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Sample records for gasb-based iii-v alloys

  1. III-V alloy heterostructure high speed avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, H. D.; Nakano, K.; Tomasetta, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Heterostructure avalanche photodiodes have been successfully fabricated in several III-V alloy systems: GaAlAs/GaAs, GaAlSb/GaAlSb, and InGaAsP/InP. These diodes cover optical wavelengths from 0.4 to 1.8 micron. Early stages of development show very encouraging results. High speed response of less than 35 ps and high quantum efficiency more than 95 percent have been obtained. The dark currents and the excess avalanche noise are also dicussed. A direct comparison of GaAlSb, GaAlAsSb, and In GaAsP avalanche photodiodes is given.

  2. Method for preparing homogeneous single crystal ternary III-V alloys

    DOEpatents

    Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A method for producing homogeneous, single-crystal III-V ternary alloys of high crystal perfection using a floating crucible system in which the outer crucible holds a ternary alloy of the composition desired to be produced in the crystal and an inner floating crucible having a narrow, melt-passing channel in its bottom wall holds a small quantity of melt of a pseudo-binary liquidus composition that would freeze into the desired crystal composition. The alloy of the floating crucilbe is maintained at a predetermined lower temperature than the alloy of the outer crucible, and a single crystal of the desired homogeneous alloy is pulled out of the floating crucible melt, as melt from the outer crucible flows into a bottom channel of the floating crucible at a rate that corresponds to the rate of growth of the crystal.

  3. Method for preparing homogeneous single crystal ternary III-V alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1990-08-14

    A method for producing homogenous single crystal III--V ternary alloys of high crystal perfection using a floating crucible system in which the outer crucible holds a ternary alloy of the composition desired to be produced in the crystal and an inner floating crucible having a narrow, melt-passing channel in its bottom wall holds a small quantity of melt of a pseudo-binary liquidus composition which would freeze into the desired crystal composition. The alloy of the floating crucible is maintained at a predetermined lower temperature than the alloy of the outer crucible, and a single crystal of the desired homogeneous alloy is pulled out of the floating crucible melt, as melt from the outer crucible flows into a bottom channel of the floating crucible at a rate that corresponds to the rate of growth of the crystal.

  4. Atomistic modeling of bond lengths in random and ordered III-V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detz, H.; Strasser, G.

    2013-09-01

    This work provides comprehensive modeling for the bond length and angle distributions in random and spontaneously ordered ternary III-V alloys using empirical interaction potentials. The compounds InxGa1-xAs, GaAs1-xSbx, and InxGa1-xP were used as model systems due to their technological importance and the fact that ordered structures were observed experimentally in these materials. For random alloys, we reproduce the bimodal bond length distribution, which allows linear fits with slopes between 0.087 Å and 0.1059 Å for all bond types. The calculated values for dilute compositions slightly deviate from these functions, causing stronger deformations. In the case of CuPt-ordered structures, the bond length distribution is shown to collapse to four sharp peaks with an area ratio of 1:3:3:1, which originate from a different atom to atom distance within the different (111) planes and perpendicular to these. An essential consequence of this atomic arrangement is the different spacings for the different stacked binaries along the (111) direction, which also leads to strain values up to -0.819% for In0.5Ga0.5P and -1.827% for GaAs0.5Sb0.5. Furthermore, the broad bond angle distributions of random alloys collapse into two peaks for CuPt-like structures. On the other hand, CuAu-type ordering is shown to lead to a sharp bimodal bond length distribution but with five different groups of bond angles, which can be identified with the different atomic configurations in ternary zincblende crystals.

  5. Annealing group III-V compound doped silicon-germanium alloy for improved thermo-electric conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Jan W. (Inventor); Wood, Charles (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The thermoelectric conversion efficiency of a GaP doped SiGe alloy is improved about 30 percent by annealing the alloy at a temperature above the melting point of the alloy, preferably stepwise from 1200 C to 1275 C in air to form large grains having a size over 50 microns and to form a GeGaP rich phase and a silicon rich phase containing SiP and SiO2 particles.

  6. Estimation of Bi induced changes in the direct E0 band gap of III-V-Bi alloys and comparison with experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samajdar, D. P.; Dhar, S.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum dielectric Theory (QDT) is used to explain the band gap bowing effect observed in III-V-Bismides such as InSb1-xBix, InAs1-xBix, InP1-xBix, GaSb1-xBix, GaAs1-xBix and GaP1-xBix. The dependence of the direct E0 band gap for these alloys on Bi mole fraction is calculated using QDT which requires the evaluation of the bowing parameter c. The bowing parameter gives the deviation of the direct E0 band gap from the linear relationship of E0 with Bi mole fraction. The band gap reduction values obtained using QDT are compared with those calculated using Virtual Crystal approximation (VCA) and Valence Band Anticrossing (VBAC) model as well as with the reported experimental data and the results of the comparison shows excellent agreement.

  7. MBE growth and spin injection measurements of ferromagnetic alloy nickel-manganese-indium on III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Junqing

    In this thesis, ferromagnetic metal/III-V semiconductor heterostructures were investigated for the development of spintronic devices. Particularly, three major research projects were carried out. First, spin injection from Fe into GaAs was studied. Second, the InAs-based resonant tunnel diode (RTD) was developed for spin detection. Third, epitaxial growth of single-crystal ferromagnetic Ni2MnIn thin films as a potential spin contact on InAs was demonstrated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Spin injection from Fe into GaAs was studied by using the Fe/(Al,Ga)As Schottky contact as the spin injector and the GaAs/(Al,Ga)As quantum well as the spin detector. Our results show that high delta-layer doping levels are detrimental to the electroluminescence polarization (ELP) signals while a uniformly doped n+-layer can improve the spin injection efficiency. An ELP signal as high as 20% was obtained for a spin light emitting diode sample with a uniformly doped n+-layer with a doping level of 5 x 1018/cm3. The InAs/AlSb/GaSb/AlSb/GaSb/InAs RTD structure was developed as a potential spin detector. MBE growth procedures for InAs and AlxGa1-x Sb were established. InAs/AlSb/GaSb/AlSb/InAs RTD structures were grown and fabricated. The I-V characteristics of the devices show a peak-to-valley ratio of 3 and 10 at room temperature and 14 K, respectively. As a promising spin contact on InAs, the growth of ferromagnetic Ni 2MnIn thin films on InAs (001) was demonstrated by MBE. At a growth temperature of 120°C, a transmission electron microscopy study confirms the epitaxial growth of Ni2MnIn films in the B2 structure on InAs (001). The epitaxial relationship was determined to be Ni2MnIn(001)<100> || InAs(001)<100>. The lower Curie temperature of the films (˜170 K), compared to that of bulk Ni2MnIn, is believed to result from the growth of Ni2MnIn in the B2 structure rather than the L21 structure. Curie temperatures of the Ni2MnIn thin films can be increased through annealing. For a sample grown at 120°C and annealed at 200°C, a Curie temperature as high as 330 K was obtained. The high Curie temperature is correlated to the Ni2MnIn in the partially L21-ordered structure.

  8. Dry etching of III-V nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.; McLane, G.F.; Constantine, C.

    1995-12-01

    The chemical inertness and high bond strengths of the III-V nitrides lead to slower plasma etching rates than for more conventional III-V semiconductors under the same conditions. High ion density conditions (>3{times}l0{sup 9}cm{sup {minus}3}) such as those obtained in ECR or magnetron reactors produce etch rates up to an order of magnitude higher than for RIE, where the ion densities are in the 10{sup 9}cm{sup {minus}3} range. We have developed smooth anisotropic dry etches for GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys based on Cl{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar, BCl{sub 3}/Ar, Cl{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}/SF{sub 6}, HBr/H{sub 2} and HI/H{sub 2} plasma chemistries achieving etch rates up to {approximately}4,000{angstrom}/min at moderate dc bias voltages ({le}-150V). Ion-induced damage in the nitrides appears to be less apparent than in other III-V`s. One of the key remaining issues is the achievement of high selectivities for removal of one layer from another.

  9. Progress and Continuing Challenges in GaSb-based III-V Alloys and Heterostructures Grown by Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    CA Wang

    2004-05-06

    This paper discusses progress in the preparation of mid-IR GaSb-based III-V materials grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The growth of these materials is complex, and fundamental and practical issues associated with their growth are outlined. Approaches that have been explored to further improve the properties and performance are briefly reviewed. Recent materials and device results on GaInAsSb bulk layers and GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb heterostructures, grown lattice matched to GaSb, are presented. State-of-the-art GaInAsSb materials and thermophotovoltaic devices have been achieved. This progress establishes the high potential of OMVPE for mid-IR GaSb-based devices.

  10. Modeling the elastic properties of the ternary III-V alloys InGaAs, InAlAs and GaAsSb using Tersoff potentials for binary compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detz, H.; Strasser, G.

    2013-08-01

    This work evaluates the suitability of the empirical Tersoff potential for structural calculations in ternary III-V alloys, using parameter sets for the corresponding binary compounds. In particular, the elastic properties of randomly alloyed InxGa1 - xAs, InxAl1 - xAs and GaAs1 - xSbx are compared to values obtained experimentally over the whole composition range. Different In-As interactions were evaluated for InxGa1 - xAs to provide an optimum fit around the technologically relevant composition of 53% In, required for lattice-matching with InP substrates. The experimental values of the bulk modulus were reproduced with an error well below 5% for all three ternaries, while the calculations led to deviations in the shear modulus of up to 13%. For the particular compositions, lattice-matched to InP, the error in the bulk modulus is well below 2%, while for the shear modulus an error around 10% has to be expected, according to this analysis.

  11. Antimony Based III-V Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    CA Wang

    2004-06-09

    Antimony-based III-V thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells are attractive converters for systems with low radiator temperature around 1100 to 1700 K, since these cells potentially can be spectrally matched to the thermal source. Cells under development include GaSb and the lattice-matched GaInAsSb/GaSb and InPAsSb/InAs quaternary systems. GaSb cell technology is the most mature, owing in part to the relative ease in preparation of the binary alloy compared to quaternary GaInAsSb and InPAsSb alloys. Device performance of 0.7-eV GaSb cells exceeds 90% of the practical limit. GaInAsSb TPV cells have been the primary focus of recent research, and cells with energy gap E{sub g} ranging from {approx}0.6 to 0.49 eV have been demonstrated. Quantum efficiency and fill factor approach theoretical limits. Open-circuit voltage factor is as high as 87% of the practical limit for the higher-E{sub g} cells, but degrades to below 80% with decreasing E{sub g} of the alloy, which might be due to Auger recombination. InPAsSb cells are the least studied, and a cell with E{sub g} = 0.45-eV has extended spectral response out to 4.3 {micro}m. This paper briefly reviews the main contributions that have been made for antimonide-based TPV cells, and suggests additional studies for further performance enhancements.

  12. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, T.D.; Misra, M.

    1997-10-14

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector. 24 figs.

  13. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Misra, Mira (Arlington, MA)

    1997-01-01

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector.

  14. III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor are disclosed. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V materials varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V material can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  15. Hybrid III-V/silicon lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, P.; Jany, C.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Lamponi, M.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Shen, A.; Charbonnier, P.; Mallecot, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Gentner, J.-.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Olivier, S.; Descos, A.; Ben Bakir, B.; Messaoudene, S.; Bordel, D.; Malhouitre, S.; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.

    2014-05-01

    The lack of potent integrated light emitters is one of the bottlenecks that have so far hindered the silicon photonics platform from revolutionizing the communication market. Photonic circuits with integrated light sources have the potential to address a wide range of applications from short-distance data communication to long-haul optical transmission. Notably, the integration of lasers would allow saving large assembly costs and reduce the footprint of optoelectronic products by combining photonic and microelectronic functionalities on a single chip. Since silicon and germanium-based sources are still in their infancy, hybrid approaches using III-V semiconductor materials are currently pursued by several research laboratories in academia as well as in industry. In this paper we review recent developments of hybrid III-V/silicon lasers and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several integration schemes. The integration approach followed in our laboratory makes use of wafer-bonded III-V material on structured silicon-on-insulator substrates and is based on adiabatic mode transfers between silicon and III-V waveguides. We will highlight some of the most interesting results from devices such as wavelength-tunable lasers and AWG lasers. The good performance demonstrates that an efficient mode transfer can be achieved between III-V and silicon waveguides and encourages further research efforts in this direction.

  16. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A bandpass photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties. The bandpass photodetector detects electromagnetic radiation between a lower transition wavelength and an upper transition wavelength. That detector comprises two low pass photodetectors. The response of the two low pass photodetectors is subtracted to yield a response signal.

  17. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Olshavsky, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed, They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline.

  18. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Olshavsky, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed. They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline. 4 figs.

  19. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, T.D.

    1998-12-08

    A bandpass photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The bandpass photodetector detects electromagnetic radiation between a lower transition wavelength and an upper transition wavelength. That detector comprises two low pass photodetectors. The response of the two low pass photodetectors is subtracted to yield a response signal. 24 figs.

  20. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  1. III-V nanowires and nanowire optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunyan; Wu, Jiang; Aagesen, Martin; Liu, Huiyun

    2015-11-01

    III-V nanowires (NWs) have been envisioned as nanoscale materials for next-generation technology with good functionality, superior performance, high integration ability and low cost, because of their special growth modes and unique 1D structure. In this review, we summarize the main challenges and important progress of the fabrication and applications of III-V NWs. We start with the III-V NW growth, that significantly influences the NW morphology and crystal quality. Attention is then given to the fabrication of some advanced III-V structures composed of axial and radial junctions. After that, we review the advantages, challenges, and major breakthroughs of using III-V NWs as solar energy harvesters and light emitters. Finally, we attempt to give a perspective look on the future development trends and the remaining challenges in the research field of III-V NWs.

