or alpha syntrophin (which secondarily downregulate AQP4) showed that AQP4 facilitates oedema formation in diseases causing cytotoxic (cell swelling) oedema such as cerebral ischaemia, hyponatraemia and meningitis. In contrast, AQP4 facilitates oedema elimination in diseases causing vasogenic (vessel leak) oedema and therefore AQP4 deletion aggravates brain oedema produced by brain tumour and brainabscess. AQP4 is also important in spinal cord oedema. AQP4 deletion was associated with less cord oedema and improved outcome after compression spinal cord injury in mice. Here we consider the possible routes of oedema formation and elimination in the injured cord and speculate about the role of AQP4. Finally we discuss the role of AQP4 in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an inflammatory demyelinating disease that produces oedema in the spinal cord and optic nerves. NMO patients have circulating AQP4 IgG autoantibody, which is now used for diagnosing NMO. We speculate how NMO-IgG might produce CNS inflammation, demyelination and oedema. Since AQP4 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of CNS oedema, we conclude that AQP4 inhibitors and activators may reduce CNS oedema in many diseases. PMID:19682555
Purpose: To report the efficacy and safety of percutaneous ultrasonography-guided endoscopic lavage in the management of perinephric abscesses. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients in a single center who had perinephric abscesses and were treated by percutaneous ultrasonography-guided endoscopic lavage during the period of March 2001 to March 2013. Information including the demographics, comorbid medical conditions, presenting symptoms, size of abscesses, operation information, and postoperative information were retrieved for review. Results: There were 37 patients (40 operations) identified during the study period. The mean age was 56.8 years (21-91 years). Eighteen (48.9%) patients presented with loin pain (48.6%) and/or fever (18, 48.6%), and the mean diameter of the abscesses was 10.8?cm (5-22?cm). Thirty-one (77.5%) procedures were performed under general anesthesia. The mean operative time was 49.4 minutes (15-140?min). Thirty-one (77.5%) patients had their percutaneous track dilated to 32F. Only two of 37 (5.4%) patients needed repeated drainage. The average postoperative drainage time was 8.35 days (3-21 days). The median postoperative hospital stay for our patients was 10 days (4-101 days). There was no mortality related to the abscess in this cohort. Conclusion: Percutaneous Ultrasonography-guided endoscopic lavage was shown to be an effective and safe approach for patients with perinephric abscesses. PMID:24372374
Ng, Chi-Fai; Liong, Yee Vonne; Leong, Wai Shing; Harris, David F; Lau, Ban Eng; Liong, Men Long
Pituitary abscesses occurring in pre-existing pituitary pathology like Rathke's cleft cyst or adenomas (secondary pituitary abscesses) are rare and of unclear etiology. While surgery and antibiotics have been effective in some cases reported to date, leading to the suggestion that secondary pituitary abscesses are mostly indolent, we investigated the hypothesis that infected adenomas, given their propensity to invade the paranasal sinuses and subarachnoid space, could carry a worse prognosis than uninfected adenomas or secondary abscesses forming in other pituitary pathologies. We identified infected adenomas from our center through retrospective review. Given the rarity of this diagnosis at any single center, we also reviewed published cases of secondary pituitary abscesses occurring in pituitary adenomas to look for common features. Twenty-three cases (19 from the literature and four from our center) of infected adenomas were identified. The mean age at presentation was 46 years, with 65 % male. The most common presenting symptoms were visual disturbances (83 %) and headache (65 %), followed by infectious signs like fever (39 %) and meningitis (26 %). The sphenoidal sinus was the most common site of extrasellar invasion. While good outcome occurred in 74 % of patients, and most achieved vision improvement, the mortality was 26 %. Patients with infected pituitary adenomas commonly present with visual disturbances and headache, with symptoms of infection also occurring. Surgery and antibiotics are indicated for these lesions. While the infection is more indolent than other intracranial abscesses, it is associated with high mortality even after prompt operation and antibiotic treatment. PMID:24185442
The introduction of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) brought about significant advancement in the field of bronchoscopy. The major indications for EBUS-TBNA are lung cancer staging and diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. This procedure is minimally invasive and cost saving, and no complications have been described in large-scale studies. In this report, we present a case of empyema, lung abscess, and mediastinal abscess that developed in a patient undergoing EBUS-TBNA; the patient subsequently recovered uneventfully after aggressive surgical debridement and antimicrobial therapy. PMID:21183356
Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...
Brain Autopsy The Key to Understanding FTD A brain autopsy is essential to obtain a definitive diagnosis ... sense of closure. People who participate in a brain donation program should receive an autopsy report with ...
The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...
Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Types of brain malformations include missing parts ...
The invention discloses improved reagents containing antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 antibodies and improved methods for detection of occult abscess and inflammation using the improved reagents.
The urinary system is the second most commonly affected site of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Due to the diverse and atypical clinical manifestations of urinary TB, the disease is easy to misdiagnose. In the present study, two cases of renal TB are reported, which had completely different clinical manifestations. The first case is a female who presented with loin pain and fever. Purified protein derivative (PPD) and TB antibody tests were negative and computed tomography (CT) scans showed a low density focus in the right kidney with an iliopsoas abscess. The typical CT findings indicated renal tuberculosis. Anti-TB drugs were effective proved the diagnosis. The second case is a male who presented with intermittent gross hematuria. Acid-fast bacilli in urine and TB antibody tests were positive. CT scans revealed a low density focus in the unilateral kidney with a slight expansion of the pelvis, calices and ureter. The patients were treated with the anti-TB drugs and the clinical manifestations disappeared. The diagnosis of urinary TB is challenging in certain cases; when there is no response to the usual antibiotics in patients with fever or gross hematuria, TB should be suspected. CT is the mainstay for investigating possible urinary TB.
