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Sample records for gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy

  1. A safety system for gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Dhrubes; Morkoç, Hadis

    1991-08-01

    Gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE) is one of the newest developments in epitaxial growth technology wherein the group V sources such as arsine and phosphine are gaseous and in the form of hydrides, while the Group III sources such as indium, aluminum, gallium are all solids. However, the gases involved are very hazardous, extremely toxic, highly inflammable and explosive at elevated temperatures. Adequate care must be taken for the safe use of these gases so that this attractive technique can be properly utilized. This paper discusses the salient safety features of one such GSMBE system (installed in the Epicenter at the University of Illinois) consisting of a gas delivery system with its robust piping assembly, gas manifold and a scrubber. The system is integrated with a Multiple Point Toxic Gas Monitor (MPTGM) acting as the central alarm command system based on the concept of fail safe total safety. This alarm system is equipped with audio-visual alarms for a variety of monitored conditions and interlocks for automatic shutdown. A well-designed air flow pattern has been incorporated to provide good air quality in the laboratory and in the gas storage facility. Additionally a set of good laboratory practices ensured by administrative and personal control are instituted to reduce the hazards to an acceptable risk level.

  2. Gas source molecular beam epitaxy of GaN with hydrazine on spinel substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishin, S. A.; Temkin, H.; Antipov, V. G.; Guriev, A. I.; Zubrilov, A. S.; Elyukhin, V. A.; Faleev, N. N.; Kyutt, R. N.; Chin, A. K.

    1998-05-01

    Growth of high quality wurtzite-structure GaN layers on (111) MgAl2O4 by gas source molecular beam epitaxy is described. Hydrazine was used as a source of active nitrogen. In situ reflection high energy electron diffraction was used to monitor the growth mode. Two-dimensional growth was obtained at temperatures above 750 °C on multi-step GaN buffer layers. The resulting GaN films show excellent luminescence properties.

  3. InAs nanowire growth modes on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, M. T.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2016-02-01

    InAs nanowires (NWs) were grown on silicon substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy using five different growth modes: (1) Au-assisted growth, (2) positioned (patterned) Au-assisted growth, (3) Au-free growth, (4) positioned Au-assisted growth using a patterned oxide mask, and (5) Au-free selective-area epitaxy (SAE) using a patterned oxide mask. Optimal growth conditions (temperature, V/III flux ratio) were identified for each growth mode for control of NW morphology and vertical NW yield. The highest yield (72%) was achieved with the SAE method at a growth temperature of 440 °C and a V/III flux ratio of 4. Growth mechanisms are discussed for each of the growth modes.

  4. Effects of high source flow and high pumping speed on gas source molecular beam epitaxy / chemical beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, M. J.; Jackson, S. L.; Szafranek, I.; Stillman, G. E.

    1990-10-01

    We report the growth of GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE), and chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) in an epitaxial III-V reactor which features high pumping speed. The system is comprised of a modified Perkin-Elmer 430P molecular beam epitaxy system and a custom gas source panel from Emcore. The growth chamber is pumped with a 7000 1/s (He) diffusion pump (Varian VHS-10 with Monsanto Santovac 5 oil). The gas source panel includes pressure based flow controllers (MKS 1150) allowing triethylaluminum (TEA), triethylgallium (TEG), and trimethylindium (TMI) to be supplied without the use of hydrogen. All source lines, including arsine and phosphine, are maintained below atmospheric pressure. The high pumping speed allows total system flow rates as high as 100 SCCM and V/III ratios as high as 100. The purity of GaAs grown by MBE in this system increases with pumping speed. GaAs layers grown by GSMBE with arsine flows of 10 and 20 SCCM have electron concentrations of 1 × 10 15 cm -3 (μ 77=48,000 cm 2/V·) and 2 × 10 14 cm -3 (μ 77=78,000 cm 2/V·s) respectively. El ectron concentration varies with hydride injector temperature such that the minimum in electron concentration occurs for less than complete cracking. The effect of V/III ratio and the use of a metal eutectic bubbler on residual carrier concentration in GaAs grown by CBE is presented. Intentional Si and Be doping of CBE grown GaAs is demonstrated at a high growth rate of 5.4 μm/h.

  5. GaNAsP: An intermediate band semiconductor grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y. J.; Yu, K. M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Luce, A. V.; Ting, M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Tu, C. W.

    2013-03-01

    Dilute nitride GaNAsP thin films were grown via a GaAsP metamorphic buffer on GaP(100) substrate with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The compositions of this III-V-V-V compound were determined by channeling Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. Photoreflectance shows two distinctive transitions from the valence band to the split conduction bands due to N incorporation. Photoluminescence and optical absorption show the fundamental bandgap of Ga(N)AsP is largely tailored by the small amount of N. The observed multiband characteristics and the bandgap tunability of GaNAsP are two merits that fit into the intermediate-band solar cell roadmap, and GaNAsP of high crystal quality provides a strong candidate for intermediate band solar cell materials.

  6. GaNAsP: An intermediate band semiconductor grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Y. J.; Yu, K. M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Kudrawiec, R.; Luce, A. V.; Ting, M.; Tu, C. W.

    2013-03-18

    Dilute nitride GaNAsP thin films were grown via a GaAsP metamorphic buffer on GaP(100) substrate with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The compositions of this III-V-V-V compound were determined by channeling Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. Photoreflectance shows two distinctive transitions from the valence band to the split conduction bands due to N incorporation. Photoluminescence and optical absorption show the fundamental bandgap of Ga(N)AsP is largely tailored by the small amount of N. The observed multiband characteristics and the bandgap tunability of GaNAsP are two merits that fit into the intermediate-band solar cell roadmap, and GaNAsP of high crystal quality provides a strong candidate for intermediate band solar cell materials.

  7. Electron beam evaporated carbon doping of InGaAs layers grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Salokatve, A.; Toivonen, M.; Asonen, H.; Pessa, M.; Likonen, J.

    1996-12-31

    The authors have studied carbon doping of GaInAs grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Graphite was used as a source material for carbon evaporation. GaInAs was studied due to its importance as a base layer in InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistors. They show that useful p-type acceptor concentrations can be achieved by evaporation from graphite source for GaInAs grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Van der Pauw Hall measurements were used to characterize the carbon and net acceptor concentrations of their GaInAs layers. The effect of rapid thermal annealing on acceptor concentrations and Hall mobilities was also studied.

  8. Indium Gallium Arsenic Phosphide-Based Optoelectronics Grown by Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Guang-Jye

    We have demonstrated the gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE) growth of high purity rm In_{1-x}Ga_{x}As_ {y}P_{1-y.} with a background doping level as low as 5times10^{15 } {rm cm}^{-3}, and the precise lattice-matching control to within +/-5times10^{-4}. We found that exposure of freshly-grown InP to an As flux during growth interruption between layers of different compositions results in the substitution of surface P atoms by As atoms, thereby generating a strained transition layer at each interface. By assuring a group-III stabilized surface during interruption, As/P substitution can be avoided. Heterointerface abruptness was examined by double-crystal x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence. The results show that the interfaces grown with the modified sequence are considerably more abrupt than those obtained using conventional sequences where As/P interdiffusion extends over several monolayers. We have demonstrated the GSMBE growth of low-threshold 1.3mum and 1.55 mu m strained-layer rm In_{1 -x}Ga_{x}As_{y1}P _{1-y1}/ In_{1-x}Ga_ {x}As_{y2}P_{1-y2 } SCHMQW lasers. For 1.3mum lasers, threshold currents as low as 16mA were measured for 390times5mum ridge lasers, and a threshold current density of 370A/cm^2 was achieved for a 2000times50mu m broad-area device consisting of five 0.84% compressively strained QWs. To the best of our knowledge, these are the lowest values reported to date for GSMBE-grown 1.3 μm lasers, and are comparable to the best devices grown by other techniques such as chemical beam epitaxy and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. As for 1.55mum lasers, a threshold current density as low as 320A/cm^2 was achieved for a 2250times50mum broad-area device consisting of four 1.2% compressively strained QWs. This low threshold current density is apparently the same as the lowest reported value for 1.55 μm lasers with four QWs. We have demonstrated a 1.3mum wavelength, GSMBE-grown, strained InGaAsP MQW, folded-cavity surface emitting laser using a

  9. Gas source molecular beam epitaxy of scandium nitride on silicon carbide and gallium nitride surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Sean W. Davis, Robert F.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Scandium nitride (ScN) is a group IIIB transition metal nitride semiconductor with numerous potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices due to close lattice matching with gallium nitride (GaN). However, prior investigations of ScN have focused primarily on heteroepitaxial growth on substrates with a high lattice mismatch of 7%–20%. In this study, the authors have investigated ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas source molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-GSMBE) of ScN on more closely lattice matched silicon carbide (SiC) and GaN surfaces (<3% mismatch). Based on a thermodynamic analysis of the ScN phase stability window, NH{sub 3}-GSMBE conditions of 10{sup −5}–10{sup −4} Torr NH{sub 3} and 800–1050 °C where selected for initial investigation. In-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ Rutherford backscattering measurements showed all ScN films grown using these conditions were stoichiometric. For ScN growth on 3C-SiC (111)-(√3 × √3)R30° carbon rich surfaces, the observed attenuation of the XPS Si 2p and C 1s substrate core levels with increasing ScN thickness indicated growth initiated in a layer-by-layer fashion. This was consistent with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of 100–200 nm thick films that revealed featureless surfaces. In contrast, ScN films grown on 3C-SiC (111)-(3 × 3) and 3C-SiC (100)-(3 × 2) silicon rich surfaces were found to exhibit extremely rough surfaces in SEM. ScN films grown on both 3C-SiC (111)-(√3 × √3)R30° and 2H-GaN (0001)-(1 × 1) epilayer surfaces exhibited hexagonal (1 × 1) low energy electron diffraction patterns indicative of (111) oriented ScN. X-ray diffraction ω-2θ rocking curve scans for these same films showed a large full width half maximum of 0.29° (1047 arc sec) consistent with transmission electron microscopy images that revealed the films to be poly-crystalline with columnar grains oriented at ≈15° to the [0001] direction of the

  10. Heteroepitaxy growth of GaAsBi on Ge(100) substrate by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Pan, Wenwu; Wu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Chunfang; Wang, Shumin; Gong, Qian

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the growth of GaAsBi single-crystal film on Ge substrate by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. A high-quality GaAsBi epilayer has been obtained. It has been found that the surfactant effect of Bi suppresses the interdiffusion of Ge at the GaAsBi/Ge interface and reduces the misfit dislocation density. The Bi atoms occupy the As sites, as indicated by the appearance of GaBi-like TO(Γ) and LO(Γ) phonon modes in Raman spectra. In addition, the redshift of the GaAs-like LO(Γ) phonon frequency has been observed in the Raman spectra, owing to the Bi-induced biaxial strain and the alloying effect as well.

  11. Tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs) and -phosphine (TBP) as group V-precursors for gas source molecular beam epitaxy for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Forchel, A.

    2001-07-01

    Tertiarybutylarsine and -phosphine are used in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system as alternative sources for the highly toxic hydrides arsine (AsH 3) and phosphine (PH 3). The growth parameters for binary and ternary (Al, Ga, In) (As, P) compounds on InP substrates were investigated. Heterostructures with good morphologies and optical properties were realized. AlGaInAs/GaInAs/InP long wavelength separate confinement heterostructure lasers with four compressively strained quantum wells were grown. They exhibit a transparency current density of 700 A/cm 2 and a threshold current density of 1.0 kA/cm 2 for 1 mm long broad area devices, respectively.

  12. Single-crystalline BaTiO3 films grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yuya; Takahashi, Kei S.; Tokura, Yoshinori; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2014-12-01

    Thin BaTiO3 films were grown on GdScO3 (110) substrates by metalorganic gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) was used as a volatile precursor that provides a wide growth window of the supplied TTIP/Ba ratio for automatic adjustment of the film composition. Within the growth window, compressively strained films can be grown with excellent crystalline quality, whereas films grown outside of the growth window are relaxed with inferior crystallinity. This growth method will provide a way to study the intrinsic properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 films and their heterostructures by precise control of the stoichiometry, structure, and purity.

  13. Si(001):B gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy: Boron surface segregation and its effect on film growth kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Glass, G.; Spila, T.; Taylor, N.; Park, S. Y.; Abelson, J. R.; Greene, J. E.

    1997-09-01

    B-doped Si(001) films, with concentrations CB up to 1.7×1022cm-3, were grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy from Si2H6 and B2H6 at Ts=500-800 °C. D2 temperature-programed desorption (TPD) spectra were then used to determine B coverages θB as a function of CB and Ts. In these measurements, as-deposited films were flash heated to desorb surface hydrogen, cooled, and exposed to atomic deuterium until saturation coverage. Strong B surface segregation was observed with surface-to-bulk B concentration ratios ranging up to 1200. TPD spectra exhibited β2 and β1 peaks associated with dideuteride and monodeuteride desorption as well as lower-temperature B-induced peaks β2* and β1*. Increasing θB increased the area under β2* and β1* at the expense of β2 and β1 and decreased the total D coverage θD. The TPD results were used to determine the B segregation enthalpy, -0.53 eV, and to explain and model the effects of high B coverages on Si(001) growth kinetics. Film deposition rates R increase by ⩾50% with increasing CB>˜1×1019 cm-3 at Ts⩽550 °C, due primarily to increased H desorption rates from B-backbonded Si adatoms, and decrease by corresponding amounts at Ts⩾600 °C due to decreased adsorption site densities. At Ts⩾700 °C, high B coverages also induce {113} facetting.

  14. Properties of Strain Compensated Symmetrical Triangular Quantum Wells Composed of InGaAs/InAs Chirped Superlattice Grown Using Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the properties of symmetrical triangular quantum wells composed of InGaAs/InAs chirped superlattice, which is grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy via digital alloy method. In the quantum well structure tensile AlInGaAs are used as barriers to partially compensate for the significant compressive strain in the wells, the strain compensation effects are confirmed by x-ray measurement. The photoluminescence spectra of the sample are dominated by the excitonic recombination peak in the whole temperature range. The thermal quenching, peak energy shift and line-width broadening of the PL spectra are analysed in detail, the mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Dilute Nitride GaNP Wide Bandgap Solar Cells Grown by Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukrittanon, Supanee

    Integration of III-V semiconductors and Si is a very attractive means to achieve low-cost high-efficiency solar cells. A promising configuration is to utilize a dual-junction solar cell, in which Si is employed as the bottom junction and a wide-bandgap III-V semiconductor as the top junction. The use of a III-V semiconductor as a top junction offers the potential to achieve higher efficiencies than today's best Si solar cell. Dilute nitride GaNP is a promising candidate for the top cell in dual-junction solar cells because it possesses several extremely important attributes: a direct-bandgap that is also tunable as well as easily-attained lattice-match with Si. As a first step towards integration of GaNP solar cells onto Si, the goal of this dissertation is to optimize and demonstrate GaNP solar cells grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE) on GaP (001) substrate. The dissertation is divided into three major parts. In the first part, we demonstrate ˜ 2.05 eV ([N]˜ 1.8%) dilute nitride GaNP thin film solar cells, in which the GaNP is closely lattice-matched to Si, on GaP substrates. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the device exhibits defects only at the GaNP/GaP interface, and no threading dislocations in an active layer are observed. Our best GaNP solar cell achieved an efficiency of 7.9% with anti-reflection (AR) coating and no window layer. This GaNP solar cell's efficiency is higher than the most efficient GaP solar cell to date and higher than other solar cells with similar direct bandgap (InGaP, GaAsP). Through a systematic study of the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the device, efficient broadband optical absorption and enhanced solar cell performance using GaNP are demonstrated. In the second part, we demonstrate the successful fabrication of GaP/GaNP core/shell microwires utilizing a novel technique: top-down reactive-ion etching (RIE) to create the cores and MBE to create the shells. Systematic studies have been

  16. Role of adsorption kinetics in the low-temperature Si growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy: In situ observations and detailed modeling of the growth

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Hideki; Tsukidate, Yoshikazu; Suemitsu, Maki

    2001-08-06

    The growth rate and surface hydrogen coverage during Si gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using disilane have been obtained as functions of both the growth temperature and the source-gas pressure. The activation energy of the low-temperature (<600{sup o}C) growth rate was found to increase with the source-gas pressure, indicating a contribution by the adsorption process in these low-temperature growth kinetics. Several growth models have been constructed based on the results, among which the two-site/four-site-adsorption model [M. Suemitsu Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 236, L625 (1997)] showed the best fit to both the growth rate and the hydrogen coverage. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  17. InGaAs Photodetectors Cut-off at 1.9 μm Grown by Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Gang; Hao, Guo-Qiang; Gu, Yi; Zhu, Cheng; Li, Ai-Zhen; Liu, Tian-Dong

    2005-01-01

    Using a linear graded InxGa1-xAs as the buffer layer, positive-intrinsic-negative wavelength-extended In0.6Ga0.4 As photodetectors with 50% cut-off wavelength of 1.9 μm at room temperature were grown by using gas-source molecular beam epitaxy, and their performance over a wide temperature range has been extensively investigated. The detectors show typical dark current at bias voltage 50 mV and the resistance-area product R0A of 7 nA/765 Ωcm2 and 31 pA/404 kΩcm2 at 290 K and 210 K, respectively. The thermal activation energy of the dark current in the temperature range 250-350 K is 0.488 eV.

  18. A study of mixed group-V nitrides grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using a nitrogen radical beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, W.G.; Tu, C.W.; Mathes, D.; Hull, R.

    1997-12-31

    The authors report a study of N incorporation in GaAs and InP by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using a N radical beam source. For GaNAs grown at high temperatures, phase separation was observed, as evidenced from the formation of cubic GaN aside from GaNAs. By lowering the growth temperature, however, GaNAs alloys with N as high as 14.8% have been obtained without showing any phase separation. For InNP, no phase separation was observed in the temperature range studied (310--420 C). Contrary to GaNAs, incorporating N in InP is very difficult, with only less than 1% N being achieved. Optical absorption measurement reveals strong red shift of bandgap energy with direct-bandgap absorption. However, no semimetallic region seems to exist for GaNAs and a composition, dependent bowing parameter has been observed.

  19. InP/InGaAs/InP DHBT structures with graded composition base grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Teng; Ai, Likun; Xu, Anhuai; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Fuying; Qi, Ming

    2011-05-01

    A new InP/InGaAs/InP DHBT structure with graded composition base was optimized and grown successfully in this work. The gallium (Ga) composition increased gradually from 47% on the collector side to 55% on the emitter side. The InP/InGaAs/InP DHBT structures were grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE). Characteristics of InP, InGaAs and InGaAsP materials were investigated. High quality InP/InGaAs/InP DHBT structural materials were obtained. The InP/InGaAs/InP DHBT device with emitter area of 100×100 μm2 was fabricated. The offset voltage of 0.2 V, BVCEO>1.2 V, current gain of ß=550 at VCE of 1.0 V were achieved. The reasons for the low breakdown voltage were analyzed.

  20. InP/InGaAs/InP DHBT structures with high carbon-doped base grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Teng; Xu, Anhuai; Ai, Likun; Sun, Hao; Qi, Ming

    2013-09-01

    A new InP/InGaAs/InP DHBT structure with high carbon (C)-doped base was optimized and grown successfully by gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE) in this work. The C-doping concentration is 3×1019 cm-3 with carrier mobility of 66.3 cm2/V s. Characteristics of C-doped InGaAs materials were investigated. High quality InP/InGaAs/InP DHBT structural materials were obtained. The InP/InGaAs/InP DHBT device with emitter area of 100×100 μm2 was fabricated. The open base breakdown voltage (VBCEO) of 4.2 V and current gain of 60 at VCE of 3.0 V were achieved. All these results prove the material is suitable for DHBT device fabrication.

  1. Infrared reflectivity spectra of gas-source molecular beam epitaxy grown dilute InN{sub x}As{sub 1-x}/InP (001)

    SciTech Connect

    Talwar, Devki N.; Yang, Tzuen-Rong; Hsiung Lin, Hao; Chuan Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-04

    Vibrational spectra of gas-source molecular beam epitaxy grown dilute InN{sub x}As{sub 1-x}/InP (001) alloys are obtained using a Fourier-transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. A triply degenerate N{sub As} local vibrational mode of T{sub d}-symmetry is observed near 438 cm{sup -1} corresponding to the In-N bond energy. The analysis of composition dependent infrared reflectivity spectra in InNAs has predicted a two-phonon-mode behavior. In In(Ga)-rich GaInNAs alloys the observed splitting of the N{sub As} local mode into a doublet for the N{sub As}-Ga{sub 1}(In{sub 1})In{sub 3}(Ga{sub 3}) pair-defect of C{sub 3v}-symmetry is consistent with our simulated results based on a sophisticated Green's function theory.

  2. Gas source molecular-beam epitaxial growth of TlInGaAsN double quantum well light emitting diode structures and thallium incorporation characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Krishnamurthy, D.; Fujiwara, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Asahi, H.

    2006-10-01

    TlInGaAsN/GaAs double quantum well (DQW) structures were grown on GaAs (1 0 0) substrates by gas source molecular-beam epitaxy. It has been found that high Tl flux is needed for the incorporation of Tl into the films. Reduction in the temperature variation of electroluminescence (EL) peak energy has been observed by the addition of Tl into quantum well (QW) layers; -0.62 meV/K for the InGaAsN/GaAs DQW light emitting diodes (LEDs) and -0.53 meV/K for the TlInGaAsN/GaAs DQW LEDs. By replacing GaAs barrier layers with TlGaAs barrier layers, further reduction could be obtained; -0.35 meV/K for TlInGaAsN/TlGaAs DQW LEDs. SIMS measurements indicated that this improvement is caused by the increased incorporation of Tl into the QW layers.

  3. Modelling, Design, Growth and Characterization of Strain Balanced Quantum Cascade Lasers (3-11mum), grown by Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Neelanjan

    Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) is a compact room temperature (RT) source of mid-infrared radiation, which can be used for spectroscopic detection of trace amount of chemicals. The mid-infrared spectral range between (3-11 microm), has a dense array of absorption lines of numerous molecules, due to the presence of fundamental vibrational modes. The goal of this thesis can be subdivided into two parts. Firstly, short wavelength QCLs, emitting below 4microm, perform poorly at RT, due to inter-valley Gamma --- L carrier scattering, carrier escape to the continuum, heat removal from the core region at high power density corresponding to short wavelength operation, and large interface scattering due to highly strained materials. Secondly, it is desirable to have a single QCL based source emitting between 6-10microm, which be used to detect multiple molecules having their peak absorptions far apart, inside this spectral range. However, gain bandwidth of a single core QCL is relatively small, so laser emission cannot be tuned over a wide spectral range. This thesis describes the working principle of a QCL based on superlattice transport, rate equations, scattering mechanism, and waveguide design. The choice of the material system for this work and the fundamentals of band structure engineering has been derived. Gas source molecular beam epitaxy - growth optimization and characterization is one of the most important features of this work, especially for short wavelength QCLs, and has been explained in depth. Different strategies for design of active region design of short wavelength QCL and heterogeneous broadband QCL has been explored. The major milestones, of this research was the world's first watt level continuous wave (CW), RT demonstration at 3.76 microm, which was followed by another milestone of the first CW, RT demonstration at 3.39microm and 3.55microm, and finally the elusive result of QCL emitting at CW, RT at a wavelength as short as lambda ~3microm, a record. In

  4. Ultrahigh B doping ({<=}10{sup 22} cm{sup -3}) during Si(001) gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy: B incorporation, electrical activation, and hole transport

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, G.; Kim, H.; Desjardins, P.; Taylor, N.; Spila, T.; Lu, Q.; Greene, J. E.

    2000-03-15

    Si(001) layers doped with B concentrations C{sub B} between 1x10{sup 17} and 1.2x10{sup 22} cm{sup -3} (24 at %) were grown on Si(001)2x1 at temperatures T{sub s}=500-850 degree sign C by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy from Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and B{sub 2}H{sub 6}. C{sub B} increases linearly with the incident precursor flux ratio J{sub B{sub 2}}{sub H{sub 6}}/J{sub Si{sub 2}}{sub H{sub 6}} and B is incorporated into substitutional electrically active sites at concentrations up to C{sub B}{sup *}(T{sub s}) which, for T{sub s}=600 degree sign C, is 2.5x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. At higher B concentrations, C{sub B} increases faster than J{sub B{sub 2}}{sub H{sub 6}}/J{sub Si{sub 2}}{sub H{sub 6}} and there is a large and discontinuous decrease in the activated fraction of incorporated B. However, the total activated B concentration continues to increase and reaches a value of N{sub B}=1.3x10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} with C{sub B}=1.2x10{sup 22} cm{sup -3}. High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and reciprocal space mapping measurements show that all films, irrespective of C{sub B} and T{sub s}, are fully strained. No B precipitates or misfit dislocations were detected by HR-XRD or transmission electron microscopy. The lattice constant in the film growth direction a{sub (perpendicular} {sub sign)} decreases linearly with increasing C{sub B} up to the limit of full electrical activation and continues to decrease, but nonlinearly, with C{sub B}>C{sub B}{sup *}. Room-temperature resistivity and conductivity mobility values are in good agreement with theoretical values for B concentrations up to C{sub B}=2.5x10{sup 20} and 2x10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}, respectively. All results can be explained on the basis of a model which accounts for strong B surface segregation to the second-layer with a saturation coverage {theta}{sub B,sat} of 0.5 ML (corresponding to C{sub B}=C{sub B}{sup *}). At higher C{sub B} (i.e., {theta}{sub B}>{theta}{sub B,sat}), B accumulates in the upper layer as

  5. In situ doping control for growth of n p n Si/SiGe/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Huang, D. D.; Li, J. P.; Liu, C.

    2005-01-01

    N-p-n Si/SiGe/Si heterostructures have been grown by a disilane (Si 2H 6) gas and Ge solid sources molecular beam epitaxy system using phosphine (PH 3) and diborane (B 2H 6) as n- and p-type in situ doping sources, respectively. Adopting an in situ doping control technology, the influence of background B dopant on the growth of n-Si emitter layer was reduced, and an abrupt B dopant distribution from SiGe base to Si emitter layer was obtained. Besides, higher n-type doping in the surface region of emitter to reduce the emitter resist can be realized, and it did not result in the drop of growth rate of Si emitter layer in this technology.

  6. A Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction-Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy Study of Silicon Growth Dynamics During Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy from Silanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, B. A.; Zhang, J.; Taylor, A. G.; Lees, A. K.

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) provides an ideal experimental vehicle for the in situ study of thin film growth dynamics. By using a combination of reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and reflectance anisotropy (difference) spectroscopy [RA(D)S], it is possible to separate morphological (long range order) and local electronic structure effects, which we demonstrate with the growth of silicon films from disilane (Si2H6) on Si(001) (2 × 1)+(1 × 2) reconstructed surfaces. The rate-limiting step in Si growth from both monosilane (SiH4) and disilane is the desorption of molecular hydrogen and we have found using RAS that, over a significant range of temperature and coverage, hydrogen desorption follows zeroth order kinetics as the result of a step-mediated process. Finally, we show how this influences the growth rate on substrates of differing degrees of vicinality.

  7. Silicon Holder For Molecular-Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E.; Grunthaner, Paula J.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    Simple assembly of silicon wafers holds silicon-based charge-coupled device (CCD) during postprocessing in which silicon deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy. Attains temperatures similar to CCD, so hotspots suppressed. Coefficients of thermal expansion of holder and CCD equal, so thermal stresses caused by differential thermal expansion and contraction do not develop. Holder readily fabricated, by standard silicon processing techniques, to accommodate various CCD geometries. Silicon does not contaminate CCD or molecular-beam-epitaxy vacuum chamber.

  8. Materials issues in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, J.Y.

    1993-12-31

    The technology of crystal growth has advanced enormously during the past two decades; among those advances, the development and refinement of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been among the most important. Crystals grown by MBE are more precisely controlled than those grown by any other method, and today form the basis for many of the most advanced device structures in solid-state physics, electronics and optoelectronics. In addition to its numerous device applications, MBE is also an enormously rich and interesting area of materials science in and of itself. This paper, discusses a few examples of some of these materials issues, organized according to whether they involve bulk, thin films, or surfaces.