  2. III-V semiconductor devices integrated with silicon III-V semiconductor devices integrated with silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, Mark; Martin, Trevor; Smowton, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The integration of III-V semiconductor devices with silicon is one of the most topical challenges in current electronic materials research. The combination has the potential to exploit the unique optical and electronic functionality of III-V technology with the signal processing capabilities and advanced low-cost volume production techniques associated with silicon. Key industrial drivers include the use of high mobility III-V channel materials (InGaAs, InAs, InSb) to extend the performance of Si CMOS, the unification of electronics and photonics by combining photonic components (GaAs, InP) with a silicon platform for next-generation optical interconnects and the exploitation of large-area silicon substrates and high-volume Si processing capabilities to meet the challenges of low-cost production, a challenge which is particularly important for GaN-based devices in both power management and lighting applications. The diverse nature of the III-V and Si device approaches, materials technologies and the distinct differences between industrial Si and III-V processing have provided a major barrier to integration in the past. However, advances over the last decade in areas such as die transfer, wafer fusion and epitaxial growth have promoted widespread renewed interest. It is now timely to bring some of these topics together in a special issue covering a range of approaches and materials providing a snapshot of recent progress across the field. The issue opens a paper describing a strategy for the epitaxial integration of photonic devices where Kataria et al describe progress in the lateral overgrowth of InP/Si. As an alternative, Benjoucef and Reithmaier report on the potential of InAs quantum dots grown direct onto Si surfaces whilst Sandall et al describe the properties of similar InAs quantum dots as an optical modulator device. As an alternative to epitaxial integration approaches, Yokoyama et al describe a wafer bonding approach using a buried oxide concept, Corbett et al describe the transfer printing and bonding of III-V die on to CMOS wafers and Dastjerdi et al describe the optical performance of free-standing InGaAsP tube optical cavities which may be transferred to silicon substrates. Finally, describing important recent progress on GaN-based devices Jiang et al describe their work on InGaN light-emitting diodes on Si (1?1?1) substrates, Wallis et al describe similar structures with the emphasis on x-ray methods for the control of AlGaN buffer layer strain, Kumar et al describe low leakage current, large-area Schottky barrier photodetectors on Si, whilst Soltani et al describe their recent progress on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on (1?0?0) and (1?1?0) silicon substrates. Overall, we think that this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology provides a timely overview of progress and the opportunities in this exciting and important field. Finally, we would like to thank the IOP editorial staff, in particular Alice Malhador, for their support, and we would also like to thank all contributors for their efforts in making this special issue possible.

  3. III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  4. Progress Towards III-V Photovoltaics on Flexible Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Pal, AnnaMaria T.; Clark, Eric B.; Sayir, Ali; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Hubbard, Seth M.; Maurer, William F.; Fritzemeier, Les

    2008-01-01

    Presented here is the recent progress of the NASA Glenn Research Center OMVPE group's efforts in the development of high efficiency thin-film polycrystalline III-V photovoltaics on optimum substrates. By using bulk polycrystalline germanium (Ge) films, devices of high efficiency and low mass will be developed and incorporated onto low-cost flexible substrates. Our progress towards the integration of high efficiency polycrystalline III-V devices and recrystallized Ge films on thin metal foils is discussed.

  5. Recent trends in III--V strained layer research

    SciTech Connect

    Osbourn, G.C.

    1986-11-01

    Current directions in III--V strained layer superlattice research are briefly reviewed. Areas of recent emphasis include the study of the tailorable light hole mass values, the development of new III--V strained layer materials for infrared detector applications, and work on modulation-doped field effect transistors employing strained quantum wells. Recent theoretical and experimental results as well as unresolved issues in these areas are discussed.

  6. MOVPE growth mechanisms of dilute bismide III/V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, P.; Nattermann, L.; Stolz, W.; Volz, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper summarizes the present understanding of the growth of Ga(AsBi) on GaAs substrates using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). A growth model including Bi segregation is developed and the influence of several growth parameters, such as the applied growth temperature, the growth rate and the partial pressures of the precursors, are investigated in detail. Also, effects, beyond pure source decomposition, of the low growth temperature needed for the deposition of the highly metastable material system are summarized. Optimizing the growth conditions enables the deposition of Ga(AsBi) layers with more than 7% Bi that show strong room temperature photoluminescence without the necessity of annealing. Bi acts as a surfactant during the growth that reduces the defect density and unintentional carbon doping of the crystals. Besides using the established Bi precursor trimethylbismuth (TMBi), the growth of Ga(AsBi) with alternative Bi precursors tritertiarybutylbismuth (TTBBi) and triisopropylbismuth (TIPBi) is discussed. Furthermore, first results on Ga(AsBi) containing an electrically pumped single quantum well laser grown with MOVPE are presented. These devices might enable high efficiency infrared laser devices in future.

  7. Low-Frequency Noise Measurements Used For Quality Assessment Of GaSb Based Laser Diodes Prepared By Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobola, Zden?k; Lu?ák, Miroslav; Van?k, Ji?í; Hulicius, Eduard; Kusák, Ivo

    2015-07-01

    The paper reports on a non-destructive method of reliability prediction for semiconductor lasers diodes GaSb based VCSE (vertical cavity surface emitting). Transport and noise characteristic of forward biased were measured in order to evaluate the new MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) technology. The results demonstrate that the lasers prepared by new MBE technology have higher quality than the samples prepared by using the classic MBE technology.

  8. Antisites in III-V semiconductors: Density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chroneos, A.; Tahini, H. A.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Grimes, R. W.

    2014-07-01

    Density functional based simulation, corrected for finite size effects, is used to investigate systematically the formation of antisite defects in III-V semiconductors (III = Al, Ga, and In and V = P, As, and Sb). Different charge states are modelled as a function of the Fermi level and under different growth conditions. The formation energies of group III antisites ( III V q) decrease with increasing covalent radius of the group V atom though not group III radius, whereas group V antisites ( V I I I q) show a consistent decrease in formation energies with increase in group III and group V covalent radii. In general, III V q defects dominate under III-rich conditions and V I I I q under V-rich conditions. Comparison with equivalent vacancy formation energy simulations shows that while antisite concentrations are always dominant under stoichiometric conditions, modest variation in growth or doping conditions can lead to a significantly higher concentration of vacancies.

  9. III-V semiconductor solid solution single crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertner, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility and desirability of space growth of bulk IR semiconductor crystals for use as substrates for epitaxial IR detector material were researched. A III-V ternary compound (GaInSb) and a II-VI binary compound were considered. Vapor epitaxy and quaternary epitaxy techniques were found to be sufficient to permit the use of ground based binary III-V crystals for all major device applications. Float zoning of CdTe was found to be a potentially successful approach to obtaining high quality substrate material, but further experiments were required.

  10. Epitaxial growth and characterization of narrow bandgap III-V semiconductors and related semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sukgeun

    III-V semiconductors with the lattice spacing of 6.1A---GaSb, AlSb, InAs, and their heterostructures---offer great flexibility in designing novel solid-state devices via bandgap engineering. Despite of increasing interest, optical properties of these materials are still not well understood. In order to design and optimize device structures, knowledge of optical properties over a wide energy range is of importance. In this study, dielectric responses of AlxGa1- xSb (0.00 ? x ? 0.39) alloys, (GaSb) 3n(AlSb)n (1 ? n ? 5) superlattices, and InAsxP1-x (0.0 ? x ? 1.0) alloys have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Analysis of second-energy-derivatives calculated numerically from the measured data yielded the critical-point energies of the E1, E1+Delta1, E0', E2, and E 1' for both AlxGa1- xSb alloys and (GaSb)3n(AlSb) n superlattices while the E1, E1+Delta1, E0', E2, and E2+delta for InAs xP1-x alloys. Dependences of the critical-point energies on alloy composition and superlattice period have been obtained for the alloys and the superlattices, respectively. For the superlattice samples, two additional features were also observed near the E1+Delta1 critical-point structures for n ? 4. There is increasing interest in semimetallic rare-earth group-V compounds integrated into III-V semiconductor for potential applications in metal-base electronic devices, thermodynamically stable metallic contacts, and novel optoelectronic devices based on metallic nanoparticles. We have studied Sc xEr1-xSb compounds that grow epitaxially on the 6.1A family of III-V semiconductors. For the success of epitaxial growth of dissimilar materials, the ability of tailoring surfaces and interfaces on the atomic scale is required. This research focus, therefore, has been on understanding the initial growth nature of ErSb on GaSb(100). Results show that the initial nucleation of ErSb on GaSb(100) surfaces produces nanometer scale islands embedded within the surface of the GaSb. The growth is well represented by the embedded growth model in which islands nucleate in the surface of a substrate, grow laterally, and coalesce into a uniform film, and continue to grow in a layer-by-layer mode.

  11. Approaches for III/V Photonics on Si

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesner, M.; Schulz, W.-M.; Rossbach, R.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.; Angelopoulos, E. A.; Burghartz, J. N.; Werner, J.; Oehme, M.; Schulze, J.

    2011-12-23

    We investigated different approaches to overcome difficulties in III/V-on-Si heteroepitaxy, namely growth on compliant substrates and virtual Ge substrates, both realized on top of Si substrates, and in addition, directly on Si. The prospect of this work was the realization of a light emitter on standard Si(100) substrate, capable of being integrated in established industrial processes.

  12. III-V aresenide-nitride semiconductor materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor crystals, methods for producing such crystals and devices employing such crystals. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  13. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy studies of novel III V semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, A.; Lundgren, E.

    In recent years, nanostructure technology involving III-V semiconductors have made significant progress in areas such as optoelectronics and spintronics. A number of new materials and nanostructures have been invented, most of them being of a very dilute character or extremely small. Because of these properties, their structural characterization on an atomic scale is of profound importance. One important technique for the structural characterization of these structures is so-called cross-sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (XSTM). The III-V semiconductor is cleaved perpendicular to the (1 0 0) growth direction exposing the (1 1 0) surface. This procedure enables a sharp STM tip to probe the atomic scale details of a wide variety of buried structures. Here, results from three different III-V structures with significant technological interest are presented. The first is the atomic scale structure of dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor superlattices consisting of alternate layers of GaAs and GaMnAs with different compositions. By unraveling the appearance of the Mn atoms in XSTM, we are able to investigate the diffusion of Mn atoms into the GaAs spacer layers between the GaMnAs layers. The second example concerns stacked quantum dots of InAs in InP. XSTM from stacks of 2, 5 and 10 quantum dots are presented. A significant number of defects will be shown as well as information on the amount of alloying between the InAs quantum dots and the surrounding InP layers. The last example concerns free standing objects such as nanowires. A new method is presented which enables us to cleave nanowires and consequently observe the individual atoms inside the wire. Our XSTM images provide detailed information on the growth of the wires as well as on the formation of twins inside the wires.

  14. Influence of Bi-related impurity states on the bandgap and spin-orbit splitting energy of dilute III-V-Bi alloys: InP1-xBix, InAs1-xBix, InSb1-xBix and GaSb1-xBix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samajdar, D. P.; Dhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Valence Band Anticrossing (VBAC) Model is used to calculate the changes in band structure of Bi containing alloys such as InP1-xBix, InAs1-xBix, InSb1-xBix and GaSb1-xBix due to the incorporation of dilute concentrations of bismuth. The coupling parameter CBi which gives the magnitude of interaction of Bi impurity states with the LH, HH and SO sub bands in VBAC depends on the increase in the HH/LH related energy level EHH/LH+, location of the Bi related impurity level EBi and valence band offset ΔEVBM between the endpoint compounds in the corresponding III-V-Bi. The reduction in band gap as well as the enhancement of the spin-orbit splitting energy is well explained using this model and the calculated results are compared with the results of Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, as well as with the available experimental data and are found to have good agreement. The incorporation of Bi mainly perturbs the valence band due to the interaction of the Bi impurity states with the HH, LH and SO bands. The lowering of the conduction band minimum (CBM) due to VCA is added with the upward movement of the HH/LH bands to get the total reduction in band gap for the bismides. The valence band shifts of 31.9, 32.5, 20.8 and 12.4 meV/at%Bi for InP1-xBix, InAs1-xBix, InSb1-xBix and GaSb1-xBix respectively constitute 65, 76, 59 and 31% of the total band gap reduction and the rest is the contribution of the conduction band shift. The spin-orbit splitting energy also shows significant increase with the maximum change in InPBi and the minimum in InSbBi. The same is true for Ga containing bismides if we make a comparison with the available values for GaAsBi and GaPBi with that of GaSbBi. It has also been observed that the increase in splitting energy is greater in case of the bismides such as InAsBi, InPBi and GaAsBi than the bismides such as InSbBi and GaSbBi with the parent substrates having higher values of splitting energy. This may be due to the proximity of the Bi related impurity level EBi with the SO bands of InAs, InP and GaAs.

  15. Investigation of new semiinsulating behavior of III-V compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, Jacek

    1990-01-01

    The investigation of defect interactions and properties related to semiinsulating behavior of III-V semiconductors resulted in about twenty original publications, six doctoral thesis, one masters thesis and numerous conference presentations. The studies of new compensation mechanisms involving transition metal impurities have defined direct effects associated with deep donor/acceptor levels acting as compensating centers. Electrical and optical properties of vanadium and titanium levels were determined in GaAs, InP and also in ternary compounds InGaAs. The experimental data provided basis for the verification of chemical trends and the VRBE method. They also defined compositional range for III-V mixed crystals whereby semiinsulating behavior can be achieved using transition elements deep levels and a suitable codoping with shallow donor/acceptor impurities.

  16. FOREWORD: The physics of III-V nitrides The physics of III-V nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, B. K.