Background. Lacrimal infections by Actinomyces are rare and commonly misdiagnosed for long periods of time. They account for 2% of all lacrimal diseases. Case Report. We report a case of a 70-year-old female patient suffering from a para-canalicular abscess in the medial canthus of the left eye, beside the lower punctum lacrimale, resembling a chalazion. Purulence exited from the punctum lacrimale due to inflammation of the inferior canaliculus (canaliculitis). When pressure was applied to the mass, a second exit of purulence was also observed under the palpebral conjunctiva below the lacrimal caruncle. A surgical excision was performed followed by administration of local antibiotic therapy. The histopathological examination of the extracted mass revealed the existence of actinomycosis. Conclusion. Persistent or recurrent infections and lumps of the eyelids should be thoroughly investigated. Actinomyces as a causative agent should be considered. Differential diagnosis is broad and should include canaliculitis, chalazion, and multiple types of neoplasias. For this reason, in nonconclusive cases, a histopathological examination should be performed.
Abstract Conclusion: In four Nordic countries, peritonsillar abscess (PTA) patients are treated rather differently. Objectives: To study how such patients are treated in those countries. Methods: The 81 chief physicians of otorhinolaryngology departments of all central hospitals in Denmark (n = 15), Norway (n = 19), Sweden (n = 27), and Finland (n = 20) received a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results: A total of 73 physicians (90%) replied. The largest differences arose in treating patients with intravenous versus per oral antibiotics, and treating as inpatients versus outpatients. In Finland, 50% of PTA patients aged >16 years were treated as inpatients and 50% as outpatients, whereas the respective quotas in Sweden were 9 and 91%, Norway 19 and 81%, and Denmark 33 and 67%. Of Finnish physicians, 30% treated their patients primarily with oral antibiotics, 70% with intravenous antibiotics; in Sweden 91 vs 9%, Norway 53 vs 47%, and Denmark 18 vs 82%. In Denmark, almost all patients were operated on immediately, whereas in the other three countries, especially Sweden, operations more often were performed after a recovery period. Combining metronidazole with penicillin or cephalosporins was most common in Denmark: 58% reported usage, compared with 30% in Finland, 16% in Norway, and 4% in Sweden. PMID:24930914
Objective. Imperforate hymen represents the extreme in the spectrum of hymenal embryological variations. The archetypal presentation in the adolescent patient is that of cyclical abdominopelvic pain in the presence of amenorrhoea. We reported a rare event of imperforate hymen presenting as a cause of tuboovarian abscess (TOA). Case Study. A 14-year-old girl presented to the emergency department complaining of severe left iliac fossa pain. It was her first episode of heavy bleeding per vagina, and she had a history of cyclical pelvic pain. She was clinically unwell, and an external genital examination demonstrated a partially perforated hymen. A transabdominal ultrasound showed grossly dilated serpiginous fallopian tubes. The upper part of the vagina was filled with homogeneous echogenic substance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated complex right adnexa mass with bilateral pyo-haemato-salpinges, haematometra, and haematocolpos. In theatre, the imperforate hymen was opened via cruciate incision and blood was drained from the vagina. At laparoscopy, dense purulent material was evacuated prior to an incision and drainage of the persistent right TOA. Conclusion. Ideally identification of imperforate hymen should occur during neonatal examination to prevent symptomatic presentation. Our case highlights the risks of late recognition resulting in the development of sepsis and TOA.
Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing Mycobacterium causing a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes. It now is recognized as a pulmonary pathogen to which cystic fibrosis patients have a particular susceptibility. The M. abscessus rough (R) variant, devoid of cell-surface glycopeptidolipids (GPLs), causes more severe clinical disease than the smooth (S) variant, but the underlying mechanisms of R-variant virulence remain obscure. Exploiting the optical transparency of zebrafish embryos, we observed that the increased virulence of the M. abscessus R variant compared with the S variant correlated with the loss of GPL production. The virulence of the R variant involved the massive production of serpentine cords, absent during S-variant infection, and the cords initiated abscess formation leading to rapid larval death. Cording occurred within the vasculature and was highly pronounced in the central nervous system (CNS). It appears that M. abscessus is transported to the CNS within macrophages. The release of M. abscessus from apoptotic macrophages initiated the formation of cords that grew too large to be phagocytized by macrophages or neutrophils. This study is a description of the crucial role of cording in the in vivo physiopathology of M. abscessus infection and emphasizes cording as a mechanism of immune evasion. PMID:24567393