  9. Perspective: Oxide molecular-beam epitaxy rocks!

    SciTech Connect

    Schlom, Darrell G.

    2015-06-01

    Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) is the “gold standard” synthesis technique for preparing semiconductor heterostructures with high purity, high mobility, and exquisite control of layer thickness at the atomic-layer level. Its use for the growth of multicomponent oxides got off to a rocky start 30 yr ago, but in the ensuing decades, it has become the definitive method for the preparation of oxide heterostructures too, particularly when it is desired to explore their intrinsic properties. Examples illustrating the unparalleled achievements of oxide MBE are given; these motivate its expanding use for exploring the potentially revolutionary states of matter possessed by oxide systems.

  10. Perspective: Oxide molecular-beam epitaxy rocks!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlom, Darrell G.

    2015-06-01

    Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) is the "gold standard" synthesis technique for preparing semiconductor heterostructures with high purity, high mobility, and exquisite control of layer thickness at the atomic-layer level. Its use for the growth of multicomponent oxides got off to a rocky start 30 yr ago, but in the ensuing decades, it has become the definitive method for the preparation of oxide heterostructures too, particularly when it is desired to explore their intrinsic properties. Examples illustrating the unparalleled achievements of oxide MBE are given; these motivate its expanding use for exploring the potentially revolutionary states of matter possessed by oxide systems.

  11. Twenty years of molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, A. Y.

    1995-05-01

    The term "molecular beam epitaxy" (MBE) was first used in one of our crystal growth papers in 1970, after having conducted extensive surface physics studies in the late 1960's of the interaction of atomic and molecular beams with solid surfaces. The unique feature of MBE is the ability to prepare single crystal layers with atomic dimensional precision. MBE sets the standard for epitaxial growth and has made possible semiconductor structures that could not be fabricated with either naturally existing materials or by other crystal growth techniques. MBE led the crystal growth technologies when it prepared the first semiconductor quantum well and superlattice structures that gave unexpected and exciting electrical and optical properties. For example, the discovery of the fractional quantized Hall effect. It brought experimental quantum physics to the classroom, and practically all major universities throughout the world are now equipped with MBE systems. The fundamental principles demonstrated by the MBE growth of III-V compound semiconductors have also been applied to the growth of group IV, II-VI, metal, and insulating materials. For manufacturing, the most important criteria are uniformity, precise control of the device structure, and reproducibility. MBE has produced more lasers (3 to 5 million per month for compact disc application) than any other crystal growth technique in the world. New directions for MBE are to incorporate in-situ, real-time monitoring capabilities so that complex structures can be precisely "engineered". In the future, as environmental concerns increase, the use of toxic arsine and phosphine may be limited. Successful use of valved cracker cells for solid arsenic and phosphorus has already produced InP based injection lasers.

  12. InPBi Single Crystals Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.; Gu, Y.; Zhou, H. F.; Zhang, L. Y.; Kang, C. Z.; Wu, M. J.; Pan, W. W.; Lu, P. F.; Gong, Q.; Wang, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    InPBi was predicted to be the most robust infrared optoelectronic material but also the most difficult to synthesize within In-VBi (V = P, As and Sb) 25 years ago. We report the first successful growth of InPBi single crystals with Bi concentration far beyond the doping level by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The InPBi thin films reveal excellent surface, structural and optical qualities making it a promising new III–V compound family member for heterostructures. The Bi concentration is found to be 2.4 ± 0.4% with 94 ± 5% Bi atoms at substitutional sites. Optical absorption indicates a band gap of 1.23 eV at room temperature while photoluminescence shows unexpectedly strong and broad light emission at 1.4–2.7 μm which can't be explained by the existing theory. PMID:24965260

  13. Dissociation of Al2O3(0001) substrates and the roles of silicon and oxygen in n-type GaN thin solid films grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nostrand, J. E.; Solomon, J.; Saxler, A.; Xie, Q.-H.; Reynolds, D. C.; Look, D. C.

    2000-06-01

    Unintentionally doped and silicon doped GaN films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy using ammonia are investigated. Hall, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), photoluminescence, and x-ray data are utilized for analysis of sources of autodoping of GaN epitaxial films in an effort to identify whether the n-type background electron concentration is of impurity origin or native defect origin. We identify and quantify an anomalous relationship between the Si doping concentration and free carrier concentration and mobility using temperature dependent Hall measurements on a series of 2.0-μm-thick GaN(0001) films grown on sapphire with various Si doping concentrations. SIMS is used to identify oxygen as the origin of the excess free carriers in lightly doped and undoped GaN films. Further, the source of the oxygen is positively identified to be dissociation of the sapphire substrate at the nitride-sapphire interface. Dissociation of SiC at the nitride-carbide interface is also observed. Finally, SIMS is again utilized to show how Si doping can be utilized to suppress the diffusion of the oxygen into the GaN layer from the sapphire substrate. The mechanism of suppression is believed to be formation of a Si-O bond and a greatly reduced diffusion coefficient of the subsequent Si-O complex in GaN.

  14. Growth and characterization of dilute nitride GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x} nanowires and GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x}/GaN{sub y}P{sub 1−y} core/shell nanowires on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Sukrittanon, S.; Kuang, Y. J.; Dobrovolsky, A.; Chen, W. M.; Buyanova, I. A.; Kang, Won-Mo; Kim, Bong-Joong; Jang, Ja-Soon; Tu, C. W.

    2014-08-18

    We have demonstrated self-catalyzed GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x} and GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x}/GaN{sub y}P{sub 1−y} core/shell nanowire growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The growth window for GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x} nanowires was observed to be comparable to that of GaP nanowires (∼585 °C to ∼615 °C). Transmission electron microscopy showed a mixture of cubic zincblende phase and hexagonal wurtzite phase along the [111] growth direction in GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x} nanowires. A temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) study performed on GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x}/GaN{sub y}P{sub 1−y} core/shell nanowires exhibited an S-shape dependence of the PL peaks. This suggests that at low temperature, the emission stems from N-related localized states below the conduction band edge in the shell, while at high temperature, the emission stems from band-to-band transition in the shell as well as recombination in the GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x} core.

  15. Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time. 9 figures.

  16. Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Chalmers, Scott A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time.

  17. Induced base transistor fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.-Y.; Liu, W. C.; Jame, M. S.; Wang, Y. H.; Luryi, S.

    1986-09-01

    A novel three-terminal hot-electron device, the induced base transistor (IBT), has been fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. Two-dimensional electron gas induced by the applied collector field in an undoped GaAs quantum well is used as the base of the IBT. The common-base current gain alpha has been achieved as high as 0.96 under a collector bias of 2.5 V and an emitter current of 3 mA.

  18. Applying CLIPS to control of molecular beam epitaxy processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabeau, Arthur A.; Bensaoula, Abdelhak; Jamison, Keith D.; Horton, Charles; Ignatiev, Alex; Glover, John R.

    1990-01-01

    A key element of U.S. industrial competitiveness in the 1990's will be the exploitation of advanced technologies which involve low-volume, high-profit manufacturing. The demands of such manufacture limit participation to a few major entities in the U.S. and elsewhere, and offset the lower manufacturing costs of other countries which have, for example, captured much of the consumer electronics market. One such technology is thin-film epitaxy, a technology which encompasses several techniques such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE), and Vapor-Phase Epitaxy (VPE). Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is a technology for creating a variety of electronic and electro-optical materials. Compared to standard microelectronic production techniques (including gaseous diffusion, ion implantation, and chemical vapor deposition), MBE is much more exact, though much slower. Although newer than the standard technologies, MBE is the technology of choice for fabrication of ultraprecise materials for cutting-edge microelectronic devices and for research into the properties of new materials.

  19. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of Iron Phthalocyanine Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Debnath, A. K.; Samanta, S.; Singh, Ajay; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Yakhmi, J. V.

    2009-06-29

    FePc films of different thickness have been deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) as a function of substrate temperature (25-300 deg. C) and deposition rate (0.02-0.07 nm/s). The morphology of a 60 nm alpha-phase film has been tuned from nanobrush (nearly parallel nanorods aligned normal to the substrate plane) to nanoweb (nanowires forming a web-like structure in the plane of the substrate) by changing the deposition rate from 0.02 to 0.07 nm/s. We propose growth mechanisms of nanoweb and nanobrush morphology based on the van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy. For air exposed FePc films I-V hysteresis was observed at 300 K and it is attributed to surface traps created by chemisorbed oxygen.

  20. Very high (> 1019 cm-3) in situ n-type doping of silicon during molecular beam epitaxy using supersonic jets of phosphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, R.; Gulari, E.; Bhattacharya, P.; Linder, K. K.; Rieh, J.-S.

    1997-03-01

    The use of supersonically injected pulses of phosphine to achieve uniform and high levels of n-type doping in Si during gas-source molecular beam epitaxy is demonstrated. Uniform n-type doping up to levels of 5×1019 cm-3 is obtained. SiGe/Si junction diodes made with this doping technique show good doping profiles and rectifying characteristics.

  1. Development of Crystal Al MKIDs by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, M.; Sekimoto, Y.; Noguchi, T.; Miyachi, A.; Nitta, T.; Uzawa, Y.

    2011-11-01

    We report here the effect of film qualities in superconductors on the properties of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). The sensitivity of MKIDs between crystal aluminum films and amorphous aluminum films is compared. The good quality and crystallized aluminum films have been prepared by using molecular beam epitaxy. We have confirmed that epitaxial Al(111) films were grown on Si(111) substrates with X-ray diffraction and in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements. The amorphous aluminum films on the Si(111) wafers have been deposited by electron beam evaporation. We have measured transmission losses of MKIDs, noise spectrum and relaxation time against optical pulses, changing MKIDs' bath temperature from 0.11 K to 0.55 K in a dilution refrigerator. Despite of the improvement in normal resistivity, the quasiparticle decay time of both films are equivalent and 450 μs at 0.11 K. The electrical noise equivalent power of the both MKIDs are also comparable and around 10^{-17} W/sqrt{Hz}. Fabrication details and performance data of both films are presented.

  2. Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Layered Material Superlattices and Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanath, Suresh; Liu, Xinyu; Rouvimov, Sergei; Furdyna, Jacek K.; Jena, Debdeep; Xing, Huili Grace

    2014-03-01

    Stacking of various layered materials is being pursued widely to realize various devices and observe novel physics. Mostly, these have been limited to exfoliation and stacking either manually or in solution, where control on rotational alignment or order of stacking is lost. We have demonstrated molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of Bi2Se3/MoSe2 superlatticeand Bi2Se3/MoSe2/SnSe2 heterostructure on sapphire. We have achieved a better control on the order of stacking and number of layers as compared to the solution technique. We have characterized these structures using RHEED, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, AFM, X-ray reflectometry, cross-section (cs) and in-plane (ip) TEM. The rotational alignment is dictated by thermodynamics and is understood using ip-TEM diffraction patterns. Layered growth and long range order is evident from the streaky RHEED pattern. Abrupt change in RHEED pattern, clear demarcation of boundary between layers seen using cs-TEM and observation of Raman peaks corresponding to all the layers suggest van-der-waals epitaxy. In our knowledge this is a first demonstration of as grown superlattices and heterostuctures involving transition metal dichalcogenides and is an important step towards the goal of stacking of 2D crystals like lego blocks.

  3. Nanoengineering of Ruddlesden-Popper phases using molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeni, Jeffrey Hewlett

    Epitaxial films including superlattices of the A n+1BnO3 n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper homologous series with A=Sr and Ba and B=Ti and Ru have been grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on (LaAlO3)0.3--(SrAl0.5Ta 0.5O3)0.7 (LSAT), SrTiO3, DyScO 3 and Si substrates. The strict composition control necessary for the synthesis of these phases was achieved through the use of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations. The first five members of the Srn+1 TinO3n+1 and the Sr n+1RunO3 n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper homologous series, i.e., Sr 2TiO4, Sr3Ti2O7, Sr 4Ti3O10, Sr5Ti4O13 , and Sr6Ti5O16, and Sr2RuO 4, Sr3Ru2O7, Sr4Ru 3O10, Sr5Ru4O13, and Sr 6Ru5O16, respectively, were grown with layer-by-layer deposition. Dielectric measurements indicate that the dielectric constant tensor coefficient epsilon33 of the Srn +1TinO3n +1 series increases from a minimum of 44 +/- 4 in the n = 1 (Sr2TiO4) film to a maximum of 263 +/- 2 in the n = infinity (SrTiO3) film. XPS measurements on Sr2TiO4/SrTiO3 heterostructures indicate a type II interface between the two materials, with a valence band offset of -0.40 +/- 0.1 eV, and a conduction band offset of -0.2 +/- 0.1 eV. Epitaxial SrTiO3 thin films grown on DyScO3 and LSAT substrates show dramatically different dielectric properties, as measured with interdigitated electrodes. The film on DyScO3 is under biaxial tensile strain and shows significant room temperature tunability and a sharp Curie-Weiss peak at 293 K. Under biaxial compressive strain, the SrTiO 3 exhibits negligible room temperature tunability. Epitaxial SrTiO3/BaTiO3 short period superlattices were grown with nearly atomically-abrupt interfaces that are maintained even after annealing to high temperature. In addition, cross-sectional TEM reveals that all superlattice periods grown are coherently strained to the underlying (001) SrTiO3 and (001) LSAT substrates. Epitaxial SrRuO3 layers were grown on Si (100) on which a thin epitaxial (Ba,Sr)O/SrSi2

  4. Perspective: Rapid synthesis of complex oxides by combinatorial molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, A. T.; Wu, J.; Božović, I.

    2016-05-01

    The molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique is well known for producing atomically smooth thin films as well as impeccable interfaces in multilayers of many different materials. In particular, molecular beam epitaxy is well suited to the growth of complex oxides, materials that hold promise for many applications. Rapid synthesis and high throughput characterization techniques are needed to tap into that potential most efficiently. We discuss our approach to doing that, leaving behind the traditional one-growth-one-compound scheme and instead implementing combinatorial oxide molecular beam epitaxy in a custom built system.

  5. Perspective: Rapid synthesis of complex oxides by combinatorial molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    A. T. Bollinger; Wu, J.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-03-15

    In this study, the molecular beam epitaxy(MBE) technique is well known for producing atomically smooth thin films as well as impeccable interfaces in multilayers of many different materials. In particular, molecular beam epitaxy is well suited to the growth of complex oxides, materials that hold promise for many applications. Rapid synthesis and high throughput characterization techniques are needed to tap into that potential most efficiently. We discuss our approach to doing that, leaving behind the traditional one-growth-one-compound scheme and instead implementing combinatorial oxide molecular beam epitaxy in a custom built system.

  6. Metallic impurities in gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    McHugo, S.A.; Krueger, J.; Kisielowski, C.

    1997-04-01

    Transition metals are often encountered in trace amounts in semiconductors. They have been extensively studied in most elemental and compound systems, since they form deep donor and/or acceptor levels which usually degrade the electronic and optical material properties. Only very little is known about transition metals in recent III-V semiconducting materials, such as GaN, AlN and InN. These few studies have been done exclusively on Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) or Hybrid Vapor Phase Epitaxy HVPE-grown GaN. Preliminary x-ray fluorescence studies at the Advanced Light Source, beamline 10.3.1, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have revealed that GaN materials grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) have Fe, Ni and Cr as the dominant transition metal contaminants. This finding is commensurate with the extremely high concentrations of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen (up to 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}) measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Preliminary work using the mapping capabilities of the x-ray fluorescence microprobe revealed the metal impurities were inhomogeneously distributed over the film. Future work of this collaboration will be to find a correlation between the existence of transition metals in MBE films, as revealed by x-ray fluorescence, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra taken in the infrared region. Also, the authors will make use of the 1 {mu}m spatial resolution of x-ray microprobe to locate the contaminants in relation to structural defects in the GaN films. Because of the large strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the GaN films and the substrates, the films grow in a columnar order with high densities of grain boundaries and dislocations. These structural defects offer preferential sites for metal precipitation or agglomeration which could degrade the optical properties of this material more so than if the impurities were left dissolved in the GaN.

  7. Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Srn+1TinO3n+1 (Sr5Ti4O13) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO2 layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO2 layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO3 perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.

  8. On the Growth of Complex Oxides by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Dillon

    Functional materials based on complex oxides in thin film form offer new and exciting strategies for meeting many of our outstanding energy challenges through systematic control of layer sequencing, strain, etc. However, the synthesis of such oxide films can be a major challenge even when utilizing reactive molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE), a powerful deposition technique that allows the construction of materials atomic plane by atomic plane. To understand the fundamental physics of oxide growth by reactive MBE, we present in situ surface x-ray diffraction results on the growth of SrTiO3 and SrO-SrTiO3 thin films on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates. For homoepitaxy, we compare sequential deposition (alternating Sr and Ti monolayer doses) with that of co-deposition of Sr and Ti, both in a background of oxygen pressure, and observe drastically different growth pathways due to the presence of a TiO2 double layer. For heteroepitaxial growth of Ruddlesden-Popper SrO-SrTiO3 films, we find that layers rearrange dynamically, resulting in layer sequences distinct from the shutter sequence. In general, the starting surface structure and composition, in combination with local thermodynamic considerations, strongly influence our ability to atomically construct new complex oxides.

  9. Quality of epitaxial InAs nanowires controlled by catalyst size in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhi; Xu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Ya-Nan; Liao, Zhi-Ming; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Ping-Ping; Shi, Sui-Xing; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2013-08-12

    In this study, the structural quality of Au-catalyzed InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated. Through detailed electron microscopy characterizations and analysis of binary Au-In phase diagram, it is found that defect-free InAs nanowires can be induced by smaller catalysts with a high In concentration, while comparatively larger catalysts containing less In induce defected InAs nanowires. This study indicates that the structural quality of InAs nanowires can be controlled by the size of Au catalysts when other growth conditions remain as constants.

  10. Quality of epitaxial InAs nanowires controlled by catalyst size in molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Ping-Ping; Xu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Ya-Nan; Liao, Zhi-Ming; Shi, Sui-Xing; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the structural quality of Au-catalyzed InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated. Through detailed electron microscopy characterizations and analysis of binary Au-In phase diagram, it is found that defect-free InAs nanowires can be induced by smaller catalysts with a high In concentration, while comparatively larger catalysts containing less In induce defected InAs nanowires. This study indicates that the structural quality of InAs nanowires can be controlled by the size of Au catalysts when other growth conditions remain as constants.

  11. Superconductivity in oxygen doped iron telluride by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Mao

    Iron base superconductor have gained much attention in the research community. They offer great potentials to improve our understanding of the subject of superconductivity by having another family of high temperature superconductors to compare and contrast to the cuprates. Practically, the iron based superconductors seems to be even better candidates for applications in power generation and power transmission. Iron telluride is regarded as the parent compound of the "11" family, the family of iron chalcogenide that has the simplest structure. Iron telluride itself is not a superconductor, by can become one when doped with oxygen. In this investigation, we developed the growth recipe of thin film iron telluride by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). We found the growth to be self-regulated, similar to that of GaAs. The initial layers of growth seem to experience a spontaneous crystallization, as the film quickly go from the initial polycrystalline phase to highly crystalline in just a few unit cells. We studied oxygen doping to the iron telluride thin films and the resultant superconductivity. We characterized the sample with AFM, XRD, transport, and STEM-EELS, and we found that interfacial strain is not an essential ingredient of superconductivity in this particular case. We investigated the doping conditions for two candidate oxygen doping modes: substitution and interstitial. We found that substitution occurs when the film grown in oxygen, while interstitial oxygen is primarily incorporated during annealing after growth. The substitutional oxygen are concentrated in small local regions where substitution is around 100%, but does not contribute to superconductivity. We estimated substitutional oxygen to be about 5%, and is the proximate cause of superconductivity. Hall experiment on our sample showed a shift of dominant carrier type from holes to electrons around 35 K, but the transition was set in motion as early as the structural phase transition around 70 K. We

  12. Bismuth nano-droplets for group-V based molecular-beam droplet epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zeng, Z. Q.; Fan, D. S.; Hirono, Y.; Wu, J.; Morgan, T. A.; Hu, X.; Yu, S. Q.; Wang, Zh. M.; Salamo, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    Self-assembly of bismuth droplets at nanoscale on GaAs(100) surface using molecular beam epitaxy was demonstrated. Fine control of density and size was achieved by varying growth temperature and total bismuth deposition. Droplet density was tuned by roughly 3 orders of magnitude, and the density-temperature dependence was found to be consistent with classical nucleation theory. These results may extend the flexibility of droplet epitaxy by serving as templates for group V based droplet epitaxy, which is in contrast to conventional group III based droplet epitaxy and may encourage nanostructure formation of bismuth-containing materials.

  13. Substrate temperature changes during molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaMnAs

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, V.; Olejnik, K.; Cukr, M.; Smrcka, L.; Remes, Z.; Oswald, J.

    2007-10-15

    Our band gap spectroscopy measurements reveal a remarkably big increase of the substrate temperature during the low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaMnAs layers. With the help of numerical simulations we explain the effect as a consequence of changing absorption/emission characteristics of the growing epilayer. We discuss possibilities for reducing the substrate temperature variations during the growth.

  14. Epitaxial Cd3As2 Thin Films Synthesized by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Timo; Goyal, Manik; Stemmer, Susanne

    Cd3As2 is a three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal, i.e. it possesses Dirac cones in a 3D bulk state where the band dispersion relation is linear near the Fermi energy. Cd3As2 is has raised considerable interest due to its high electron mobilities in bulk crystals and for novel quantum phenomena, such as chiral anomalies. However, few studies have been performed using thin films of Cd3As2. In this presentation, we report on the synthesis of Cd3As2 thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Single phase, epitaxial films were grown on undoped GaSb(111)B substrates with the (112) facet of Cd3As2 parallel to the GaSb(111) surface. We report on the structural quality and orientation variants in the films. Electrical transport properties indicate electron mobilities exceeding 6000 cm2V-1s-1. We discuss the impact of the MBE growth parameters and substrate preparation on the structural and electrical properties of the films.

  15. Growth of epitaxial ZnO films on sapphire substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, Adam R.; Allen, Martin W.; Reeves, Roger J.

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial layers of ZnO have been grown on c-plane, (0001) sapphire substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The oxygen:zinc flux ratio was found to be crucial in obtaining a film with a smooth surface and good crystallinity. When increasing film thickness from ~80 to 220 nm we observed an increase in the streakiness of RHEED images, and XRD revealed a reduction in crystal strain and increase in crystal alignment. A film with surface roughness of 0.5 nm and a XRD rocking curve FWHM of 0.1 for the main ZnO peak (0002) was achieved by depositing a low temperature ZnO buffer layer at 450 °C and then growing for 120 minutes at 700 °C with a Zn-cell temperature of 320 °C and an oxygen partial pressure of 7e-7 Torr. We found novel structures on two samples grown outside of our ideal oxygen:zinc flux ratio. SEM images of a sample believed to have been grown in a Zn-rich environment showed flower like structures up to 150 um in diameter which appear to have formed during growth. Another sample believed to have been deposited in a Zn-deficient environment had rings approximately 1.5 um in diameter scattered on its surface.

  16. Growth of very large InN microcrystals by molecular beam epitaxy using epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, J.; Kishino, K.; Kikuchi, A.

    2015-02-28

    Very thick InN (∼40 μm) was grown by molecular beam epitaxy using the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technique. In some regions, the ELO of InN was observed as expected, indicating an important step toward fabricating quasi-bulk InN substrates. Interestingly, most parts of the sample consist of large flat-topped microcrystals and well-faceted microstructures. This is likely due to local growth condition variations during ELO, which is supported by an experiment where ELO of InN was performed on a substrate with various stripe mask patterns. TEM characterization of a flat top InN microcrystal revealed few stacking faults and only related threading dislocations. Defect-free small faceted microcrystals were also observed. The thick InN crystals show a narrow photoluminescence spectrum with a peak at 0.679 eV and linewidth of 16.8 meV at 4 K.

  17. Molecular-beam epitaxy of (Zn,Mn)Se on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Slobodskyy, T.; Ruester, C.; Fiederling, R.; Keller, D.; Gould, C.; Ossau, W.; Schmidt, G.; Molenkamp, L.W.

    2004-12-20

    We have investigated the growth by molecular-beam epitaxy of the II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor (Zn,Mn)Se on As-passivated Si(100) substrates. The growth start has been optimized by using low-temperature epitaxy. Surface properties were assessed by Nomarski and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties of (Zn,Mn)Se have been studied by photoluminescence and a giant Zeeman splitting of up to 30 meV has been observed. Our observations indicate a high crystalline quality of the epitaxial films.

  18. Critical issues of complex, epitaxial oxide growth and integration with silicon by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettieri, James

    Molecular beam epitaxy was used to grow epitaxial oxides on silicon substrates. The growth of BaO, SrO, EuO, and SrTiO3 are discussed with a focus on the general theme of integration of functional, epitaxial oxides into a silicon environment. Oxidation studies of various metal systems relevant for oxide on silicon epitaxy and integration are reported. Results demonstrate the catalytic nature of an alkaline earth metal at small concentrations to enable the oxidation of the poorly oxidizing metals at pressures lower than during deposition of the pure metal alone. Results from the deposition of various elements are presented. The aspects of the growth of alkaline earth oxides on silicon are explained. The transition from the silicon to the alkaline earth oxide as described through reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is presented and used to understand issues related to each stage of the growth. High quality, commensurate alkaline earth oxides are grown on silicon at room temperature and P O2 background ˜ 3 x 10-8 Torr. The growth of alkaline earth and rare earth oxide solid solutions and rare earth oxides (EuO) are described. The first reported epitaxial EuO on silicon is reported, enabled by the use of a thin buffer layer (13 A) of SrO. Using a strategy of transition from simple structures to the more complex, the growth of a perovskite (SrTiO3) on silicon is demonstrated. Growth of a structurally optimized perovskite structure entails the transformation of a thin interfacial alkaline earth oxide layer into the initial perovskite cells. SrTiO3 and La-doped SrTiO3 on silicon are used to integrate a piezoelectric relevant for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications and a ferroelectric relevant for a ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) architecture. A d33 value of over 400 pm/V under bias is measured for the piezoelectric (Pb(Mn1/3Nb 2/3)O3 -PbTiO3) and a remanent polarization of 25 muC/cm2 and fatigue free behavior (>1012 cycles) for a

  19. Laser Probing of Molecular Beam Epitaxy on SILICON(100) Surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilgys, Russell Victor

    The work presented here investigates the desorption kinetics of Ga and In from films of Ga, In, GaAs, and InAs on Si(100). Films a few monolayers (ML) thick are deposited from molecular beams under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is used to detect Ga and In in the gas phase. Using the techniques of temperature programmed desorption and isothermal desorption the desorption kinetics of each species are measured. The variation in the kinetic order and rate constant with temperature and coverage reflect the morphology and energetics of the film growth. Individually, Ga, In, and As each interact strongly with Si(100) at low coverages to form a two dimensional film. Above 1 ML for Ga and {1over2 } ML for In three dimensional islands form. For temperatures above 550 K, As coverage saturates at 1 ML. When As is codeposited with either Ga or In, As occupies the interfacial sites bound to Si. Ga and In atoms form three dimensional islands on top of the two dimensional As film. When the As coverage is below 1 ML, Ga and As strongly interact, probably to form a GaAs structure. Under the same conditions no comparable InAs structure is evident. The much larger lattice mismatch between InAs and Si(100) is proposed to explain this difference. The desorption kinetics and dynamics of the interfacial As film are also investigated. To measure As_2 desorption rates and vibrational populations, LIF detection of As_2 is developed. A result is that As_4 dissociates on Si(100) to yield chemisorbed As atoms. During desorption As atoms recombine to yield As_2. The vibrational populations of desorbed As_2 suggest a direct desorption mechanism in which the directionality of the covalent bonding to the substrate strongly influences the dynamics. To expand the detection capabilities to species not readily detected by LIF, a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is built. In the first studies nonresonant multiphoton ionization is used. As_4 is detected using 266 nm

  20. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of GaAs on (631) Oriented Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz Hernandez, Esteban; Rojas Ramirez, Juan-Salvador; Contreras Hernandez, Rocio; Lopez Lopez, Maximo; Pulzara Mora, Alvaro; Mendez Garcia, Victor H.