    2009-04-01

    The evolution of semiconductor physics is driven by the increasing sophistication of the art of crystal growing and fabrication techniques. From Ge at the birth of the transistor, possibly the purest material ever grown, through Si, the work-horse of the crystal revolution, to the III-Vs, whose optical properties opened up a second front, namely, optoelectronics. Crystal growth with monolayer control gave us quantum wells, superlattices, quantum wires and quantum dots, along with the quantum Hall effect and quantized resistance. The potential for high-power devices triggered interest in the III-V nitrides with their large bandgaps. The nitrides mostly crystallize in the hexagonal form, and this has introduced the phenomenon of spontaneous polarization into mainstream semiconductor physics. Its effect manifests itself in huge electric fields in heterostructures like AlGaN/GaN which, in turn, causes the induction of substantial electron populations in the channel of a HFET without the need for doping. High-power microwave transistors have been successfully fabricated, even though there are features associated with spontaneous polarization that still needs clarifying. Another strange effect is the large electron population on the surface of InN. The lack of a suitable substrate for growing GaN has meant that the dislocation density is higher than we would wish, but that situation is expected to steadily improve. Given the current interest in the physics of nitrides, it is natural to come across a special issue devoted to this topic. The difficulty presented by the surface layer in InN in the attempt to measure transport properties is discussed in the paper by King et al. A property that can affect transport is the lifetime of optical phonons and its dependence on electron density. Measurements of phonon lifetime in InN are reported by Tsen and Ferry, and in GaN channels, via the measure of hot-electron fluctuations, by Matulionis. The dependence on electron density is thought to be associated with the coupling of plasma and phonon modes, and this is discussed by Dyson. The intrinsic cause of phonon decay is the anharmonic interaction involving three phonons, and this process is described for zinc blende BN and hexagonal AlN, GaN and InN by Srivastava. The principal electron scattering mechanism at room temperature is associated with the interaction with polar optical modes. At high fields, transfer to the upper conduction-band valleys can take place and this involves the deformation-potential interaction. Deformation potentials have been derived by Yamakawa et al for GaN, and they have been incorporated into a cellular Monte Carlo simulation to describe high-field transport. In high-power devices, thermal as well as electronic transport is important. The thermal conductivity of the substrate of devices is a vital factor, and the possible use of AlN ceramics is discussed by AlShaikhi and Srivastarva. A striking device based on a zinc blende superlattice is the quantum cascade laser. Exploiting intersubband transitions in the AlN/GaN superlattice for the high-speed detection of infrared light is described by Hofstetter et al, clearly a first step towards a nitride based quantum cascade laser. In bulk material the displacement of As by N that transforms GaAs to GaN produces a huge change in properties. Adding a small amount of N to GaAs might be expected to produce a gradual more-or-less linear shift towards the properties of GaN, but this turns out to be far from the case. The strange properties of dilute nitrides have intrigued many workers in recent years. Its curious bandstructure suggested that hot-electron transport could exhibit a negative differential resistance, and a report on this topic can be found in the article by Patane et al A comprehensive study of transport of electrons and holes in dilute nitride/GaAs quantum wells is reported by Sun et al. An unusual new device—a spin filter—is presaged by the work of Zhao et al on spin-dependent recombination, controllable by adjusting the N content. Answers to a numbe

  17. Super-High Iii-V Tandem and Multijunction Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Principles of super-high-efficiency multijunction solar cells * Epitaxial technologies for growing III-V compound cells * Monolithic vs. multi-terminal connection modes * Key issues for realising high-efficiency multijunction solar cells * High-efficiency InGaP/GaAs/Ge three-junction solar cells and their space applications * Multijunction solar cells: recent results * Future directions * Acknowledgements * References

  18. Heterointegrated III-V/Si distributed feedback lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprez, Helene; Descos, Antoine; Ferrotti, Thomas; Jany, Chistophe; Harduin, Julie; Myko, André; Sciancalepore, Corrado; Seassal, Christian; Ben Bakir, Badhise

    2015-02-01

    With an ever-growing transmission data rate, electronic components reach a limit silicon photonics may overcome. This technology provides integrated circuits in which light is generated within hybrid III-V/Si lasers and modulated to transmit the desired information through silicon waveguides to input/output active/passive components such as wavelength (de-)multiplexers, fiber couplers and photodetectors. Nevertheless, high aggregate bandwidth through wavelength division multiplexing demands for spectrally narrowband lasers with high side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). Distributed feedback (DFB) lasers offer such a great selectivity. We report hybrid III-V on Silicon DFB lasers emitting at 1550nm and 1310nm. The III-V material is wafer-bonded to patterned silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. The laser cavity is obtained by etching a grating in the silicon, while silicon adiabatic tapers are used to couple light from/to III-V waveguides to/from the passive silicon circuitry, in order to maximize the laser available gain and output power. Gratings are either etched on the top of the silicon waveguide or on its sides, thus relaxing the taper dimension constraint. At 1550nm, the investigated device operates under continuous wave regime with a room temperature threshold current of 70mA, an SMSR as high as 45dB and an optical power in the waveguide higher than 40mW. At 1310nm, a threshold current of 35mA, an SMSR of 45dB and an optical power coupled into a single-mode fiber higher than 1.5mW are demonstrated.

  19. Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires

    DOEpatents

    Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-11-25

    A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.

  20. Heterogeneously integrated III-V/silicon distributed feedback lasers.

    PubMed

    Keyvaninia, S; Verstuyft, S; Van Landschoot, L; Lelarge, F; Duan, G-H; Messaoudene, S; Fedeli, J M; De Vries, T; Smalbrugge, B; Geluk, E J; Bolk, J; Smit, M; Morthier, G; Van Thourhout, D; Roelkens, G

    2013-12-15

    Heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon second-order distributed feedback lasers utilizing an ultra-thin DVS-BCB die-to-wafer bonding process are reported. A novel DFB laser design exploiting high confinement in the active waveguide is demonstrated. A 14 mW single-facet output power coupled to a silicon waveguide, 50 dB side-mode suppression ratio and continuous wave operation up to 60°C around 1550 nm is obtained. PMID:24343010

  1. Recent progress in III-V based ferromagnetic semiconductors: Band structure, Fermi level, and tunneling transport

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohya, Shinobu Nam Hai, Pham

    2014-03-15

    Spin-based electronics or spintronics is an emerging field, in which we try to utilize spin degrees of freedom as well as charge transport in materials and devices. While metal-based spin-devices, such as magnetic-field sensors and magnetoresistive random access memory using giant magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance, are already put to practical use, semiconductor-based spintronics has greater potential for expansion because of good compatibility with existing semiconductor technology. Many semiconductor-based spintronics devices with useful functionalities have been proposed and explored so far. To realize those devices and functionalities, we definitely need appropriate materials which have both the properties of semiconductors and ferromagnets. Ferromagnetic semiconductors (FMSs), which are alloy semiconductors containing magnetic atoms such as Mn and Fe, are one of the most promising classes of materials for this purpose and thus have been intensively studied for the past two decades. Here, we review the recent progress in the studies of the most prototypical III-V based FMS, p-type (GaMn)As and its heterostructures with focus on tunneling transport, Fermi level, and bandstructure. Furthermore, we cover the properties of a new n-type FMS, (In,Fe)As, which shows electron-induced ferromagnetism. These FMS materials having zinc-blende crystal structure show excellent compatibility with well-developed III-V heterostructures and devices.

  2. Superlattice and disorder effects on vibrations in III-V compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusserand, Bernard

    We analyse the perturbation induced either by a random atomic distribution (mixed crystal) or a one-dimensional periodic one (superlattice) onto the vibrations in III-V compounds and in particular onto the Raman backscattering active modes. As a consequence of the induced relaxation of the wavevector selection rule; some new modes become Raman active. We analyse their frequency and activity as a function of respectively the alloy concentration and the thicknesses of layers constituting the superlattice. We illustrate these results on structures based on the GaAs and AlAs compounds. Nous analysons la perturbation induite par une distribution atomique aléatoire (alliage) ou modulée périodiquement suivant une direction cristalline (superréseau) sur la dynamique de réseau des semiconducteurs III-V et sur les spectres de rétrodiffusion Raman correspondants. La relaxation de la loi de conservation du vecteur d'onde qui résulte de telles distributions permet l'observation de nouveaux modes en diffusion Raman. Nous analysons leurs fréquence et activité en fonction respectivement de la composition de l'alliage ou des paramètres structuraux du superréseau. Nous illustrons ces résultats dans le cas de structures à base des composés GaAs et AlAs.

  3. Recent progress in III-V based ferromagnetic semiconductors: Band structure, Fermi level, and tunneling transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohya, Shinobu; Nam Hai, Pham

    2014-03-01

    Spin-based electronics or spintronics is an emerging field, in which we try to utilize spin degrees of freedom as well as charge transport in materials and devices. While metal-based spin-devices, such as magnetic-field sensors and magnetoresistive random access memory using giant magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance, are already put to practical use, semiconductor-based spintronics has greater potential for expansion because of good compatibility with existing semiconductor technology. Many semiconductor-based spintronics devices with useful functionalities have been proposed and explored so far. To realize those devices and functionalities, we definitely need appropriate materials which have both the properties of semiconductors and ferromagnets. Ferromagnetic semiconductors (FMSs), which are alloy semiconductors containing magnetic atoms such as Mn and Fe, are one of the most promising classes of materials for this purpose and thus have been intensively studied for the past two decades. Here, we review the recent progress in the studies of the most prototypical III-V based FMS, p-type (GaMn)As and its heterostructures with focus on tunneling transport, Fermi level, and bandstructure. Furthermore, we cover the properties of a new n-type FMS, (In,Fe)As, which shows electron-induced ferromagnetism. These FMS materials having zinc-blende crystal structure show excellent compatibility with well-developed III-V heterostructures and devices.

  4. Defect Analysis in III-V Semiconductor Thin Films Grown by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Kevin Louis

    Hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) is an epitaxial growth technique renowned for its ability to grow III-V semiconductors at high growth rates using lower cost reagents compared to metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), the current industry standard. Recent interest in III-V photovoltaics has led to increased attention on HVPE. While the technique came to maturity in the 70s, much is unknown about how defects incorporate in HVPE-grown materials. Further understanding of how defects incorporate in III-V materials grown by HVPE is necessary to facilitate wider adoption of the technique. This information would inform strategies for minimizing and eliminating defects in HVPE materials, allowing for the formation of high performance devices. This investigation presents a study of multiple defects in III-V semiconductors grown by HVPE in the context of specific device applications, spanning point defects comprised of individual atoms to extended defects which propagate throughout the crystal. The incorporation of the arsenic anti-site defect, AsGa, intrinsic point defect was studied in high growth rate GaAs layers with potential photovoltaic applications. Relationships between growth conditions and incorporation of AsGa in GaAs epilayers were determined. The incorporation of AsGa depended strongly on the growth conditions employed, and a model was developed to predict the concentration of anti-site defects as a function of those growth conditions. Dislocations and anti-phase domain boundaries (APDBs), two types of extended defects, were investigated in the heteroepitaxial GaAs/Ge system. It was found that the use of 6° miscut substrates and specific growth temperatures led to elimination of APDBs. Dislocation densities were reduced through the use of high growth temperatures. The third and final application investigated was the growth of InxGa1-xAs metamorphic buffer layers (MBLs) by HVPE. The relationships between the growth conditions and the alloy composition were determined, and a model was developed to explain the observed behavior. Compositional grading strategies were explored and insight into the minimization of dislocations in these layers was developed. The dislocation microstructure was analyzed by TEM and related to the layer design, leading to the development of an atomic scale model for dislocation nucleation and propagation throughout the MBL layers.

  5. Hybrid III-V/silicon SOA for photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, P.; Brenot, R.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Olivier, S.; Jany, Christophe; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.

    2014-11-01

    Silicon photonics has reached a considerable level of maturity, and the complexity of photonic integrated circuits (PIC) is steadily increasing. As the number of components in a PIC grows, loss management becomes more and more important. Integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) will be crucial components in future photonic systems for loss compensation. In addition, there are specific applications, where SOAs can play a key role beyond mere loss compensation, such as modulated reflective SOAs in carrier distributed passive optical networks or optical gates in packet switching. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find a generic integration platform that includes the possibility of integrating SOAs on silicon. Various methods are currently being developed to integrate light emitters on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide circuits. Many of them use III-V materials for the hybrid integration on SOI. Various types of lasers have been demonstrated by several groups around the globe. In some of the integration approaches, SOAs can be implemented using essentially the same technology as for lasers. In this paper we will focus on SOA devices based on a hybrid integration approach where III-V material is bonded on SOI and a vertical optical mode transfer is used to couple light between SOI waveguides and guides formed in bonded III-V semiconductor layers. In contrast to evanescent coupling schemes, this mode transfer allows for a higher confinement factor in the gain material and thus for efficient light amplification over short propagation distances. We will outline the fabrication process of our hybrid components and present some of the most interesting results from a fabricated and packaged hybrid SOA.

  6. Recent Soviet microelectronics research on III-V compounds semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sello, H.; Kirkpatrick, C.G.

    1988-08-01

    The activity in the Soviet Union on III-V compound semiconductor devices during the past five years is examined in the areas of materials, processes, radiation effects, and devices by a search of the translated technical journals. The majority of the work in III-V materials is concerned with gallium arsenide (GaAs), and the materials are certainly of the quality needed to make integrated circuits (ICs). However, the focus of Soviet growth and characterization studies appears to be basic materials properties, rather than development of capabilities and understanding for making integrated circuits. In processing, the Soviets appear to have very little effort on metaloorganic chemical vapor deposition on III-V compounds, while this is the process of choice in the West. There is, however, a substantial effort on X-ray lithography for silicon that could be extended to GaAs. High-quality work is also reported for ion beam, electron beam, optical projection, and laser processing silicon. Research on metallization (interconnection) and dielectric deposition processes for GaAs is absent. Soviet research on ion implantation and laser annealing in compound semiconductors is largely directed toward basic phenomena, such as defect information, rather than on electrical characteristics considered important for integrated circuit fabrication. Outstanding basic work is also being conducted on the radiation effects of electrons, protons, alpha, gamma, and X-rays on materials. These Soviet studies of radiation effects do not appear to be directed toward the fabrication of actual devices. Soviet GaAs device work appears to be generally of a theoretical nature, relying in part on device data obtained from Western articles. The most advanced involves the junction field effect transistor and heterojunction bipolar transistor, with little work reported on the fabrication of GaAs integrated circuits.

  7. Rabi oscillations in direct gap III V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, P.; Thomas Andrews, J.

    1995-07-01

    Rabi oscillations in direct gap III-V semiconductors have been investigated analytically. The bleaching time becomes shorter while Stark broadening as well as self energy correction are increased if one follows the band-to-band photoexcitation of electron-hole pairs in the semiconductors in place of ideal level-to-level transition. The numerical estimates made for InSb crystal duly irradiated by PbEuSeTe diode laser manifests a rise in the transmitted intensity under the band-to-band transition regime relative to that in the two-level picture.

  8. III-V Growth on Silicon Toward a Multijunction Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Geisz, J.; Olson, J.; McMahon, W.; Friedman, D.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Duda, A.; Ward, S.; Ptak, A.; Kurtz, S.; Wanlass, M.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H.; Norman, A.; Jones, K.; Romero, M.; Reedy, B.

    2005-11-01

    A III-V on Si multijunction solar cell promises high efficiency at relatively low cost. The challenges to epitaxial growth of high-quality III-Vs on Si, though, are extensive. Lattice-matched (LM) dilute-nitride GaNPAs solar cells have been grown on Si, but their performance is limited by defects related to the nitrogen. Advances in the growth of lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials make more traditional III-Vs, such as GaInP and GaAsP, very attractive for use in multijunction solar cells on silicon.