The efficacy and the optimum dose of Fusobacterium necrophorum crude leukotoxoid vaccine required to immunize and protect steers against experimentally induced liver abscesses were evaluated. The vaccine consisted of cell-free culture supernatant of a high leukotoxin-producing strain of F. necrophorum, inactivated with formalin and homogenized with an adjuvant. Twenty-five steers were assigned randomly to the following five treatment groups: control; three doses (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mL) of the culture supernatant; and 2.25 mL of the concentrated supernatant (equivalent to 5 mL of the original supernatant). Vaccine was injected subcutaneously on d 0 and 21. Blood samples were collected weekly to monitor antileukotoxin antibody titers. Three weeks after the second vaccination (d 42), all steers were injected intraportally with F. necrophorum culture to induce liver abscesses. Three weeks later (d 63), steers were euthanatized and necropsied; livers were examined and protection assessed. Antileukotoxin antibody titers in the control steers generally did not differ from the baseline (wk 0) titers. The titers in the vaccinated groups increased, more so after the second injection, and the increase was generally dose-dependent. Necropsy examination revealed that all steers in the control group had abscesses in the liver. In the vaccinated groups, two of five steers in the 1.0-mL group and one each in the 2.0-, 5.0-, and 2.25-mL (concentrated) groups had liver abscesses. Antileukotoxin antibody titers were higher (P < .05) in steers that did not develop abscesses than in steers that developed abscesses. The difference suggested a protective effect of antileukotoxin antibodies against experimentally induced liver abscesses. PMID:9110232
Saginala, S; Nagaraja, T G; Lechtenberg, K F; Chengappa, M M; Kemp, K E; Hine, P M
Bacterial flora of liver abscesses from cattle fed tylosin or no tylosin and susceptibilities of the predominant bacterial isolates to tylosin and other antimicrobial compounds were determined. Abscessed livers were collected at slaughter from cattle originating from feedlots that had fed tylosin (n = 36) or no tylosin (n = 41) for at least 2 yr, and segments of livers with one or two intact abscesses were transported to the laboratory. Abscesses were cultured for anaerobic and facultative bacteria. Fusobacterium necrophorum, either as single culture or mixed with other bacteria, was isolated from all abscesses. The incidence of subsp. necrophorum, as part of the mixed infection, was lower (P < .05) in the tylosin group than in the no-tylosin group (33 vs 61%). However, the incidence of Actinomyces pyogenes was higher (P < .01) in the tylosin group than in the no-tylosin group (53 vs 10%). Totals of 119 F. necrophorum and 21 A. pyogenes isolates were used for determinations of susceptibilities to bacitracin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, lasalocid, monensin, tylosin, tilmicosin, and virginiamycin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antibiotics were determined with a broth microdilution method. The mean MIC of tylosin for F. necrophorum and A. pyogenes were not different between isolates from tylosin and no-tylosin groups. We concluded that continuous feeding of tylosin did not induce resistance in F. necrophorum or A. pyogenes. Also, the higher incidence of mixed infection of F. necrophorum and A. pyogenes in liver abscesses of tylosin-fed cattle suggests a potential synergistic interaction between the two organisms in causing liver abscesses. PMID:10328365
Nagaraja, T G; Beharka, A B; Chengappa, M M; Carroll, L H; Raun, A P; Laudert, S B; Parrott, J C
Summary Lumbosacral epidural abscesses are managed either conservatively with IV antibiotics or with open surgery, particularly in the presence of acute neurological symptoms. Their location makes it difficult for image-guided interventional approaches either for biopsy or evacuation. We report the sacral hiatus and canal as a corridor for image-guided minimally invasive abscess of lumbosacral epidural abscess for aspiration. A 56-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of six weeks of worsening low back pain. MRI of the patient’s lumbosacral spine showed osteomyelitis involving his L5, S1 vertebrae, L5-S1 discitis, as well as an anterior epidural abscess extending from L4-5 disc space to the S2 vertebral level. Blood cultures grew out gram-positive cocci. For drainage, a 5-French micropuncture kit was utilized to access the hiatus. Under fluoroscopic guidance a microwire was then advanced along the sacral canal. An 18-gauge needle curved to approximate the contours of the sacral canal was then advanced over the guidewire. Once anatomic access was established 2 ml of thick purulent material was aspirated. The patient tolerated the procedure well, and no focal nerve root symptoms were noted following the procedure. Image-guided aspiration of lumbosacral epidural abscesses can thus be carried out in a safe and effective manner using a sacral hiatus approach.
Purpose To report the first case of endogenous Klebsiella endophthalmitis associated with liver abscess in Iran. Case Report A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to severe pain and visual loss in the left eye. On physical examination, conjunctival hyperemia, corneal edema, hypopyon and severe vitreous cellular reaction were identified in the left eye; however, yellowish conjunctival discoloration was more apparent in the right eye. Abdominal CT scan showed a right liver lobe abscess that was confirmed by sonographically guided percutaneous liver mass biopsy. Blood, vitreous and liver mass aspirate cultures revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae growth. The patient was thus diagnosed with endogenous Klebsiella endophthalmitis secondary to bacteremia associated with liver abscess. Conclusion This report suggests that, rather than being confined to Taiwan, endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to a liver abscess due to K. pneumoniae may be a global problem. Therefore, physicians should be aware of the possibility of endophthalmitis whenever a patient with K. pneumoniae liver abscess complains of ocular symptoms.
Dehghani, A.R.; Masjedi, A.; Fazel, F.; Ghanbari, H.; Akhlaghi, M.; Karbasi, N.