    2007-02-09

    In this work, we report the study of the homoepitaxial growth of GaAs on (631) oriented substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We observed the spontaneous formation of a high density of large scale features on the surface. The hilly like features are elongated towards the [-5, 9, 3] direction. We show the dependence of these structures with the growth conditions and we present the possibility of to create quantum wires structures on this surface.

  1. (In,Mn)As quantum dots: Molecular-beam epitaxy and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bouravleuv, A. D. Nevedomskii, V. N.; Ubyivovk, E. V.; Sapega, V. F.; Khrebtov, A. I.; Samsonenko, Yu. B.; Cirlin, G. E.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2013-08-15

    Self-assembled (In,Mn)As quantum dots are synthesized by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates. The experimental results obtained by transmission electron microscopy show that doping of the central part of the quantum dots with Mn does not bring about the formation of structural defects. The optical properties of the samples, including those in external magnetic fields, are studied.

  2. Antimony-assisted carbonization of Si(111) with solid source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hackley, Justin; Richardson, Christopher J. K.; Sarney, Wendy L.

    2013-11-15

    The carbonization of an antimony-terminated Si (111) surface in a solid source molecular beam epitaxy system is presented. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize samples grown with and without antimony termination. It is shown that the antimony-terminated surface promotes the formation of thin, smooth and continuous SiC films at a relatively low temperature of 800 °C.

  3. Carrier dynamics in ZnxCd1-xO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Hu, S. Y.; Lin, Y. C.; Tiong, K. K.; Chou, W. C.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the carrier dynamics in Zn1-xCdxO thin films with different Cd contents grown by molecular beam epitaxy system have been investigated using photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The carrier lifetime can be estimated from the PL decay curve fitted by triple exponential function. The emission energy dependence and temperature dependence of the PL decay time indicate that carrier localization dominate the luminescence mechanism of the ZnCdO alloy semiconductor.

  4. Mn2Au: body-centered-tetragonal bimetallic antiferromagnets grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Han-Chun; Liao, Zhi-Min; Sofin, R G Sumesh; Feng, Gen; Ma, Xiu-Mei; Shick, Alexander B; Mryasov, Oleg N; Shvets, Igor V

    2012-12-11

    Mn(2)Au, a layered bimetal, is successfully grown using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The experiments and theoretical calculations presented suggest that Mn(2)Au film is antiferromagnetic with a very low critical temperature. The antiferromagnetic nature is demonstrated by measuring the exchange-bias effect of Mn(2)Au/Fe bilayers. This study establishes a primary basis for further research of this new antiferromagnet in spin-electronic device applications. PMID:22996352

  5. Fabrication of precision high quality facets on molecular beam epitaxy material

    DOEpatents

    Petersen, Holly E.; Goward, William D.; Dijaili, Sol P.

    2001-01-01

    Fabricating mirrored vertical surfaces on semiconductor layered material grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Low energy chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) is employed to prepare mirrored vertical surfaces on MBE-grown III-V materials under unusually low concentrations of oxygen in evacuated etching atmospheres of chlorine and xenon ion beams. UV-stabilized smooth-surfaced photoresist materials contribute to highly vertical, high quality mirrored surfaces during the etching.

  6. Site-controlled Ag nanocrystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy-Towards plasmonic integration technology

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanczyk, Adam; Noetzel, Richard

    2012-12-15

    We demonstrate site-controlled growth of epitaxial Ag nanocrystals on patterned GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy with high degree of long-range uniformity. The alignment is based on lithographically defined holes in which position controlled InAs quantum dots are grown. The Ag nanocrystals self-align preferentially on top of the InAs quantum dots. No such ordering is observed in the absence of InAs quantum dots, proving that the ordering is strain-driven. The presented technique facilitates the placement of active plasmonic nanostructures at arbitrarily defined positions enabling their integration into complex devices and plasmonic circuits.

  7. Lutetium-doped EuO films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Melville, A.; Heeg, T.; Mairoser, T.; Schmehl, A.; Shai, D. E.; Monkman, E. J.; Harter, J. W.; Hollaender, B.; Schubert, J.; Shen, K. M.; Mannhart, J.; Schlom, D. G.

    2012-05-28

    The effect of lutetium doping on the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of epitaxial EuO thin films grown by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy is experimentally investigated. The behavior of Lu-doped EuO is contrasted with doping by lanthanum and gadolinium. All three dopants are found to behave similarly despite differences in electronic configuration and ionic size. Andreev reflection measurements on Lu-doped EuO reveal a spin-polarization of 96% in the conduction band, despite non-magnetic carriers introduced by 5% lutetium doping.

  8. In-situ epitaxial growth of graphene/h-BN van der Waals heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zheng; Xu, Zhongguang; Zheng, Renjing; Khanaki, Alireza; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Liu, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Van der Waals materials have received a great deal of attention for their exceptional layered structures and exotic properties, which can open up various device applications in nanoelectronics. However, in situ epitaxial growth of dissimilar van der Waals materials remains challenging. Here we demonstrate a solution for fabricating van der Waals heterostructures. Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures were synthesized on cobalt substrates by using molecular beam epitaxy. Various characterizations were carried out to evaluate the heterostructures. Wafer-scale heterostructures consisting of single-layer/bilayer graphene and multilayer h-BN were achieved. The mismatch angle between graphene and h-BN is below 1°. PMID:26442629

  9. Molecular beam epitaxy and properties of GaAsBi/GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy: effect of thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Hajer; Boonpeng, Poonyasiri; Mazzucato, Simone; Nicolai, Julien; Arnoult, Alexandre; Hungria, Teresa; Lacoste, Guy; Gatel, Christophe; Ponchet, Anne; Carrère, Hélène; Marie, Xavier; Fontaine, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    We have grown GaAsBi quantum wells by molecular beam epitaxy. We have studied the properties of a 7% Bi GaAsBi quantum well and their variation with thermal annealing. High-resolution X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy have been employed to get some insight into its structural properties. Stationary and time-resolved photoluminescence shows that the quantum well emission, peaking at 1.23 μm at room temperature, can be improved by a rapid annealing at 650°C, while the use of a higher annealing temperature leads to emission degradation and blue-shifting due to the activation of non-radiative centers and bismuth diffusion from the quantum well. PMID:24636335

  10. Molecular beam epitaxy and properties of GaAsBi/GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy: effect of thermal annealing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We have grown GaAsBi quantum wells by molecular beam epitaxy. We have studied the properties of a 7% Bi GaAsBi quantum well and their variation with thermal annealing. High-resolution X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy have been employed to get some insight into its structural properties. Stationary and time-resolved photoluminescence shows that the quantum well emission, peaking at 1.23 μm at room temperature, can be improved by a rapid annealing at 650°C, while the use of a higher annealing temperature leads to emission degradation and blue-shifting due to the activation of non-radiative centers and bismuth diffusion from the quantum well. PMID:24636335

  11. Low temperature growth of crystalline magnesium oxide on hexagonal silicon carbide (0001) by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, T. L.; Parisi, J.; Cai, Z.; Ziemer, K. S.

    2007-01-22

    Magnesium oxide (111) was grown epitaxially on hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC) (0001) substrates at low temperatures by molecular beam epitaxy and a remote oxygen plasma source. The films were characterized by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Crystal structure, morphology, and growth rate of the magnesium oxide (MgO) films were found to be dependent on the magnesium flux, indicating a magnesium adsorption controlled growth mechanism. The single crystalline MgO thin films had an epitaxial relationship where MgO (111) parallel 6H-SiC (0001) and were stable in both air and 10{sup -9} Torr up to 1023 K.

  12. High-mobility BaSnO{sub 3} grown by oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, Santosh; Schumann, Timo; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Jack Y.; Cain, Tyler A.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    High-mobility perovskite BaSnO{sub 3} films are of significant interest as new wide bandgap semiconductors for power electronics, transparent conductors, and as high mobility channels for epitaxial integration with functional perovskites. Despite promising results for single crystals, high-mobility BaSnO{sub 3} films have been challenging to grow. Here, we demonstrate a modified oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach, which supplies pre-oxidized SnO{sub x}. This technique addresses issues in the MBE of ternary stannates related to volatile SnO formation and enables growth of epitaxial, stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3}. We demonstrate room temperature electron mobilities of 150 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} in films grown on PrScO{sub 3}. The results open up a wide range of opportunities for future electronic devices.

  13. Conducting (Si-doped) aluminum nitride epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.G.; Moorthy, M.; Park, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    As a member of the III-V nitride semiconductor family, AlN, which has a direct energy-gap of 6.2eV, has received much attention as a promising material for many applications. However, despite the promising attributes of AlN for various semiconductor devices, research on AlN has been limited and n-type conducting AlN has not been reported. The objective of this research was to understand the factors impacting the conductivity of AlN and to control the conductivity of this material through intentional doping. Prior to the intentional doping study, growth of undoped AlN epilayers was investigated. Through careful selection of substrate preparation methods and growth parameters, relatively low-temperature molecular beam epitaxial growth of AlN films was established which resulted in insulating material. Intentional Si doping during epilayer growth was found to result in conducting films under specific growth conditions. Above a growth temperature of 900 C, AlN films were insulating, however, below a growth temperature of 900 C, the AlN films were conducting. The magnitude of the conductivity and the growth temperature range over which conducting AlN films could be grown were strongly influenced by the presence of a Ga flux during growth. For instance, conducting, Si-doped, AlN films were grown at a growth temperature of 940 C in the presence of a Ga flux while the films were insulating when grown in the absence of a Ga flux at this particular growth temperature. Also, by appropriate selection of the growth parameters, epilayers with n-type conductivity values as large as 0.2 {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} for AlN and 17 {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} for Al{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}N were grown in this work for the first time.

  14. Growth of EuO/Si and EuO/SrO/Si heteroepitaxial structures by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Teterin, P. E. Averyanov, D. V.; Sadofyev, Yu. G. Parfenov, O. E.; Likhachev, I. A.; Storchak, V. G.

    2015-01-15

    Epitaxial EuO thin films with thickness up to 60 nm have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy both on SrO sublayers and directly on Si (001) substrates. Crystal structure has been controlled in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction. Ex situ studies by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering have confirmed high crystalline quality of the films.

  15. Formation of large-grain-sized BaSi2 epitaxial layers grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, M.; Toh, K.; Toko, K.; Hara, K. O.; Usami, N.; Saito, N.; Yoshizawa, N.; Suemasu, T.

    2013-09-01

    BaSi2 epitaxial films were grown on Si(111) substrates by a two-step growth method including reactive deposition epitaxy (RDE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). To enlarge the grain size of BaSi2, the Ba deposition rate and duration were varied from 0.25 to 1.0 nm/min and from 5 to 120 min during RDE, respectively. The effect of post-annealing was also investigated at 760 °C for 10 min. Plan-view transmission electron micrographs indicated that the grain size in the MBE-grown BaSi2 was significantly increased up to approximately 4.0 μm, which is much larger than 0.2 μm, reported previously.

  16. Molecular-beam epitaxy of monolayer MoSe2: growth characteristics and domain boundary formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, L.; Liu, H. J.; Chen, J. L.; Yi, Y.; Chen, W. G.; Cai, Y.; Wang, J. N.; Dai, X. Q.; Wang, N.; Ho, W. K.; Xie, M. H.

    2015-05-01

    Monolayer (ML) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of great research interest due to their potential use in ultrathin electronic and optoelectronic applications. They show promise in new concept devices in spintronics and valleytronics. Here we present a growth study by molecular-beam epitaxy of ML and sub-ML MoSe2, an important member of TMDs, revealing its unique growth characteristics as well as the formation processes of domain boundary (DB) defects. A dramatic effect of growth temperature and post-growth annealing on DB formation is uncovered.

  17. Luminescence characterization of CdTe:In grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, F.; Tatarenko, S.; Saminadayar, K.; Bleuse, J.; Magnea, N.; Pautrat, J. L.

    1991-06-01

    We report on the incorporation of indium as a shallow donor in CdTe by molecular beam epitaxy. Using proper surface stoichiometry conditions, we demonstrate that it is possible to incorporate and activate up to 1018 cm-3 indium impurities. The doped layers have been characterized by secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage and Hall-effect measurements. Photoluminescence (PL) and resonant excitation of the PL clearly identify indium as the chemical dopant, acting as an effective mass donor with an energy of 14 meV. Incorrect stoichiometry conditions lead to a poor dopant activity and to complex centers formation.

  18. Growth of GaN with warm ammonia by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaharazuka, A.; Yoshizaki, T.; Ploog, K. H.; Horikoshi, Y.

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate the growth of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy with warm ammonia as a nitrogen source. Ammonia gas is heated by the tungsten filament located at the open end of the gas-tube installed in the growth chamber. By using this simple structure, the multiple collisions of molecules within the heater, thus the generation of nitrogen molecule, can be suppressed. The crystalline quality of the grown GaN layer is significantly improved by introducing the warm ammonia. This effect can be explained by the enhancement of the two-dimensional growth due to the active nitrogen species such as radical NH2* generated by cracking ammonia molecule.

  19. Metastable GaAsBi Alloy Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Murata, Satoshi; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Horino, Yuji; Saraie, Junji; Oe, Kunishige

    2003-10-01

    GaAs1-xBix has been grown at a substrate temperature (Tsub) between 350 and 410°C by molecular beam epitaxy. The relationship between GaBi molar fraction (x) evaluated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and the lattice constant showed good linearity. To achieve Bi incorporation into the epilayer, As flux was adjusted in a limited range on the brink of As shortage on the growing surface. The Bi incorporation was saturated at a large Bi flux, probably due to a low miscibility of Bi with GaAs. The value of x increased up to 4.5% with decreasing Tsub to 350°C.

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Henini, M.; Ibanez, J.; Schmidbauer, M.; Shafi, M.; Novikov, S. V.; Turyanska, L.; Molina, S. I.; Sales, D. L.; Chisholm, M. F.; Misiewicz, J.

    2007-12-17

    We report the growth by molecular beam epitaxy of GaBi{sub x}As{sub 1-x} epilayers on (311)B GaAs substrates. We use high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD), transmission electron microscopy, and Z-contrast imaging to characterize the structural properties of the as-grown material. We find that the incorporation of Bi into the GaBiAs alloy, as determined by HRXRD, is sizably larger in the (311)B epilayers than in (001) epilayers, giving rise to reduced band-gap energies as obtained by optical transmission spectroscopy.

  1. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henini, M.; Ibáñez, J.; Schmidbauer, M.; Shafi, M.; Novikov, S. V.; Turyanska, L.; Molina, S. I.; Sales, D. L.; Chisholm, M. F.; Misiewicz, J.

    2007-12-01

    We report the growth by molecular beam epitaxy of GaBixAs1-x epilayers on (311)B GaAs substrates. We use high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD), transmission electron microscopy, and Z-contrast imaging to characterize the structural properties of the as-grown material. We find that the incorporation of Bi into the GaBiAs alloy, as determined by HRXRD, is sizably larger in the (311)B epilayers than in (001) epilayers, giving rise to reduced band-gap energies as obtained by optical transmission spectroscopy.

  2. Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Tsao, J.Y.

    1992-12-15

    A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth. 3 figs.

  3. Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, B. Eugene; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    1992-01-01

    A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth.

  4. Growth of atomically smooth MgO films on graphene by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. H.; Han, W.; Pi, K.; McCreary, K. M.; Miao, F.; Bao, W.; Lau, C. N.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2008-11-03

    We investigate the growth of MgO films on graphene by molecular beam epitaxy and find that surface diffusion promotes a rough morphology. To reduce the mobility of surface atoms, the graphene surface is dressed by Ti atoms prior to MgO deposition. With as little as 0.5 ML (monolayer) of Ti, the MgO overlayer becomes atomically smooth. Furthermore, no aggregation of MgO is observed at the edges of the graphene sheet. These results are important for the fabrication of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices.

  5. Low defect densities in molecular beam epitaxial GaAs achieved by isoelectronic In doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, P. K.; Dhar, S.; Berger, P.; Juang, F.-Y.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of adding small amounts of In (0.2-1.2 pct) to GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The density of four electron traps decreases in concentration by an order of magnitude, and the peak intensities of prominent emissions in the excitonic spectra are reduced with increase in In content. Based on the higher surface migration rate of In, compared to Ga, at the growth temperatures it is apparent that the traps and the excitonic transitions are related to point defects. This agrees with earlier observations by Briones and Collins (1982) and Skromme et al. (1985).

  6. Near-bandgap optical properties of pseudomorphic GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Costa, Vijay Richard; Wang, Wei; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the compositional dependence of the near-bandgap dielectric function and the E0 critical point in pseudomorphic Ge1-xSnx alloys grown on Ge (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The complex dielectric functions were obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 0.5 to 4.5 eV at room temperature. Analogous to the E1 and E1+Δ1 transitions, a model consisting of the compositional dependence of relaxed alloys along with the strain contribution predicted by the deformation potential theory fully accounts for the observed compositional dependence in pseudomorphic alloys.

  7. Characterization of GaN microstructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Ikai; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Shih, Cheng-Hung; Chou, Mitch M. C.; Chen, Wen-Yen; Hsu, Tzu-Min; Hsu, Gary Z. L.

    2013-06-15

    The characterization of GaN microstructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on LiAlO{sub 2} substrate was studied by cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence measurements. We demonstrated that the cathodoluminescence from oblique semi-polar surfaces of mushroom-shaped GaN was much brighter than that from top polar surface due to the reduction of polarization field on the oblique semi-polar surfaces. It implies that the oblique semi-polar surface is superior for the light-emitting surface of wurtzite nano-devices.

  8. New MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) buffer used to eliminate backgating in gaas mesfets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.W.; Calawa, A.R.; Chen, C.L.; Manfra, M.J.; Mahoney, L.J.

    1988-02-01

    A new buffer layer has been developed that eliminates backgating between MESFET's fabricated in active layers grown upon it. The new buffer is grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at low substrate temperatures (150-300 C) using Ga and As4 beam fluxes. It is highly resistive, optically inactive, and crystalline, and high-quality GaAs active layers can be grown on top of the new buffer. MESFET's fabricated in active layers grown on top of this new buffer show improved output resistance and breakdown voltages; the dc and Rf characteristics are otherwise comparable to MESFET's fabricated by alternative means and with other buffer layers.

  9. Analysis of atomic force microscopic results of InAs islands formed by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Q.; Liang, J. B.; Xu, B.; Ding, D.; Li, H. X.; Jiang, C.; Zhou, W.; Liu, F. Q.; Wang, Z. G.; Qiu, X. H.; Shang, G. Y.; Bai, C. L.

    1998-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of nanometer-sized islands formed by 2 monolayers of InAs by molecular beam epitaxy have been carried out and the scan line of individual islands was extracted from raw AFM data for investigation. It is found that the base widths of nanometer-sized islands obtained by AFM are not reliable due to the finite size and shape of the contacting probe. A simple model is proposed to analyze the deviation of the measured value from the real value of the base width of InAs islands.

  10. Electrical properties of nominally undoped silicon nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Jan; Fleischer, Frank; Breitenstein, Otwin; Schubert, Luise; Werner, Peter; Gösele, Ulrich; Zacharias, Margit

    2007-01-01

    Single undoped Si nanowires were electrically characterized. The nanowires were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on n+ silicon substrates and were contacted by platinum/iridium tips. I-V curves were measured and electron beam induced current investigations were performed on single nanowires. It was found that the nanowires have an apparent resistivity of 0.85Ωcm, which is much smaller than expected for undoped Si nanowires. The conductance is explained by hopping conductivity at the Si -SiO2 interface of the nanowire surface.

  11. Application of ellipsometry to crystal growth by organometallic molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspnes, D. E.; Quinn, W. E.; Gregory, S.

    1990-06-01

    We report the first use of ellipsometry as a real-time monitor of III-V semiconductor crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy, specifically growth of GaAs and AlGaAs from arsine, triethylgallium, and triethylaluminum sources. Our results provide new insight into the oxide desorption process and show a sensitivity of ±0.03 in compositions x>0.2 for 10 Å thickness increments of AlxGa1-xAs during initial deposition on GaAs.

  12. The growth of high-quality AlGaAs by metalorganic molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersee, S. D.; Martin, P. A.; Chin, A.; Ballingall, J. M.

    1991-07-01

    The electrical and optical properties of AlGaAs grown by metalorganic molecular-beam epitaxy using triethylaluminum, tri-isobutylaluminum, and trimethylamine-alane are compared. It is found that tri-isobutylaluminum yields the lowest residual carbon incorporation in the layers (Na - Nd = 4 × 1015 cm-3) and the highest electron and hole mobilities. Photoluminescence spectra for the higher-quality AlGaAs, grown using TiBAl, show excitonic luminescence. However, this luminescence appears to be defect related.

  13. Gallium Arsenide Layers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on Single Crystalline Germanium Islands on Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Mikio; Tanigawa, Takaho; Minamisono, Tadanori; Gamo, Kenji; Namba, Susumu

    1984-05-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) layers have successfully been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on single crystalline germanium (Ge) islands, recrystallized by zone melting with SiO2 capping layers, on thermally-oxidized Si-wafers. The GaAs layers, grown on the single crystalline Ge islands, show smooth surfaces without any grain-boundaries, while those, grown on the Ge islands with grain-boundaries and on the SiO2, have grain-boundaries. The GaAs layers on the single crystalline Ge islands emit photoluminescence, the intensity of which is almost comparable to that of GaAs layers on bulk Ge crystals.

  14. Silicon sheet with molecular beam epitaxy for high efficiency solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of the new technique of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) are applied to the growth of high efficiency silicon solar cells. Because MBE can provide well controlled doping profiles of any desired arbitrary design, including doping profiles of such complexity as built-in surface fields or tandem junction cells, it would appear to be the ideal method for development of high efficiency solar cells. It was proposed that UCLA grow and characterize silicon films and p-n junctions of MBE to determine whether the high crystal quality needed for solar cells could be achieved.

  15. Perspective: Extremely fine tuning of doping enabled by combinatorial molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Božović, I.

    2015-06-01

    Chemical doping provides an effective method to control the electric properties of complex oxides. However, the state-of-art accuracy in controlling doping is limited to about 1%. This hampers elucidation of the precise doping dependences of physical properties and phenomena of interest, such as quantum phase transitions. Using the combinatorial molecular beam epitaxy, we improve the accuracy in tuning the doping level by two orders of magnitude. We illustrate this novel method by two examples: a systematic investigation of the doping dependence of interface superconductivity, and a study of the competing ground states in the vicinity of the insulator-to-superconductor transition.

  16. Demonstration of molecular beam epitaxy and a semiconducting band structure for I-Mn-V compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jungwirth, T.; Novak, V.; Cukr, M.; Zemek, J.; Marti, X.; Horodyska, P.; Nemec, P.; Holy, V.; Maca, F.; Shick, A. B.; Masek, J.; Kuzel, P.; Nemec, I.; Gallagher, B. L.; Campion, R. P.; Foxon, C. T.; Wunderlich, J.

    2011-01-15

    Our ab initio theory calculations predict a semiconducting band structure of I-Mn-V compounds. We demonstrate on LiMnAs that high-quality materials with group-I alkali metals in the crystal structure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Optical measurements on the LiMnAs epilayers are consistent with the theoretical electronic structure. Our calculations also reproduce earlier reports of high antiferromagnetic ordering temperature and predict large, spin-orbit-coupling-induced magnetic anisotropy effects. We propose a strategy for employing antiferromagnetic semiconductors in high-temperature semiconductor spintronics.

  17. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers on porous silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.; Sadwick, L.; Wang, K. L.; Kao, Y. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs layers have been grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates with good crystallinity by molecular beam epitaxy. In spite of the surface irregularity of PS substrates, no surface morphology deterioration was observed on epitaxial GaAs overlayers. A 10-percent Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy minimum channeling yield for GaAs-on-PS layers as compared to 16 percent for GaAs-on-Si layers grown under the same condition indicates a possible improvement of crystallinity when GaAs is grown on PS. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the dominant defects in the GaAs-on-PS layers are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/PS interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the PS layers. n-type GaAs/p-type PS heterojunction diodes were fabricated with good rectifying characteristics.

  18. Cyan laser diode grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Turski, H. Muziol, G.; Wolny, P.; Cywiński, G.

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate AlGaN-cladding-free laser diodes (LDs), operating in continuous wave (CW) mode at 482 nm grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The maximum CW output power was 230 mW. LDs were grown on c-plane GaN substrates obtained by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The PAMBE process was carried out in metal-rich conditions, supplying high nitrogen flux (Φ{sub N}) during quantum wells (QWs) growth. We found that high Φ{sub N} improves quality of high In content InGaN QWs. The role of nitrogen in the growth of InGaN on (0001) GaN surface as well as the influence of LDs design on threshold current density are discussed.

  19. Acceptor states in heteroepitaxial CdHgTe films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Mynbaev, K. D.; Shilyaev, A. V. Bazhenov, N. L.; Izhnin, A. I.; Izhnin, I. I.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2015-03-15

    The photoluminescence method is used to study acceptor states in CdHgTe heteroepitaxial films (HEFs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. A comparison of the photoluminescence spectra of HEFs grown on GaAs substrates (CdHgTe/GaAs) with the spectra of CdHgTe/Si HEFs demonstrates that acceptor states with energy depths of about 18 and 27 meV are specific to CdHgTe/GaAs HEFs. The possible nature of these states and its relation to the HEF synthesis conditions and, in particular, to the vacancy doping occurring under conditions of a mercury deficiency during the course of epitaxy and postgrowth processing are discussed.

  20. Ge/GeSn heterostructures grown on Si (100) by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Sadofyev, Yu. G. Martovitsky, V. P.; Bazalevsky, M. A.; Klekovkin, A. V.; Averyanov, D. V.; Vasil’evskii, I. S.

    2015-01-15

    The growth of GeSn layers by molecular-beam epitaxy on Si (100) wafers coated with a germanium buffer layer is investigated. The properties of the fabricated structures are controlled by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic-force microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Rutherford backscattering, and Raman scattering. It is shown that GeSn layers with thicknesses up to 0.5 μm and Sn molar fractions up to 0.073 manifest no sign of plastic relaxation upon epitaxy. The lattice constant of the GeSn layers within the growth plane is precisely the same as that of Ge. The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the conversion of metastable elastically strained GeSn layers into a plastically relaxed state is examined. Ge/GeSn quantum wells with Sn molar fraction up to 0.11 are obtained.

  1. GaAs Core/SrTiO3 Shell Nanowires Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Guan, X; Becdelievre, J; Meunier, B; Benali, A; Saint-Girons, G; Bachelet, R; Regreny, P; Botella, C; Grenet, G; Blanchard, N P; Jaurand, X; Silly, M G; Sirotti, F; Chauvin, N; Gendry, M; Penuelas, J

    2016-04-13

    We have studied the growth of a SrTiO3 shell on self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. To control the growth of the SrTiO3 shell, the GaAs nanowires were protected using an arsenic capping/decapping procedure in order to prevent uncontrolled oxidation and/or contamination of the nanowire facets. Reflection high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to determine the structural, chemical, and morphological properties of the heterostructured nanowires. Using adapted oxide growth conditions, it is shown that most of the perovskite structure SrTiO3 shell appears to be oriented with respect to the GaAs lattice. These results are promising for achieving one-dimensional epitaxial semiconductor core/functional oxide shell nanostructures. PMID:27008537

  2. Lattice constant and substitutional composition of GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Nupur; Coppinger, Matthew; Prakash Gupta, Jay; Wielunski, Leszek; Kolodzey, James

    2013-07-01

    Single crystal epitaxial Ge1-xSnx alloys with atomic fractions of tin up to x = 0.145 were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy on Ge (001) substrates. The Ge1-xSnx alloys formed high quality, coherent, strained layers at growth temperatures below 250 °C, as shown by high resolution X-ray diffraction. The amount of Sn that was on lattice sites, as determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling, was found to be above 90% substitutional in all alloys. The degree of strain and the dependence of the effective unstrained bulk lattice constant of Ge1-xSnx alloys versus the composition of Sn have been determined.