  9. III-V infrared research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Soibel, A.; Liu, John; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Keo, S. A.; Nguyen, J.; Bandara, S. V.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2009-08-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory is actively developing the III-V based infrared detector and focal plane arrays (FPAs) for NASA, DoD, and commercial applications. Currently, we are working on multi-band Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs), Superlattice detectors, and Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIPs) technologies suitable for high pixel-pixel uniformity and high pixel operability large area imaging arrays. In this paper we report the first demonstration of the megapixel-simultaneously-readable and pixel-co-registered dual-band QWIP focal plane array (FPA). In addition, we will present the latest advances in QDIPs and Superlattice infrared detectors at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  10. III-V Infrared Research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Soibel, A.; Liu, John; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Keo, S. A.; Nguyen, J.; Bandara, S. V.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory is actively developing the III-V based infrared detector and focal plane arrays (FPAs) for NASA, DoD, and commercial applications. Currently, we are working on multi-band Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs), Superlattice detectors, and Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIPs) technologies suitable for high pixel-pixel uniformity and high pixel operability large area imaging arrays. In this paper we report the first demonstration of the megapixel-simultaneously-readable and pixel-co-registered dual-band QWIP focal plane array (FPA). In addition, we will present the latest advances in QDIPs and Superlattice infrared detectors at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  11. Carbon doping of III-V compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Moll, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Focus of the study is C acceptor doping of GaAs, since C diffusion coefficient is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of other common p-type dopants in GaAs. C ion implantation results in a concentration of free holes in the valence band < 10% of that of the implanted C atoms for doses > 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}. Rutherford backscattering, electrical measurements, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were amonth the techniques used. Ga co-implantation increased the C activation in two steps: first, the additional radiation damage creates vacant As sites that the implanted C can occupy, and second, it maintains the stoichiometry of the implanted layer, reducing the number of compensating native defects. In InP, the behavior of C was different from that in GaAs. C acts as n-type dopant in the In site; however, its incorporation by implantation was difficult to control; experiments using P co-implants were inconsistent. The lattice position of inactive C in GaAs in implanted and epitaxial layers is discussed; evidence for formation of C precipitates in GaAs and InP was found. Correlation of the results with literature on C doping in III-V semiconductors led to a phenomenological description of C in III-V compounds (particularly GaAs): The behavior of C is controlled by the chemical nature of C and the instrinsic Fermi level stabilization energy of the material.

  12. Prospects of III-V Tunnel FETs for Logic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Suman

    2015-03-01

    In order to continue and maintain the pace of energy efficient transistor scaling, it is imperative to scale the supply voltage of operation concurrently. In this invited paper, we discuss a promising III-V device architecture such as III-V Heterojunction Tunnel FETs that may break the seemingly inflexible energy vs. performance limit of silicon CMOS transistors and provide high performance, low leakage and low operating voltage for future logic transistor technology. Unlike conventional MOSFETs, the Tunnel FET (TFET) architecture employs a gate modulated Zener tunnel junction at the source which controls the transistor ON and OFF states. This scheme fundamentally eliminates the high-energy tail present in the Fermi-Dirac distribution of the valence band electrons in the p + source region and allows sub-kT/q steep slope device operation near the OFF state. This allows Tunnel FETs to achieve a much higher ION -IOFF ratio over a small gate voltage swing. A major challenge in the demonstration of high performance Tunnel FET is the limited rate of tunneling across the Zener junction which results in low drive current. Our results show, for the first time, that the on-current bottleneck in Tunnel FETs can be overcome by careful bandgap engineering. This work is supported by Intel, NRI/SRC and NSF through ASSIST NERC.

  13. DX centers in III-V semiconductors under hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    DX centers are deep level defects found in some III-V semiconductors. They have persistent photoconductivity and large difference between thermal and optical ionization energies. Hydrostatic pressure was used to study microstructure of these defects. A new local vibrational mode (LVM) was observed in hydrostatically stressed, Si-doped GaAs. Corresponding infrared absorption peak is distinct from the Si{sub Ga} shallow donor LVM peak, which is the only other LVM peak observed in our samples, and is assigned to the Si DX center. Analysis of the relative intensities of the Si DX LVM and the Si shallow donor LVM peaks, combined with Hall effect and resistivity indicate that the Si DX center is negatively charged. Frequency of this new mode provides clues to the structure of this defect. A pressure induced deep donor level in S-doped InP was also discovered which has the properties of a DX center. Pressure at which the new defect becomes more stable than the shallow donor is 82 kbar. Optical ionization energy and energy dependence of the optical absorption cross section was measured for this new effect. Capture barrier from the conduction band into the DX state were also determined. That DX centers can be formed in InP by pressure suggests that DX states should be common in n-type III-V semiconductors. A method is suggested for predicting under what conditions these defects will be the most stable form of the donor impurity.

  14. III-V nanowire arrays: growth and light interaction.

    PubMed

    Heiss, M; Russo-Averchi, E; Dalmau-Mallorquí, A; Tütüncüo?lu, G; Matteini, F; Rüffer, D; Conesa-Boj, S; Demichel, O; Alarcon-Lladó, E; Fontcuberta i Morral, A

    2014-01-10

    Semiconductor nanowire arrays are reproducible and rational platforms for the realization of high performing designs of light emitting diodes and photovoltaic devices. In this paper we present an overview of the growth challenges of III-V nanowire arrays obtained by molecular beam epitaxy and the design of III-V nanowire arrays on silicon for solar cells. While InAs tends to grow in a relatively straightforward manner on patterned (111)Si substrates, GaAs nanowires remain more challenging; success depends on the cleaning steps, annealing procedure, pattern design and mask thickness. Nanowire arrays might also be used for next generation solar cells. We discuss the photonic effects derived from the vertical configuration of nanowires standing on a substrate and how these are beneficial for photovoltaics. Finally, due to the special interaction of light with standing nanowires we also show that the Raman scattering properties of standing nanowires are modified. This result is important for fundamental studies on the structural and functional properties of nanowires. PMID:24334728

  15. Feasibility of III V on-silicon strain relaxed substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, M.; Grenet, G.; Regreny, P.; Leclercq, J. L.; Perreau, P.; Jalaguier, E.; Di Cioccio, L.; Hollinger, G.

    2005-02-01

    In this work we have investigated the feasibility of using ultrathin III-V films stuck on silicon as seed layers for subsequent epitaxial growths. The sticking is done by a thick viscous layer, which is assumed to act as an accommodating layer allowing the elastic relaxation of the initially strained III-V film. Two kinds of viscous layers have been employed: the Apiezon wax for an academic study and the borophosphorosilicate glass (BPSG) for an actual technological study. From the academic investigation, viz, with the Apiezon wax, we have learned how undulation and in-plane expansion compete as elastic relaxation processes. In fact, a final uniform and flat seed-layer morphology is hard to achieve and, when so, only for very small samples. In the actual investigation, viz, with the BPSG, wafer bonding techniques have been successfully used to transfer a 20 nm thick InAs 0.25P 0.75 film onto a Si host substrate. Then, a post-process Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) has been performed to lower the BPSG viscosity and allow the 0.8%-strained film to relax. These two preliminary studies have clearly shown the feasibility of the approach even if the sticking-interface stability has to be greatly improved from a chemical point of view before considering any practical application in optoelectronics.

  16. Applications of ion implantation in III-V device technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearton, S. J.; Ren, F.; Chu, S. N. G.; Hobson, W. S.; Abernathy, C. R.; Fullowan, T. R.; Lothian, J. R.; Elliman, R. G.; Jacobson, D. C.; Poate, J. M.

    1993-06-01

    The use of implantation for doping and isolation of a variety of electronic and photonic III-V compound semiconductor devices will be reviewed. Complex multilayer heterostructure devices like heterojunction bipolar transistors and strained InGaAs-GaAs quantum well lasers rely on keV or MeV isolation implants, requiring thick, easily removed masks and post-implant annealing treatments to achieve high isolation resistances ( ? 10 8 ? cm). The effectiveness of the implant isolation technique varies as a function of the bandgap and elemental composition of the semiconductor. Devices based on GaAs, Al xGa 1-xAs and InGaP are particularly suited to the implant isolation method. The prime dopant species for III-V materials are Si for n-type layers and Be for p-type layers, although there is increasing interest in the use of C as an acceptor because of its low diffusivity. In the latter case, a group III species must be co-implanted with the C + ion to enhance the occupation of the group V lattice site.

  17. Combinatorial approaches to understanding polytypism in III-V nanowires.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonas; Bolinsson, Jessica; Ek, Martin; Caroff, Philippe; Dick, Kimberly A

    2012-07-24

    Polytypism in III-V semiconductor nanowires is a topic that has received considerable attention in recent years. Achieving a pure nanowire crystal phase requires well-controlled and advanced parameter tuning for most III-V materials. Additionally, the new and unusual phases sometimes observed may present unique material properties if they can be controllably fabricated. With the prospect of using nanowires in applications within several different fields (including electronics, photonics, and life science), theoretical models are necessary to explain experimental trends and to attain a high level of crystal phase control. At present, there is no theoretical model (or combination of models) that fully explains how and why nanowire crystal structures commonly include several different polytypes. Here we use combinatorics and interlayer interactions to include higher order polytypes (4H and 6H) with the aim to explain nanowire crystal structure beyond the well-investigated zinc blende-wurtzite polytypism. Predictions from our theoretical models compare well with experimental results. PMID:22681568

  18. Electronic bands and excited states of III-V semiconductor polytypes with screened-exchange density functional calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori; Freeman, Arthur J.

    2014-03-31

    The electronic band structures and excited states of III-V semiconductors such as GaP, AlP, AlAs, and AlSb for various polytypes are determined employing the screened-exchange density functional calculations implemented in the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave methods. We demonstrate that GaP and AlSb in the wurtzite (WZ) structure have direct gap while III-V semiconductors in the zinc blende, 4H, and 6H structures considered in this study exhibit an indirect gap. Furthermore, we find that inclusion of Al atoms less than 17% and 83% in the hexagonal Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}P and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}As alloys, respectively, leads to a direct transition with a gap energy of ?2.3 eV. The feasibility of III-V semiconductors with a direct gap in WZ structure offers a possible crystal structure engineering to tune the optical properties of semiconductor materials.

  19. Electronic bands and excited states of III-V semiconductor polytypes with screened-exchange density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori; Freeman, Arthur J.

    2014-03-01

    The electronic band structures and excited states of III-V semiconductors such as GaP, AlP, AlAs, and AlSb for various polytypes are determined employing the screened-exchange density functional calculations implemented in the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave methods. We demonstrate that GaP and AlSb in the wurtzite (WZ) structure have direct gap while III-V semiconductors in the zinc blende, 4H, and 6H structures considered in this study exhibit an indirect gap. Furthermore, we find that inclusion of Al atoms less than 17% and 83% in the hexagonal AlxGa1-xP and AlxGa1-xAs alloys, respectively, leads to a direct transition with a gap energy of ˜2.3 eV. The feasibility of III-V semiconductors with a direct gap in WZ structure offers a possible crystal structure engineering to tune the optical properties of semiconductor materials.

  20. Tunable optical buffer based on III-V MEMS design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Wing H.; Podoliak, Nina; Horak, Peter; Wu, Jiang; Liu, Huiyun; Stewart, William J.; Kenyon, Anthony J.

    2015-02-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a tunable optical buffer device based on III-V semiconductor platform for telecommunication applications. The device comprises two indium phosphide suspended parallel waveguides with cross sectional dimension of 200 nm by 300 nm, separated by an air gap. The gap between the waveguides was designed to be adjustable by electrostatic force. Our simulation estimated that only 3 V is required to increase the separation distance from 50 nm to 500 nm; this translates to a change in the propagation delay by a factor of 2. The first generation of the suspended waveguide structure for optical buffering was fabricated. The sample was grown on an InP substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The waveguide pattern is written onto a 300 nm thick InP device layer by electron beam lithography and plasma etching. Electrodes were incorporated into the structure to apply voltages for MEMS actuation.

  1. III-V-on-silicon multi-frequency lasers.

    PubMed

    Keyvaninia, S; Verstuyft, S; Pathak, S; Lelarge, F; Duan, G-H; Bordel, D; Fedeli, J-M; De Vries, T; Smalbrugge, B; Geluk, E J; Bolk, J; Smit, M; Roelkens, G; Van Thourhout, D

    2013-06-01

    Compact multi-frequency lasers are realized by combining III-V based optical amplifiers with silicon waveguide optical demultiplexers using a heterogeneous integration process based on adhesive wafer bonding. Both devices using arrayed waveguide grating routers as well as devices using ring resonators as the demultiplexer showed lasing with threshold currents between 30 and 40 mA and output powers in the order of a few mW. Laser operation up to 60°C is demonstrated. The small bending radius allowable for the silicon waveguides results in a short cavity length, ensuring stable lasing in a single longitudinal mode, even with relaxed values for the intra-cavity filter bandwidths. PMID:23736620

  2. III-V Nanowire Array Growth by Selective Area Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Hyung-Joon; Stewart, Lawrence; Yeh, Tingwei; Dapkus, P. Daniel

    2011-12-23

    III-V semiconductor nanowires are unique material phase due to their high aspect ratio, large surface area, and strong quantum confinement. This affords the opportunity to control charge transport and optical properties for electrical and photonic applications. Nanoscale selective area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth (NS-SAG) is a promising technique to maximize control of nanowire diameter and position, which are essential for device application. In this work, InP and GaAs nanowire arrays are grown by NS-SAG. We observe enhanced sidewall growth and array uniformity disorder in high growth rate condition. Disorder in surface morphology and array uniformity of InP nanowire array is explained by enhanced growth on the sidewall and stacking faults. We also find that AsH{sub 3} decomposition on the sidewall affects the growth behavior of GaAs nanowire arrays.

  3. Annealing furnace for III-V semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. M.; Hier, H. S.; Ketchum, R. M.

    1986-02-01

    A furnace for annealing ion implantation damage in III-V semiconductors has been built and tested. Designed for research applications, the furnace can accommodate odd shapes of material up to 2 in. in diameter. Samples are loaded onto a novel cantilevered support and are not moved during the annealing operation, facilitating proximity annealing techniques. Both chambers of this dual chambered system are O-ring sealed for added safety during annealing in an arsine gas ambient. Electron mobilities between 4400 and 4600 cm2/V s at 300 K are routinely measured for 2×1017 cm-3 gallium arsenide material annealed in this sytem. The system has been used to anneal indium phosphide as well as gallium arsenide wafers.

  4. High rate ECR etching of III-V nitride materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shul, R.J.; Howard, A.J.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Vartuli, C.B.; Barnes, P.A.; Bozack, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The III-V nitride compound semiconductors are attracting considerable attention for blue and ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers as well as high temperature electronics due to their wide band gaps and high dielectric constants. The recent progress observed in the growth of these materials has not been matched by progress in processing techniques to fabricate more highly sophisticated devices. Patterning these materials has been especially difficult due to the relatively inert chemical nature of the group-III nitrides. The authors review dry etch techniques which have been used to pattern these materials including electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), reactive ion etch (RIE), and chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE). ECR etch rates greater than 3,800 {angstrom}/min for InN, 3,500 {angstrom}/min for GaN, and 1,170 A/min for AlN are reported. Etch anisotropy, surface morphology, and near-surface stoichiometry will be discussed.