Usual sources of subphrenic abscess with intestinal fistula are previous abdominal operation, inflammatory bowel disease and malignancy. Reported cases of intestinal fistula caused by adenocarcinoma were complicated by direct invasion. In this report, a 70-year-old male had a subphrenic abscess with intestinal fistula and the cause was a metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown origin. As far as we know, this has not been reported previously in the literatures. The abscess went on chronic course for six months because intermittent administration of antibiotics modified its clinical presentation. The fistulous tract between the abscess and ileum was demonstrated by tubogram via the drainage catheter in abscess. The patient underwent surgical treatment because the cause of fistula was obscure. Invasion of the ileum by metastatic adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by the histologic examination of surgical specimen. Therefore, when a fistula develops without any apparent cause, there is a possibility of malignancy, and surgical approach must be considered. An early surgical approach will prevent the delay in treatment and reduce the mortality. PMID:16371722
Choi, Gi Young; Kim, Anna; Kim, Chang Nam; Yoon, Sang Jeong; Jung, Sung Hee; Ko, Byeong Seong; Yang, Hyeon Yoong; John, Byung Min; Kim, Seok Hyun; Nam, Hyo Jung; Go, Hoon
Purpose. To present our experience of prostate abscess management by modified transurethral resection (TUR) technique. Methods. Seventeen men with prostate abscess undergoing TUR between 2003 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Details of demography, surgical procedures, complications, and followup were noted. Results. With a mean age of 61.53 ± 8.58 years, all patients had multifocal abscess cavities. Initially, 6 men underwent classical TUR similar to the technique used for benign prostatic enlargement (group 1). Next, 11 men underwent modified TUR (group 2) in which bladder neck and anterior zone were not resected. The abscess cavities resolved completely, and no patient required a second intervention. One patient in group 1 and three in group 2 had postoperative fever requiring parenteral antibiotics (P = 0.916). Three patients in group 1 had transient urinary incontinence, whereas none of the patients in group 2 had this complication (P = 0.055). Four and five men in group 1 and 2 reported retrograde ejaculation, respectively (P = 0.740). Conclusion. The modified technique of prostate resection edges over conventional TURP in the form of reduced morbidity but maintains its high success rate for complete abscess drainage. It alleviates the need for secondary procedures, having an apparent advantage over limited drainage techniques. Use of this technique is emphasized in cases associated with BPH and lack of proper preoperative imaging.
Purpose. To present our experience of prostate abscess management by modified transurethral resection (TUR) technique. Methods. Seventeen men with prostate abscess undergoing TUR between 2003 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Details of demography, surgical procedures, complications, and followup were noted. Results. With a mean age of 61.53 ± 8.58 years, all patients had multifocal abscess cavities. Initially, 6 men underwent classical TUR similar to the technique used for benign prostatic enlargement (group 1). Next, 11 men underwent modified TUR (group 2) in which bladder neck and anterior zone were not resected. The abscess cavities resolved completely, and no patient required a second intervention. One patient in group 1 and three in group 2 had postoperative fever requiring parenteral antibiotics (P = 0.916). Three patients in group 1 had transient urinary incontinence, whereas none of the patients in group 2 had this complication (P = 0.055). Four and five men in group 1 and 2 reported retrograde ejaculation, respectively (P = 0.740). Conclusion. The modified technique of prostate resection edges over conventional TURP in the form of reduced morbidity but maintains its high success rate for complete abscess drainage. It alleviates the need for secondary procedures, having an apparent advantage over limited drainage techniques. Use of this technique is emphasized in cases associated with BPH and lack of proper preoperative imaging. PMID:23840969
Appendicular abscess occurred in 14.2% of patients presenting acute appendicitis. Management of these patients remains controversial, ranging from an emergency appendectomy to a nonoperative treatment. On board French nuclear submarines, the usual treatment for all cases of appendiceal masses, including both appendicitis and appendiceal abscess, is an appendectomy. In the past 5 years, the introduction of ultrasonography (US) on board has enabled the diagnosis of appendiceal abscess with a high rate of accuracy, and the latest studies show that nonoperative treatment is an alternative approach. This nonsurgical treatment, based on intravenous administration of antibiotics, is successful in about 93% of the patients. Failure of nonsurgical treatment is a reliable indication of percutaneous drainage. The proportion of adult patients who need percutaneous drainage of abscesses is about 27%. A successful primary nonoperative treatment may or may not be followed by interval appendectomy at the conclusion of the patrol. Nonsurgical treatment is associated with a significantly lower morbidity than surgery. Considering that the on-board surgical facility is limited, nonsurgical treatment appears to be the best approach for treating a sailor with an appendiceal abscess during a submarine patrol mission. PMID:19743747
Hornez, Emmanuel; Gellie, Gabriel; Entine, Fabrice; Ottomani, Sébastien; Monchal, Tristan; Meusnier, François; Platel, Jean Philippe; de Carbonnieres, Hubert; Thouard, Hervé
Abstract Background: Only 20 cases of abscess formation within a Rathke cleft cyst have been reported. Methods: Case report and review of the English-language literature. Results: A 64-year-old female was admitted with a 12-mo history of headache and decreased visual acuity and had bilateral papilledema and bitemporal hemianopsia with impairment of visual acuity. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a sellar and suprasellar mass measuring 2×2×2?cm. The lesion was removed using a transsphenoidal approach. The abscess was drained, and gram stain revealed polymorphonuclear cells and gram-positive cocci. The postoperative course was uneventful. Ceftriaxone and metronidazole were continued for 6 wks. The patient also received hydrocortisone and continued thyroid hormone replacement. During a 6-mo follow up, the patient's headaches disappeared, and the bitemporal hemianopsia and impaired visual acuity abated. Conclusion: Predisposing factors for pituitary abscesses in primary lesions include immunosuppression and pituitary irradiation, surgery, or infarction. Approximately one-third of pituitary abscesses arise within other lesions. The clinical manifestations are non-specific. Magnetic resonance imaging shows a cystic lesion with central low intensity and rim enhancement after administration of contrast. When a pituitary abscess is diagnosed, surgical procedures should be performed promptly via a transsphenoidal (preferably) or transcranial approach. PMID:24786768
Brain Explorer is an educational Web site from the Lundbeck Institute that provides a highly visual and informative tour of the brain. Brain Atlas offers a good starting point, with well-designed diagrams of the brain and spinal cord, detailed explanatory information, and a handy pop-up glossary (which contains great graphics of its own). The section titled Neurological Control describes neuron structure and function. Other features include a section on brain disorders and an extensive image gallery. While Brain Explorer offers a thorough look at brain structure and function, it would probably best serve students who are already familiar with the subject but need a comprehensive review.