  3. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of a three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetal Na3Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Zhongkai; Zhou, Bo; Kim, Yeongkwan; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Chen, Yulin; Mo, Sung-Kwan

    2014-07-01

    We report a molecular beam epitaxial growth of Na3Bi single-crystal thin films on two different substrates—epitaxial bilayer graphene terminated 6H-SiC(0001) and Si(111). Using reflection high-energy electron diffraction, we found that the lattice orientation of the grown Na3Bi thin film was rotated by 30° respect to the surface lattice orientations of these two substrates. An in-situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy clearly revealed the 3-dimensional Dirac-cone band structure in such thin films. Our approach of growing Na3Bi thin film provides a potential route for further studying its intriguing electronic properties and for fabricating it into practical devices in future.

  4. Real-time reflectance-difference spectroscopy of GaAs molecular beam epitaxy homoepitaxial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lastras-Martínez, A. E-mail: alastras@gmail.com; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Guevara-Macías, L. E.; Nuñez-Olvera, O.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Lastras-Martínez, L. F.; Lastras-Montaño, L. A.; Lastras-Montaño, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    We report on real time-resolved Reflectance-difference (RD) spectroscopy of GaAs(001) grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with a time-resolution of 500 ms per spectrum within the 2.3–4.0 eV photon energy range. Through the analysis of transient RD spectra we demonstrated that RD line shapes are comprised of two components with different physical origins and determined their evolution during growth. Such components were ascribed to the subsurface strain induced by surface reconstruction and to surface stoichiometry. Results reported in this paper render RD spectroscopy as a powerful tool for the study of fundamental processes during the epitaxial growth of zincblende semiconductors.

  5. Controlled in situ boron doping of short silicon nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Das Kanungo, Pratyush; Zakharov, Nikolai; Bauer, Jan; Breitenstein, Otwin; Werner, Peter; Goesele, Ulrich

    2008-06-30

    Epitaxial silicon nanowires (NWs) of short heights ({approx}280 nm) on Si <111> substrate were grown and doped in situ with boron on a concentration range of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} by coevaporation of atomic Si and B by molecular beam epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a single-crystalline structure of the NWs. Electrical measurements of the individual NWs confirmed the doping. However, the low doped (10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}) and medium doped (3x10{sup 16} and 1x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) NWs were heavily depleted by the surface states while the high doped (10{sup 18} and 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) ones showed volume conductivities expected for the corresponding intended doping levels.

  6. GaN grown on (1 1 1) single crystal diamond substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussaigne, A.; Malinverni, M.; Martin, D.; Castiglia, A.; Grandjean, N.

    2009-10-01

    GaN epilayers are grown on (1 1 1) oriented single crystal diamond substrate by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy. Each step of the growth is monitored in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction. It is found that a two-dimensional epitaxial wurtzite GaN film is obtained. The surface morphology is smooth: the rms roughness is as low as 1.3 nm for 2×2 μm 2 scan. Photoluminescence measurements reveal pretty good optical properties. The GaN band edge is centred at 3.469 eV with a linewidth of 5 meV. These results demonstrate that GaN heteroepitaxially grown on diamond opens new rooms for high power electronic applications.

  7. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Tung, I C; Chang, S-H; Bhattacharya, A; Fong, D D; Freeland, J W; Hong, Hawoong

    2016-01-01

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques. PMID:26827327

  8. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.; Tung, I. C.; Chang, S. -H.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fong, D. D.; Freeland, J. W.; Hong, Hawoong

    2016-01-01

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques.

  9. Structural study and ferroelectricity of epitaxial BaTiO3 films on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazet, L.; Bachelet, R.; Louahadj, L.; Albertini, D.; Gautier, B.; Cours, R.; Schamm-Chardon, S.; Saint-Girons, G.; Dubourdieu, C.

    2014-12-01

    Integration of epitaxial complex ferroelectric oxides such as BaTiO3 on semiconductor substrates depends on the ability to finely control their structure and properties, which are strongly correlated. The epitaxial growth of thin BaTiO3 films with high interfacial quality still remains scarcely investigated on semiconductors; a systematic investigation of processing conditions is missing although they determine the cationic composition, the oxygen content, and the microstructure, which, in turn, play a major role on the ferroelectric properties. We report here the study of various relevant deposition parameters in molecular beam epitaxy for the growth of epitaxial tetragonal BaTiO3 thin films on silicon substrates. The films were grown using a 4 nm-thick epitaxial SrTiO3 buffer layer. We show that the tetragonality of the BaTiO3 films, the crystalline domain orientations, and SiO2 interfacial layer regrowth strongly depend on the oxygen partial pressure and temperature during the growth and on the post-deposition anneal. The ferroelectricity of the films, probed using piezoresponse force microscopy, is obtained in controlled temperature and oxygen pressure conditions with a polarization perpendicular to the surface.

  10. Epitaxial growth of SrTiO{sub 3} thin film on Si by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. Y.; Miao, J.; Dai, J. Y.; Chan, H. L. W.; Choy, C. L.; Wang, Y.; Li, Q.

    2007-01-01

    SrTiO{sub 3} thin films have been deposited on Si (001) wafers by laser molecular beam epitaxy using an ultrathin Sr layer as the template. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that SrTiO{sub 3} was well crystallized and epitaxially aligned with Si. Cross-sectional observations in a transmission electron microscope revealed that the SrTiO{sub 3}/Si interface was sharp, smooth, and fully crystallized. The thickness of the Sr template was found to be a critical factor that influenced the quality of SrTiO{sub 3} and the interfacial structure. Electrical measurements revealed that the SrTiO{sub 3} film was highly resistive.

  11. Photodiode properties of molecular beam epitaxial InSb on a heavily doped substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiguo; Fan, Huitao; Peng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Zhengxiong; Si, Junjie; Emelyanov, E.; Putyato, M.; Semyagin, B.; Pchelyakov, O.; Preobrazhenskii, V.

    2014-01-01

    Photodiodes of InSb were fabricated on an epitaxial layer grown using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Thermal cleaning of the InSb (0 0 1) substrate surface, 2° towards the (1 1 1) B plane, was performed to remove the oxide. Photodiode properties of МВЕ-formed epitaxial InSb were demonstrated. Zero-bias resistance area product (R0A) measurements were taken at 80 K under room temperature background for a pixel size of 100 μm × 100 μm. Values were as high as 4.36 × 104 Ω/cm2, and the average value of R0A was 1.66 × 104 Ω/cm2. The peak response was 2.44 (A/W). The epitaxial InSb photodiodes were fabricated using the same process as bulk crystal InSb diodes with the exception of the junction formation method. These values are comparable to the properties of bulk crystal InSb photodiodes.

  12. Molecular beam epitaxy control of the structural, optical, and electronic properties of ScN(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Arthur R.; AL-Brithen, Hamad A. H.; Ingram, David C.; Gall, Daniel

    2001-08-15

    Scandium nitride (001) oriented layers have been grown on magnesium oxide (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using a rf-plasma source and a scandium effusion cell. The Sc/N flux ratio is found to be critical in determining the structural, optical, and electronic properties of the grown epitaxial layers. A distinct transition occurs at the point where the Sc/N flux ratio equals 1, which defines the line between N-rich and Sc-rich growth. Under N-rich conditions, the growth is epitaxial, and the surface morphology is characterized by a densely packed array of square-shaped plateaus and four-faced pyramids with the terraces between steps being atomically smooth. The films are stoichiometric and transparent with a direct optical transition at 2.15 eV. Under Sc-rich conditions, the growth is also epitaxial, but the morphology is dominated by spiral growth mounds. The morphology change is consistent with increased surface diffusion due to a Sc-rich surface. Excess Sc leads to understoichiometric layers with N vacancies which act as donors. The increased carrier density results in an optical reflection edge at 1 eV, absorption below the 2.15 eV band gap, and a drop in electrical resistivity. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  13. GaAs surface cleaning by thermal oxidation and sublimation in molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Junji; Nanbu, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Tomonori; Kondo, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    GaAs surface cleaning by thermal oxidation and sublimation prior to molecular-beam-epitaxial growth has been investigated as a means of reducing the carrier depletion at the substrate and epitaxial layer interface. The carrier depletion between the substrate and epitaxial films, measured by a C-V carrier profiling technique, was shown to decrease significantly with an increase in the thickness of the thermal oxidation. The concentration of carbon contamination near the substrate-epitaxial interface was measured using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The carbon concentration correlated very well with the carrier depletion. Therefore, the main origin of the carrier depletion is believed to be the carbon concentration of the initial growth surface. Based on these results, the thermal oxidation and sublimation of a semi-insulating GaAs substrate was successfully applied to improve the mobility and sheet concentration of the two-dimensional electron gas in selectively doped GaAs/N-Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures with very thin GaAs buffer layers.

  14. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of SnO{sub 2} using a tin chemical precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tianqi; Prakash, Abhinav; Jalan, Bharat; Warner, Ellis; Gladfelter, Wayne L.

    2015-03-15

    The authors report on the development of a molecular beam epitaxy approach for atomic layer controlled growth of phase-pure, single-crystalline epitaxial SnO{sub 2} films with scalable growth rates using a highly volatile precursor (tetraethyltin) for tin and rf-oxygen plasma for oxygen. Smooth, epitaxial SnO{sub 2} (101) films on r-sapphire (101{sup ¯}2) substrates were grown as a function of tin precursor flux and substrate temperatures between 300 and 900 °C. Three distinct growth regimes were identified where SnO{sub 2} films grew in a reaction-, flux-, and desorption-limited mode, respectively, with increasing substrate temperature. In particular, with increasing tin flux, the growth rates were found to increase and then saturate indicating any excess tin precursor desorbs above a critical beam equivalent pressure of tin precursor. Important implications of growth kinetic behaviors on the self-regulating stoichiometric growth of perovskite stannates are discussed.

  15. Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of SnO 2 on TiO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. Y.; White, M. E.; Speck, J. S.

    2008-08-01

    Epitaxial growth of SnO 2 on TiO 2 (1 1 0) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was studied under various growth conditions to explore the potential for high-quality single crystalline growth. Phase-pure (1 1 0)-oriented SnO 2 films with an optimum on-axis X-ray rocking curve scan full-width at half-maximum equal to 0.612° were grown. The film epitaxy proceeded in the Volmer-Weber growth mode. We identified different growth regimes by measuring growth rate variations correlated with increasing tin fluxes at a fixed oxygen pressure. Beginning in the oxygen-rich growth regime, growth rates increased linearly as the tin flux increased. Atomically flat surfaces were observed in the oxygen-rich regime. Continued tin flux increases resulted in a maximum growth rate of 470 nm/h. Further tin flux increases prevented SnO 2 formation on the growth surface and acted as a nucleation barrier of SnO 2 on the TiO 2 substrates identifying a metal-rich growth regime.

  16. Concentration transient analysis of antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markert, L. C.; Greene, J. E.; Ni, W.-X.; Hansson, G. V.; Sundgren, J.-E.

    1991-01-01

    Antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was investigated at temperatures T(sub s) = 515 - 800 C using concentration transient analysis (CTA). The dopant surface coverage Theta, bulk fraction gamma, and incorporation probability sigma during MBE were determined from secondary-ion mass spectrometry depth profiles of modulation-doped films. Programmed T(sub s) changes during growth were used to trap the surface-segregated dopant overlayer, producing concentration spikes whose integrated area corresponds to Theta. Thermal antimony doping by coevaporation was found to result in segregation strongly dependent on T(sub s) with Theta(sub Sb) values up to 0.9 monolayers (ML): in films doped with Sb(+) ions accelerated by 100 V, Theta(sub Sb) was less than or equal to 4 x 10(exp -3) ML. Surface segregation of coevaporated antimony was kinematically limited for the film growth conditions in these experiments.

  17. High electron mobility in Ga(In)NAs films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Miyashita, Naoya; Ahsan, Nazmul; Monirul Islam, Muhammad; Okada, Yoshitaka; Inagaki, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2012-11-26

    We report the highest mobility values above 2000 cm{sup 2}/Vs in Si doped GaNAs film grown by molecular beam epitaxy. To understand the feature of the origin which limits the electron mobility in GaNAs, temperature dependences of mobility were measured for high mobility GaNAs and referential low mobility GaInNAs. Temperature dependent mobility for high mobility GaNAs is similar to the GaAs case, while that for low mobility GaInNAs shows large decrease in lower temperature region. The electron mobility of high quality GaNAs can be explained by intrinsic limiting factor of random alloy scattering and extrinsic factor of ionized impurity scattering.

  18. Accommodation mechanism of InN nanocolumns grown on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Luna, E.; Trampert, A.

    2007-07-09

    High quality InN nanocolumns have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on bare and AlN-buffered Si(111) substrates. The accommodation mechanism of the InN nanocolumns to the substrate was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Samples grown on AlN-buffered Si(111) show abrupt interfaces between the nanocolumns and the buffer layer, where an array of periodically spaced misfit dislocations develops. Samples grown on bare Si(111) exhibit a thin Si{sub x}N{sub y} at the InN nanocolumn/substrate interface because of Si nitridation. The Si{sub x}N{sub y} thickness and roughness may affect the nanocolumn relative alignment to the substrate. In all cases, InN nanocolumns grow strain- and defect-free.

  19. Towards precise defect control in layered oxide structures by using oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Baiutti, Federico; Christiani, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Summary In this paper we present the atomic-layer-by-layer oxide molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-oxide MBE) which has been recently installed in the Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research and we report on its present status, providing some examples that demonstrate its successful application in the synthesis of different layered oxides, with particular reference to superconducting La2CuO4 and insulator-to-metal La2− xSrxNiO4. We briefly review the ALL-oxide MBE technique and its unique capabilities in the deposition of atomically smooth single-crystal thin films of various complex oxides, artificial compounds and heterostructures, introducing our goal of pursuing a deep investigation of such systems with particular emphasis on structural defects, with the aim of tailoring their functional properties by precise defects control. PMID:24995148

  20. Analysis of carbon in SrTiO{sub 3} grown by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Jalan, Bharat; Cagnon, Joeel; Mates, Thomas E.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2009-11-15

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to investigate carbon impurity concentrations in stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3} films grown by a hybrid molecular beam epitaxy approach that uses an effusion cell to supply strontium, a rf plasma source for oxygen and a metal organic titanium source (titanium tetra isopropoxide). The carbon concentration in the films was measured as a function of growth parameters. At sufficiently high growth temperatures (>800 degree sign C), the films contain a few ppm of carbon. The challenges in accurately quantifying low carbon concentrations are discussed. A carbon-containing contamination layer is detected on the surfaces of SrTiO{sub 3} substrates and air-exposed films by SIMS and in scanning transmission electron microscopy. The contamination layer could be removed by high-temperature predeposition oxygen plasma cleaning.

  1. Surface energies for molecular beam epitaxy growth of HgTe and CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berding, M. A.; Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan; Sher, A.

    1991-10-01

    We present results for the surface binding energies for HgTe and CdTe that will serve as input for molecular beam epitaxy growth models. We have found that the surface binding energies are surface orientation dependent and are not simply proportional to the number of first-neighbor bonds being made to the underlying layer. Moreover, because of the possibility of charge transfer between cation and anion surface states, one may have large differences between the binding energy for the first and the last atom in a given layer, and these differences will be different for the narrow-gap, less ionic materials than for the wide gap, ionic materials. We also find that the surface states associated with an isolated surface atom or vacancy are extended in materials with small gaps and small effective masses, and thus call into question the modeling of surface binding by simple pair interactions.

  2. Raman measurements of substrate temperature in a molecular beam epitaxy growth chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, T.; Nazari, M.; Eridisoorya, M.; Myers, T. M.; Holtz, M.

    2015-01-01

    A method is described for directly measuring the temperature of a substrate in a molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) growth system. The approach relies on the establishment of the temperature dependence of Raman-active phonons of the substrate material using independently known calibration points across the range of interest. An unknown temperature in this range is then determined based on the Raman peak position with the substrate in situ the MBE chamber. The apparatus relies on conventional optics and Raman components. Shifting and broadening of the Raman spectrum are described based on the effects of thermal expansion and anharmonic decay. The choice of reference temperature is discussed. The method is qualified by examining the substrate temperature dependence, relative to that of a standard thermocouple, during a commonly used ramp procedure. Both temperature difference and time lag are obtained.

  3. Synthesis of atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride films on nickel foils by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhaie, S.; Wofford, J. M.; Schumann, T.; Jahn, U.; Ramsteiner, M.; Hanke, M.; Lopes, J. M. J. Riechert, H.

    2015-05-25

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a layered two-dimensional material with properties that make it promising as a dielectric in various applications. We report the growth of h-BN films on Ni foils from elemental B and N using molecular beam epitaxy. The presence of crystalline h-BN over the entire substrate is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy is used to examine the morphology and continuity of the synthesized films. A scanning electron microscopy study of films obtained using shorter depositions offers insight into the nucleation and growth behavior of h-BN on the Ni substrate. The morphology of h-BN was found to evolve from dendritic, star-shaped islands to larger, smooth triangular ones with increasing growth temperature.

  4. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs1-xBix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier, S.; Adamcyk, M.; Tiedje, T.; Francoeur, S.; Mascarenhas, A.; Wei, Peng; Schiettekatte, F.

    2003-04-01

    GaAs1-xBix epilayers with bismuth concentrations up to x=3.1% were grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. The Bi content in the films was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction shows that GaAsBi is pseudomorphically strained to GaAs but that some structural disorder is present in the thick films. The extrapolation of the lattice constant of GaAsBi to the hypothetical zincblende GaBi alloy gives 6.33±0.06 Å. Room-temperature photoluminescence of the GaAsBi epilayers is obtained and a significant redshift in the emission of GaAsBi of ˜84 meV per percent Bi is observed.

  5. Novel InGaPBi single crystal grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Li; Wang, Peng; Wang, Kai; Wu, Xiaoyan; Pan, Wenwu; Li, Yaoyao; Song, Yuxin; Gu, Yi; Gong, Qian; Wang, Shumin; Ning, Jiqian; Xu, Shijie

    2015-04-01

    InGaPBi crystalline thin films with up to 2.1% bismuth concentration have been grown on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry confirms that the majority of Bi atoms are located at substitutional lattice sites. The films exhibit good surface, structural, and interface quality, and their strains can be tuned from tensile to compressive by increasing the Bi content. InBi LO and GaBi LO vibrational modes in Raman spectroscopy were observed, and their intensities increased with Bi concentration. A weak photoluminescence signal was observed at 1.78 eV at room temperature for the sample with a Bi content of 0.5%.

  6. New Semiconductor GaNAsBi Alloy Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Huang, Wei; Takehara, Yuji; Saraie, Junji; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Horino, Yuji; Oe, Kunishige

    2004-07-01

    GaNyAs1-x-yBix epilayers were grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy for the first time. Multilayered samples consisting of GaAs1-xBix, GaNyAs1-y and GaNyAs1-x-yBix showed distinct X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks ascribed to each layer. The GaBi molar fraction, x, estimated by the combination of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and XRD was controlled in a range up to 4.0%. The GaN molar fraction estimated from the angular spacing of the XRD peak between GaAs1-xBix and GaNyAs1-x-yBix increased up to 8.0% with increasing supply of activated nitrogen generated in rf plasma.

  7. Intense terahertz emission from molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaAs/GaSb(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadia, Cyril P.; Laganapan, Aleena Maria; Agatha Tumanguil, Mae; Estacio, Elmer; Somintac, Armando; Salvador, Arnel; Que, Christopher T.; Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko

    2012-12-15

    Intense terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave emission was observed in undoped GaAs thin films deposited on (100) n-GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy. GaAs/n-GaSb heterostructures were found to be viable THz sources having signal amplitude 75% that of bulk p-InAs. The GaAs films were grown by interruption method during the growth initiation and using various metamorphic buffer layers. Reciprocal space maps revealed that the GaAs epilayers are tensile relaxed. Defects at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb interface were confirmed by scanning electron microscope images. Band calculations were performed to infer the depletion region and electric field at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb and the air-GaAs interfaces. However, the resulting band calculations were found to be insufficient to explain the THz emission. The enhanced THz emission is currently attributed to a piezoelectric field induced by incoherent strain and defects.

  8. Nucleation mechanism of gallium-assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth of gallium arsenide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Fontcuberta i Morral, A.; Colombo, C.; Abstreiter, G.; Arbiol, J.; Morante, J. R.

    2008-02-11

    Molecular beam epitaxy Ga-assisted synthesis of GaAs nanowires is demonstrated. The nucleation and growth are seen to be related to the presence of a SiO{sub 2} layer previously deposited on the GaAs wafer. The interaction of the reactive gallium with the SiO{sub 2} pinholes induces the formation of nanocraters, found to be the key for the nucleation of the nanowires. With SiO{sub 2} thicknesses up to 30 nm, nanocraters reach the underlying substrate, resulting into a preferential growth orientation of the nanowires. Possibly related to the formation of nanocraters, we observe an incubation period of 258 s before the nanowires growth is initiated.

  9. Investigation of Localized States in GaAsSb Epilayers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xian; Wei, Zhipeng; Zhao, Fenghuan; Yang, Yahui; Chen, Rui; Fang, Xuan; Tang, Jilong; Fang, Dan; Wang, Dengkui; Li, Ruixue; Ge, Xiaotian; Ma, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaohua

    2016-07-01

    We report the carrier dynamics in GaAsSb ternary alloy grown by molecular beam epitaxy through comprehensive spectroscopic characterization over a wide temperature range. A detailed analysis of the experimental data reveals a complex carrier relaxation process involving both localized and delocalized states. At low temperature, the localized degree shows linear relationship with the increase of Sb component. The existence of localized states is also confirmed by the temperature dependence of peak position and band width of the emission. At temperature higher than 60 K, emissions related to localized states are quenched while the band to band transition dominates the whole spectrum. This study indicates that the localized states are related to the Sb component in the GaAsSb alloy, while it leads to the poor crystal quality of the material, and the application of GaAsSb alloy would be limited by this deterioration.

  10. Antimony segregation in stressed SiGe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Drozdov, M. N.; Novikov, A. V.; Yurasov, D. V.

    2013-11-15

    The effects of the growth temperature, composition, and elastic strains in separate layers on the segregation of antimony are studied experimentally for stressed SiGe structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. It is established that the growth conditions and parameters of the structures exert an interrelated influence on the segregation of Sb: the degree of the influence of the composition and elastic stresses in the SiGe layers on Sb segregation depends on the growth temperature. It is shown that usage of a method previously proposed by us for the selective doping of silicon structures with consideration for the obtained dependences of Sb segregation on the growth conditions and parameters of the SiGe layers makes it possible to form SiGe structures selectively doped with antimony.

  11. GaInP and AlInP grown by elemental source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varriano, J. A.; Koch, M. W.; Johnson, F. G.; Wicks, G. W.

    1992-02-01

    We report on the use of a new, valved, solid phosphorus cracker source for the growth of phosphides by molecular beam epitaxy. The source avoids the relatively high expense and high level of toxicity associated with the use of phosphine gas and eliminates the problems commonly encountered in using conventional solid phosphorus sources. The source has been used to grow GaInP and AlInP lattice-matched to GaAs substrates. The quality of the materials reported here is comparable to the best materials grown by other techniques. Photoluminescence and Raman scattering measurements indicate that the resulting material has a high degree of disorder on the group III sublattice. The new source is shown to be a reliable and attractive alternative for the growth of these phosphide materials.

  12. High breakdown single-crystal GaN p-n diodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Meng; Zhao, Yuning; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Guowang; Verma, Jai; Fay, Patrick; Nomoto, Kazuki; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang; Protasenko, Vladimir; Song, Bo; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Bader, Samuel

    2015-12-07

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN p-n vertical diodes are demonstrated on single-crystal GaN substrates. A low leakage current <3 nA/cm{sup 2} is obtained with reverse bias voltage up to −20 V. With a 400 nm thick n-drift region, an on-resistance of 0.23 mΩ cm{sup 2} is achieved, with a breakdown voltage corresponding to a peak electric field of ∼3.1 MV/cm in GaN. Single-crystal GaN substrates with very low dislocation densities enable the low leakage current and the high breakdown field in the diodes, showing significant potential for MBE growth to attain near-intrinsic performance when the density of dislocations is low.

  13. Towards precise defect control in layered oxide structures by using oxide molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Baiutti, Federico; Christiani, Georg; Logvenov, Gennady

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the atomic-layer-by-layer oxide molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-oxide MBE) which has been recently installed in the Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research and we report on its present status, providing some examples that demonstrate its successful application in the synthesis of different layered oxides, with particular reference to superconducting La2CuO4 and insulator-to-metal La2- x Sr x NiO4. We briefly review the ALL-oxide MBE technique and its unique capabilities in the deposition of atomically smooth single-crystal thin films of various complex oxides, artificial compounds and heterostructures, introducing our goal of pursuing a deep investigation of such systems with particular emphasis on structural defects, with the aim of tailoring their functional properties by precise defects control. PMID:24995148

  14. Bismuth-induced phase control of GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhenyu; Chen, Pingping E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Shi, Suixing; Yao, Luchi; Zhou, Xiaohao; Lu, Wei E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Zhang, Zhi; Zhou, Chen; Zou, Jin

    2014-10-20

    In this work, the crystal structure of GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been tailored only by bismuth without changing the growth temperature and V/III flux ratio. The introduction of bismuth can lead to the formation of zinc-blende GaAs nanowires, while the removal of bismuth changes the structure into a 4H polytypism before it turns back to the wurtzite phase eventually. The theoretical calculation shows that it is the steadiest for bismuth to adsorb on the GaAs(111){sub B} surface compared to the liquid gold catalyst surface and the interface between the gold catalyst droplet and the nanowire, and these adsorbed bismuth could decrease the diffusion length of adsorbed Ga and hence the supersaturation of Ga in the gold catalyst droplet.

  15. Fe-doped InN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xinqiang; Liu Shitao; Ma Dingyu; Zheng Xiantong; Chen Guang; Xu Fujun; Tang Ning; Shen Bo; Zhang Peng; Cao Xingzhong; Wang Baoyi; Huang Sen; Chen, Kevin J.; Zhou Shengqiang; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2012-10-22

    Iron(Fe)-doped InN (InN:Fe) layers have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that Fe-doping leads to drastic increase of residual electron concentration, which is different from the semi-insulating property of Fe-doped GaN. However, this heavy n-type doping cannot be fully explained by doped Fe-concentration ([Fe]). Further analysis shows that more unintentionally doped impurities such as hydrogen and oxygen are incorporated with increasing [Fe] and the surface is degraded with high density pits, which probably are the main reasons for electron generation and mobility reduction. Photoluminescence of InN is gradually quenched by Fe-doping. This work shows that Fe-doping is one of good choices to control electron density in InN.

  16. Formation of GeSn alloy on Si(100) by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Talochkin, A. B.; Mashanov, V. I.

    2014-12-29

    GeSn alloys grown on Si(100) by the low-temperature (100 °C) molecular beam epitaxy are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the effect of Sn as a surfactant modifies substantially the low-temperature growth mechanism of Ge on Si. Instead of the formation of small Ge islands surrounded by amorphous Ge, in the presence of Sn, the growth of pure Ge islands appears via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, and a partially relaxed Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloy layer with the high Sn-fraction up to 40 at. % is formed in the area between them. It is shown that the observed growth mode induced by high surface mobility of Sn and the large strain of the pseudomorphic state of Ge to Si ensures the minimum elastic-strain energy of the structure.

  17. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of free-standing plane-parallel InAs nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagesen, Martin; Johnson, Erik; Sørensen, Claus B.; Mariager, Simon O.; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Spiecker, Erdmann; Nygård, Jesper; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    2007-12-01

    Free-standing nanostructures such as suspended carbon nanotubes, graphene layers, III-V nanorod photonic crystals and three-dimensional structures have recently attracted attention because they could form the basis of devices with unique electronic, optoelectronic and electromechanical characteristics. Here we report the growth by molecular beam epitaxy of free-standing nanoplates of InAs that are close to being atomically plane. The structural and transport properties of these semiconducting nanoplates have been examined with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and low-temperature electron transport measurements. The carrier density of the nanoplates can be reduced to zero by applying a voltage to a nearby gate electrode, creating a new type of suspended quantum well that can be used to explore low-dimensional electron transport. The electronic and optical properties of such systems also make them potentially attractive for photovoltaic and sensing applications.

  18. Microstructure of In x Ga1-x N nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, R. F.; Soundararajah, Q. Y.; Griffiths, I. J.; Cherns, D.; Novikov, S. V.; Foxon, C. T.