  5. Model of selective growth of III-V nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    A kinetic model of growth of nanowires of III-V semiconductor compounds (including nitride ones) in the absence of metal catalyst is proposed; these conditions correspond to the methods of selective epitaxy or self-induced growth. A stationary solution for the nanowire growth rate is obtained, which indicates that the growth can be limited by not only the kinetics of III-group element with allowance for the surface diffusion (as was suggested earlier), but also the flow of the V-group element. Different modes are characterized by radically different dependences of the growth rate on the nanowire radius. Under arsenicenriched conditions, a typical dependence with a maximum and decay at large radii (limited by the gallium adatom diffusion) is observed. Under gallium-enriched conditions, there is a transition to the growth rate that is practically independent of the radius and linearly increases with an increase in the arsenic flow.

  6. Characteristics of III-V Semiconductor Devices at High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Young, Paul G.; Taub, Susan R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the development of III-V based pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (PHEMT's) designed to operate over the temperature range 77 to 473 K (-196 to 200 C). These devices have a pseudomorphic undoped InGaAs channel that is sandwiched between an AlGaAs spacer and a buffer layer; gate widths of 200, 400, 1600, and 3200 micrometers; and a gate length of 2 micrometers. Measurements were performed at both room temperature and 473 K (200 C) and show that the drain current decreases by 30 percent and the gate current increases to about 9 microns A (at a reverse bias of -1.5 V) at the higher temperature. These devices have a maximum DC power dissipation of about 4.5 W and a breakdown voltage of about 16 V.

  7. III-V Compound Detectors for CO2 DIAL Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Sulima, Oleg V.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2005-01-01

    Profiling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is important for understanding the natural carbon cycle on Earth and its influence on global warming and climate change. Differential absorption lidar is a powerful remote sensing technique used for profiling and monitoring atmospheric constituents. Recently there has been an interest to apply this technique, at the 2 m wavelength, for investigating atmospheric CO2. This drives the need for high quality detectors at this wavelength. Although 2 m detectors are commercially available, the quest for a better detector is still on. The detector performance, regarding quantum efficiency, gain and associated noise, affects the DIAL signal-to-noise ratio and background signal, thereby influencing the instrument sensitivity and dynamic range. Detectors based on the III-V based compound materials shows a strong potential for such application. In this paper the detector requirements for a long range CO2 DIAL profiles will be discussed. These requirements were compared to newly developed III-V compound infrared detectors. The performance of ternary InGaSb pn junction devices will be presented using different substrates, as well as quaternary InGaAsSb npn structure. The performance study was based on experimental characterization of the devices dark current, spectral response, gain and noise. The final results are compared to the current state-of-the-art InGaAs technology. Npn phototransistor structure showed the best performance, regarding the internal gain and therefore the device signal-to-noise ratio. 2-micrometers detectivity as high as 3.9 x 10(exp 11) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W was obtained at a temperature of -20 C and 4 V bias voltage. This corresponds to a responsivity of 2650 A/W with about 60% quantum efficiency.

  8. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  9. Dopant Profiling of III-V Nanostructures for Electronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Alexandra Caroline

    2011-12-01

    High electron mobility III-V compound semiconductors such as indium arsenide (InAs) are promising candidates for future active channel materials of electron devices to further enhance device performance. In particular, compound semiconductors heterogeneously integrated on Si substrates have been studied, combining the high mobility of III-V semiconductors and the well-established, low cost processing of Si technology. However, one of the primary challenges of III-V device fabrication is controllable, post-growth dopant profiling. Here InAs nanowires and ultrathin layers (nanoribbons) on SiO2/Si are investigated as the channel material for high performance field-effect transistors (FETs) and post-growth, patterned doping techniques are demonstrated. First, the synthesis of crystalline InAs nanowires with high yield and tunable diameters by using Ni nanoparticles as the catalyst material on SiO 2/Si substrates is demonstrated. The back-gated InAs nanowire FETs have electron field-effect mobilities of ˜4,000 cm2/Vs and ION/IOFF ˜104. The uniformity of the InAs nanowires is demonstrated by large-scale assembly of parallel arrays of nanowires (˜400 nanowires) on SiO2/Si substrates by a contact printing process. This enables high performance, "printable" transistors with 5--10 mA ON currents. Second, an epitaxial transfer method for the integration of ultrathin layers of single-crystalline InAs on SiO2/Si substrates is demonstrated. As a parallel to silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, the abbreviation "XOI" is used to represent this compound semiconductor-on-insulator platform. A high quality InAs/dielectric interface is obtained by the use of a thermally grown interfacial InAsOx layer (˜1 nm thick). Top-gated FETs exhibit a peak transconductance of ˜1.6 mS/microm at V DS=0.5V with ION/I OFF >104 and subthreshold swings of 107--150 mV/decade for a channel length of ˜0.5 microm. Next, temperature-dependent I-V and C-V studies of single InAs nanowire FETs are utilized to investigate the intrinsic electron transport properties as a function of nanowire radius. From C-V characterization, the densities of thermally-activated fixed charges and trap states on the surface of as-grown (unpassivated) nanowires are investigated to allow the accurate measurement of the gate oxide capacitance. This allows the direct assessment of the electron field-effect mobility. The field-effect mobility is found to monotonically decrease as the radius is reduced to sub-10 nm, with the low temperature transport data highlighting the impact of surface roughness scattering on the mobility degradation for smaller radius nanowires. Next, the electrical properties of the InAs XOI transistors are studied, showing the critical role of quantum confinement in the transport properties of ultrathin XOI layers. Following the investigation of the electrical properties of undoped InAs nanostructures, post-growth, surface doping processes for InAs nanostructures are addressed. Nanoscale, sulfur doping of InAs planar substrates with high dopant areal dose and uniformity by using a self-limiting monolayer doping approach is demonstrated as a means to create ultrashallow junctions. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), a dopant profile abruptness of ˜3.5 nm/decade is observed without significant lattice damage. The n+/ p+ junctions fabricated using this doping method exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior, demonstrating the utility of this approach for device fabrication with high electrically active sulfur concentrations of ˜8x1018 cm-3. Next, a gas phase doping approach for InAs nanowires and ultrathin XOI layers using zinc is demonstrated as an effective means for enabling post-growth dopant profiling of nanostructures. The versatility of the approach is demonstrated by the fabrication of gated diodes and p-MOSFETs. Electrically active zinc concentrations of ˜1x1019 cm-3 are achieved which is necessary for compensating the high electron concentration at the surface of InAs to enable heavily p-doped structures. This work could have important applications for the fabrication of planar and non-planar devices based on InAs and other III-V nanostructures which are not compatible with conventional ion implantation processes that often cause severe lattice damage and local stoichiometry imbalance. Lastly, an ultrathin body InAs XOI tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET) on Si substrate is demonstrated. The post-growth, zinc surface doping approach is used for the formation of a p+ source contact which minimizes lattice damage to the ultrathin body InAs XOI compared to ion implantation. The transistor exhibits gated NDR behavior under forward bias, confirming the tunneling operation of the device. In this device architecture, the ON current is dominated by vertical band-to-band tunneling and is thereby less sensitive to the junction abruptness. This work presents a device and materials platform for studying III-V tunnel transistors.

  10. ZnO gap engineering by doping with III-V compounds.

    PubMed

    Andriotis, A N; Menon, M

    2016-01-27

    Gap engineering of ZnO by codoping it with III-V materials is investigated using model and ab initio calculation. Our results show that the codoped materials (ZnO)1-x (III-V) x , where (III-V) stands for GaN, AlN, AlP, BN, BP exhibit energy band gaps that get smaller as the dopant concentrations x is increased. Even at a very small dopant concentration the obtained band gaps are found to be much smaller than that of ZnO making the studied (ZnO)1-x (III-V) x materials promising candidates for photoelectrochemical water splitting. PMID:26733358

  11. Short-wavelength III-V LEDs and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Toshiya; Shibata, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Hisao; Yasukawa, Takemasa

    2003-07-01

    III-V nitride semiconductors are suitable for LEDs having color range from blue to green. Luminous intensity and color purity of these LEDs are so high that they have been used for many applications for full color display and LCD backlight and so on. In addition to natural colored LEDs, we have developed short wavelength LED, named TG Purple, which wavelength is typically around 380nm. TG Purple has been realized by controlling Indium composition in GaInN well layers. It can activate photo-catalysts such as TiOx, and therefore, the air purifier for automotive has been developed by combining TG Purple and TiOx photo-catalyst. The short wavelength LED is now the best light source for automotive air purifier using photo-catalyst, because LEDs fulfill the mercury-less requirement for an environmental issue and don't need special circuit like conventional UV lamps such as black light lamps and cold cathode lamps. Furthermore this short wavelength LED is used for phosphor excitation that generates many colors like blue, green, red, etc. It is likely that, with this technology, LEDs will take some part in illumination market as one of primary light sources like incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps.

  12. Thermal conductivity of III-V semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, S.; Knezevic, I.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a semiclassical model for the anisotropic thermal transport in III-V semiconductor superlattices (SLs). An effective interface rms roughness is the only adjustable parameter. Thermal transport inside a layer is described by the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation and is affected by the relevant scattering mechanisms (three-phonon, mass-difference, and dopant and electron scattering of phonons), as well as by diffuse scattering from the interfaces captured via an effective interface scattering rate. The in-plane thermal conductivity is obtained from the layer conductivities connected in parallel. The cross-plane thermal conductivity is calculated from the layer thermal conductivities in series with one another and with thermal boundary resistances (TBRs) associated with each interface; the TBRs dominate cross-plane transport. The TBR of each interface is calculated from the transmission coefficient obtained by interpolating between the acoustic mismatch model (AMM) and the diffuse mismatch model (DMM), where the weight of the AMM transmission coefficient is the same wavelength-dependent specularity parameter related to the effective interface rms roughness that is commonly used to describe diffuse interface scattering. The model is applied to multiple III-arsenide superlattices, and the results are in very good agreement with experimental findings. The method is both simple and accurate, easy to implement, and applicable to complicated SL systems, such as the active regions of quantum cascade lasers. It is also valid for other SL material systems with high-quality interfaces and predominantly incoherent phonon transport.

  13. Epitaxial III-V films and surfaces for photoelectrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Döscher, Henning; Supplie, Oliver; May, Matthias M; Sippel, Philipp; Heine, Christian; Muñoz, Andrés G; Eichberger, Rainer; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim; Hannappel, Thomas

    2012-08-27

    Efficient photoelectrochemical devices for water splitting benefit from the highest material quality and dedicated surface preparation achieved by epitaxial growth. InP(100)-based half-cells show significant solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies, but require a bias due to insufficient voltage. Tandem absorber structures may provide both adequate potential and efficient utilization of the solar spectrum. We propose epitaxial dilute nitride GaPNAs photocathodes on Si(100) substrates to combine close-to-optimum limiting efficiency, lattice-matched growth, and established surface preparation. Prior to a discussion of the challenging III-V/Si(100) heterojunction, we describe the closely related epitaxial preparation of InP(100) surfaces and its beneficial impact on photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance. Analogies and specific differences to GaP(100) surfaces are discussed based on in situ reflectance anisotropy and on two-photon photoemission results. Preliminary experiments regarding GaP/Si(100) photoelectrochemistry and dilute nitride GaPN heteroepitaxy on Si(100) confirm the potential of the GaPNAs/Si tandem absorber structure for future water-splitting devices. PMID:22890851

  14. Hot-hole lasers in III--V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsler, P.; Wenckebach, W. Th.

    2001-08-15

    Following the success of p-Ge hot-hole lasers, there is potential for using other semiconductor materials, notably III--V materials such as GaAs and InSb. Previous analysis had suggested that a large effective mass ratio between the heavy and light holes is advantageous, which implies that InSb would make an excellent hot-hole laser. Using our Monte Carlo simulation of both GaAs and InSb hot-hole lasers in combination with a rate equation model, we see that previously accepted criteria used to predict performance are not always reliable, and we suggest suitable alternatives. The simulation results include gain and gain bandwidth as a function of field strength and laser frequency, and alternative field orientations and photon polarizations are considered. Comparisons are made with bulk 1-Ge systems. The optimum conditions predicted by our simulation could then be used in the design of quantum-well hot-hole lasers. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Fullerene Molecules and Other Clusters of III-V Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hira, Ajit; Auxier, John, II; Lucero, Melinda

    2010-03-01

    The goal of the our work is to derive geometries of fullerene-like cages and other clusters of atoms from groups III and V of the periodic table. Our previous research focused on Carbon Fullerenes and on GanAsn clusters (n = 1 thru 12). Our research group has made an original discovery about GanAsn clusters. In our work on nanotechnology to date, we used the hybrid ab initio methods of quantum chemistry to derive the different geometries for the clusters of interest. We also calculated binding energies, bond-lengths, ionization potentials, electron affinities and HOMO-LUMO gaps, and IR spectra for these geometries. Of particular significance was the magic number for GaAs cluster stability that we found at n = 8. This is important because materials containing controlled III-V nanostructures provide the capability of preparing new classes of materials with enhanced optical, magnetic, chemical sensor and photo-catalytic properties. The second phase of the investigation will examine the effects of confinement on the optical properties the clusters. It will be interesting to observe novel linear as well as nonlinear optical processes in them. The third phase of the investigation will focus on the improved design of solar cells based on the optical properties of the clusters.

  16. Antisites in III-V semiconductors: Density functional theory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chroneos, A.; Tahini, H. A.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Grimes, R. W.

    2014-07-14

    Density functional based simulation, corrected for finite size effects, is used to investigate systematically the formation of antisite defects in III-V semiconductors (III = Al, Ga, and In and V = P, As, and Sb). Different charge states are modelled as a function of the Fermi level and under different growth conditions. The formation energies of group III antisites (III{sub V}{sup q}) decrease with increasing covalent radius of the group V atom though not group III radius, whereas group V antisites (V{sub III}{sup q}) show a consistent decrease in formation energies with increase in group III and group V covalent radii. In general, III{sub V}{sup q} defects dominate under III-rich conditions and V{sub III}{sup q} under V-rich conditions. Comparison with equivalent vacancy formation energy simulations shows that while antisite concentrations are always dominant under stoichiometric conditions, modest variation in growth or doping conditions can lead to a significantly higher concentration of vacancies.