Introduction: Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is a collection of pus in the iliopsoas compartment, which is considered rare in Japan. However, the number of patients with IPA has recently increased among the elderly or compromised hosts. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study aims to examine the clinical pictures, pathological findings, and the prognostic factor of IPA. We analyzed all patients with IPA who were admitted to our hospital from April 2006 to July 2011. Patients’ characteristics, treatment, clinical outcome, radiological findings, bacteria isolated, and comorbidities were evaluated. The comorbidities were evaluated by the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). We compared the survival and non-survival groups to assess the prognostic factors of IPA. Results: A total of 33 patients were enrolled in this study, which included 14 males and 19 females. The mean age of the patients was 71.5 years (range 32-92 years). The most common underlying disease was spinal disease (16 of 33, 48.5%). Twenty-nine patients (87.9%) were cured and four patients (12.1%) died. While 12 patients (36.4%) were initially treated conservatively with antibiotics alone, percutaneous drainage was performed initially in 19 patients (57.6%). Two patients (6%) directly underwent exploratory surgery and open drainage. In terms of patients’ characteristics, there were no significant differences in either group. The score of CCI in non-survivors was higher than that in survivors (1.38 vs. 5.5, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The epidemiology of IPA is quite different from what it used to be. CCI appears to be useful in evaluating the patients’ prognosis with IPA.
Abscesses involving the cavum septum pellucidum are rare and, owing to their location, detection may be difficult with routine conventional computed tomography (CT). Only a few isolated cases have been reported and mostly in children. We report a case of abscess involving the cavum septum pellucidum in an adult and its appearance on multi-slice spiral CT. PMID:16613312
Vasudev, M K; Chavan, R G; Nagarajan, K; Shukla, D; Devi, B I
Plain films of the abdomen, ultrasonography, and computed tomography were performed on 180 patients to rule out an intraabdominal abscess. The efficacy of the different modalities was reviewed in retrospect. Thirty-six of these 180 patients had a definite abscess formation. This was demonstrated in 65% of the plain film examinations, in 44% by ultrasonography, and in 94% by computerized tomography.
The relationship between serum-neutralizing antibody against Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin and hepatic abscesses was investigated in cattle fed diets supplemented with or without tylosin. Sixteen cattle (eight each in tylosin and in control groups) were inoculated intraportally with F. necrophorum. Ultrasonographic scanning showed that all control animals developed hepatic abscesses after inoculation. In the tylosin group, two animals were free of abscess by d 7 and one was free by d 14. Leukotoxin-neutralizing antibody titers were low on d 0, but increased (P < .05) markedly after intraportal inoculation in both groups. In a second study, blood was collected at the time of slaughter from 141 feedlot cattle (36 fed diets with tylosin and 105 fed diets without tylosin), and livers were examined for presence or severity of hepatic abscesses at slaughter. The incidences of hepatic abscesses were 32% in the control group and 6% in the tylosin group. Antibody was detected in all animals; however, antibody titers were greater (P < .05) in cattle with abscessed liver than those without, and greater (P < .01) in the nontylosin than in the tylosin group. Abscess score and antibody titer were correlated (r = .34; P < .0001). We conclude that F. necrophorum leukotoxin is highly antigenic and that anti-leukotoxin antibody titer is related to the severity of hepatic abscesses. PMID:8157537
Tan, Z L; Lechtenberg, K F; Nagaraja, T G; Chengappa, M M; Brandt, R T
Summary: The differential diagnosis between intracerebral necrotic tumors and cerebral abscesses is frequently im- possible with conventional MR imaging. We report two cases of cerebral abscesses that showed high signal on dif- fusion-weighted echo planar imaging and a strongly re- duced apparent diffusion coefficient. This appearance was not present in our cases of necrotic\\/cystic gliomas (eight cases) and necrotic metastases
Brigitte Desprechins; Tadeusz Stadnik; Guus Koerts; Wael Shabana; Catherine Breucq; Michel Osteaux
Recently, serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae has been a major agent of an invasive syndrome characterized by liver abscess and its metastatic infection. Extrahepatic infection and its characteristics in patients with renal abscess caused by K. pneumoniae are poorly understood, and few cases of central nervous system infection have been reported. This is a report of 80-year-old woman with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus with renal abscess caused by serotype K1 K. pneumoniae, complicated with ventriculitis despite of appropriate use of antibiotics. Physicians need to be aware of possibility of metastatic infection in patients with serotype K1 K. pneumoniae infection, if they develop neurologic symptom and focus of infection is still present.