    2015-11-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the structure and composition of In x Ga1-x N nanorods grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The results confirm a core-shell structure with an In-rich core and In-poor shell resulting from axial and lateral growth sectors respectively. Atomic resolution mapping by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and high angle annular dark field imaging show that both the core and the shell are decomposed into Ga-rich and In-rich platelets parallel to their respective growth surfaces. It is argued that platelet formation occurs at the surfaces, through the lateral expansion of surface steps. Studies of nanorods with graded composition show that decomposition ceases for x ≥ 0.8 and the ratio of growth rates, shell:core, decreases with increasing In concentration.

  19. Investigation of Localized States in GaAsSb Epilayers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xian; Wei, Zhipeng; Zhao, Fenghuan; Yang, Yahui; Chen, Rui; Fang, Xuan; Tang, Jilong; Fang, Dan; Wang, Dengkui; Li, Ruixue; Ge, Xiaotian; Ma, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    We report the carrier dynamics in GaAsSb ternary alloy grown by molecular beam epitaxy through comprehensive spectroscopic characterization over a wide temperature range. A detailed analysis of the experimental data reveals a complex carrier relaxation process involving both localized and delocalized states. At low temperature, the localized degree shows linear relationship with the increase of Sb component. The existence of localized states is also confirmed by the temperature dependence of peak position and band width of the emission. At temperature higher than 60 K, emissions related to localized states are quenched while the band to band transition dominates the whole spectrum. This study indicates that the localized states are related to the Sb component in the GaAsSb alloy, while it leads to the poor crystal quality of the material, and the application of GaAsSb alloy would be limited by this deterioration. PMID:27381641

  20. Ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As nanowires grown by Mn-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bouravleuv, Alexei; Cirlin, George; Sapega, Victor; Werner, Peter; Savin, Alexander; Lipsanen, Harri

    2013-04-14

    (Ga,Mn)As nanowires were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using Mn as a growth catalyst on GaAs(001) substrates at 485 Degree-Sign C, i.e., at intermediate temperatures higher than ones used for the growth of (Ga,Mn)As thin films, but lower than the ordinary temperatures of Au-assisted growth of GaAs nanowires. (Ga,Mn)As nanowires obtained with typical lengths between 0.8 and 4 {mu}m and diameters 50-90 nm do not have defects, such as dislocations or precipitates, except for the stacking faults lying parallel to the growth direction. The investigation of magnetic and optical properties has been carried out not only for as-grown samples with nanowires but also for peeled off nanowires from the host substrate. The results obtained demonstrate that (Ga,Mn)As nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic ordering around 70 K.

  1. Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Jay Prakash; Bhargava, Nupur; Kim, Sangcheol; Adam, Thomas; Kolodzey, James

    2013-06-01

    Infrared electroluminescence was observed from GeSn/Ge p-n heterojunction diodes with 8% Sn, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The GeSn layers were boron doped, compressively strained, and pseudomorphic on Ge substrates. Spectral measurements indicated an emission peak at 0.57 eV, about 50 meV wide, increasing in intensity with applied pulsed current, and with reducing device temperatures. The total integrated emitted power from a single edge facet was 54 μW at an applied peak current of 100 mA at 100 K. These results suggest that GeSn-based materials maybe useful for practical light emitting diodes operating in the infrared wavelength range near 2 μm.

  2. Formation of GeSn alloy on Si(100) by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talochkin, A. B.; Mashanov, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    GeSn alloys grown on Si(100) by the low-temperature (100 °C) molecular beam epitaxy are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the effect of Sn as a surfactant modifies substantially the low-temperature growth mechanism of Ge on Si. Instead of the formation of small Ge islands surrounded by amorphous Ge, in the presence of Sn, the growth of pure Ge islands appears via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, and a partially relaxed Ge1-xSnx alloy layer with the high Sn-fraction up to 40 at. % is formed in the area between them. It is shown that the observed growth mode induced by high surface mobility of Sn and the large strain of the pseudomorphic state of Ge to Si ensures the minimum elastic-strain energy of the structure.

  3. Molecular beam epitaxy of SrTiO3 with a growth window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalan, Bharat; Moetakef, Pouya; Stemmer, Susanne

    2009-07-01

    Many complex oxides with only nonvolatile constituents do not have a wide growth window in conventional molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approaches, which makes it difficult to obtain stoichiometric films. Here it is shown that a growth window in which the stoichiometry is self-regulating can be achieved for SrTiO3 films by using a hybrid MBE approach that uses a volatile metal-organic source for Ti, titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP). The growth window widens and shifts to higher TTIP/Sr flux ratios with increasing temperature, showing that it is related to the desorption of the volatile TTIP. We demonstrate stoichiometric, highly perfect, insulating SrTiO3 films. The approach can be adapted for the growth of other complex oxides that previously were believed to have no wide MBE growth window.

  4. Investigation of Localized States in GaAsSb Epilayers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xian; Wei, Zhipeng; Zhao, Fenghuan; Yang, Yahui; Chen, Rui; Fang, Xuan; Tang, Jilong; Fang, Dan; Wang, Dengkui; Li, Ruixue; Ge, Xiaotian; Ma, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    We report the carrier dynamics in GaAsSb ternary alloy grown by molecular beam epitaxy through comprehensive spectroscopic characterization over a wide temperature range. A detailed analysis of the experimental data reveals a complex carrier relaxation process involving both localized and delocalized states. At low temperature, the localized degree shows linear relationship with the increase of Sb component. The existence of localized states is also confirmed by the temperature dependence of peak position and band width of the emission. At temperature higher than 60 K, emissions related to localized states are quenched while the band to band transition dominates the whole spectrum. This study indicates that the localized states are related to the Sb component in the GaAsSb alloy, while it leads to the poor crystal quality of the material, and the application of GaAsSb alloy would be limited by this deterioration. PMID:27381641

  5. Molecular beam epitaxy of SrTiO{sub 3} with a growth window

    SciTech Connect

    Jalan, Bharat; Moetakef, Pouya; Stemmer, Susanne

    2009-07-20

    Many complex oxides with only nonvolatile constituents do not have a wide growth window in conventional molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approaches, which makes it difficult to obtain stoichiometric films. Here it is shown that a growth window in which the stoichiometry is self-regulating can be achieved for SrTiO{sub 3} films by using a hybrid MBE approach that uses a volatile metal-organic source for Ti, titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP). The growth window widens and shifts to higher TTIP/Sr flux ratios with increasing temperature, showing that it is related to the desorption of the volatile TTIP. We demonstrate stoichiometric, highly perfect, insulating SrTiO{sub 3} films. The approach can be adapted for the growth of other complex oxides that previously were believed to have no wide MBE growth window.

  6. Preface of the 18th International Conference on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, April S.; Ptak, Aaron J.

    2015-09-01

    The first International Conference on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (IC-MBE) was held in Paris in 1978, chaired by Alfred Y. Cho. Every other year since, with the exception of a four-year break after the initial meeting, the IC-MBE has been held in European, Asian, and North American venues. The 18th and latest IC-MBE was held in Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, September 7-12, 2014, and was chaired by Yong-Hang Zhang (Arizona State University). MBE is an advanced crystal growth method that benefits areas from the study of fundamental physics, all the way through the production of devices used in countless fields. IC-MBE brings together researchers from all over the world, and is the premier forum for scientific and technological exchange among researchers investigating all types of materials growth using the MBE technique.

  7. Effects of substrate orientation on the growth of InSb nanostructures by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. Y.; Torfi, A.; Pei, C.; Wang, W. I.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the effects of substrate orientation on InSb quantum structure growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are presented. Motivated by the observation that (411) evolves naturally as a stable facet during MBE crystal growth, comparison studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of the crystal orientation of the underlying GaSb substrate on the growth of InSb by MBE. By depositing InSb on a number of different substrate orientations, namely: (100), (311), (411), and (511), a higher nanostructure density was observed on the (411) surface compared with the other orientations. This result suggests that the (411) orientation presents a superior surface in MBE growth to develop a super-flat GaSb buffer surface, naturally favorable for nanostructure growth.

  8. AlN Nanowall Structures Grown on Si (111) Substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yosuke; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    AlN nanowall structures were grown on Si (111) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy at substrate temperature of 700 °C with N/Al flux ratios ranging from 50 to 660. A few types of other AlN nanostructures were also grown under the nitrogen-rich conditions. The AlN nanowalls were ranged typically 60-120 nm in width and from 190 to 470 nm in length by changing N/Al flux ratio. The AlN nanowall structures grown along the c-plane consisted of AlN (0002) crystal with full-width at half maximum of the rocking curve about 5000 arcsec. PMID:26625884

  9. High reflectance III-nitride Bragg reflectors grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, H.M.; Moustakas, T.D.

    2000-07-01

    Distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structures based on AlN/GaN have been grown on (0001) sapphire by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy (ECR-MBE). The design of the structures was predetermined by simulations using the transmission matrix method. A number of structures have been grown with 20.5--25.5 periods showing peak reflectance ranging form the near-UV to the green wavelength regions. For the best sample, peak reflectance up to 99% was observed centered at 467 nm with a bandwidth of 45 nm. The experimental reflectance data were compared with the simulations and show excellent agreement with respect to peak reflectance, bandwidth of high reflectance and the locations of the sidelobes.

  10. Growth of Inclined GaAs Nanowires by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Theory and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The growth of inclined GaAs nanowires (NWs) during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on the rotating substrates is studied. The growth model provides explicitly the NW length as a function of radius, supersaturations, diffusion lengths and the tilt angle. Growth experiments are carried out on the GaAs(211)A and GaAs(111)B substrates. It is found that 20° inclined NWs are two times longer in average, which is explained by a larger impingement rate on their sidewalls. We find that the effective diffusion length at 550°C amounts to 12 nm for the surface adatoms and is more than 5,000 nm for the sidewall adatoms. Supersaturations of surface and sidewall adatoms are also estimated. The obtained results show the importance of sidewall adatoms in the MBE growth of NWs, neglected in a number of earlier studies. PMID:21076695

  11. Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Look, D. C.; Reynolds, D. C.; Litton, C. W.; Jones, R. L.; Eason, D. B.; Cantwell, G.

    2002-09-01

    An N-doped, p-type ZnO layer has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on an Li-diffused, bulk, semi-insulating ZnO substrate. Hall-effect and conductivity measurements on the layer give: resistivity=4 x101 Omega cm; hole mobility=2 cm2/V s; and hole concentration=9 x1016 cm-3. Photoluminescence measurements in this N-doped layer show a much stronger peak near 3.32 eV (probably due to neutral acceptor bound excitons), than at 3.36 eV (neutral donor bound excitons), whereas the opposite is true in undoped ZnO. Calibrated, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy measurements show an N surface concentration of about 1019 cm-3 in the N-doped sample, but only about 1017 cm-3 in the undoped sample.

  12. Growth of high quality AlGaAs by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy using trimethylamine alane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abernathy, C. R.; Jordan, A. S.; Pearton, S. J.; Hobson, W. S.; Bohling, D. A.; Muhr, G. T.

    1990-06-01

    AlGaAs grown by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) has been problematic due to oxygen and carbon contamination, particularly when triethylaluminum (TEAl) has been used as the aluminum source. Consequently, we have investigated trimethylamine alane (TMAAl) as a potential replacement for the conventional metalorganic Al sources. AlGaAs films with excellent structural and optical properties have been grown with this source. Photoluminescence intensities from AlGaAs grown by MOMBE at 500 °C using TMAAl are comparable to those from material grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at 675 °C using triethylaluminum (TMAl). Carbon and oxygen levels in MOMBE-grown AlGaAs are drastically reduced in comparison to similar films grown with TEAl.

  13. Improved tunneling magnetoresistance at low temperature in manganite junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, R.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Davidson, B. A.; Mino, L. Alvarez

    2011-04-18

    We report resistance versus magnetic field measurements for a La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} tunnel junction grown by molecular-beam epitaxy, that show a large field window of extremely high tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) at low temperature. Scanning the in-plane applied field orientation through 360 deg., the TMR shows fourfold symmetry, i.e., biaxial anisotropy, aligned with the crystalline axis but not the junction geometrical long axis. The TMR reaches {approx}1900% at 4 K, corresponding to an interfacial spin polarization of >95% assuming identical interfaces. These results show that uniaxial anisotropy is not necessary for large TMR, and lay the groundwork for future improvements in TMR in manganite junctions.

  14. Real-time control of the molecular beam epitaxy of nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massies, J.; Grandjean, N.

    1999-05-01

    Due to the peculiarities of the growth process of GaN and related alloys on sapphire substrates, reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is not sufficient to correctly monitor all the different steps of molecular beam epitaxy growth (MBE). It is shown that laser reflectivity, which is a very simple method, is highly complementary to RHEED. However, RHEED remains an unrivaled tool for the precise control of the growth. In particular, the observation of RHEED intensity oscillations can be used, as for classical semiconductors, to determine the growth rate with monolayer precision and also the composition of ternary alloys such as Al xGa 1- xN. The accuracy of such a RHEED based control of MBE growth of nitrides is exemplified by the optical properties of GaN/Al xGa 1- xN quantum well structures.

  15. Optical properties of plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy grown InN/sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwar, Devki N.; Liao, Ying Chieh; Chen, Li Chyong; Chen, Kuei Hsien; Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2014-11-01

    The optical properties of as-grown InN/sapphire films prepared by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) are characterized by photoluminescence (PL), Raman scattering (RS) and infrared (IR) reflectance techniques. The PL measurements have consistently exhibited lower values of InN band gaps providing clear indications of electron concentration dependent peak energy shifts and widths. The phonon modes identified by RS are found to be in good agreement with the grazing inelastic X-ray scattering measurements and ab initio lattice dynamical calculations. An effective medium theory used to analyze IR reflectance spectra of InN/sapphire films has provided reasonable estimates of free charge carrier concentrations.

  16. Raman measurements of substrate temperature in a molecular beam epitaxy growth chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, T.; Nazari, M.; Eridisoorya, M.; Myers, T. M.; Holtz, M.

    2015-01-15

    A method is described for directly measuring the temperature of a substrate in a molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) growth system. The approach relies on the establishment of the temperature dependence of Raman-active phonons of the substrate material using independently known calibration points across the range of interest. An unknown temperature in this range is then determined based on the Raman peak position with the substrate in situ the MBE chamber. The apparatus relies on conventional optics and Raman components. Shifting and broadening of the Raman spectrum are described based on the effects of thermal expansion and anharmonic decay. The choice of reference temperature is discussed. The method is qualified by examining the substrate temperature dependence, relative to that of a standard thermocouple, during a commonly used ramp procedure. Both temperature difference and time lag are obtained.

  17. Residual stress in AlN films grown on sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Xin; Wang, Xinqiang; Chen, Guang; Pan, Jianhai; Wang, Ping; Liu, Huapeng; Xu, Fujun; Tan, Pingheng; Shen, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Residual stress in AlN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been studied by Raman scattering spectroscopy. A strain-free Raman frequency and a biaxial stress coefficient for E2(high) mode are experimentally determined to be 657.8 ± 0.3 cm-1 and 2.4 ± 0.2 cm-1 / GPa, respectively. By using these parameters, the residual stress of a series of AlN layers grown under different buffer layer conditions has been investigated. The residual compressive stress is found to be obviously decreased by increasing the Al/N beam flux ratio of the buffer layer, indicating the generation of tensile stress due to stronger coalescence of AlN grains, as also confirmed by the in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) monitoring observation. The stronger coalescence does lead to improved quality of AlN films as expected.

  18. n{sup +}-GaN grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy: Application to regrown contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Lugani, L.; Malinverni, M.; Giraud, E.; Carlin, J.-F.; Grandjean, N.; Tirelli, S.; Marti, D.; Bolognesi, C. R.

    2014-11-17

    We report on the low-temperature growth of heavily Si-doped (>10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}) n{sup +}-type GaN by N-rich ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with very low bulk resistivity (<4 × 10{sup −4} Ω·cm). This is applied to the realization of regrown ohmic contacts on InAlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. A low n{sup +}-GaN/2 dimensional electron gas contact resistivity of 0.11 Ω·mm is measured, provided an optimized surface preparation procedure, which is shown to be critical. This proves the great potentials of ammonia MBE for the realization of high performance electronic devices.

  19. Growth regimes during homoepitaxial growth of GaN by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Corrion, A. L.; Wu, F.; Speck, J. S.

    2012-09-01

    c-plane GaN films were grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on metal-organic chemical vapor deposition templates for a wide range of NH{sub 3}:Ga flux ratios and growth temperatures, and the resulting films were characterized using atomic force microscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Three distinct nitrogen-rich growth regimes - unstable layer-by-layer, quasi-stable step flow, and dislocation-mediated pitting - were identified based on the growth mode and film properties. In addition, step flow growth was observed under conditions of gallium droplet accumulation. The results indicate the existence of two regimes for step-flow growth of GaN by ammonia MBE - both gallium-rich and nitrogen-rich. Growth mode instabilities and mound formation were observed and are discussed in the context of a step-edge energy barrier to adatom diffusion over a terrace.

  20. Epitaxial dysprosium phosphide grown by gas-source and solid-source MBE on gallium arsenide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadwick, L. P.; Lee, P. P.; Patel, M.; Nikols, M.; Hwu, R. J.; Shield, J. E.; Streit, D. C.; Brehmer, D.; McCormick, K.; Allen, S. J.; Gedridge, R. W.

    1996-07-01

    We report the first known study of the growth of epitaxial dysprosium phosphide (DyP) grown on gallium arsenide (GaAs). DyP is lattice matched to GaAs, with the room-temperature mismatch being less than 0.01%. We have grown DyP on GaAs by gas-source and by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy using custom-designed group V thermal cracker cells and group III high temperature effusion cells. X-ray diffraction results show the DyP epilayer to be (001) single crystal on GaAs(001) substrate. Electrical and optical measurements performed to date are inconclusive as to whether DyP is a semi-metal or a semiconductor with a small band gap. The undoped films are n-type with measured electron concentrations on the order of 5 × 10 19-6 × 10 20cm -3 with mobilities of 1-10 cm 2/V · s. {DyP}/{GaAs} is stable in air with no apparent oxidation taking place, even after months of exposure to ambient untreated air. Material and surface science properties measured for {DyP}/{GaAs} include Hall measurements, 2ϑ and double-crystal X-ray diffraction spectra and photothermal deflection spectroscopy.

  1. Effect of growth temperature on defects in epitaxial GaN film grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kushvaha, S. S. Pal, P.; Shukla, A. K.; Joshi, Amish G.; Gupta, Govind; Kumar, M.; Singh, S.; Gupta, Bipin K.; Haranath, D.

    2014-02-15

    We report the effect of growth temperature on defect states of GaN epitaxial layers grown on 3.5 μm thick GaN epi-layer on sapphire (0001) substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The GaN samples grown at three different substrate temperatures at 730, 740 and 750 °C were characterized using atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The atomic force microscopy images of these samples show the presence of small surface and large hexagonal pits on the GaN film surfaces. The surface defect density of high temperature grown sample is smaller (4.0 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2} at 750 °C) than that of the low temperature grown sample (1.1 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2} at 730 °C). A correlation between growth temperature and concentration of deep centre defect states from photoluminescence spectra is also presented. The GaN film grown at 750 °C exhibits the lowest defect concentration which confirms that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and affects the optical properties of the GaN epitaxial films.

  2. Direct growth of graphene on in situ epitaxial hexagonal boron nitride flakes by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhongguang; Zheng, Renjing; Khanaki, Alireza; Zuo, Zheng; Liu, Jianlin

    2015-11-23

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single-crystal domains were grown on cobalt (Co) substrates at a substrate temperature of 850–900 °C using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Three-point star shape h-BN domains were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and confirmed by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The h-BN on Co template was used for in situ growth of multilayer graphene, leading to an h-BN/graphene heterostructure. Carbon atoms preferentially nucleate on Co substrate and edges of h-BN and then grow laterally to form continuous graphene. Further introduction of carbon atoms results in layer-by-layer growth of graphene on graphene and lateral growth of graphene on h-BN until it may cover entire h-BN flakes.

  3. Growth and properties of GdTiO3 films prepared by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Ouellette, Daniel G.; Zhang, Jack Y.; Cain, Tyler A.; Allen, S. James; Stemmer, Susanne

    2012-09-01

    The paper reports on the thin film growth of a protoptype Mott insulator, ferrimagnetic GdTiO3, using shuttered molecular beam epitaxy. Substrates were (001) (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT), with and without epitaxial SrTiO3 buffer layers, respectively. It was found that on bare LSAT, the starting monolayer was crucial for stabilizing the GdTiO3 perovskite phase. The quality of the films was evaluated using structural, electric, optical and magnetic characterization. Structural characterization showed that the GdTiO3 layers were free of pyrochlore impurity phases and that the lattice parameter was close to what was expected for coherently strained, stoichiometric GdTiO3. The room temperature film resistivity was 7 Ωcm and increased with decreasing temperature, consistent with Mott insulating characteristics. The Curie temperature was 30 K and a small coercivity was observed at 2 K, in good agreement with bulk GdTiO3 properties reported in the literature.

  4. Magnetotransport in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrieu, S.; Bonell, F.; Hauet, T.; Montaigne, F.; Calmels, L.; Snoeck, E.; Lefevre, P.; Bertran, F.

    2014-05-01

    The strong impact of molecular beam epitaxy growth and Synchrotron Radiation characterization tools in the understanding of fundamental issues in nanomagnetism and spintronics is illustrated through the example of fully epitaxial MgO-based Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJs). If ab initio calculations predict very high tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in such devices, some discrepancy between theory and experiments still exists. The influence of imperfections in real systems has thus to be considered like surface contaminations, structural defects, unexpected electronic states, etc. The influence of possible oxygen contamination at the Fe/MgO(001) interface is thus studied, and is shown to be not so detrimental to TMR as predicted by ab initio calculations. On the contrary, the decrease of dislocations density in the MgO barrier of MTJs using Fe1-xVx electrodes is shown to significantly increase TMR. Finally, unexpected transport properties in Fe1-XCox/MgO/Fe1-XCox (001) are presented. With the help of spin and symmetry resolved photoemission and ab initio calculation, the TMR decrease for Co content higher than 25% is shown to come from the existence of an interface state and the shift of the empty Δ1 minority spin state towards the Fermi level.

  5. An ultra-compact, high-throughput molecular beam epitaxy growth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. A.; Braun, W.; Gassler, G.; Rembold, S.; Fischer, A.; Hesjedal, T.

    2015-04-01

    We present a miniaturized molecular beam epitaxy (miniMBE) system with an outer diameter of 206 mm, optimized for flexible and high-throughput operation. The three-chamber system, used here for oxide growth, consists of a sample loading chamber, a storage chamber, and a growth chamber. The growth chamber is equipped with eight identical effusion cell ports with linear shutters, one larger port for either a multi-pocket electron beam evaporator or an oxygen plasma source, an integrated cryoshroud, retractable beam-flux monitor or quartz-crystal microbalance, reflection high energy electron diffraction, substrate manipulator, main shutter, and quadrupole mass spectrometer. The system can be combined with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) end stations on synchrotron and neutron beamlines, or equivalently with other complex surface analysis systems, including low-temperature scanning probe microscopy systems. Substrate handling is compatible with most UHV surface characterization systems, as the miniMBE can accommodate standard surface science sample holders. We introduce the design of the system, and its specific capabilities and operational parameters, and we demonstrate the epitaxial thin film growth of magnetoelectric Cr2O3 on c-plane sapphire and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 on MgO (001).

  6. The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver

    2015-02-01

    The hetero-epitaxial growth of the n-type semiconducting oxides β-Ga2O3, In2O3, and SnO2 on c- and r-plane sapphire was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth-rate and desorbing flux from the substrate were measured in-situ under various oxygen to metal ratios by laser reflectometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. These measurements clarified the role of volatile sub-oxide formation (Ga2O, In2O, and SnO) during growth, the sub-oxide stoichiometry, and the efficiency of oxide formation for the three oxides. As a result, the formation of the sub-oxides decreased the growth-rate under metal-rich growth conditions and resulted in etching of the oxide film by supplying only metal flux. The flux ratio for the exclusive formation of the sub-oxide (e.g., the p-type semiconductor SnO) was determined, and the efficiency of oxide formation was found to be the highest for SnO2, somewhat lower for In2O3, and the lowest for Ga2O3. Our findings can be generalized to further oxides that possess related sub-oxides.

  7. Magnetotransport in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Andrieu, S. Bonell, F.; Hauet, T.; Montaigne, F.; Lefevre, P.; Bertran, F.

    2014-05-07

    The strong impact of molecular beam epitaxy growth and Synchrotron Radiation characterization tools in the understanding of fundamental issues in nanomagnetism and spintronics is illustrated through the example of fully epitaxial MgO-based Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJs). If ab initio calculations predict very high tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in such devices, some discrepancy between theory and experiments still exists. The influence of imperfections in real systems has thus to be considered like surface contaminations, structural defects, unexpected electronic states, etc. The influence of possible oxygen contamination at the Fe/MgO(001) interface is thus studied, and is shown to be not so detrimental to TMR as predicted by ab initio calculations. On the contrary, the decrease of dislocations density in the MgO barrier of MTJs using Fe{sub 1−x}V{sub x} electrodes is shown to significantly increase TMR. Finally, unexpected transport properties in Fe{sub 1−X}Co{sub x}/MgO/Fe{sub 1−X}Co{sub x} (001) are presented. With the help of spin and symmetry resolved photoemission and ab initio calculation, the TMR decrease for Co content higher than 25% is shown to come from the existence of an interface state and the shift of the empty Δ1 minority spin state towards the Fermi level.

  8. High response solar-blind MgZnO photodetectors grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Winston V.; Wei, Ming; Boutwell, R. Casey; Liu, Huiyong

    2014-03-01

    High quality w-MgxZn1-xO thin films were grown epitaxially on c-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy. ZnO thin films with high crystalline quality, low defect and dislocation densities, and subnanometer surface roughness were achieved by applying a low temperature nucleation layer. By tuning Mg/Zn flux ratio, wurtzite MgxZn1-xO thin films with Mg composition as high as x=0.46 were obtained without phase segregation. Metal- Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photoconductive and Schottky barrier devices with interdigitated electrode geometry and active surface area of 1 mm2 were fabricated and characterized. Resultant devices showed ~100 A/W peak responsivity at wavelength of ~260nm. We also report on cubic rock salt c-MgxZn1-xO thin films, following a non-traditional approach on MgO substrates, to demonstrate solar-blind photoresponse in MSM photodetectors, realizing a peak responsivity of 460 A/W (@ 250 nm) and 12.6 mA/W (@ 240nm) for mixed phase and single crystal films, respectively. A specific focus of the work is on identifying the impact of various growth parameters on the performance of the c- MgZnO detectors.

  9. An ultra-compact, high-throughput molecular beam epitaxy growth system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A. A.; Hesjedal, T.; Braun, W. E-mail: fischer@createc.de; Rembold, S.; Fischer, A. E-mail: fischer@createc.de; Gassler, G.

    2015-04-15

    We present a miniaturized molecular beam epitaxy (miniMBE) system with an outer diameter of 206 mm, optimized for flexible and high-throughput operation. The three-chamber system, used here for oxide growth, consists of a sample loading chamber, a storage chamber, and a growth chamber. The growth chamber is equipped with eight identical effusion cell ports with linear shutters, one larger port for either a multi-pocket electron beam evaporator or an oxygen plasma source, an integrated cryoshroud, retractable beam-flux monitor or quartz-crystal microbalance, reflection high energy electron diffraction, substrate manipulator, main shutter, and quadrupole mass spectrometer. The system can be combined with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) end stations on synchrotron and neutron beamlines, or equivalently with other complex surface analysis systems, including low-temperature scanning probe microscopy systems. Substrate handling is compatible with most UHV surface characterization systems, as the miniMBE can accommodate standard surface science sample holders. We introduce the design of the system, and its specific capabilities and operational parameters, and we demonstrate the epitaxial thin film growth of magnetoelectric Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on c-plane sapphire and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} on MgO (001)

  10. Strain-Engineered Graphene Grown on Hexagonal Boron Nitride by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Summerfield, Alex; Davies, Andrew; Cheng, Tin S.; Korolkov, Vladimir V.; Cho, YongJin; Mellor, Christopher J.; Foxon, C. Thomas; Khlobystov, Andrei N.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Eaves, Laurence; Novikov, Sergei V.; Beton, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene grown by high temperature molecular beam epitaxy on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) forms continuous domains with dimensions of order 20 μm, and exhibits moiré patterns with large periodicities, up to ~30 nm, indicating that the layers are highly strained. Topological defects in the moiré patterns are observed and attributed to the relaxation of graphene islands which nucleate at different sites and subsequently coalesce. In addition, cracks are formed leading to strain relaxation, highly anisotropic strain fields, and abrupt boundaries between regions with different moiré periods. These cracks can also be formed by modification of the layers with a local probe resulting in the contraction and physical displacement of graphene layers. The Raman spectra of regions with a large moiré period reveal split and shifted G and 2D peaks confirming the presence of strain. Our work demonstrates a new approach to the growth of epitaxial graphene and a means of generating and modifying strain in graphene. PMID:26928710

  11. Growth kinetics and island evolution during double-pulsed molecular beam epitaxy of InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, A.; Hein, C.; Bremers, H.; Rossow, U.; Hangleiter, A.