  17. Hydrogen-impurity complexes in III V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrici, W.

    2004-12-01

    This review summarizes the presently available knowledge concerning hydrogen-impurity complexes in III-V compounds. The impurities form shallow acceptors on group III sites (Be, Zn, Cd) and on group V sites (C, Si, Ge) as well as shallow donors on group V sites (S, Se, Te) and on group III sites (Si, Sn). These complexes are mainly revealed by their hydrogen stretching modes. Therefore, nearly all information about their structure and dynamic properties is derived from vibrational spectroscopy. The complexes of shallow impurities with hydrogen have been most extensively investigated in GaAs, GaP and InP. This holds also for Mg-H in GaN. The complexes exhibit a different microscopic structure, which is discussed in detail. The isoelectronic impurity nitrogen, complexed with one hydrogen atom, is investigated in detail in GaAs and GaP. Those complexes can exist in different charge states. The experimental results such as vibrational frequencies, the microscopic structure and the activation energy for reorientation for many of these complexes are in very good agreement with results of ab initio calculations. Different types of oxygen-hydrogen complexes in GaAs and GaP are described, with one hydrogen atom or two hydrogen atoms bonded to oxygen. Three of these complexes in GaAs were found to be electrically active.

  18. III-V semiconductor processing: Contacts, etching, and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, Jeffrey Ryan

    Semiconductor processing of III-V materials is a vast topic, but this dissertation focuses on contacts, etching, and devices in very specific ways. The first chapter investigates the use of e-beam deposited SiO and SiO 2 to prevent galvanic effect etching of AuGe contacts for GaAs intergrated circuits. In the second chapter, the material characteristics of e-beam deposited SiO and SiO2 as hydrogen free dielectrics are studied. The third chapter shows how the overhang visible on the (011) GaAs cross-section can be eliminated during wet-etching, making metallization possible in any direction. Chapter four discusses the fabrication of PNP InGaAsN heterojunction and double heterojunction bipolar transistors for low power applications. Chapter five shows the first efforts of our group in the field of spintronics. Fabrication methods for processing a spin field effect transistor on an InGaAs/InAlAs system are explored. Finally, chapter six outlines testing of spin field effect devices and the group's ongoing efforts in this area.

  19. Stable Self-Catalyzed Growth of III-V Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tersoff, J

    2015-10-14

    Nanowire growth has generally relied on an initial particle of a catalyst such as Au to define the wire diameter and stabilize the growth. Self-catalyzed growth of III-V nanowires avoids the need for a foreign element, with the nanowire growing from the vapor via a droplet of the native group-III liquid. However, as suggested by Gibbs' phase rule, the absence of third element has a destabilizing effect. Here we analyze this system theoretically, finding that growth can be dynamically stable at pressures far above the equilibrium vapor pressure. Steady-state growth occurs via kinetic self-regulation of the droplet volume and wire diameter. In particular, for a given temperature and source-gas pressures there is a unique stable wire diameter and droplet volume, both of which decrease with increasing V/III ratio. We also examine the evolution of the droplet size and wire diameter toward the steady state as the wire grows and discuss implications for structural control. PMID:26389697

  20. Heterogeneously integrated III-V laser on thin SOI with compact optical vertical interconnect access.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jing; Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris Keh Ting; Krishnamurthy, Vivek; Lee, Chee Wei; Tang, Kun; Seng Kay, Anthony Yew; Loh, Ter Hoe; Wang, Qian

    2015-04-01

    A new heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si laser structure is reported in this report that consists of a III-V ridge waveguide gain section on silicon, III-V/Si optical vertical interconnect accesses (VIAs), and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanophotonic waveguide sections. The III-V semiconductor layers are introduced on top of the 300-nm-thick SOI layer through low temperature, plasma-assisted direct wafer-bonding and etched to form a III-V ridge waveguide on silicon as the gain section. The optical VIA is formed by tapering the III-V and the beneath SOI in the same direction with a length of 50 ?m for efficient coupling of light down to the 600 nm wide silicon nanophotonic waveguide or vice versa. Fabrication details and specification characterizations of this heterogeneous III-V/Si Fabry-Perot (FP) laser are given. The fabricated FP laser shows a continuous-wave lasing with a threshold current of 65 mA at room temperature, and the slope efficiency from single facet is 144??mW/A. The maximal single facet emitting power is about 4.5 mW at a current of 100 mA, and the side-mode suppression ratio is ?30??dB. This new heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si laser structure demonstrated enables more complex laser configuration with a sub-system on-chip for various applications. PMID:25831337

  1. Thermal oxidation of III-V compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, O.R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Thermal oxidation of III-V compound semiconductors has been studied in the temperature range of 300/degree/C to 600/degree/C. Two members of this class of materials, namely InP and GaAs, were the object of the experimental work carried out here. The main analytical tools used were transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). TEM was employed to access microstructural changes and SIMS to access the composition redistribution that takes place as a consequence of the oxidation reaction. Below 400/degree/C oxidation of both materials led to the formation of amorphous scales, which consisted of a mixture of gallium and arsenic oxides in the case of GaAs, and indium phosphate and oxide in the case of InP. The oxidation kinetics of InP was found to be slower than that of GaAs. In the high temperature regime, i.e., above 400/degree/C, the oxidation of both materials resulted in crystalline products. Precipitation of the group V element at the scale/semiconductor interface took place during oxidation. At the GaAs/Ga/sub 2/O/sub 3/interface, As precipitates were formed with a truncated square pyramid shape bound by /l brace/111/r brace//sub GaAs/ planes. The precipitates found at the InPO/sub 4//InP interface were either a phosphorus rich phase or red phosphorus. Strong vaporization under the electron beam prohibited a more accurate determination. The morphology of those precipitates were very similar to the As ones in GaAs. 83 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Gas-source molecular beam epitaxy of III V nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. F.; Paisley, M. J.; Sitar, Z.; Kester, D. J.; Ailey, K. S.; Linthicum, K.; Rowland, L. B.; Tanaka, S.; Kern, R. S.

    1997-06-01

    Amorphous, hexagonal and cubic phases of BN were grown via ion beam assisted deposition on Si(1 0 0) substrates. Gas-source molecular beam epitaxy of the III-V nitrides is reviewed. Sapphire(0 0 0 1) is the most commonly employed substrate with 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1), ZnO(1 1 1) and Si(1 1 1) also being used primarily for the growth of wurtzite GaN(0 0 0 1) in tandem with previously deposited GaN(0 0 0 1) or AlN(0 0 0 1) buffer layers. Silicon(0 0 1), GaAs(0 0 1), GaP(0 0 1) and 3C-SiC(0 0 1) have been employed for growth of cubic (zincblende) β-GaN(0 0 1). The precursor materials are evaporated metals and reactive N species produced either via ECR or RF plasma decomposition of N 2 or from ammonia. However, point defect damage from the plasma-derived species has resulted in a steady increase in the number of investigators now using ammonia. The growth temperatures for wurtzite GaN have increased from 650 ± 50°C to 800 ± 50°C to enhance the surface mobility of the reactants and, in turn, the efficiency of decomposition of ammonia and the microstructure and the growth rate of the films. Doping has been achieved primarily with Si (donor) and Mg (acceptor); the latter has been activated without post-growth annealing. Simple heterostructures, a p-n junction LED and a modulation-doped field-effect transistor have been achieved using GSMBE-grown material.

  3. Swift-heavy-ion-induced damage formation in III-V binary and ternary semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnohr, C. S.; Kluth, P.; Giulian, R.; Llewellyn, D. J.; Byrne, A. P.; Cookson, D. J.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2010-02-01

    Damage formation in InP, GaP, InAs, GaAs, and the related ternary alloys Ga0.50In0.50P and Ga0.47In0.53As irradiated at room temperature with 185 MeV Au ions was studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in channeling configuration, transmission electron microscopy, and small-angle x-ray scattering. Despite nearly identical ion-energy loss in these materials, their behavior under swift-heavy-ion irradiation is strikingly different: InP and Ga0.50In0.50P are readily amorphized, GaP and GaAs remain almost undamaged and InAs and Ga0.47In0.53As exhibit intermediate behavior. A material-dependent combination of irradiation-induced damage formation and annealing is proposed to describe the different responses of the III-V materials to electronic energy loss.

  4. Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications.

    PubMed

    Geum, Dae-Myeong; Park, Min-Su; Lim, Ju Young; Yang, Hyun-Duk; Song, Jin Dong; Kim, Chang Zoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Kim, SangHyeon; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-01-01

    Si-based integrated circuits have been intensively developed over the past several decades through ultimate device scaling. However, the Si technology has reached the physical limitations of the scaling. These limitations have fuelled the search for alternative active materials (for transistors) and the introduction of optical interconnects (called "Si photonics"). A series of attempts to circumvent the Si technology limits are based on the use of III-V compound semiconductor due to their superior benefits, such as high electron mobility and direct bandgap. To use their physical properties on a Si platform, the formation of high-quality III-V films on the Si (III-V/Si) is the basic technology ; however, implementing this technology using a high-throughput process is not easy. Here, we report new concepts for an ultra-high-throughput heterogeneous integration of high-quality III-V films on the Si using the wafer bonding and epitaxial lift off (ELO) technique. We describe the ultra-fast ELO and also the re-use of the III-V donor wafer after III-V/Si formation. These approaches provide an ultra-high-throughput fabrication of III-V/Si substrates with a high-quality film, which leads to a dramatic cost reduction. As proof-of-concept devices, this paper demonstrates GaAs-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), solar cells, and hetero-junction phototransistors on Si substrates. PMID:26864968

  5. Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Geum, Dae-Myeong; Park, Min-Su; Lim, Ju Young; Yang, Hyun-Duk; Song, Jin Dong; Kim, Chang Zoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Kim, SangHyeon; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-01-01

    Si-based integrated circuits have been intensively developed over the past several decades through ultimate device scaling. However, the Si technology has reached the physical limitations of the scaling. These limitations have fuelled the search for alternative active materials (for transistors) and the introduction of optical interconnects (called “Si photonics”). A series of attempts to circumvent the Si technology limits are based on the use of III-V compound semiconductor due to their superior benefits, such as high electron mobility and direct bandgap. To use their physical properties on a Si platform, the formation of high-quality III-V films on the Si (III-V/Si) is the basic technology ; however, implementing this technology using a high-throughput process is not easy. Here, we report new concepts for an ultra-high-throughput heterogeneous integration of high-quality III-V films on the Si using the wafer bonding and epitaxial lift off (ELO) technique. We describe the ultra-fast ELO and also the re-use of the III-V donor wafer after III-V/Si formation. These approaches provide an ultra-high-throughput fabrication of III-V/Si substrates with a high-quality film, which leads to a dramatic cost reduction. As proof-of-concept devices, this paper demonstrates GaAs-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), solar cells, and hetero-junction phototransistors on Si substrates. PMID:26864968

  6. Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geum, Dae-Myeong; Park, Min-Su; Lim, Ju Young; Yang, Hyun-Duk; Song, Jin Dong; Kim, Chang Zoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Kim, Sanghyeon; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-02-01

    Si-based integrated circuits have been intensively developed over the past several decades through ultimate device scaling. However, the Si technology has reached the physical limitations of the scaling. These limitations have fuelled the search for alternative active materials (for transistors) and the introduction of optical interconnects (called “Si photonics”). A series of attempts to circumvent the Si technology limits are based on the use of III-V compound semiconductor due to their superior benefits, such as high electron mobility and direct bandgap. To use their physical properties on a Si platform, the formation of high-quality III-V films on the Si (III-V/Si) is the basic technology ; however, implementing this technology using a high-throughput process is not easy. Here, we report new concepts for an ultra-high-throughput heterogeneous integration of high-quality III-V films on the Si using the wafer bonding and epitaxial lift off (ELO) technique. We describe the ultra-fast ELO and also the re-use of the III-V donor wafer after III-V/Si formation. These approaches provide an ultra-high-throughput fabrication of III-V/Si substrates with a high-quality film, which leads to a dramatic cost reduction. As proof-of-concept devices, this paper demonstrates GaAs-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), solar cells, and hetero-junction phototransistors on Si substrates.

  7. Numerical investigation of metal-confined hybrid III-V/Si circular nanoresonator with guided emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ming-Ying; Sui, Shao-Shuai; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-11-01

    Metal-confined III-V circular nanoresonator coupled to a waveguide-connected silicon nanoresonator is proposed for realizing guided emission. The mode characteristics are investigated by the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method. The output performance can be greatly improved through optimizing the parameters of the III-V and underlying silicon nanoresonators. For a 750-nm-radius hybrid nanoresonator covered by the SiO2 and Ag layers, an output extraction efficiency of 26% and a mode Q factor of 680 are obtained as the radius of the silicon nanoresonator is 75 nm larger than the III-V nanoresonator.

  8. III-V-on-silicon anti-colliding pulse-type mode-locked laser.

    PubMed

    Keyvaninia, S; Uvin, S; Tassaert, M; Wang, Z; Fu, X; Latkowski, S; Marien, J; Thomassen, L; Lelarge, F; Duan, G; Lepage, G; Verheyen, P; Van Campenhout, J; Bente, E; Roelkens, G

    2015-07-01

    An anti-colliding pulse-type III-V-on-silicon passively mode-locked laser is presented for the first time based on a III-V-on-silicon distributed Bragg reflector as outcoupling mirror implemented partially underneath the III-V saturable absorber. Passive mode-locking at 4.83 GHz repetition rate generating 3 ps pulses is demonstrated. The generated fundamental RF tone shows a 1.7 kHz 3 dB linewidth. Over 9 mW waveguide coupled output power is demonstrated. PMID:26125366

  9. Precise measurement of charged defects in III-V compounds (supplement 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soest, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental methods and related theory which will permit the measurement of low concentrations of vacancies and other defects in III-V compound semiconductors are discussed. Once the nature of these defects has been determined, this information can be incorporated into a transport theory for devices constructed from these materials, and experiments conducted to test the theory. The vacancies and other defects in the III-V compounds are detected by measurement of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) line width. Most of the III-V compounds have at least one isotope with a nuclear quadrupole moment. In a crystal with a cubic crystal field (characteristic of most III-V compounds) there is no quadrupole splitting of the Zeeman resonance line. However, a defect removes the cubic symmetry locally and causes splitting which result in a change of the NMR width. This change can be used to detect the presence of vacancies.

  10. The coupling of thermochemistry and phase diagrams for group III-V semiconductor systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.J.