Hyun, Ji In; Jeon, Yoon Hee; Kim, Sang Il; Park, Yeon Joon; Kang, Moon Won; Kim, Woohyeon; Jang, Ji Hye
In the present case a 30-year-old African American man was admitted with fever and chills secondary to two large hepatic abscesses diagnosed on an ultrasound. The patient was started on antibiotics after blood cultures were drawn. Initially the abscess was drained and showed dramatic improvement upon repeat imaging. The blood cultures revealed Gram-negative rods that were identified as Fusobacterium necrophorum. At that time the patient was switched to levofloxacin and metronidazole based on sensitivities. On this new antibiotic regime the patient improved dramatically. After just 5 days the patient was discharged home on oral antibiotics and was scheduled to follow-up in 1 week. In the present case we present a healthy 30-year-old man with no significant co-morbidities who developed a hepatic abscess from F necrophorum but successfully recovered after appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:23964050
Fatakhov, Eduard; Patel, Maharsh K; Santha, Savini; Koch, Christopher F
Infection of the hip joint following psoas abscess is uncommon. In fact, only two cases have been reported in the literature. The clinical aspect of psoas abscess is characterised only by unspecific back pain and hip pain, which are responsible for delayed diagnosis. MRT and culture of joint aspirate can permit early diagnosis. The preferred treatment is immediate surgical intervention with debridement, drainage and antibiotic therapy. Percutaneous drainage of psoas abscess alone only rarely is sufficient. In cases of infected hip joint, resection arthroplasty often cannot be avoided. Following complete decline of inflammatory parameters and certain absence of bacteria confirmed by repeated joint aspiration, prosthetic joint replacement is possible. This decision should be made on an individual basis, because Girdlestone hip also can lead to a satisfactory result concerning pain relief and functional outcome. PMID:15778825
Despite advances in neuroimaging and neurosurgical treatment modalities, spinal epidural abscess remains a challenging problem. Early diagnosis is often difficult and treatment is always delayed. Spinal epidural abscess usually develops in patients with predisposing factors such as IV drug abuse, senillity, diabetes mellitus, spinal attempts, alcoholism, immunosuppression, liver diseases and catheterizations. It is rarely seen in cervical region. A successful treatment is only possible with early diagnosis and accurate surgical and medical treatment. Optimal management is unclear and morbidity and mortality are significant. We present two adult haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal insufficiency who developed cervical epidural abscess following central venous catheter placement. Early surgical intervention is mandatory in cases those have progressive neurological deficit and spinal deformity, and this is also increases the success rate of medical therapy.
Perinephric abscess is an uncommon urinary tract infection that usually is caused by Staphylococcus aureus as a single pathogen or gram-negative bacilli as part of a polymicrobial process. We describe a man who presented with a right perinephric abscess due to coagulase-negative Staphylococcus as the only pathogen. The patient had bilateral nephrolithiasis, and he was treated successfully with percutaneous drainage of the abscess and parenteral antibiotics. Coagulase-negative staphylococci are increasingly reported to cause serious infections. This organism can no longer be routinely dismissed as a contaminant or colonizer. Repeated isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in the absence of other pathogens must be considered a high risk situation. PMID:8501804
Background. Tubo-ovarian abscess involvement of an endometrioma has been reported in cases of patients with polymicrobial sources such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and obligate anaerobic bacteria; however, bacterial vaginosis (BV) predisposing to abscess formation in an endometrioma has not been reported to date. Case. Superinfection of an endometrioma was surgically diagnosed in a patient with known advanced-stage endometriosis after she presented with acute pelvic inflammatory disease symptoms and was unresponsive to antibiotic therapy. Gram-negative rods were cultured from the endometrioma. On admission, cervical, blood, and urine cultures were negative; BV was diagnosed on normal saline wet prep and gram stain. Conclusion. This case raises the possibility of BV ascension to the upper genital tract predisposing to abscess formation in endometriomas. Therefore, aggressive treatment of BV in patients with known advanced-stage endometriosis may be considered to prevent superinfected endometriomas.
Kavoussi, Shahryar K.; Pearlman, Mark D.; Burke, William M.; Lebovic, Dan I.
An 80-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted due to right-handed muscle weakness. The patient presented with Brown-Sequard syndrome, with complete paralysis of the right lower limb along with a loss of pain and temperature sensations in the left lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cervical epidural abscess, and accompanying edema or inflammation of the right side of the spinal cord at the C5 level. She underwent drainage and evacuation of the spinal abscess, followed by intravenous antibiotic administration. These interventions ameliorated the neurological deficits. The present case suggests the importance of epidural abscess as a rare pathogenetic cause of Brown-Sequard syndrome in type 2 diabetes. PMID:20647654
The pathogenesis of Candida glabrata infections is poorly understood. We studied the pathogenesis of intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) in mice that were infected intraperitoneally with C. glabrata and sterile feces. C. glabrata BG2 (5 × 10(8) CFU) caused a 100% mortality rate. Sublethal inocula of BG2 (1 × 10(8) or 1 × 10(7) CFU) caused peritonitis that progressed to abscesses. Three clinical C. glabrata strains (5 × 10(8) CFU) caused 80 to 100% mortality rates, while a fourth (strain 346) caused a 29% mortality rate. Following sublethal inocula (1 × 10(7) CFU), the intra-abscess burdens of virulent strain 356 were ?1 log greater than those of strain 346. A C. glabrata ?plb1-2 mutant (phospholipase B genes disrupted) killed mice as well as BG2 did. When sublethal inocula were used, however, the ?plb1-2 mutant was associated with more rapid abscess resolution and lower intra-abscess burdens; these findings were reversed by PLB1 and PLB2 reinsertion. The ?plb1-2 mutant was also more susceptible than BG2 to killing by human neutrophils in vitro. BG2 and the ?plb1-2 mutant were indistinguishable during hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. C. albicans SC5314 was more virulent than C. glabrata BG2 during IAC, causing a 100% mortality rate following a challenge with 5 × 10(7) CFU. In contrast, a sublethal inoculum (1 × 10(7) CFU) of BG2 caused less neutrophil infiltration and greater burdens in peritoneal fluid than SC5314 did and abscesses that persisted longer and contained greater burdens. In conclusion, a mouse model of C. glabrata IAC mimics disease in humans and distinguishes the relative virulence of clinical and gene disruption strains. C. glabrata differed from C. albicans during IAC by being less lethal and eliciting dampened neutrophil responses but resulting in more persistent peritonitis and abscesses. PMID:24799629