    2016-06-01

    The kinetic processes of InN growth using alternating source fluxes with sub-monolayer In pulses in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated. Growth at various temperatures reveals the existence of two growth regimes. While growth at low temperatures is solely governed by surface diffusion, a combination of decomposition, desorption, and diffusion becomes decisive at growth temperatures of 470 °C and above. At this critical temperature, the surface morphology changes from a grainy structure to a structure made of huge islands. The formation of those islands is attributed to the development of an indium adlayer, which can be observed via reflection high energy electron diffraction monitoring. Based on the growth experiments conducted at temperatures below TGrowth = 470 °C, an activation energy for diffusion of 0.54 ± 0.02 eV has been determined from the decreasing InN island density. A comparison between growth on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy GaN templates and pseudo bulk GaN indicates that step edges and dislocations are favorable nucleation sites. Based on the results, we developed a growth model, which describes the main mechanisms of the growth.

  12. Strain-Engineered Graphene Grown on Hexagonal Boron Nitride by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerfield, Alex; Davies, Andrew; Cheng, Tin S.; Korolkov, Vladimir V.; Cho, Yongjin; Mellor, Christopher J.; Foxon, C. Thomas; Khlobystov, Andrei N.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Eaves, Laurence; Novikov, Sergei V.; Beton, Peter H.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene grown by high temperature molecular beam epitaxy on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) forms continuous domains with dimensions of order 20 μm, and exhibits moiré patterns with large periodicities, up to ~30 nm, indicating that the layers are highly strained. Topological defects in the moiré patterns are observed and attributed to the relaxation of graphene islands which nucleate at different sites and subsequently coalesce. In addition, cracks are formed leading to strain relaxation, highly anisotropic strain fields, and abrupt boundaries between regions with different moiré periods. These cracks can also be formed by modification of the layers with a local probe resulting in the contraction and physical displacement of graphene layers. The Raman spectra of regions with a large moiré period reveal split and shifted G and 2D peaks confirming the presence of strain. Our work demonstrates a new approach to the growth of epitaxial graphene and a means of generating and modifying strain in graphene.

  13. Growth of GaN nanowall network on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    GaN nanowall network was epitaxially grown on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. GaN nanowalls overlap and interlace with one another, together with large numbers of holes, forming a continuous porous GaN nanowall network. The width of the GaN nanowall can be controlled, ranging from 30 to 200 nm by adjusting the N/Ga ratio. Characterization results of a transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction show that the GaN nanowall is well oriented along the C axis. Strong band edge emission centered at 363 nm is observed in the spectrum of room temperature photoluminescence, indicating that the GaN nanowall network is of high quality. The sheet resistance of the Si-doped GaN nanowall network along the lateral direction was 58 Ω/. The conductive porous nanowall network can be useful for integrated gas sensors due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio and electrical conductivity along the lateral direction by combining with Si micromachining. PMID:23270331

  14. Formation of Ga droplets on patterned GaAs (100) by molecular beam epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the formation of Ga droplets on photo-lithographically patterned GaAs (100) and the control of the size and density of Ga droplets by droplet epitaxy using molecular beam epitaxy are demonstrated. In extension of our previous result from the journal Physical Status Solidi A, volume 209 in 2012, the sharp contrast of the size and density of Ga droplets is clearly observed by high-resolution scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Also, additional monolayer (ML) coverage is added to strength the result. The density of droplets is an order of magnitude higher on the trench area (etched area), while the size of droplets is much larger on the strip top area (un-etched area). A systematic variation of ML coverage results in an establishment of the control of size and density of Ga droplets. The cross-sectional line profile analysis and root mean square roughness analysis show that the trench area (etched area) is approximately six times rougher. The atomic surface roughness is suggested to be the main cause of the sharp contrast of the size and density of Ga droplets and is discussed in terms of surface diffusion. PMID:23033893

  15. Hybrid molecular beam epitaxy for the growth of stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, Abhinav Dewey, John; Yun, Hwanhui; Jeong, Jong Seok; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Jalan, Bharat

    2015-11-15

    Owing to its high room-temperature electron mobility and wide bandgap, BaSnO{sub 3} has recently become of significant interest for potential room-temperature oxide electronics. A hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach for the growth of high-quality BaSnO{sub 3} films is developed in this work. This approach employs hexamethylditin as a chemical precursor for tin, an effusion cell for barium, and a radio frequency plasma source for oxygen. BaSnO{sub 3} films were thus grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) and LaAlO{sub 3} (001) substrates. Growth conditions for stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3} were identified. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations, characteristic of a layer-by-layer growth mode were observed. A critical thickness of ∼1 nm for strain relaxation was determined for films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} using in situ RHEED. Scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed the cube-on-cube epitaxy and composition. The importance of precursor chemistry is discussed in the context of the MBE growth of BaSnO{sub 3}.

  16. The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver

    2015-02-23

    The hetero-epitaxial growth of the n-type semiconducting oxides β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SnO{sub 2} on c- and r-plane sapphire was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth-rate and desorbing flux from the substrate were measured in-situ under various oxygen to metal ratios by laser reflectometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. These measurements clarified the role of volatile sub-oxide formation (Ga{sub 2}O, In{sub 2}O, and SnO) during growth, the sub-oxide stoichiometry, and the efficiency of oxide formation for the three oxides. As a result, the formation of the sub-oxides decreased the growth-rate under metal-rich growth conditions and resulted in etching of the oxide film by supplying only metal flux. The flux ratio for the exclusive formation of the sub-oxide (e.g., the p-type semiconductor SnO) was determined, and the efficiency of oxide formation was found to be the highest for SnO{sub 2}, somewhat lower for In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and the lowest for Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Our findings can be generalized to further oxides that possess related sub-oxides.

  17. Strain-Engineered Graphene Grown on Hexagonal Boron Nitride by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Summerfield, Alex; Davies, Andrew; Cheng, Tin S; Korolkov, Vladimir V; Cho, YongJin; Mellor, Christopher J; Foxon, C Thomas; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Eaves, Laurence; Novikov, Sergei V; Beton, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Graphene grown by high temperature molecular beam epitaxy on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) forms continuous domains with dimensions of order 20 μm, and exhibits moiré patterns with large periodicities, up to ~30 nm, indicating that the layers are highly strained. Topological defects in the moiré patterns are observed and attributed to the relaxation of graphene islands which nucleate at different sites and subsequently coalesce. In addition, cracks are formed leading to strain relaxation, highly anisotropic strain fields, and abrupt boundaries between regions with different moiré periods. These cracks can also be formed by modification of the layers with a local probe resulting in the contraction and physical displacement of graphene layers. The Raman spectra of regions with a large moiré period reveal split and shifted G and 2D peaks confirming the presence of strain. Our work demonstrates a new approach to the growth of epitaxial graphene and a means of generating and modifying strain in graphene. PMID:26928710

  18. Molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown ZnMgS ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sou, I. K.; Wu, Marcus C. W.; Sun, T.; Wong, K. S.; Wong, G. K. L.

    2001-03-01

    Epitaxial growth of Zn1-xMgxS alloy thin films on GaP(100) substrates was carried out using the molecular-beam-epitaxy technique. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction studies show that the alloys can be grown with a stable zinc-blende structure up to x around 30%. For x>30%, a structural transition will occur at a critical thickness which is sensitively dependent on the x composition. A near-band-edge peak with a full width at half maximum of about 10 nm was observed in room-temperature photoluminescence measurements made on as-grown alloy thin films. Several Zn1-xMgxS-based Schottky barrier photodetectors were fabricated. Room-temperature photoresponse measurements were performed on these detectors and abrupt long-wavelength cutoffs covering 325, 305, 295, and 270 nm were achieved for devices with Mg composition of 16%, 44%, 57%, and 75%, respectively. The response curve of the Zn0.43Mg0.57S device offers a close match to the erythemal action spectrum that describes human skin sensitivity to UV radiation.

  19. Molecular Beam Epitaxy of BaSi2 Films with Grain Size over 4 µm on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Masakazu; Nakamura, Kotaro; Du, Weijie; Ajmal Khan, M.; Koike, Shintaro; Toko, Kaoru; Usami, Noritaka; Saito, Noriyuki; Yoshizawa, Noriko; Suemasu, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    100-nm-thick BaSi2 epitaxial films were grown on Si(111) substrates by a two-step growth method including reactive deposition epitaxy (RDE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The Ba deposition rate and duration were varied from 0.25 to 1.0 nm/min and from 5 to 120 min during RDE, respectively. Plan-view transmission electron micrographs indicated that the grain size in the MBE-grown BaSi2 was significantly dependent on the RDE growth conditions and was varied from approximately 0.2 to more than 4 µm.

  20. Epitaxial growth and optical properties of Al- and N-polar AlN films by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. W.; Jia, C. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Wang, H. T.; Zhang, W. F.

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial aluminum nitride (AlN) films with c-axis orientation were grown on both (1 1 1) MgO and c-sapphire substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. The in-plane epitaxial relationships were determined to be [1 1 \\bar{{2}} 0]AlN‖[0 \\bar{{1}} 1]MgO and [1 \\bar{{1}} 0 0]AlN‖[1 1 \\bar{{2}} 0]sapphire, and the lattice mismatch was 4.2% and 13.2% for AlN films on MgO and sapphire, respectively. The AlN films were shown to be Al- and N-polar on MgO and sapphire, respectively. The former is assumed to be caused by the centre of inversion symmetry of (1 1 1) MgO substrate, while the latter is due to the O polarity of sapphire. The full-width at half-maximum of the ω-scanning spectrum for AlN film on (1 1 1) MgO substrate is smaller than that on the c-sapphire substrate. The optical band-gap energies for AlN films grown on MgO and sapphire were found to be 5.93 and 5.84 eV, close to the standard band gap of 6.2 eV, and the calculated Urbach energies were 0.27 eV and 0.53 eV, respectively. These results indicate a lower amorphous content and/or less defects/impurities in Al-polar than N-polar AlN.

  1. HgCdTe Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth Temperature Calibration Using Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilela, M. F.; Pribil, G. K.; Olsson, K. R.; Lofgreen, D. D.

    2012-10-01

    In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is demonstrated as a technique to calibrate growth temperature measurement devices (thermocouples and pyrometers) prior to real mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) growth. A pyrometer is used to control the substrate temperature in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for the growth of HgCdTe-based material. It is known that a very narrow optimal growth temperature range exists for HgCdTe, typically ±5°C. A nonoptimal growth temperature will negatively impact on material quality by inducing growth defects, reducing composition uniformity, causing difficulty in controlling doping incorporation, promoting poor electronic properties, and having other adverse effects. Herein, we present a method for measuring and calibrating substrate temperature measurement equipment by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) prior to real HgCdTe growth. This method is easy to implement, nondestructive, and reliable. The proposed method requires one substrate with a surface material with optical properties well known in the temperature range of interest, but not necessarily the same base material as the material to be grown. In the specific case of this work, we use epitaxial CdTe material on top of a Si substrate. This wafer was used to create a database of its optical properties as a function of temperature by using SE. From the collected optical parameters, a model is built and a fit is generated from the SE data collected. The temperature can then be determined by fitting the temperature-dependent SE measurements from this specific CdTe material. The angle offset and surface roughness parameters are also included in the model to account for changes in the average run-to-run angle variations and surface conditions over time. This work does not attempt to obtain an absolute temperature, but rather a reliable and repeatable relative temperature measurement.

  2. Chemical and molecular beam epitaxy of III-V nanowires on silicon for photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Gokul

    Nanowires, due to their unique structure and carrier transport abilities, have sparked huge interest in the semiconductor industry. An array of nanometric size wires inserted between the p and n conductivity regions of a conventional solar cell or core shell type p-n junction nanowires synergized with semiconductor nanocrystals can lead to faster carrier collection, thereby improving device performance. This work investigates the growth of GaAs and InP semiconductor nanowires on silicon (111) using Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE) and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). Uniform gold nanoparticles acting as growth centers in the Vapor Liquid Solid mode of growth were generated by using the cheap and rapid technique called Nanosphere Lithography (NSL). Variation of the experimental parameters during NSL resulted in honeycomb and hexagonal patterns of gold nanoparticles. A high degree of selectivity was obtained for CBE grown nanowires whereas the MBE grown GaAs nanowires revealed the formation of a thick polycrystalline wetting layer at the interface. The CBE grown InP nanowires mostly maintained the honeycomb structure although they were found to be oriented contrary to the expected <111> direction. SEM analysis of GaAs nanowires grown by CBE showed that during growth, the nanowires may coalesce with each other resulting in unique structures such as bipods, tripods and multipods. High resolution TEM analysis of single GaAs nanowires revealed periodic formation of contrasting materials. Diffraction patterns recorded at these dark contrast areas confirmed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite single crystal structures interspaced with cubic zincblende single crystal structures. These nanowires can be used for photovoltaic applications or as light emitting devices. In addition, the formation of superlattices of different crystal structures can pave the way for novel quantum confined optoelectronic devices.

  3. InAlN/GaN Bragg reflectors grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Gacevic, Z.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Calleja, E.; Estrade, S.

    2010-12-01

    We report on molecular beam epitaxy growth and characterization of ten-period lattice-matched InAlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), with peak reflectivity centered around 400 nm. Thanks to the well tuned ternary alloy composition, crack-free surfaces have been obtained, as confirmed by both optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their good periodicity and well-defined interfaces have been confirmed by both x-ray diffraction and TEM measurements. Peak reflectivity values as high as 60% with stop bands of 30 nm have been demonstrated. Optical measurements revealed that discrepancy between the obtained (60%) and the theoretically expected ({approx}75%) reflectivity is a consequence of significant residual absorption ({approx}35%). TEM measurements revealed the coexistence of zinc-blende and wurtzite phases, as well as planar defects, mainly in GaN. These defects are suggested as the potential source of the undesired absorption and/or scattering effects that lowered the DBRs' peak reflectivity.

  4. Structural and optical properties of dilute InAsN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, J.; Oliva, R.; De la Mare, M.; Zhuang, Q.; Godenir, A.; Krier, A.; Schmidbauer, M.; Hernandez, S.; Pellegrino, P.; Scurr, D. J.; Cusco, R.; Artus, L.; Shafi, M.; Mari, R. H.; Henini, M.

    2010-11-15

    We perform a structural and optical characterization of InAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InAs substrates (x < or approx. 2.2%). High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) is used to obtain information about the crystal quality and the strain state of the samples and to determine the N content of the films. The composition of two of the samples investigated is also obtained with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) measurements. The combined analysis of the HRXRD and ToF-SIMS data suggests that the lattice parameter of InAsN might significantly deviate from Vegard's law. Raman scattering and far-infrared reflectivity measurements have been carried out to investigate the incorporation of N into the InAsN alloy. N-related local vibrational modes are detected in the samples with higher N content. The origin of the observed features is discussed. We study the compositional dependence of the room-temperature band gap energy of the InAsN alloy. For this purpose, photoluminescence and optical absorption measurements are presented. The results are analyzed in terms of the band-anticrossing (BAC) model. We find that the room-temperature coupling parameter for InAsN within the BAC model is C{sub NM}=2.0{+-}0.1 eV.

  5. Growth and magnetic property of antiperovskite manganese nitride films doped with Cu by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Fengmei; Ren, Lizhu; Meng, Meng; Wang, Yunjia; Yang, Mei; Wu, Shuxiang; Li, Shuwei

    2014-04-07

    Manganese nitrides thin films on MgO (100) substrates with and without Cu-doping have been fabricated by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Antiperovskite compounds Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N have been grown in the case of Cu-doping, and the pure Mn{sub 3}N{sub 2} single crystal has been obtained without Cu-doping. The Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N exhibits ferrimagnetism, and the magnetization of Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N increases upon the temperature decreasing from 300 K to 5 K, similar to Mn{sub 4}N. The exchange bias (EB) effects emerge in the Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N films. The EB behavior is originated from the interfaces between ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 3.6}Cu{sub 0.4}N and antiferromagnetic metal Mn, which is verified to be formed by the data of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The present results not only provide a strategy for producing functional antiperovskite manganese nitrides, but also shed promising light on fabricating the exchange bias part of spintronic devices.

  6. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanowires and nanoflakes

    SciTech Connect

    Knebl, G. M. Gessler, J. R.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.

    2014-09-29

    Topological Insulators are in focus of immense research efforts and rapid scientific progress is obtained in that field. Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has proven to be a topological insulator material that provides a large band gap and a band structure with a single Dirac cone at the Γ-point. This makes Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} one of the most promising three dimensional topological insulator materials. While Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanowires and nanoflakes so far were fabricated with different methods and for different purposes, we here present the first Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanowires as well as nanoflakes grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The nanostructures were nucleated on pretreated, silicon (100) wafers. Altering the growth conditions nanoflakes could be fabricated instead of nanowires; both with high crystalline quality, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy. These nanostructures have promise for spintronic devices and Majorana fermion observation in contact to superconductor materials.

  7. Polarity inversion of N-face GaN by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.H.; Mishra, Umesh K.; Wu Feng; Mates, Thomas E.; Speck, James S.

    2008-11-01

    The polarity of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was inverted from N-face to Ga-face by simultaneously exposing the surface to Mg and activated N fluxes during a growth interruption at a reduced substrate temperature. Growth studies suggested that a Mg{sub x}N{sub y} compound was responsible for inverting the crystal. The change in polarity was verified in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction via GaN surface reconstructions, and ex situ by convergent beam electron diffraction and KOH etch studies. The surface of the inverted material showed smooth step flow features. Ga-face high electron mobility transistors with good dc and small signal performance were fabricated on the inverted epilayers. A drain-source current of 0.84 A/mm was measured at a gate-source voltage of +1 V. Current-gain cutoff and maximum oscillation frequencies of 22 and 53 GHz, respectively, were measured in these devices. The device performance is similar to that of Ga-face transistors with comparable dimensions.

  8. Molecular-beam epitaxy of CdTe on large area Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporken, R.; Lange, M. D.; Faurie, J. P.; Petruzzello, J.

    1991-10-01

    We have grown CdTe directly on 2- and 5-in. diam Si(100) by molecular-beam epitaxy and characterized the layers by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, double crystal x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and low-temperature photoluminescence. The films are up to 10-μm thick and mirror-like over their entire surface. Even on 5-in. diam wafers, the structural and thickness uniformity is excellent. Two domains, oriented 90° apart, are observed in the CdTe films on oriented Si(100) substrates, whereas single-domain films are grown on Si(100) titled 6° or 8° toward [011]. The layers on misoriented substrates have better morphology than those on oriented Si(100), and the substrate tilt also eliminates twinning in the CdTe layers. First attempts to grow HgCdTe on Si(100 with a CdTe buffer layer have produced up to 10-μm thick layers with cutoff wavelengths between 5 and 10-μm and with an average full width at half-maximum of the double-crystal x-ray diffraction peaks of 200 arc s.

  9. Coherent growth of superconducting TiN thin films by plasma enhanced molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Karimoto, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Hideki; Semba, Kouich

    2012-10-15

    We have investigated the formation of titanium nitride (TiN) thin films on (001) MgO substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and radio frequency acitvated nitrogen plasma. Although cubic TiN is stabile over a wide temperature range, superconducting TiN films are exclusively obtained when the substrate temperature exceeds 710 Degree-Sign C. TiN films grown at 720 Degree-Sign C show a high residual resistivity ratio of approximately 11 and the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) is well above 5 K. Superconductivity has been confirmed also by magnetiztion measurements. In addition, we determined the upper critical magnetic field ({mu}{sub 0}H{sub c2}) as well as the corresponding coherence length ({xi}{sub GL}) by transport measurements under high magnetic fields. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy data revealed full in plane coherency to the substrate as well as a low defect density in the film, in agreement with a mean-free path length Script-Small-L Almost-Equal-To 106 nm, which is estimated from the residual resistivity value. The observations of reflection high energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations during the growth, distinct Laue fringes around the main Bragg peaks, and higher order diffraction spots in the reciprocal space map suggest the full controlability of the thickness of high quality superconducting TiN thin films.

  10. Structural and optical properties of dilute InAsN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, J.; Oliva, R.; De la Mare, M.; Schmidbauer, M.; Hernández, S.; Pellegrino, P.; Scurr, D. J.; Cuscó, R.; Artús, L.; Shafi, M.; Mari, R. H.; Henini, M.; Zhuang, Q.; Godenir, A.; Krier, A.

    2010-11-01

    We perform a structural and optical characterization of InAs1-xNx epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InAs substrates (x ≲2.2%). High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) is used to obtain information about the crystal quality and the strain state of the samples and to determine the N content of the films. The composition of two of the samples investigated is also obtained with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) measurements. The combined analysis of the HRXRD and ToF-SIMS data suggests that the lattice parameter of InAsN might significantly deviate from Vegard's law. Raman scattering and far-infrared reflectivity measurements have been carried out to investigate the incorporation of N into the InAsN alloy. N-related local vibrational modes are detected in the samples with higher N content. The origin of the observed features is discussed. We study the compositional dependence of the room-temperature band gap energy of the InAsN alloy. For this purpose, photoluminescence and optical absorption measurements are presented. The results are analyzed in terms of the band-anticrossing (BAC) model. We find that the room-temperature coupling parameter for InAsN within the BAC model is CNM=2.0±0.1 eV.

  11. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of GaBi, InBi and InGaBi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, B.; Makin, R.; Stampe, P. A.; Kennedy, R. J.; Piper, L. F. J.; McCombe, B.; McConville, C. F.; Durbin, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    Recent interest in bismuth alloys of III-V semiconductors for infrared and far-infrared device applications, specifically GaAsBi and InAsBi, has indicated that further study of the III-Bi family of binary compounds would be of great help in improving the quality of these material systems. While immiscibility issues have so far frustrated the growth of GaBi and AlBi, InBi is less problematic, and we have grown it by molecular beam epitaxy on (001) GaAs substrates. However, regions of varying composition exist across the substrate due to poor wetting of the surface. In an effort to improve film quality we have continued to refine the growth parameters by adjusting substrate temperature, beam flux ratio, and deposition rate. Characterization of these films has been performed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, we have explored growth of GaBi and In1-xGaxBi at low Ga mole fractions, and modeled this using molecular dynamics simulations. This work is supported by the Research Foundation of the State University of New York Collaborations Fund.

  12. Growth Parameters for Thin Film InBi Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, B.; Makin, R.; Stampe, P. A.; Kennedy, R. J.; Sallis, S.; Piper, L. J.; McCombe, B.; Durbin, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    The alloying of bismuth with III-V semiconductors, in particular GaAs and InAs thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), has attracted considerable interest due to the accompanying changes in band structure and lattice constant. Specifically, bismuth incorporation in these compounds results in both a reduction in band gap (through shifting of the valence band) and an increase in the lattice constant of the alloy. To fully understand the composition of these alloys, a better understanding of the binary endpoints is needed. At present, a limited amount of literature exists on the III-Bi family of materials, most of which is theoretical work based on density functional theory calculations. The only III-Bi material known to exist (in bulk crystal form) is InBi, but its electrical properties have not been sufficiently studied and, to date, the material has not been fabricated as a thin film. We have successfully deposited crystalline InBi on (100) GaAs substrates using MBE. Wetting of the substrate is poor, and regions of varying composition exist across the substrate. To obtain InBi, the growth temperature had to be below 100 °C. It was found that film crystallinity improved with reduced Bi flux, into an In-rich regime. Additionally, attempts were made to grow AlBi and GaBi.

  13. InGaP grown on Ge (100) by molecular beam epitaxy: a spectroscopic ellipsometry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Costa, Vijay Richard; Khai Loke, Wan; Zhou, Qian; Fatt Yoon, Soon; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of disordered In0.52Ga0.48P alloys by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the far-infrared to ultraviolet energy range (0.037-5.1 eV). The alloys were grown on Ge (100) substrate by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The far-infrared dielectric function reveals two absorption peaks that can be attributed to InP- and GaP-like vibrational modes. The visible-UV dielectric function of In0.52Ga0.48P alloys nearly lattice-matched to Ge shows the critical points E 0, E 1, and E 2, energies of which are determined using a derivative analysis. A weak transition that can be identified as the E 1 + Δ1 critical point is revealed. The vibrational frequencies and the transition energies in In0.52Ga0.48P are lower relative to In0.49Ga0.51P lattice-matched to GaAs. The downward shifts in E 0 and phonons can be estimated using the compositional dependence of E 0 and phonons of bulk alloys.

  14. Usage of antimony segregation for selective doping of Si in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Yurasov, D. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Murel, A. V.; Shaleev, M. V.; Novikov, A. V.; Zakharov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    An original approach to selective doping of Si by antimony (Sb) in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is proposed and verified experimentally. This approach is based on controllable utilization of the effect of Sb segregation. In particular, the sharp dependence of Sb segregation on growth temperature in the range of 300-550 deg. C is exploited. The growth temperature variations between the kinetically limited and maximum segregation regimes are suggested to be utilized in order to obtain selectively doped structures with abrupt doping profiles. It is demonstrated that the proposed technique allows formation of selectively doped Si:Sb layers, including delta ({delta}-)doped layers in which Sb concentrations can be varied from 5 x 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The obtained doped structures are shown to have a high crystalline quality and the short-term growth interruptions, which are needed to change the substrate temperature, do not lead to any significant accumulation of background impurities in grown samples. Realization of the proposed approach requires neither too low (<300 deg. C), nor too high (>600 deg. C) growth temperatures or any special equipment for the MBE machines.

  15. Surface diffusion during shadow-mask-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy of III-V compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Schallenberg, T.; Brunner, K.; Borzenko, T.; Molenkamp, L.W.; Karczewski, G.

    2005-07-01

    We present a comprehensive discussion of molecular-beam epitaxy of III-V compound semiconductors through shadow masks. Based on model calculations and growth experiments, we examine how the surface diffusion and the incorporation of group-III adatoms depend on the growth configuration, group-III and group-V fluxes, and the crystal orientation. According to a macroscopic diffusion model, gradients of the group-V flux drive the unidirectional migration of group-III adatoms. Although this effect is generally observed in the experiments, the different growth profiles obtained for [110]- and [110]-oriented samples reflect the different roles of A-type and B-type steps in the incorporation of group-III adatoms. We also demonstrate that during the heteroepitaxial growth of InAs, the dissociation of the GaAs substrate is locally enhanced by the incidence of the In beam. This effect can be exploited for shadow-mask-assisted etching on selected areas. In addition, we show how the positions and sizes of III-V nanostructures can be controlled with high precision on a planar substrate by the usage of shadow masks with multiple nanoscale apertures.