    1998-07-21

    The project was directed at linking the thermochemical properties of III-V compound semiconductors systems with the reported phase diagrams. The solid-liquid phase equilibrium problem was formulated and three approaches to calculating the reduced standard state chemical potential were identified and values were calculated. In addition, thermochemical values for critical properties were measured using solid state electrochemical techniques. These values, along with the standard state chemical potentials and other available thermochemical and phase diagram data, were combined with a critical assessment of selected III-V systems. This work was culminated with a comprehensive assessment of all the III-V binary systems. A novel aspect of the experimental part of this project was the demonstration of the use of a liquid encapsulate to measure component activities by a solid state emf technique in liquid III-V systems that exhibit high vapor pressures at the measurement temperature.

  11. Effects of Humidity on Non-Hermetically Packaged III-V Structures and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R.; Martin, S.; Lee, T.; Okuno, J.; Ruiz, R.; Gauldin, R.; Gaidis, M.; Smith, R.

    1999-01-01

    High humidity and temperature test (known as 85/85 tests) were performed on various III-V devices and structures to determine environmental effects in non-hermetically packaged GaAs membrane mixer diodes.

  12. Investigation of III-V semiconductor heterostructures for post-Si-CMOS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Kunal

    Silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology in the past few decades has been driven by aggressive device scaling to increase performance, reduce cost and lower power consumption. However, as devices are scaled below the 100 nm region, performance gain has become increasingly difficult to obtain by traditional scaling. As we move towards advanced technology nodes, materials innovation and physical architecture are becoming the primary enabler for performance enhancement in CMOS technology rather than scaling. One class of materials that can potentially result in improved electrical performance are III-V semiconductors, which are ideal candidates for replacing the channel in Si CMOS owing to their high electron mobilities and capabilities for band-engineering. This work is aimed towards the growth and characterization of III-V semiconductor heterostructures and their application in post-Si-CMOS devices. The two main components of this study include the integration of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon for tunnel-junction Esaki diodes, and the investigation of carrier transport properties in low-power III-V n-channel FETs under uniaxial strain for advanced III-V CMOS solutions. The integration of III-V compound semiconductors with Si can combine the cost advantage and maturity of the Si technology with the superior performance of III-V materials. We have demonstrated high quality epitaxial growth of GaAs and GaSb on Si (001) wafers through the use of various buffer layers including AlSb and crystalline SrTiO3. These GaSb/Si virtual substrates were used for the fabrication and characterization of InAs/GaSb broken-gap Esaki-tunnel diodes as a possible solution for heterojunction Tunnel-FETs. In addition, the carrier transport properties of InAs channels were evaluated under uniaxial strain for the potential use of strain solutions in III-V CMOS.

  13. Materials and Device Aspects of III-V 3D Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Peide

    2012-02-01

    Recently, III-V MOSFETs with high drain currents (Ids>1mA/?m) and high transconductances (gm>1mS/?m) have been achieved at sub-micron channel lengths (Lch), thanks to the better understanding and significant improvement in high-k/III-V interfaces. However, to realize a III-V FET at beyond 14nm technology node, one major challenge is how to effectively control the short channel effects (SCE). Due to the higher permittivity and lower bandgap of the channel materials, III-V MOSFETs are more susceptible to SCE than its Si counterpart. The scaling of planar devices stops at around 150nm Lch. The dramatic increase in DIBL beyond 150nm indicates severe impact from 2D electrostatics. Therefore, the introduction of 3-dimensonal (3D) structures to the fabrication of sub-100nm III-V FETs is necessary. In this talk, we will review the materials and device aspects of III-V 3D transistors developed very recently [1-3]. [4pt] [1] Y. Q. Wu et al. IEDM Tech. Dig. 331 (2009).[0pt] [2] M. Radosavljevic et al., IEDM Tech. Dig. 126 (2010).[0pt] [3] J. J. Gu et al. IEDM Tech Dig. 2011 (in press).

  14. Structural and optical properties of II-VI and III-V compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyi

    This dissertation is on the study of structural and optical properties of some III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors. The first part of this dissertation is a study of the deformation mechanisms associated with nanoindentation and nanoscratching of InP, GaN, and ZnO crystals. The second part is an investigation of some fundamental issues regarding compositional fluctuations and microstructure in GaInNAs and InAlN alloys. In the first part, the microstructure of (001) InP scratched in an atomic force microscope with a small diamond tip has been studied as a function of applied normal force and crystalline direction in order to understand at the nanometer scale the deformation mechanisms in the zinc-blende structure. TEM images show deeper dislocation propagation for scratches along <110> compared to <100>. High strain fields were observed in <100> scratches, indicating hardening due to locking of dislocations gliding on different slip planes. Reverse plastic flow have been observed in <110> scratches in the form of pop-up events that result from recovery of stored elastic strain. In a separate study, nanoindentation-induced plastic deformation has been studied in c-, a-, and m-plane ZnO single crystals and c-plane GaN respectively, to study the deformation mechanism in wurtzite hexagonal structures. TEM results reveal that the prime deformation mechanism is slip on basal planes and in some cases, on pyramidal planes, and strain built up along particular directions. No evidence of phase transformation or cracking was observed in both materials. CL imaging reveals quenching of near band-edge emission by dislocations. In the second part, compositional inhomogeneity in quaternary GaInNAs and ternary InAlN alloys has been studied using TEM. It is shown that exposure to antimony during growth of GaInNAs results in uniform chemical composition in the epilayer, as antimony suppresses the surface mobility of adatoms that otherwise leads to two-dimensional growth and elemental segregation. In a separate study, compositional instability is observed in lattice-matched InAlN films grown on GaN, for growth beyond a certain thickness. Beyond 200 nm of thickness, two sub-layers with different indium content are observed, the top one with lower indium content.

  15. Direct growth of single-crystalline III-V semiconductors on amorphous substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin; Kapadia, Rehan; Harker, Audrey; Desai, Sujay; Seuk Kang, Jeong; Chuang, Steven; Tosun, Mahmut; Sutter-Fella, Carolin M; Tsang, Michael; Zeng, Yuping; Kiriya, Daisuke; Hazra, Jubin; Madhvapathy, Surabhi Rao; Hettick, Mark; Chen, Yu-Ze; Mastandrea, James; Amani, Matin; Cabrini, Stefano; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Ager Iii, Joel W; Chrzan, Daryl C; Javey, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The III-V compound semiconductors exhibit superb electronic and optoelectronic properties. Traditionally, closely lattice-matched epitaxial substrates have been required for the growth of high-quality single-crystal III-V thin films and patterned microstructures. To remove this materials constraint, here we introduce a growth mode that enables direct writing of single-crystalline III-V's on amorphous substrates, thus further expanding their utility for various applications. The process utilizes templated liquid-phase crystal growth that results in user-tunable, patterned micro and nanostructures of single-crystalline III-V's of up to tens of micrometres in lateral dimensions. InP is chosen as a model material system owing to its technological importance. The patterned InP single crystals are configured as high-performance transistors and photodetectors directly on amorphous SiO2 growth substrates, with performance matching state-of-the-art epitaxially grown devices. The work presents an important advance towards universal integration of III-V's on application-specific substrates by direct growth. PMID:26813257

  16. Direct growth of single-crystalline III-V semiconductors on amorphous substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kevin; Kapadia, Rehan; Harker, Audrey; Desai, Sujay; Seuk Kang, Jeong; Chuang, Steven; Tosun, Mahmut; Sutter-Fella, Carolin M.; Tsang, Michael; Zeng, Yuping; Kiriya, Daisuke; Hazra, Jubin; Madhvapathy, Surabhi Rao; Hettick, Mark; Chen, Yu-Ze; Mastandrea, James; Amani, Matin; Cabrini, Stefano; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Ager, Joel W., III; Chrzan, Daryl C.; Javey, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The III-V compound semiconductors exhibit superb electronic and optoelectronic properties. Traditionally, closely lattice-matched epitaxial substrates have been required for the growth of high-quality single-crystal III-V thin films and patterned microstructures. To remove this materials constraint, here we introduce a growth mode that enables direct writing of single-crystalline III-V's on amorphous substrates, thus further expanding their utility for various applications. The process utilizes templated liquid-phase crystal growth that results in user-tunable, patterned micro and nanostructures of single-crystalline III-V's of up to tens of micrometres in lateral dimensions. InP is chosen as a model material system owing to its technological importance. The patterned InP single crystals are configured as high-performance transistors and photodetectors directly on amorphous SiO2 growth substrates, with performance matching state-of-the-art epitaxially grown devices. The work presents an important advance towards universal integration of III-V's on application-specific substrates by direct growth.

  17. Metal/III-V Schottky barrier height tuning for the design of nonalloyed III-V field-effect transistor source/drain contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jenny; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Wong, H.-S. Philip

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we introduce a novel nonalloyed contact structure for n-GaAs and n-In0.53Ga0.47As by using single metals in combination with a thin dielectric to tune the effective metal/III-V work function toward the conduction band edge. We reduced the effective Schottky barrier height (?B,eff) of Al/GaAs from 0.75 to 0.17 eV through the use of a thin atomic layer deposition Al2O3. Barrier height reduction was verified for a variety of metals (Y, Er, Al, Ti, and W) through direct measurements and deduced from increased diode current and reduced contact resistance. Similar results were observed on n-In0.53Ga0.47As. Two possible underlying mechanisms are discussed: one based on the formation of a dielectric dipole and the other based on the blocking of metal induced gap states. This structure has applications as a nonalloyed low resistance ohmic contact for III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) or high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), and as a near zero barrier height contact for III-V Schottky barrier field-effect transistors or diodes.

  18. Relaxation Models of the (110) Zinc-Blende III-V Semiconductor Surfaces: Density Functional Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, H.; Chen, G.; Wu, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Wei, S. H.

    2008-11-01

    Clean III-V zinc-blende (110) surfaces are the most extensively studied semiconductor surface. For conventional III-V compounds such as GaAs and InP, the surface relaxation follows a bond rotation relaxation model. However, for III-nitrides recent study indicates that they follow a bond-constricting relaxation model. First-principles atom relaxation calculations are performed to explore the origin of the difference between the two groups of materials. By analyzing the individual shift trends and ionic properties of the top layer anions and cations, we attribute the difference between the conventional and nitride III-V compounds to the strong electronegativity of N, which leads to the s{sup 2}p{sup 3} pyramid bond angle to be larger than the ideal one in bulk (109.5{sup o}). The general trends of the atomic relaxation at the III-nitrides (110) surfaces are explained.

  19. Predicted band structures of III-V semiconductors in the wurtzite phase

    SciTech Connect

    De, A.; Pryor, Craig E.

    2010-04-15

    While non-nitride III-V semiconductors typically have a zinc-blende structure, they may also form wurtzite crystals under pressure or when grown as nanowhiskers. This makes electronic structure calculation difficult since the band structures of wurtzite III-V semiconductors are poorly characterized. We have calculated the electronic band structure for nine III-V semiconductors in the wurtzite phase using transferable empirical pseudopotentials including spin-orbit coupling. We find that all the materials have direct gaps. Our results differ significantly from earlier ab initio calculations, and where experimental results are available (InP, InAs, and GaAs) our calculated band gaps are in good agreement. We tabulate energies, effective masses, and linear and cubic Dresselhaus zero-field spin-splitting coefficients for the zone-center states. The large zero-field spin-splitting coefficients we find may facilitate the development of spin-based devices.

  20. Methods for forming group III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III--arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  1. III-V/Si on silicon-on-insulator platform for hybrid nanoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Prucnal, Slawomir Zhou, Shengqiang; Ou, Xin; Facsko, Stefan; Oskar Liedke, Maciej; Bregolin, Felipe; Liedke, Bartosz; Grebing, Jochen; Fritzsche, Monika; Hübner, Rene; Mücklich, Arndt; Rebohle, Lars; Skorupa, Wolfgang; Helm, Manfred; Turek, Marcin; Drozdziel, Andrzej

    2014-02-21

    The unique properties of SOI wafers enable the integration of heterogeneous materials with distinct functionalities in different layers. In particular, III-V compound semiconductors are very attractive for low-noise and high-speed electronic and photonic components integrated on a single chip. We have developed a CMOS compatible and fully integrated solution for the integration of III-V compound semiconductors with silicon technology for optoelectronic applications. InAs compound semiconductor nanostructures are synthesized in SOI wafers using the combined ion beam implantation and millisecond liquid-phase epitaxial growth. Optoelectronic and microstructural investigations carried out on implanted, annealed, and selectively etched samples confirm the formation of high-quality III-V compound semiconductor nanostructures.

  2. Precise measurement of charged defects in III-V compounds (2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soest, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to obtain a calibration of a low concentration of charged defects in some III-V semiconducting compounds. The experimental technique being used is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and the objective is to be attained through a thorough examination of the properties of the NMR lines of the nuclei in the III-V compounds. The properties of the NMR lines, and how they are influenced by the presence of charged defects are studied theoretically and experimentally.

  3. Kinetics of surfactant-mediated epitaxy of III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, N.; Massies, J.

    1996-05-01

    Surfactant-mediated epitaxy (SME) of III-V semiconductors is studied in the case of the GaAs(001) growth using Te as surfactant. To account for the strong surface segregation of Te, a phenomenological exchange mechanism is used. This process explains the reduction of the surface diffusion length evidenced by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). However, this kinetics effect is observed only for restricted growth conditions: the As surface coverage should be sufficient to allow the exchange process. STM results as well as Monte Carlo simulations clearly show that the group-V element surface coverage plays a key role in the kinetics of SME of III-V semiconductors.

  4. Demonstration of a heterogeneously integrated III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser.

    PubMed

    Keyvaninia, Shahram; Roelkens, Gunther; Van Thourhout, Dries; Jany, Christophe; Lamponi, Marco; Le Liepvre, Alban; Lelarge, Francois; Make, Dalila; Duan, Guang-Hua; Bordel, Damien; Fedeli, Jean-Marc

    2013-02-11

    A heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon laser is reported, integrating a III-V gain section, a silicon ring resonator for wavelength selection and two silicon Bragg grating reflectors as back and front mirrors. Single wavelength operation with a side mode suppression ratio higher than 45 dB is obtained. An output power up to 10 mW at 20 °C and a thermo-optic wavelength tuning range of 8 nm are achieved. The laser linewidth is found to be 1.7 MHz. PMID:23481834

  5. Extremely compact hybrid III-V/SOI lasers: design and fabrication approaches.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Olesya; Fang, Cheng-Yi; Vallini, Felipe; Smalley, Joseph S T; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2015-02-01

    In this manuscript we discuss state of the art hybrid integration techniques and III-V/Si active components with an emphasis on hybrid distributed feedback (DFB) lasers for telecom applications. We review our work on ultra-compact III-V/Si DFB lasers and further describe design considerations and challenges associated with electrically pumped hybrid lasers. We conclude with a perspective on DFB lasers with extremely small footprint, a direction for future research with potential applications to densely-packed optical interconnects. PMID:25836132

  6. Materials Integration and Metamorphic Substrate Engineering from Silicon to Gallium Arsenide to Indium Phosphide for Advanced III-V/Silicon Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Andrew M.