Cheng, Shaoji; Clancy, Cornelius J; Hartman, Douglas J; Hao, Binghua; Nguyen, M Hong
Background Carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP) is said to account for approximately 3 to 5% of all carcinomas. However, an isolated lesion in the abdominal cavity is rare, and there are no reports describing associated abscess formation. Case presentation A 76-year-old woman had consulted a previous physician complaining of fever and right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed an abscess formation around the cecum. She was treated conservatively with antibiotics, but the symptoms relapsed and she consulted our hospital. Enhanced CT showed a persistent abscess, a tumorous lesion in the mesentery and right hydronephrosis. Because malignancy could not be ruled out, surgical treatment was selected. At laparotomy, encapsulated abscesses were found on the mesenteric side and outside of the ileocecal region. When we raised the ileocecal region, a tumor was found to be fixed to the right ureter, and there was leakage of white, solid tumor content. This tumor content was submitted to intraoperative frozen section diagnosis which revealed a carcinoma. Ileocecal resection with D3 lymph node dissection and retroperitoneal tumor resection was thus performed. There were no abnormal findings in the uterus and adnexa, nor any evidence of peritoneal dissemination. We regarded this case as an incomplete resection and chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin was administered. The patient has remained alive and disease-free for almost one year since the primary operation. Conclusion We described a case with mesenteric CUP discovered during surgery for an intra-abdominal abscess. It is necessary to pay attention to treatment-resistant intraperitoneal abscesses as they may accompany a tumor.
Objectives To determine the health and economic burdens of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess. Study design We conducted a matched cohort study (N?=?216) in a population of pregnant women (N?=?32,770) who delivered at our center during the study period from 10/1/03–9/30/10. Data were extracted from hospital databases, or via chart review if unavailable electronically. We compared cases of S. aureus breast abscess to controls matched by delivery date to compare health services utilization and mean attributable medical costs in 2012 United States dollars using Medicare and hospital-based estimates. We also evaluated whether resource utilization and health care costs differed between cases with methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. aureus isolates. Results Fifty-four cases of culture-confirmed post-partum S. aureus breast abscess were identified. Breastfeeding cessation (41%), milk fistula (11.1%) and hospital readmission (50%) occurred frequently among case patients. Breast abscess case patients had high rates of health services utilization compared to controls, including high rates of imaging and drainage procedures. The mean attributable cost of post-partum S. aureus breast abscess ranged from $2,340–$4,012, depending on the methods and data sources used. Mean attributable costs were not significantly higher among methicillin-resistant vs. –susceptible S. aureus cases. Conclusions Post-partum S. aureus breast abscess is associated with worse health and economic outcomes for women and their infants, including high rates of breastfeeding cessation. Future study is needed to determine the optimal treatment and prevention of these infections.
Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Lee, Grace M.; Golen, Toni H.; Gold, Howard S.; Baldini, Linda M.; Wright, Sharon B.
Culture negative endocarditis and aortic root abscess can prove difficult diagnostic challenges. Computed tomography can be extremely useful in this setting. We report a case of an aortic root abscess 3 months after elective aortic valve replacement in which cardiac CT and hybrid imaging with Gallium-67 SPECT complemented workup with transesophageal echocardiography in establishing the diagnosis of an abscess.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser keratectomy was compared to lamellar keratectomy (LK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) as a potential treatment option for equine corneal stromal abscessation. The medical records of 35 client owned horses undergoing surgical management of stromal abscessation were reviewed. Among those 17 underwent LK, 3 PK and 15 CO2 laser keratectomy. Healing of the stromal abscess was achieved
Culture negative endocarditis and aortic root abscess can prove difficult diagnostic challenges. Computed tomography can be extremely useful in this setting. We report a case of an aortic root abscess 3 months after elective aortic valve replacement in which cardiac CT and hybrid imaging with Gallium-67 SPECT complemented workup with transesophageal echocardiography in establishing the diagnosis of an abscess. PMID:21130063
Background: Pyomyositis (PM), a rare pyogenic infection that involves skeletal muscles, if not immediately diagnosed, can be fatal. Most notably, this results in spinal epidural abscess (SEA) in typically unhealthy individuals. Case description: We present a very rare nontropical PM complicated with SEA in a previously healthy child revealed by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our patient recovered without complications 5 years after abscess drainage and antibiotics. Conclusion: PM remains a challenge to clinicians and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of musculoskeletal pain. MRI is the investigation of choice of spinal infection and should be undertaken at an early stage.
We present the case of a 24-year-old immunocompromised man with an intratesticular abscess. The patient presented with one week of left scrotal pain and swelling. Workup included scrotal ultrasonography which revealed a large fluid collection within the tunica albuginea of the left testis. Surgical exploration of the left testis evacuated a significant amount of purulent fluid. The residual viable testicular parenchyma was salvaged. Intraoperative cultures grew Morganella morganii. Follow-up ultrasonography showed resolution of the testicular fluid collection, and the patient was discharged home with oral antibiotics. Intratesticular abscesses are a rare clinical entity which often result in orchiectomy.