  16. Multiferroic fluoride BaCoF4 Thin Films Grown Via Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent; García-Castro, Camilo; Kc, Amit; Schrecongost, Dustin; Cen, Cheng; Romero, Aldo; Lederman, David

    Multiferroic materials exhibit exciting physics related to the simultaneous presence of multiple long-range orders, in many cases consisting of antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferroelectric (FE) orderings. In order to provide a new, promising route for fluoride-based multiferroic material engineering, we grew multiferroic fluoride BaCoF4 in thin film form on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The films grow with the orthorhombic b-axis out-of-plane and with three in-plane structural twin domains along the polar c-axis directions. The FE ordering in thin films was verified by FE remanent hysteresis loops measurements at T = 14 K and by room temperature piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). An AF behavior was found below Neel temperature TN ~ 80 K, which is in agreement with the bulk properties. At lower temperatures two additional magnetic phase transitions at 19 K and 41 K were found. First-principles calculations demonstrated that the growth strain applied to the bulk BaCoF4 indeed favors two canted spin orders, along the b- and a-axes, respectively, in addition to the main AF spin order along the c-axis. Supported by FAME (Contract 2013-MA-2382), WV Research Challenge Grant (HEPC.dsr.12.29), and DMREF-NSF 1434897.

  17. Surface reconstructions in molecular beam epitaxy of SrTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kajdos, Adam P.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2014-11-10

    We show that reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) can be used as a highly sensitive tool to track surface and resulting film stoichiometry in adsorption-limited molecular beam epitaxy of (001) SrTiO{sub 3} thin films. Even under growth conditions that yield films with a lattice parameter that is identical to that of stoichiometric bulk crystals within the detection limit of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), changes in surface reconstruction occur from (1 × 1) to (2 × 1) to c(4 × 4) as the equivalent beam pressure of the Ti metalorganic source is increased. These surface reconstructions are correlated with a shift from mixed SrO/TiO{sub 2} termination to pure TiO{sub 2} termination. The crossover to TiO{sub 2} surface termination is also apparent in a phase shift in RHEED oscillations observed at the beginning of growth. Comparison with prior results for carrier mobilities of doped films shows that the best films are grown under conditions of a TiO{sub 2}-saturated surface [c(4 × 4) reconstruction] within the XRD growth window.

  18. Growth of SrVO{sub 3} thin films by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, Craig; Brahlek, Matthew; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Moyer, Jarrett A.; Alipour, Hamideh M.; Grimley, Everett D.; LeBeau, James M.

    2015-11-15

    The authors report the growth of stoichiometric SrVO{sub 3} thin films on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (001) substrates using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy. This growth approach employs a conventional effusion cell to supply elemental A-site Sr and the metalorganic precursor vanadium oxytriisopropoxide (VTIP) to supply vanadium. Oxygen is supplied in its molecular form through a gas inlet. An optimal VTIP:Sr flux ratio has been identified using reflection high-energy electron-diffraction, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, demonstrating stoichiometric SrVO{sub 3} films with atomically flat surface morphology. Away from the optimal VTIP:Sr flux, characteristic changes in the crystalline structure and surface morphology of the films were found, enabling identification of the type of nonstoichiometry. For optimal VTIP:Sr flux ratios, high quality SrVO{sub 3} thin films were obtained with smallest deviation of the lattice parameter from the ideal value and with atomically smooth surfaces, indicative of the good cation stoichiometry achieved by this growth technique.

  19. Carbon doping in molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs from a heated graphite filament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, R. J.; Nottenberg, R. N.; Schubert, E. F.; Walker, J. F.; Ryan, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon doping of GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been obtained for the first time by use of a heated graphite filament. Controlled carbon acceptor concentrations over the range of 10 to the 17th-10 to the 20th/cu cm were achieved by resistively heating a graphite filament with a direct current power supply. Capacitance-voltage, p/n junction and secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements indicate that there is negligible diffusion of carbon during growth and with postgrowth rapid thermal annealing. Carbon was used for p-type doping in the base of Npn AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors. Current gains greater than 100 and near-ideal emitter heterojunctions were obtained in transistors with a carbon base doping of 1 x 10 to the 19th/cu cm. These preliminary results indicate that carbon doping from a solid graphite source may be an attractive substitute for beryllium, which is known to have a relatively high diffusion coefficient in GaAs.

  20. Dynamic grazing incidence fast atom diffraction during molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, P. Eddrief, M.; Etgens, V. H.; Khemliche, H. Debiossac, M.; Mulier, M.; Lalmi, B.; Roncin, P.; Momeni, A.

    2014-07-14

    A Grazing Incidence Fast Atom Diffraction (GIFAD) system has been mounted on a commercial molecular beam epitaxy chamber and used to monitor GaAs growth in real-time. In contrast to the conventionally used Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction, all the GIFAD diffraction orders oscillate in phase, with the change in intensity related to diffuse scattering at step edges. We show that the scattered intensity integrated over the Laue circle is a robust method to monitor the periodic change in surface roughness during layer-by-layer growth, with oscillation phase and amplitude independent of incidence angle and crystal orientation. When there is a change in surface reconstruction at the start of growth, GIFAD intensity oscillations show that there is a corresponding delay in the onset of layer-by-layer growth. In addition, changes in the relative intensity of different diffraction orders have been observed during growth showing that GIFAD has the potential to provide insight into the preferential adatom attachment sites on the surface reconstruction during growth.

  1. In-situ spectral reflectance for improving molecular beam epitaxy device growth

    SciTech Connect

    Breiland, W.G.; Hammons, B.E.; Hou, H.Q.; Killeen, K.P.; Klem, J.F.; Reno, J.L.; Sherwin, M.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the development of in situ spectral reflectance as a tool for improving the quality, reproducibility, and yield of device structures grown from compound semiconductors. Although initially targeted at MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy) machines, equipment difficulties forced the authors to test most of their ideas on a MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition) reactor. A pre-growth control strategy using in situ reflectance has led to an unprecedented demonstration of process control on one of the most difficult device structures that can be grown with compound semiconductor materials. Hundreds of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL`s) were grown with only {+-} 0.3% deviations in the Fabry-Perot cavity wavelength--a nearly ten-fold improvement over current calibration methods. The success of the ADVISOR (Analysis of Deposition using Virtual Interfaces and Spectroscopic Optical Reflectance) method has led to a great deal of interest from the commercial sector, including use by Hewlett Packard and Honeywell. The algorithms, software and reflectance design are being evaluated for patents and/or license agreements. A small company, Filmetrics, Inc., is incorporating the ADVISOR analysis method in its reflectometer product.

  2. Relevant characteristics of undoped GaMnN grown by using molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. W.; Shon, Yoon; Subramaniam, N. G.; Park, C. S.; Kim, E. K.; Im, Hyunsik; Kim, H. S.

    2015-08-01

    GaN:Mn epilayers were grown on Al2O3 substrate by using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Xray diffraction (XRD) data showed intrinsic GaMnN and precipitates including MnGa and MnN. PL transitions (e, Mn) and (D, Mn) related to Mn were remarkably activated. Clear ferromagnetic hysteresis loops were obtained in both samples, which means a good formation of ferromagnetic coupling. The M-T curves revealed a curie temperature ( T c ) of 140 ~ 170 K which is intrinsic to GaMnN and a Tc of above 300 K which is due to the MnGa and the MnN precipitates. The samples clearly displayed a magnetic resonance at a field of around 200 - 400 mT. Electron spin resonance (ESR) data showed that the shift of (H center ) ( i. e., H center = 337 - H center [mT]) were greater than 20 mT for samples, and the appearance of a Hcenter with a positive H center is indicative of the samples having obvious ferromagnetism. The incorporated Mn ions are in a 2+ ionic state ( i. e., Mn2+) because Mn2+ with a spin state of S = 5/2 typically exhibits a magnetic resonance with g ≈ 2 when Mn is doped into semiconductors.

  3. Laser-assisted metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, V. M.; Tu, C. W.; Beggy, J. C.; McCrary, V. R.; Lamont, M. G.; Harris, T. D.; Baiocchi, F. A.; Farrow, R. C.

    1988-03-01

    We report preliminary studies of the growth of homoepitaxial GaAs by laser-assisted metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy, using triethylgallium (TEGa) and As4 sources and a 193 nm ArF excimer laser. Laser irradiation results in a high, selective-area growth rate at temperatures below 450 °C, where pyrolytic growth is very slow. The process is extremely efficient, with roughly unit probability for impinging TEGa molecules sticking and being dissociated by laser radiation to form GaAs. From the strong dependence on laser fluence, the growth enhancement process appears to be pyrolytic in nature (because of transient heating by the pulsed laser) and not photolytic. The cross section for photolysis must be at least ten times lower than the gas-phase value (9×10-18 cm2). The surface morphology of films grown at 400 °C is rough at threshold fluences (˜0.10 J/cm2), but becomes smooth at higher fluences (˜0.13 J/cm2). These regions with relatively smooth surfaces exhibit enhanced photoluminescence yields compared to areas receiving less intense laser radiation.

  4. Electrical and optical properties of Fe doped AlGaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Kozhukhova, E. A.; Dabiran, A. M.; Chow, P. P.; Wowchak, A. M.; Pearton, S. J.

    2010-01-15

    Electrical and optical properties of AlGaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied in the Al composition range 15%-45%. Undoped films were semi-insulating, with the Fermi level pinned near E{sub c}-0.6-0.7 eV. Si doping to (5-7)x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} rendered the 15% Al films conducting n-type, but a large portion of the donors were relatively deep (activation energy 95 meV), with a 0.15 eV barrier for capture of electrons giving rise to strong persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effects. The optical threshold of this effect was {approx}1 eV. Doping with Fe to a concentration of {approx}10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} led to decrease in concentration of uncompensated donors, suggesting compensation by Fe acceptors. Addition of Fe strongly suppressed the formation of PPC-active centers in favor of ordinary shallow donors. For higher Al compositions, Si doping of (5-7)x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} did not lead to n-type conductivity. Fe doping shifted the bandedge luminescence by 25-50 meV depending on Al composition. The dominant defect band in microcathodoluminescence spectra was the blue band near 3 eV, with the energy weakly dependent on composition.

  5. Hollow-anode plasma source for molecular beam epitaxy of gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A.; Newman, N.; Rubin, M.; Dickinson, M.; Thomson, A.; Jones, E.; Phatak, P.; Gassmann, A.

    1995-09-01

    GaN films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using a hollow-anode nitrogen plasma source. The source was developed to minimize defect formation as a result of contamination and ion damage. The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge with very small anode area. A positive anode voltage drop of 30--40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness leads to ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Driven by the pressure gradient, the ``anode`` plasma forms a bright plasma jet streaming with supersonic velocity towards the substrate. Films of GaN have been grown on (0001) SiC and (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a temperature from 600--800 C. The films were investigated by photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence. The film with the highest structural quality had a rocking curve with 5 arcmin, the lowest reported value for MBE growth to date.

  6. Molecular beam epitaxy of single phase GeMnTe with high ferromagnetic transition temperature.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M; Springholz, G; Lechner, R T; Groiss, H; Kirchschlager, R; Bauer, G

    2011-05-15

    Ferromagnetic Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te is a promising candidate for diluted magnetic semiconductors because solid solutions exist over a wide range of compositions up to x(Mn)≈0.5, where a maximum in the total magnetization occurs. In this work, a systematic study of molecular beam epitaxy of GeMnTe on (1 1 1) BaF(2) substrates is presented, in which the Mn concentration as well as growth conditions were varied over a wide range. The results demonstrate that single phase growth of GeMnTe can be achieved only in a narrow window of growth conditions, whereas at low as well as high temperatures secondary phases or even phase separation occurs. The formation of secondary phases strongly reduces the layer magnetization as well as the Curie temperatures. Under optimized conditions, single phase GeMnTe layers are obtained with Curie temperatures as high as 200 K for Mn concentrations close to the solubility limit of x(Mn)=50%. PMID:21776175

  7. Positron annihilation studies of defects in molecular beam epitaxy grown III-V layers

    SciTech Connect

    Umlor, M.T.; Keeble, D.J.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Cooke, P.W.

    1994-08-01

    A summary of recent positron annihilation experiments on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown III-V layers is Presented. Variable energy positron beam measurements on Al{sub 0.32}Ga{sub 0.68}As undoped and Si doped have been completed. Positron trapping at a open volume defect in Al{sub 0.32}Ga{sub 0.68}:Si for temperatures from 300 to 25 K in the dark was observed. The positron trap was lost after 1.3 eV illumination at 25K. These results indicate an open volume defect is associated with the local structure of the deep donor state of the DX center. Stability of MBE GaAs to thermal annealing war, investigated over the temperature range of 230 to 700{degrees}C, Proximity wafer furnace anneals in flowing argon were used, Samples grown above 450{degrees}C were shown to be stable but for sample below this temperature an anneal induced vacancy related defect was produced for anneals between 400 and 500{degrees}C. The nature of the defect was shown to be different for material grown at 350 and 230{degrees}C. Activation energies of 2.5 eV to 2.3 eV were obtained from isochronal anneal experiments for samples grown at 350 and 230{degrees}C, respectively.

  8. Structural and Magnetic Characterization of EuTe/SnTe Superlattices Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, B.; Abramof, E.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Granado, E.; Chitta, V. A.; Henriques, A. B.; Oliveira, N. F. Jr.

    2010-01-04

    Here we investigate the structural and magnetic properties of 24 repetitions EuTe/SnTe superlattices (SLs), with 3 monolayers (ML) EuTe films and SnTe thicknesses between 13 and 36 ML. The SLs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on 3 {mu}m SnTe buffer layers, grown on top of (111)BaF{sub 2} substrates. High resolution x-ray diffraction measurements indicated that the SLs with thicker SnTe layers have higher structural quality. This is due to the SnTe growth mode on EuTe, which starts in islands and evolves to layer-by-layer. The magnetic diffraction peak observed for the higher quality SLs proved the existence of antiferromagnetic order within the individual EuTe layers. Decreasing the width of the non-magnetic SnTe layers resulted in rougher interfaces, and the fading of the magnetic peak signal. The magnetization versus applied field curves indicated that the magnetic moments of SLs with thinner SnTe layers were also harder to align along the field direction. We interpret our results considering the loss of Eu neighbors, related with the increasing roughness of the SL interfaces.

  9. Magneto-Transport Studies of Molecular Beam Epitaxial Grown Osmium Silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottier, Ryan; Zhao, Wei; Amir, Fatima; Hossain, Khalid; Anibou, Noureddine; Donner, Wolfgang; Golding, Terry

    2006-03-01

    Semiconducting transition metal silicides present a possible solution to on-chip integration of optical and electronic Si-based circuitry. Two phases of osmium silicide (OsSi2 and Os2Si3) are predicted to have promising optical characteristics but require additional development to fully determine their feasibility for high-quality devices. This study has been motivated by reports that OsSi2 has a bandgap between 1.4--1.8eV [1, 2] and Os2Si3 may have a direct bandgap of 0.95 eV [3] or 2.3 eV [1]. In this paper we will present temperature dependent (20 < T < 300 K) magneto Hall measurements of molecular beam epitaxial grown osmium silicide thin films. Os and Si were coevaporated onto Si(100) substrates at varying growth rates and temperatures. XRD was performed in order to identify the silicide phases present. We will discuss our results in relation to the known phase diagrams and our growth parameters. [1] L. Schellenberg et al., J. Less-Common Met. 144, 341 (1988). [2] K. Mason and G. Müller-Vogt, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 34 (1983). [3] A. B. Filonov et al., Phys. Rev. B 60(24), 16494 (1999).

  10. Diffusion-driven growth of nanowires by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda-Fonseca, P.; Orrò, M.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Robin, E.; Den Hertog, M.; Genuist, Y.; André, R.; Tatarenko, S.; Cibert, J.

    2016-04-01

    With ZnTe as an example, we use two different methods to unravel the characteristics of the growth of nanowires (NWs) by gold-catalyzed molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature. In the first approach, CdTe insertions have been used as markers, and the nanowires have been characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, including geometrical phase analysis and energy dispersive electron spectrometry; the second approach uses scanning electron microscopy and the statistics of the relationship between the length of the tapered nanowires and their base diameter. Axial and radial growth are quantified using a diffusion-limited model adapted to the growth conditions; analytical expressions describe well the relationship between the NW length and the total molecular flux (taking into account the orientation of the effusion cells), and the catalyst-nanowire contact area. A long incubation time is observed. This analysis allows us to assess the evolution of the diffusion lengths on the substrate and along the nanowire sidewalls, as a function of temperature and deviation from stoichiometric flux.

  11. Photoluminescence of localized excitons in ZnCdO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. Y.; Huang, Y. S.; Hu, S. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Tiong, K. K.; Chang, C. C.; Shen, J. L.; Chou, W. C.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the luminescence characteristics of Zn1-xCdxO thin films with different Cd contents grown by molecular beam epitaxy system. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and excitation power-dependent PL spectra were measured to clarify the luminescence mechanisms of the Zn1-xCdxO thin films. The peak energy of the Zn1-xCdxO thin films with increasing the Cd concentration is observed as redshift and can be fitted by the quadratic function of alloy content. The broadened full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) estimated from the 15 K PL spectra as a function of Cd content shows a larger deviation between the experimental values and theoretical curve, which indicates that experimental FWHM values are affected not only by alloy compositional disorder but also by localized excitons occupying states in the tail of the density of states. The Urbach energy determined from an analysis of the lineshape of the low-energy side of the PL spectrum and the degree of localization effect estimated from the temperature-induced S-shaped PL peak position described an increasing mean exciton-localization effects in ZnCdO films with increasing the Cd content. In addition, the PL intensity and peak position as a function of excitation power are carried out to clarify the types of radiative recombination and the effects of localized exciton in the ZnCdO films with different Cd contents.

  12. Influence of growth conditions on tin incorporation in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandre, F.; Raisin, C.; Abdalla, M.I.; Brenac, A.; Masson, J.M.

    1980-08-01

    Intentional perturbations applied to the growth parameters of Sn-doped GaAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been performed in order to investigate the tin incorporation mechanism. The start, the interruption, and the end of growth as well as a variation of fluxes or substrate temperature have been studied, using either the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurement of tin accumulation on the surface, or C-V derived free-carrier concentration profile versus any of these growth parameters. The theoretical model proposed by Wood and Joyce, based on a time-delayed incorporation mechanism, has been found to fit the observed results, especially for As-rich surface, provided that an incorporation mechanism of second order is assumed. For Ga-rich conditions (T/sub s/>580 /sup 0/C), a new result has been recognized, i.e., a significant reduction of carrier concentration as T/sub s/ is increased. The assumption of a partially acceptor nature of tin incident atoms under these growth conditions does not seem to fully explain this result. On the other hand, this may be better understood assuming a certain amount of tin atoms being re-evaporated in the high substrate temperature range. This behavior induces a temporarily weaker accumulation at the surface, and hence a relatively smaller incorporation rate.

  13. Thin film growth of CaFe2As2 by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Nakamura, I.; Mori, Y.; Harada, S.; Ujihara, T.; Ikuta, H.

    2016-01-01

    Film growth of CaFe2As2 was realized by molecular beam epitaxy on six different substrates that have a wide variation in the lattice mismatch to the target compound. By carefully adjusting the Ca-to-Fe flux ratio, we obtained single-phase thin films for most of the substrates. Interestingly, an expansion of the CaFe2As2 lattice to the out-of-plane direction was observed for all films, even when an opposite strain was expected. A detailed microstructure observation of the thin film grown on MgO by transmission electron microscope revealed that it consists of cube-on-cube and 45°-rotated domains. The latter domains were compressively strained in plane, which caused a stretching along the c-axis direction. Because the domains were well connected across the boundary with no appreciable discontinuity, we think that the out-of-plane expansion in the 45°-rotated domains exerted a tensile stress on the other domains, resulting in the unexpectedly large c-axis lattice parameter, despite the apparently opposite lattice mismatch.

  14. Molecular beam epitaxy growth and magnetic properties of Cr-Co-Ga Heusler alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Wuwei Wang, Weihua; Zhao, Chenglong; Van Quang, Nguyen; Cho, Sunglae; Dung, Dang Duc

    2015-11-15

    We have re-investigated growth and magnetic properties of Cr{sub 2}CoGa films using molecular beam epitaxy technique. Phase separation and precipitate formation were observed experimentally again in agreement with observation of multiple phases separation in sputtered Cr{sub 2}CoGa films by M. Meinert et al. However, significant phase separation could be suppressed by proper control of growth conditions. We showed that Cr{sub 2}CoGa Heusler phase, rather than Co{sub 2}CrGa phase, constitutes the majority of the sample grown on GaAs(001) at 450 {sup o}C. The measured small spin moment of Cr{sub 2}CoGa is in agreement with predicted HM-FCF nature; however, its Curie temperature is not as high as expected from the theoretical prediction probably due to the off-stoichiometry of Cr{sub 2}CoGa and the existence of the disorders and phase separation.

  15. Gas Source Melecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of High Quality AlGaAs Using Trimethylamine Alane as the Aluminum Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Naoya; Ando, Hideyasu; Sandhu, Adarsh; Fujii, Toshio

    1991-12-01

    We investigated the dependence of the background impurity incorporation on growth conditions and optical properties of undoped AlGaAs grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy using trimethylamine alane (TMAAl), triethylgallium, and arsine. The use of TMAAl enabled us to reduce the carbon concentration (7× 1016 cm-3) to over one order of magnitude less than that using triethylaluminum (TEAl). The 77 K photoluminescence spectrum of undoped AlGaAs grown using TMAAl was dominated by excitonic band-edge emission not observable in AlGaAs grown using TEAl. Furthermore, we report for the first time the doping characteristics of n-type AlGaAs grown using disilane (Si2H6) as an n-type gaseous dopant source together with TMAAl. The carrier concentration (5× 1017--3× 1018 cm-3) in n-AlxGa1-xAs (x{=}0.09--0.27) was reliably controlled and showed the same Si2H6 flow rate dependence as that of GaAs. The activation efficiency of silicon was more than 60%. We demonstrated the excellent n-type doping characteristics by uisng TMAAl.

  16. Apparatus for producing ultraclean bicrystals by the molecular beam epitaxy growth and ultrahigh vacuum bonding of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Amiri-Hezaveh, A.; Balluffi, R.W. )

    1993-10-01

    An apparatus has been designed and constructed which is capable of growing single-crystal thin films and then bonding them together face-to-face to produce bicrystals under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The films are grown in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system capable of growing well-characterized single-crystal thin films of metals, semiconductors, and high [ital T][sub [ital c

  17. Mass transport and alloying during InN growth on GaN by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Xie, M.H.; Wu, H.S.; Tong, S.Y.

    2006-05-29

    During Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth of InN on GaN by molecular-beam epitaxy, a mass transport is noted from the two-dimensional wetting layer and/or the surface excess metal adlayers to the SK islands when the excess nitrogen flux is used for deposition. The extent of mass transport depends on the material coverage. For growth under the excess indium flux condition, no such mass transport is observed.

  18. Cu-doped AlN: A possible spinaligner at room-temperature grown by molecular beam epitaxy?

    SciTech Connect

    Ganz, P. R.; Schaadt, D. M.

    2011-12-23

    Cu-doped AlN was prepared by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on C-plane sapphire substrates. The growth conditions were investigated for different Cu to Al flux ratios from 1.0% to 4.0%. The formation of Cu-Al alloys on the surface was observed for all doping level. In contrast to Cu-doped GaN, all samples showed diamagnetic behavior determined by SQUID measurements.

  19. X-ray diffractometry of AlN/c-sapphire templates obtained by plasma-activated molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikov, V. V.; Nechaev, D. V.; Jmerik, V. N.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    The structure of AlN/c-sapphire templates obtained by plasma-activated molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been studied by X-ray diffractometry techniques. The results show the advantages of using coarse-grained AlN nucleation layers prepared by high-temperature (780°C) adatom-migration-enhanced epitaxy. Using 3.5-nm-thick GaN inserts (obtained by three-dimensional growth under N-rich conditions), it is possible to obtain templates with insignificant residual macrostresses and relatively narrow widths (FWHM) of 0002 and 10bar 15 diffraction reflections.

  20. Transition between wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN: An effect of deposition condition of molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, B. M.; Xie, M. H.; Wu, H. S.; Wang, N.; Tong, S. Y.

    2006-10-09

    GaN exists in both wurtzite and zinc-blende phases and the growths of the two on its (0001) or (111) surfaces are achieved by choosing proper deposition conditions of molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). At low substrate temperatures but high gallium fluxes, metastable zinc-blende GaN films are obtained, whereas at high temperatures and/or using high nitrogen fluxes, equilibrium wurtzite phase GaN epilayers resulted. This dependence of crystal structure on substrate temperature and source flux is not affected by deposition rate. Rather, the initial stage nucleation kinetics plays a primary role in determining the crystallographic structures of epitaxial GaN by MBE.

  1. Effect of substrate growth temperatures on H diffusion in hydrogenated Si/Si homoepitaxial structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lin; Lee, J. K.; Wang, Y. Q.; Nastasi, M.; Thompson, Phillip E.; David Theodore, N.; Alford, T. L.; Mayer, J. W.; Chen, Peng; Lau, S. S.

    2006-06-01

    We have investigated hydrogen diffusion in hydrogenated <100> Si/Si homoepitaxial structures, which were grown by molecular beam epitaxy at various temperatures. The substrate growth temperature can significantly affect the H diffusion behavior, with higher growth temperatures resulting in deeper H diffusion. For the Si/Si structure grown at the highest temperature of 800 °C, H trapping occurs at the epitaxial Si/Si substrate interface, which results in the formation of (100) oriented microcracks at the interface. The mechanism of H trapping and the potential application of these findings for the development of a method of transferring ultrathin Si layers are discussed.

  2. Optical control of growth of AlxGa1 - xAs by organometallic molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspnes, D. E.; Quinn, W. E.; Gregory, S.

    1990-12-01

    Using spectroellipsometry, we obtain information on the near-surface composition x of epitaxial AlxGa1-xAs layers during crystal growth by organometallic molecular beam epitaxy and use this information to regulate the flow of triethylaluminum to the growth surface. The resulting closed-loop control system maintains the imaginary part of the dielectric response of thick AlxGa1-xAs films constant to an equivalent compositional precision better than ±0.001 over extended periods of time.

  3. Epitaxial growth of HgCdTe 1.55-um avalanche photodiodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lyon, Terence J.; Baumgratz, B.; Chapman, G. R.; Gordon, E.; Hunter, Andrew T.; Jack, Michael D.; Jensen, John E.; Johnson, W.; Johs, Blaine D.; Kosai, K.; Larsen, W.; Olson, G. L.; Sen, M.; Walker, B.

    1999-04-01

    Separate absorption and multiplication avalanche photodiode (SAM-APD) device structures, operating in the 1.1 - 1.6 micrometer spectral range, have been fabricated in the HgCdTe material system by molecular-beam epitaxy. These HgCdTe device structures, which offer an alternative technology to existing III-V APD detectors, were grown on CdZnTe(211)B substrates using CdTe, Te, and Hg sources with in situ In and As doping. The alloy composition of the HgCdTe layers was adjusted to achieve both efficient absorption of IR radiation in the 1.1 - 1.6 micrometer spectral range and low excess-noise avalanche multiplication. To achieve resonant enhancement of hole impact ionization from the split-off valence band, the Hg(subscript 1-x)Cd(subscript x)Te alloy composition in the gain region of the device, x equals 0.73, was chosen to achieve equality between the bandgap energy and spin-orbit splitting. The appropriate value of this alloy composition was determined from analysis of the 300 K bandgap and spin-orbit splitting energies of a set of calibration layers, using a combination of IR transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. MBE-grown APD epitaxial wafers were processed into passivated mesa-type discrete device structures and diode mini-arrays using conventional HgCdTe process technology. Device spectral response, dark current density, and avalanche gain measurements were performed on discrete diodes and diode mini- arrays on the processed wafers. Avalanche gains in the range of 30 - 40 at reverse bias of 85 - 90 V and array-median dark current density below 2 X 10(superscript -4) A/cm(superscript 2) at 40 V reverse bias have been demonstrated.

  4. Electrical properties of scandium nitride epitaxial films grown on (100) magnesium oxide substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ohgaki, Takeshi; Watanabe, Ken; Adachi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Isao; Hishita, Shunichi; Ohashi, Naoki; Haneda, Hajime

    2013-09-07

    Scandium nitride (ScN) films were grown on (100) MgO single crystals by a molecular beam epitaxy method. The effects of growth conditions, including [Sc]/[N] ratio, growth temperature, and nitrogen radical state, on the electrical properties of the ScN films were studied. The ScN films comprised many small columnar grains. Hall coefficient measurements confirmed that the ScN films were highly degenerate n-type semiconductors and that the carrier concentration of the ScN films was sensitive to the growth temperature and the nitrogen radical states during the film growth. The carrier concentrations of the ScN films ranged from 10{sup 19}–10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} while the Hall mobilities ranged from 50–130 cm{sup 2}·V{sup −1}·s{sup −1} for undoped films. The temperature-dependent Hall coefficient measurements showed that the carrier concentration is nearly independent of temperature, indicating that the change in resistivity with temperature is explained by a change in the Hall mobility. The temperature-dependence of the Hall mobility was strongly affected by the growth conditions.