Zaid, Uwais B.; Bagga, Herman S.; Reese, Adam C.; Breyer, Benjamin N.
Objectives The goal of our study was to determine the usefulness of percutaneous abscess drainage under guidance of computed tomography\\u000a (CT) fluoroscopy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Our subjects were 21 patients (seven women, 14 men; mean age 64 years; age range 30–87 years) who had undergone percutaneous\\u000a drainage of 26 psoas abscess lesions under CT fluoroscopic guidance between May 2001 and January 2008. Drainage methods
Indium-111-labeled white-blood-cell scanning is a useful modality in abscess detection and has replaced gallium scanning in many institutions. Sensitivities of 72% to 90% and specificities of 90% to 100% have been reported. In searching for abscesses seven cases of indium-111-labeled leukocyte uptake were encountered in collections subsequently proved to be noninfected hematomas. Abundant red blood cells with few or no white blood cells, no bacteria, and a benign clinical course identified these noninfected hematomas. Five of the patients were being treated with hemodialysis and three were recent allograft recipients. The results indicate some limitation and nonspecificity in indium-111 scanning, despite its many benefits.
Amebiasis, infection with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, affects at least 10% of the world's population, with an incidence exceeding 30% in tropical and subtropical regions. Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extraintestinal form of invasive amebiasis and is a serious life-threatening disease in children. Recent experience indicates the prognosis of ALA in childhood to be improved with early identification of abscesses and prompt institution of treatment. The authors incorporate experience with a case of ALA in infancy with a review of current literature (1974-1983) to delineate clinical and radiologic features of ALA in childhood and further define the role of hepatic imaging in the diagnosis and treatment.
Pyogenic arthritis of lumber spinal facet joints is an extremely rare condition. There are only 40 reported cases worldwide. Most cases were associated with history of paravertebral injection, which was not found in our patient. At the time of hospital admission, he had no abnormal magnetic resonance image findings. Two weeks later, he developed pyogenic facet joint arthritis associated with paravertebral and epidural abscess. This report is the first to describe delayed presentation of pyogenic arthritis associated with paravertebral abscess and epidural infection. PMID:22164319
Rhyu, Kee-Won; Park, Sang-Eun; Ji, Jong-Hun; Park, In; Kim, Young-Yul
Three of four patients whose cases fit the clinical description of psoas abscess proved on gallium imaging to have infection in the posterior pararenal space sparing the psoas muscle. This space provides a route for spread of infection connecting the spine, the anterior abdominal wall, the scrotum, the anterior thigh, and the gluteal region as demonstrated by the cases presented. Clinical differentiation between posterior pararenal space infection and psoas abscesses is difficult and CT studies may not demonstrate the process when the psoas space is not involved.
In order to evaluate the clinical manifestations, management and outcome of childhood lung abscess, a retrospective chart review of 27 pediatric patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification (ICD-9 CM) code of 503.1 (lung abscess) from August 1987 to August 2003 was conducted. Among the 27 patients (14 males and 13 females), 30% (8/27) were primary lung abscess and 70% (19/27) had underlying chronic diseases (secondary lung abscess). The predisposing factors of the primary group (n = 8) included 6 cases of respiratory tract infection, 1 with choking during swimming, and 1 with laceration wound. The underlying diseases in the secondary group (n = 19) included 10 cases of hematologic disorder (52%), 3 of congenital heart disease, 2 of central nervous system anomalies, and 1 each of hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome, chronic lung disease, liver cirrhosis with fistula formation, and Swyer-James syndrome. Eleven patients (41%) underwent diagnostic tapping, including echo-guided aspiration (10 cases) and computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle aspiration (1 case). Positive yield rate from aspiration of lung abscess was 63.6% (7/11). Surgical intervention was performed in 8 (42%) of the secondary group and in 1 patient from the primary group. The pathogens were identified in 11 patients (41%): 5 with oral flora, 2 with Staphylococcus aureus plus other pathogens, 1 with S. aureus alone, 1 with Pseudomonas aeruginosa plus Proteus mirabilis, 1 with P. aeruginosa alone, and 1 with Aspergillus. The average duration of parenteral antibiotic use was 40 days. Five cases (18.5%) died due to poor control of the underlying diseases, and 4 of the patients (15%) had sequelae (2 with bronchiectasis and 2 with lung fibrosis). Seventy percent of lung abscess occurred in children with underlying medical conditions. Early percutaneous aspiration has an important role in identification of pathogens. Oral anaerobes and S. aureus are the core pathogens in primary lung abscess and gram-negative pathogens should also be considered in secondary lung abscess. PMID:15986068
We report a case of severe Legionnaires' disease (LD) complicated by a lung abscess in an immunocompetent patient who required ECMO therapy and thoracic surgery. The results of repeated Legionella quantitative real-time PCR performed on both sera and respiratory samples correlated with the LD severity and the poor clinical outcome. Moreover, the PCR allowed for the detection of Legionella DNA in the lung abscess specimen, which was negative when cultured for Legionella. This case report provides a logical basis for further investigations to examine whether the Legionella quantitative PCR could improve the assessment of LD severity and constitute a prognostic marker.
Descours, G.; Tellini, C.; Flamens, C.; Philit, F.; Celard, M.; Etienne, J.; Lina, G.; Jarraud, S.