  5. Growth of amorphous and epitaxial alternative gate dielectrics on silicon by molecular-beam epitaxy and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, Lisa Friedman

    The continued scaling of SiO2 in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is approaching its fundamental limit and in the next few years will have to be replaced with an alternative gate dielectric if Moore's law is to continue. In a search for suitable alternative dielectrics, I have investigated the growth of amorphous and epitaxial LaAlO3, LaScO3, La2O3, and Sc2O3 thin films by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on silicon. A major challenge in the growth of alternative gate dielectrics on silicon is the formation of SiO2 at the interface between silicon and the high- K gate dielectric. In this dissertation, I have established deposition conditions that yielded abrupt interfaces (< 0.1 A of SiO2) between amorphous LaAlO3 or LaScO3 thin films and silicon. These results demonstrate the thinnest gate dielectrics ever produced that are free of interfacial SiO2, despite exposure to air. The thermal stability between silicon and the abrupt amorphous LaAlO 3 and LaScO3 thin films was established for the first time. By 900°C, crystallization is clearly observed, but the LaAlO3/Si interface remains sharp with no detectable interfacial SiO2. The thermal stability results establish key processing windows for the integration of amorphous LaAlO3 and LaScO3 thin films into silicon-based MOSFETs. In this work, the following critical physical properties of amorphous LaAlO3 thin films deposited on silicon have been determined: dielectric constant (K = 16 +/- 2), bandgap (Eg = 6.2 +/- 0.1 eV), and band alignment (DeltaEc = 1.8 +/- 0.2 for electrons and DeltaEv = 3.2 +/- 0.1 eV for holes). The following critical physical properties of amorphous LaScO3 thin films deposited on silicon have been determined: bandgap (Eg = 5.7 +/- 0.1 eV) and band alignment (DeltaEc = 2.0 +/- 0.1 eV for electrons and DeltaEv = 3.1 +/- 0.1 eV for holes). In this dissertation, epitaxial (0001) La2O3 thin films with the hexagonal crystal structure were grown on (111) Si for the first time

  6. Lattice mismatched InGaAs on silicon photodetectors grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, N. A.; Anderson, G. W.; Iliadis, A. A.; Christou, A.

    1993-02-01

    In0.5Ga0.5As on silicon photodetectors, including three types of interdigitated-finger devices as well as linear photoconductors, were fabricated and measured. The InGaAs/Si structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy and utilized a 100 Å GaAs intervening nucleation layer between the silicon substrate and the InGaAs layers, step-graded InxGa1-xAs layers, and an in-situ grown 40 Å thick GaAs surface layer, which substantially enhanced the metal-semiconductor barrier height (Φb = 0.67 V) for the InGaAs. Schottky diodes fabricated independently of the photodetectors had nearly ideal characteristics with an ideality factor (n) of 1.02 and a reverse breakdown voltage of 40 V. The interdigitated Schottky photodetectors showed dark currents between <3nA and 54 μA at a 3 V bias and initial photoresponse rise times in the range of 600 to 725 ps, comparable to similar InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors grown lattice matched on InP. The photoconductors fabricated in the same material had rise times in the range of 575 to 1300 ps, thus being slightly slower, and had dark currents of 7 to 80 mA. The responsivity of the photoconductors was typically greater than that of the diodes by a factor of five to fifteen. The results show potential for monolithic integration of InGaAs photodetectors on silicon substrates.

  7. Molecular beam epitaxy of free-standing wurtzite AlxGa1-xN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S. V.; Staddon, C. R.; Martin, R. W.; Kent, A. J.; Foxon, C. T.

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments with group III nitrides present AlxGa1-xN based LEDs as realistic devices for new alternative deep ultra-violet light sources. Because there is a significant difference in the lattice parameters of GaN and AlN, AlxGa1-xN substrates would be preferable to either GaN or AlN for ultraviolet device applications. We have studied the growth of free-standing wurtzite AlxGa1-xN bulk crystals by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Thick wurtzite AlxGa1-xN films were grown by PA-MBE on 2-in. GaAs (111)B substrates and were removed from the GaAs substrate after growth to provide free standing AlxGa1-xN samples. X-ray microanalysis measurements confirm that the AlN fraction is uniform across the wafer and mass spectroscopy measurements show that the composition is also uniform in depth. We have demonstrated that free-standing wurtzite AlxGa1-xN wafers can be achieved by PA-MBE for a wide range of AlN fractions. In order to develop a commercially viable process for the growth of wurtzite AlxGa1-xN substrates, we have used a novel Riber plasma source and have demonstrated growth rates of GaN up to 1.8 μm/h on 2-in. diameter GaAs and sapphire wafers.

  8. Study of optical properties of GaAsN layers prepared by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulzara-Mora, A.; Cruz-Hernández, E.; Rojas-Ramirez, J.; Contreras-Guerrero, R.; Meléndez-Lira, M.; Falcony-Guajardo, C.; Aguilar-Frutis, M. A.; López-López, M.

    2007-04-01

    We have grown GaAsN layers (with nitrogen concentration between 1.2% and 3.2%) on GaAs(1 0 0) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using a radio frequency (RF) plasma nitrogen source, and solid sources for Ga and As. The growth temperature was varied from 420 to 600 °C, and the GaAsN growth mode was in situ monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The optical properties of the layers were studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy (PR) and phase modulated ellipsometry (PME). For the growth temperature of 420 °C the films grew in a three-dimensional (3D) mode as indicated by the appearance of transmission spots in the RHEED patterns. In contrast, GaAsN layers grown at higher temperatures presented a two-dimensional (2D) growth mode. These GaAsN layers are pseudomorphic according to high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The PR spectra of all samples exhibited Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKO) above of the GaAs band gap energy. From these oscillations we obtained the built-in internal electric field intensity ( Fint) at the GaAsN/GaAs interface. In the low-energy region of the PR spectra we observed the transitions associated to fundamental band gap of the GaAsN layers. The variation of the GaAsN fundamental band gap obtained by PR as a function of the N content was explained according the band anti-crossing model (BAC). On the other hand, the E1 and E1+Δ E1 critical points were obtained from the analysis of spectra of the imaginary part of the dielectric function obtained by PME. We observed a shift of these critical points to higher energies with the increase of N content, which was explained by a combination of strain and alloying effects.

  9. Molecular-beam epitaxy and characteristics of GaNyAs1-x-yBix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Oe, Kunishige; Feng, Gan; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2005-09-01

    GaNyAs1-x-yBix alloys were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy using solid Ga, Bi, and As sources and nitrogen radicals generated from nitrogen gas in rf plasma. Changing the growth temperature is found to be a convenient method for controlling the GaBi molar fraction in the alloy reproducibly. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra show that the PL peak energy of GaNyAs1-x-yBix alloy decreased with increasing GaBi and GaN molar fractions. The redshift coefficients of ~62 meV/%Bi and ~130 meV/%N at the PL peak energy of GaNyAs1-x-yBix were observed at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the PL peak energy in the temperature range of 150-300 K is much smaller than the temperature dependence of the band gap of InGaAsP. The temperature coefficients of GaAs1-xBix and GaNyAs1-x-yBix band gaps are governed by the GaBi molar fraction and they decrease with increasing GaBi molar fraction. GaNyAs1-x-yBix alloys with different PL peak energies and lattice matched to GaAs substrates were obtained. The photoluminescence peak energy was located at a predicted wavelength for the sample lattice matched to GaAs which was found to have the structure of Ga(N0.33Bi0.67)zAs1-z.

  10. High Active Nitrogen Flux Growth of (Indium) Gallium Nitride by Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSkimming, Brian Matthew

    Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) has evolved over the past two decades due to progress in growth science and in the active nitrogen plasma source hardware. The transition from electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma sources to radio frequency (RF) plasma sources has enabled higher growth rates, reduced ion damage and improved operation at higher growth chamber pressures. Even with further improvements in RF plasma sources, PAMBE has remained primarily a research tool partially due to limitations in material growth rates. This dissertation presents results based upon two modifications of a commercially available nitrogen plasma source. These modifications have resulted in record active nitrogen fluxes, and therefore record growth rates of more than 7.6 mum/h. For optimized growth conditions in the standard metal-rich growth regime, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 mumx3 mum) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) impurity analysis demonstrates unintentional oxygen incorporation of ˜1x1016, comparable to the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown template layer. Additionally, a revised universal growth diagram is proposed allowing the rapid determination of the metal flux needed to grow in a specific growth regime for any and all active nitrogen fluxes available. High temperature nitrogen rich PAMBE growth of GaN has been previously demonstrated as a viable alternative to the challenges presented in maintaining the Ga bilayer required by metal rich growth of GaN. This dissertation also present results demonstrating PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ˜100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. Finally, a revised growth diagram is proposed highlighting a large growth window available at high temperatures.

  11. Minority carrier lifetime in iodine-doped molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.; Umana-Membreno, G. A.; Lei, W.; Gu, R.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L.

    2015-11-02

    The minority carrier lifetime in molecular beam epitaxy grown layers of iodine-doped Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te (x ∼ 0.3) on CdZnTe substrates has been studied. The samples demonstrated extrinsic donor behavior for carrier concentrations in the range from 2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} without any post-growth annealing. At a temperature of 77 K, the electron mobility was found to vary from 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/V s to 7 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}/V s and minority carrier lifetime from 1.6 μs to 790 ns, respectively, as the carrier concentration was increased from 2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. The diffusion of iodine is much lower than that of indium and hence a better alternative in heterostructures such as nBn devices. The influence of carrier concentration and temperature on the minority carrier lifetime was studied in order to characterize the carrier recombination mechanisms. Measured lifetimes were also analyzed and compared with the theoretical models of the various recombination processes occurring in these materials, indicating that Auger-1 recombination was predominant at higher doping levels. An increase in deep-level generation-recombination centers was observed with increasing doping level, which suggests that the increase in deep-level trap density is associated with the incorporation of higher concentrations of iodine into the HgCdTe.

  12. Atom probe tomography characterisation of a laser diode structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Samantha E.; Humphreys, Colin J.; Oliver, Rachel A.; Smeeton, Tim M.; Hooper, Stewart E.; Heffernan, Jonathan; Saxey, David W.; Smith, George D. W.

    2012-03-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to achieve three-dimensional characterization of a III-nitride laser diode (LD) structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Four APT data sets have been obtained, with fields of view up to 400 nm in depth and 120 nm in diameter. These data sets contain material from the InGaN quantum well (QW) active region, as well as the surrounding p- and n-doped waveguide and cladding layers, enabling comprehensive study of the structure and composition of the LD structure. Two regions of the same sample, with different average indium contents (18% and 16%) in the QW region, were studied. The APT data are shown to provide easy access to the p-type dopant levels, and the composition of a thin AlGaN barrier layer. Next, the distribution of indium within the InGaN QW was analyzed, to assess any possible inhomogeneity of the distribution of indium (''indium clustering''). No evidence for a statistically significant deviation from a random distribution was found, indicating that these MBE-grown InGaN QWs do not require indium clusters for carrier localization. However, the APT data show steps in the QW interfaces, leading to well-width fluctuations, which may act to localize carriers. Additionally, the unexpected presence of a small amount (x = 0.005) of indium in a layer grown intentionally as GaN was revealed. Finally, the same statistical method applied to the QW was used to show that the indium distribution within a thick InGaN waveguide layer in the n-doped region did not show any deviation from randomness.

  13. Ultrafast structural dynamics of LaVO3 thin films grown by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahlek, Matthew; Lapano, Jason; Stoica, Vladimir; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hai-Tian; Akamatsu, Hirofumi; Eaton, Craig; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Freeland, John; Wen, Haidan; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    LaVO3, with a partially full d-shell is expected to be metallic, but due to electron-electron interactions a gap emerges and the ground state is a Mott insulator. Such effects are a strong function of the bonding geometry, and particularly the V-O-V bond angle. Controlling these structural effects on the ultrafast time scale can lead to control over the underlying electronic ground state. Here we report the ultrafast structural dynamics of 25 and 50 nm thick LaVO3 thin films grown by the hybrid molecular beam epitaxy technique on SrTiO3 when excited across the bandgap by 800 nm light. Using time-resolved x-ray diffraction on the 100 ps time scale at Sector 7 of the Advanced Photon Source, we directly measured the structural changes with atomic accuracy by monitoring integer Bragg diffraction peaks and find a large out-of-plane strain of 0.18% upon optical excitation; the recovery time is ~1 ns for the 25 nm film and ~2 ns for the 50 nm film, consistent with the thermal transport from the film to the substrate. Further, we will discuss the response of the oxygen octahedral rotation patterns indicated by changes of the half-order diffraction peaks. Understanding such ultrafast structural deformation is important for optimizing optical excitations to create new metastable phases starting from a Mott insulator. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0012375, and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. Lead strontium telluride and lead barium telluride grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, D.L.; Thrush, C.M.; Clemens, B.M.

    1987-05-01

    Long wavelength diode lasers operating in the 3--10-..mu..m wavelength range are of interest as optical sources for future fiber optics communications and sensor systems. PbEuSeTe large optical cavity single quantum well diode lasers have so far attained the highest operating temperatures (174 K cw, 280 K pulsed) in this wavelength range. Two alternative materials systems PbSrTe and PbBaTe have now been grown for the first time by molecular-beam epitaxy. The choice of these ternaries was motivated by the fact that SrTe and BaTe have the same face-centered-cubic crystal structure as PbTe and roughly comparable lattice constants, but much larger energy band gaps. In the Pb/sub 1-//sub x/Sr/sub x/Te system, x-ray diffraction studies show clear evidence of phase segregation for x>0.15. The carrier mobilities decrease monotonically with strontium concentration in the single phase region, which suggests that disorder-related scattering is dominant. The energy band gap increases approximately as dEg/dx = 3.2 eV for small x, and the index of refraction decreases monotonically with increasing x. In the Pb/sub 1-//sub x/Sr/sub x/Te system, a combination of x-ray diffraction, energy band gap and other data clearly demonstrate that the solubility of BaTe in PbTe is limited to about 4%, possibly because of the relatively large difference in lattice constants between PbTe (6.460 A) and BaTe (7.001 A). These results imply that PbSrSeTe grown lattice matched to PbTe is a promising material system for long wavelength diode lasers and light emitting diodes.

  15. Growth mechanism of CuZnInSe2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ya Hsin; Yang, Chu Shou; Wu, Chia Hsing; Chiu, Jai Wei; Yang, Min De; Wu, Chih-Hung

    2013-09-01

    CuZnInSe2 (CZIS) has potential application in solar cell for absorption layer, and give an advantage to change the band gap from CuInSe2 (1.02 eV) to ZnSe (2.67 eV). Using molecular beam epitaxy technology, the CZIS thin films were grown via CuInSe (CIS) and ZnSe base. In the case of CIS, thin films were grown on Mo-coated soda lime glass with various zinc flux. CIS was transformed into chalcopyrite and sphalerite coexisting CZIS easily but it is difficult to transform into the pure sphalerite CZIS. Zn/(Zn+In+Cu) ratio has limited to approximate 36 at% and the excess-Zn played a catalyst role. In the case of ZnSe base, which was grown on GaAs (001), various In and Cu flux defined as the TIn series and TCu series, respectively. There are four types of compound in the TIn series and TCu series, including ZnSe, InxSey, ZnIn2Se4 (ZIS) and CZIS. In the TIn series under the lowest In and Cu flux, selenium (Se) were randomly combined with cations to form the CZIS. When TIn is increased in this moment, the CZIS was transformed into ZIS. In the TCu series, CZIS demonstrated via In-rich ZIS (Zn(In, Cu)Se) and InxSey base ((Zn, Cu)InSe). It is chalcopyrite and sphalerite coexisting structure in the medium TCu region. In the high TCu region, it is transformed into the Zn-poor and Cu-rich CZIS.

  16. High-index Cu2O (113) film on faceted MgO (110) by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Wenxing; Shi, Jin'an; Mei, Zengxia; Liu, Lishu; Li, Junqiang; Gu, Lin; Du, Xiaolong; Xue, Qikun

    2015-06-01

    We report the growth of single-oriented Cu2O (113) film on faceted MgO (110) substrate by radio-frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A MgO {100} faceted homoepitaxial layer was introduced beforehand as a template for epitaxy of Cu2O film. The epitaxial relationship is determined to be Cu2O (113)//MgO (110) with a tilt angle of 4.76° and Cu2O [ 1 1 bar 0]//MgO [ 1 1 bar 0] by the combined study of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The film demonstrates a good p-type conductivity and excellent optical properties, indicating that this unique approach is potentially applicable for high-index film preparation and device applications.

  17. LaCrO3 heteroepitaxy on SrTiO3(001) by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Liang; Droubay, Timothy C.; Bowden, Mark E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2011-08-09

    Stoichiometric, epitaxial LaCrO3 films have been grown on TiO2-terminated SrTiO3(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using O2 as the oxidant. Film growth occurred in a layer-by-layer fashion, giving rise to structurally excellent films and surfaces which preserve the step-terrace structure of the substrate. The critical thickness is in excess of 500 Å. Near-surface Cr(III) is highly susceptible to further oxidation to Cr(V), leading to the formation of a disordered phase upon exposure to atomic oxygen. Recovery of the original epitaxial LaCrO3 phase is readily achieved by vacuum annealing.

  18. In silico carbon molecular beam epitaxial growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate: carbon source effect on van der Waals epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Park, Jeongho; Farmer, Barry L; Roy, Ajit K

    2016-05-01

    Against the presumption that hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) should provide an ideal substrate for van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy to grow high quality graphene films, carbon molecular beam epitaxy (CMBE) techniques using solid carbon sublimation have reported relatively poor quality of the graphene. In this article, the CMBE growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate is numerically studied in order to identify the effect of the carbon source on the quality of the graphene film. The carbon molecular beam generated by the sublimation of solid carbon source materials such as graphite and glassy carbon is mostly composed of atomic carbon, carbon dimers and carbon trimers. Therefore, the graphene film growth becomes a complex process involving various deposition characteristics of a multitude of carbon entities. Based on the study of surface adsorption and film growth characteristics of these three major carbon entities comprising graphite vapour, we report that carbon trimers convey strong traits of vdW epitaxy prone to high quality graphene growth, while atomic carbon deposition is a surface-reaction limited process accompanied by strong chemisorption. The vdW epitaxial behaviour of carbon trimers is found to be substantial enough to nucleate and develop into graphene like planar films within a nanosecond of high flux growth simulation, while reactive atomic carbons tend to impair the structural integrity of the crystalline h-BN substrate upon deposition to form an amorphous interface between the substrate and the growing carbon film. The content of reactive atomic carbons in the molecular beam is suspected to be the primary cause of low quality graphene reported in the literature. A possible optimization of the molecular beam composition towards the synthesis of better quality graphene films is suggested. PMID:27108606

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of epitaxial CdTe on (100) GaAs/Si and (111) GaAs/Si substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nouhi, A.; Radhakrishnan, G.; Katz, J.; Koliwad, K.

    1988-01-01

    Epitaxial CdTe has been grown on both (100)GaAs/Si and (111)GaAs/Si substrates. A combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been employed for the first time to achieve this growth: the GaAs layers are grown on Si substrates by MBE and the CdTe film is subsequently deposited on GaAs/Si by MOCVD. The grown layers have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence.

  20. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    McSkimming, Brian M. Speck, James S.; Chaix, Catherine

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  1. Visible and Near-Infrared Quantum Well Laser Diodes Grown by Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varriano, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The growth of near infrared quantum well (QW) laser diodes in the AlGaAs material system and visible QW laser diodes in the AlGaInP material system by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated. Procedures for fabrication, measurement, and analysis are developed on the more easily grown GaAs QW lasers. Several studies are performed on the GaAs QW lasers. Doping of the laser core with a p-i-n profile improves laser performance. Low growth temperatures result in lasers with high threshold current densities due to the formation of traps caused by interface states and a deep level near the QW interface region. High growth temperatures also cause increases in threshold currents due to the effects of Ga desorption. Threshold current is not observed to depend strongly on the width of the laser waveguide core. Fabrication of lasers with tilted facets is facilitated by using misoriented substrates. The lasers exhibit higher threshold current densities due to decreased facet reflectivity. The benefits of compressively strained active layers are demonstrated in a GaInAs QW laser. Growth of visible AlGaInP lasers lattice matched to GaAs substrates is performed using a novel valved cracker cell for solid phosphorus. The cell avoids the expense and possible toxicity associated with the use of phosphine common in other growth techniques. It also alleviates the problems encountered when using solid phosphorus in a conventional effusion cell. High quality AlGaInP material is grown using the cell. The quality of the AlInP and GaInP ternaries is comparable to or better than that grown by other techniques based on photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The material is found to be highly disordered. Adequate doping levels for laser operation are obtained in the AlGaInP quaternary. Growth stops at the QW/barrier interfaces are proven to be detrimental to laser performance. Appropriate choices of barrier Al composition and QW Ga composition allow for the

  2. Hetero- and homo-epitaxial growth of III-nitride based junctions and devices by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Anand Venktesh

    2002-01-01

    The family of III-Nitrides semiconductors (InN, GaN, AlN and their alloys) is an area of intense interest for the development of power electronic, optoelectronic and mico-electromechanical systems (MEMS) based devices due to the unique properties of these materials. Presently, light emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers emitting in the blue part or the electromagnetic spectrum have become available based on these wide band gap materials. Further interest exists in the development of p-n and Schottky based junctions for application as solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) detector arrays and power rectifiers. Solar blind UV detectors require the growth of high quality AlxGa1-x N alloys containing up to 60% AlN mole fraction. Both devices require the development of high-quality p-type doped material. This dissertation addresses the growth of GaN and AlxGa1-xN alloys by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) as well as the processing of these materials for the fabrication of optoelectronic and power devices. The growth of III-Nitrides materials by MBE requires the development of an appropriate source of active nitrogen due to the large binding energy of molecular nitrogen (9.5 eV). Two methods for producing active N are the cracking of molecular nitrogen using a plasma source and the catalytic decomposition of ammonia on a heated substrate. The first method is explored using a compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source, and it is found that smooth films are grown by this technique under group-III rich conditions. The second method is explored using ammonia gas that enters the MBE system through an ammonia injector. In contrast to the plasma-assisted technique, smooth films can be grown under N-rich conditions. Due to the lack of native substrates for these materials, these films are generally deposited heteroepitaxially on c-plane sapphire or (0001) Si-face 6H-silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The polarity of films grown on the former was observed to be dependent on the

  3. Emission control of InGaN nanocolumns grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Jahn, U.; Trampert, A.

    2011-09-26

    This work studies the effect of the growth temperature on the morphology and emission characteristics of self-assembled InGaN nanocolumns grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Morphology changes are assessed by scanning electron microscopy, while emission is measured by photoluminescence. Within the growth temperature range of 750 to 650 deg. C, an increase in In incorporation for decreasing temperature is observed. This effect allows tailoring the InGaN nanocolumns emission line shape by using temperature gradients during growth. Depending on the gradient rate, span, and sign, broad emission line shapes are obtained, covering the yellow to green range, even yielding white emission.

  4. High electron mobility GaN grown under N-rich conditions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Koblmueller, G.; Wu, F.; Mates, T.; Speck, J. S.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Calleja, E.

    2007-11-26

    An alternative approach is presented for the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of high-quality GaN. Under N-rich growth conditions, an unexpected layer-by-layer growth mode was found for a wide range of growth temperatures in the GaN thermal decomposition regime (>750 deg. C). Consequently, superior surface morphologies with roughness of less than 1 nm (rms) have been achieved. For lightly Si-doped GaN films, room-temperature electron mobilities exceeding 1100 cm{sup 2}/V s were measured, surpassing the commonly insulating nature of GaN grown under N-rich conditions at low temperature.

  5. Nucleation, Growth, and Bundling of GaN Nanowires in Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Disentangling the Origin of Nanowire Coalescence.

    PubMed

    Kaganer, Vladimir M; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Dogan, Pinar; Sabelfeld, Karl K; Brandt, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of spontaneously formed GaN nanowires in molecular beam epitaxy combining the statistical analysis of scanning electron micrographs with Monte Carlo growth models. We find that (i) the nanowire density is limited by the shadowing of the substrate from the impinging fluxes by already existing nanowires, (ii) shortly after the nucleation stage, nanowire radial growth becomes negligible, and (iii) coalescence is caused by bundling of nanowires. The latter phenomenon is driven by the gain of surface energy at the expense of the elastic energy of bending and becomes energetically favorable once the nanowires exceed a certain critical length. PMID:27168127

  6. Heavily boron-doped Si layers grown below 700 C by molecular beam epitaxy using a HBO2 source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Fathauer, R. W.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Boron doping in Si layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at 500-700 C using an HBO2 source has been studied. The maximum boron concentration without detectable oxygen incorporation for a given substrate temperature and Si growth rate has been determined using secondary-ion mass spectrometry analysis. Boron present in the Si MBE layers grown at 550-700 C was found to be electrically active, independent of the amount of oxygen incorporation. By reducing the Si growth rate, highly boron-doped layers have been grown at 600 C without detectable oxygen incorporation.

  7. Lattice Distortion of GaAsBi Alloy Grown on GaAs by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Yuji; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Huang, Wei; Saraie, Junji; Oe, Kunishige; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Horino, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    GaAs1-xBix alloys were grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The lattice constants perpendicular and parallel to the surface of epilayers were estimated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The GaBi molar fraction was estimated by the Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). GaAs1-xBix epilayers with GaBi molar fractions less than 5% were almost coherently grown on GaAs substrate with compressive strain. The lattice mismatch between GaAs1-xBix (x=5%) and GaAs was estimated to be approximately 0.5%.

  8. Insights in High-Temperature Superconductivity from the Study of Films and Heterostructures Synthesized by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic,I.

    2009-01-09

    Using molecular beam epitaxy, we synthesize atomically smooth thin films, multilayers and superlattices of cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS). Such heterostructures enable novel experiments that probe the basicphysics of HTS. For example, we have established that HTS and antiferromagnetic phases separate on Ångstrom scale, while the pseudo-gap state apparently mixes with HTS over an anomalously large length scale ('Giant Proximity Effect'). Here, we briefly review our most recent experiments on such films and superlattices. The new results include an unambiguous demonstration of strong coupling of in-plane charge excitations to out-of-plane lattice vibrations and the discovery of interface HTS.

  9. Room temperature infrared photoresponse of self assembled Ge/Si (001) quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, R. K.; Manna, S.; Das, S.; Dhar, A.; Ray, S. K.

    2010-06-07

    We report on the observation of intraband near infrared (approx3.1 mum) and mid infrared (approx6.2 mum) photocurrent response at room temperature using Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Due to the bimodal size distribution and SiGe intermixing, distinguishable photoluminescence transitions are observed at 10 K, below and above the optical band gap of bulk Ge. The observed redshift in photocurrent with increasing temperature has been explained by the excitonic electric field originated due to infrared excitation at low temperatures. A good correlation between the spectral photocurrent response and photoluminescence of the quantum dots has been established.

  10. Molecular-beam epitaxy and robust superconductivity of stoichiometric FeSe crystalline films on bilayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Song Canli; Jiang Yeping; Xue Qikun; Wang Yilin; Li Zhi; Wang Lili; He Ke; Ma Xucun; Chen Xi

    2011-07-01

    We report on molecular beam epitaxy growth of stoichiometric and superconducting FeSe crystalline thin films on double-layer graphene. Layer-by-layer growth of high-quality films has been achieved in a well-controlled manner by using Se-rich condition, which allow us to investigate the thickness-dependent superconductivity of FeSe. In situ low-temperature scanning tunneling spectra reveal that the local superconducting gap in the quasiparticle density of states is visible down to two triple layers for the minimum measurement temperature of 2.2 K, and that the transition temperature T{sub c} scales inversely with film thickness.