    Lattice-mismatched epitaxy in the III-V compound semiconductor system based on III-AsP and related alloys are of enormous importance, and considerable research interest, for many years. The reason is straightforward if one considers the limitations placed on available materials properties for devices dictated by lattice matching to the dominant substrate technologies - Si, GaAs (and/or Ge) and InP. For III-V epitaxy, the lattice constants of these substrates have defined a generation or more of device advances since growth of heterostructures possessing the same equilibrium lattice constants as the substrate yields essentially defect-free (specifically extended defect-free) materials and devices. Removing the restriction of lattice matching to current substrate technology opens a rich spectrum of bandgaps, bandgap combinations, conduction and valence band offsets, etc., that are desirable and exploitable for advancing device technologies for new functionality and greater performance. However successful exploitation of these properties requires mitigation of a variety of extended defects that result from the lattice mismatch between substrate and epitaxial heterostructures. A well known method to achieve this solution is through the use of compositionally (lattice constant-graded) buffer interlayers, in which the equilibrium lattice constants of interlayers are slowly altered by controlled changes in layer composition so that the mismatch strain between the initial substrate and the final device layers is spread across a thickness of buffer. The research accomplished has yielded success for both lattice constant ranges Si - GaAs and GaAs - InP. For the Si - GaAs system, a three step GaP nucleation process on Si has been developed and demonstrated, which maintains total avoidance of creating coalescence-related defects such as antiphase domains and stacking faults resulting from the initial III-V/IV interfaces while reducing overall threading dislocation density by ~10x, to a range of 1×107 cm-2, compared to current state of the art. This reduction can now enable future III-V/Si solar cells based on GaAsP metamorphic buffers in which the underlying Si substrate can participate as an active sub-cell, and such buffers have been demonstrated in this research. Second, in this same lattice constant range, novel GaP/SiGe interfaces on Si were grown and demonstrated to eliminate the small, but not negligible lattice misfit between GaP and Si, and provides a second pathway for future III-V/Si solar cell integration through subsequent metamorphic buffer growth. For the GaAs-InP range of lattice constants, multiple metamorphic buffer strategies, including those based on anion-specific quaternary GaInAsP, combinations of step and linearly-graded buffers, and buffers with multiple ternary alloys were all investigated. Micro-scale phase separation within quaternary anion-graded GaInAsP was identified as a mechanism to significantly inhibit proper lattice misfit strain relaxation, which was explained by thermodynamic arguments consistent with theoretical phase separation. This led to the creation of hybrid step and linearly graded InGaAs/InGaP metamorphic buffers through which phase separation was totally eliminated by avoiding specific compositions that were identified as sources for phase separation. These findings have enabled a realistic path for accessing the full range of bandgaps needed for future high efficiency III-V solar cells through optimized metamorphic III-V grading strategies.

  7. III-V Nanowire Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Transistors Monolithically Integrated on Si.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Johannes; Dey, Anil W; Jacobsson, Daniel; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2015-12-01

    III-V semiconductors have attractive transport properties suitable for low-power, high-speed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) implementation, but major challenges related to cointegration of III-V n- and p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on low-cost Si substrates have so far hindered their use for large scale logic circuits. By using a novel approach to grow both InAs and InAs/GaSb vertical nanowires of equal length simultaneously in one single growth step, we here demonstrate n- and p-type III-V MOSFETs monolithically integrated on a Si substrate with high Ion/Ioff ratios using a dual channel, single gate-stack design processed simultaneously for both types of transistors. In addition, we demonstrate fundamental CMOS logic gates, such as inverters and NAND gates, which illustrate the viability of our approach for large scale III-V MOSFET circuits on Si. PMID:26595174

  8. Monolithic III-V on Silicon Plasmonic Nanolaser Structure for Optical Interconnects.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Liu, Ke; Sorger, Volker J; Sadana, Devendra K

    2015-01-01

    Monolithic integration of III-V semiconductor lasers with Si circuits can reduce cost and enhance performance for optical interconnects dramatically. We propose and investigate plasmonic III-V nanolasers as monolithically integrated light source on Si chips due to many advantages. First, these III-V plasmonic light sources can be directly grown on Si substrates free of crystallographic defects due to the submicron cavity footprint (250?nm?×?250?nm) being smaller than the average defect free region size of the heteroepitaxial III-V material on Si. Secondly, the small lateral and vertical dimensions facilitate process co-integration with Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) in the front end of the line. Thirdly, combining with monolithically integrated CMOS circuits with low device capacitance and parasitic capacitance, the nano-cavity optoelectronic devices consume orders of magnitude less power than the conventional lasers and reduce the energy consumption. Fourthly, the modulation bandwidth of the plasmonic light-sources is enhanced to significantly higher than conventional lasers due to enhanced photon state density and transition rate. In addition, we show that these device performance are very robust after taking into account the surface recombination and variations in device fabrication processes. PMID:26369698

  9. Monolithic III-V on Silicon Plasmonic Nanolaser Structure for Optical Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Liu, Ke; Sorger, Volker J.; Sadana, Devendra K.

    2015-09-01

    Monolithic integration of III-V semiconductor lasers with Si circuits can reduce cost and enhance performance for optical interconnects dramatically. We propose and investigate plasmonic III-V nanolasers as monolithically integrated light source on Si chips due to many advantages. First, these III-V plasmonic light sources can be directly grown on Si substrates free of crystallographic defects due to the submicron cavity footprint (250?nm?×?250?nm) being smaller than the average defect free region size of the heteroepitaxial III-V material on Si. Secondly, the small lateral and vertical dimensions facilitate process co-integration with Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) in the front end of the line. Thirdly, combining with monolithically integrated CMOS circuits with low device capacitance and parasitic capacitance, the nano-cavity optoelectronic devices consume orders of magnitude less power than the conventional lasers and reduce the energy consumption. Fourthly, the modulation bandwidth of the plasmonic light-sources is enhanced to significantly higher than conventional lasers due to enhanced photon state density and transition rate. In addition, we show that these device performance are very robust after taking into account the surface recombination and variations in device fabrication processes.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of III-V material-based MOSFET for high frequency and ultra-low consumption applications.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming; Saint-Martin, Jérôme; Bournel, Arnaud; Maher, Hassan; Renvoise, Michel; Dollfus, Philippe

    2010-11-01

    High-mobility III-V heterostructures are emerging and very promising materials likely to fulfil high-speed and low-power specifications for ambient intelligent applications. The main objective of this work is to theoretically explore the potentialities of MOSFET based on III-V materials with low bandgap and high electron mobility. First, the charge control is studied in III-V MOS structures using a Schrödinger-Poisson solver. Electronic transport in III-V devices is then analyzed using a particle Monte Carlo device simulator. The external access resistances used in the calculations are carefully calibrated on experimental results. The performance of different structures of nanoscale MOS transistor based on III-V materials is evaluated and the quasi-ballistic character of electron transport is compared to that in Si transistors of same gate length. PMID:21137856

  11. Highly efficient chip-scale III-V/silicon hybrid optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S; Kawakita, Y; Shang, Kuanping; Yoo, S J Ben

    2015-08-24

    We discuss the design and demonstration of highly efficient 1.55 µm hybrid III-V/Silicon semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA). The optimized III-V wafer stack consists of Al(0.10)In(0.71)Ga(0.18)As multiple quantum wells (MQW) and Al(0.48)In(0.52)As electron stop layers to realize SOAs with high wall-plug efficiency (WPE). We present various designs and experimentally determine WPE values for 2 mW and 0.1 mW input power amplification. The 400 µm long flared SOA achieved the highest WPE value of 12.1% for output power > 10mW and the 400 µm long straight SOA achieved the highest WPE value of 7.3% for output power < 10mW. These are the highest WPE values ever obtained for 1.55 µm SOAs. PMID:26368213

  12. Thin multi-junction solar cells of III-V materials to advance solar energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletto, S.; Parker, A.

    2013-09-01

    Significant advancements in photovoltaic solar cells are required to support large-scale energy demands with solar power. The first generation of solar cells (SC) available today uses Si. While Si is highly abundant and these types of SC can be easily manufactured, the best power conversion efficiency is only 24%. Developing photovoltaic SC using III-V materials may increase the efficiency while decreasing the manufacturing costs associated with cell fabrication. This paper studies the opportunity to improve two-junctions solar cells made of III-V materials by making the layers very thin and including the antireflective layer in the first junction. In terms of light harvesting, the anti-reflective layer made of a semiconductor is shown to absorb the most part of the incident light.

  13. High crystalline-quality III-V layer transfer onto Si substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Peng; Jing Yi; Lau, S. S.; Xu Dapeng; Mawst, Luke; Alford, T. L.; Paulson, Charles; Kuech, T. F.

    2008-03-03

    In this study, an approach combining ion cutting and selective chemical etch for the transfer of high crystalline-quality III-V layers on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate has been investigated. This layer transfer scheme takes advantage of the ion-cutting process by conserving III-V substrates for reuse and simultaneously improving the transferred layer quality and surface condition without using chemical and mechanical polishing. The relocation of the ion-implantation damage maximum enables the transfer of relatively defect-free InP-based layers onto a Si substrate coated with an oxide layer and results in structures ready for further optoelectronic device fabrication or epitaxial growth.

  14. MBE growth technology for high quality strained III-V layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, Frank J. (Inventor); Liu, John K. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    III-V films are grown on large automatically perfect terraces of III-V substrates which have a different lattice constant, with temperature and Group II and V arrival rates chosen to give a Group III element stable surface. The growth is pulsed to inhibit Group III metal accumulation to low temperature, and to permit the film to relax to equilibrium. The method of the invention 1) minimizes starting step density on sample surface; 2) deposits InAs and GaAs using an interrupted growth mode (0.25 to 2 mono-layers at a time); 3) maintains the instantaneous surface stoichiometry during growth (As-stable for GaAs, In-stable for InAs); and 4) uses time-resolved RHEED to achieve aspects (1)-14 (3).

  15. MBE growth technology for high quality strained III-V layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, Frank J. (inventor); Liu, John K. (inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The III-V films are grown on large automatically perfect terraces of III-V substrates which have a different lattice constant, with temperature and Group III and V arrival rates chosen to give a Group III element stable surface. The growth is pulsed to inhibit Group III metal accumulation of low temperature, and to permit the film to relax to equilibrium. The method of the invention: (1) minimizes starting step density on sample surface; (2) deposits InAs and GaAs using an interrupted growth mode (0.25 to 2 monolayers at a time); (3) maintains the instantaneous surface stoichiometry during growth (As-stable for GaAs, In-stable for InAs); and (4) uses time-resolved RHEED to achieve aspects (1) through (3).

  16. Efficient n-type doping of zinc-blende III-V semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besteiro, Lucas V.; Tortajada, Luis; Souto, J.; Gallego, L. J.; Chelikowsky, James R.; Alemany, M. M. G.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that it is preferable to dope III-V semiconductor nanowires by n-type anion substitution as opposed to cation substitution. Specifically, we show the dopability of zinc-blende nanowires is more efficient when the dopants are placed at the anion site as quantified by formation energies and the stabilization of DX-like defect centers. The comparison with previous work on n - type III-V semiconductor nanocrystals also allows to determine the role of dimensionality and quantum confinement on doping characteristics of materials. Our results are based on first-principles calculations of InP nanowires by using the PARSEC code. Work supported by the Spanish MICINN (FIS2012-33126) and Xunta de Galicia (GPC2013-043) in conjunction with FEDER. JRC acknowledges support from DoE (DE-FG02-06ER46286 and DESC0008877). Computational support was provided in part by CESGA.

  17. To the understanding of the formation of the droplet-epitaxial III-V based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemcsics, Ákos

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we discuss the evolution of the self-assembling III-V based nanostructures. These nano-structures were prepared by droplet epitaxial technique. The different nanostructures such as quantum dot, quantum ring, double quantum ring, or nanohole form similarly from an initial Ga droplet but under different substrate temperature and various arsenic pressures. Started from few atomic courses, we give here a qualitative description of the key processes for all of the aforementioned nanostructures.

  18. To the understanding of the formation of the droplet-epitaxial III-V based nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Nemcsics, Ákos

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we discuss the evolution of the self-assembling III-V based nanostructures. These nano-structures were prepared by droplet epitaxial technique. The different nanostructures such as quantum dot, quantum ring, double quantum ring, or nanohole form similarly from an initial Ga droplet but under different substrate temperature and various arsenic pressures. Started from few atomic courses, we give here a qualitative description of the key processes for all of the aforementioned nanostructures.

  19. Process for forming shaped group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  20. Theoretical consideration of III-V nanowire/Si triple-junction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Long; Li, Xinhua; Zhao, Zhifei; Bu, Shaojiang; Zeng, XueSong; Huang, Jin-hua; Wang, Yuqi

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we report theoretical consideration and simulation of a proposed III-V nanowire (NW)/Si triple-junction solar cell. The cell consists of two axially connected III-V NW subcells that are grown and electrically integrated on an active Si substrate. The optical properties of the cell are thoroughly analyzed by using the finite-difference time-domain method. It is found that NW subcells with optimized geometry have high absorption throughout their absorption region. Meanwhile, beyond the absorption edge of the top and middle NW subcells, the NWs act as an efficient antireflection coating for the bottom Si subcell due to the formation of an optical cavity within the NW layer. The physics responsible for the enhanced light harvesting process is qualitatively explained through modal analysis. In addition, we have shown that the condition of current matching in a III-V NW/Si multi-junction can be fulfilled by adjusting the diameter of the NWs. In order to study the current-voltage characteristics of the proposed cell, the optical generation profiles under AM1.5G illumination are incorporated into an electrical modeling. Our optoelectrical simulations indicate that, with an excellent current matching between subcells, the performance of the proposed structure is comparable with state-of-the-art multi-junction cells. The results presented here indicate that semiconductor NWs may provide a promising route toward high efficiency multi-junction solar cells.

  1. High mobility CMOS technologies using III-V/Ge channels on Si platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, S.; Kim, S.-H.; Yokoyama, M.; Zhang, R.; Taoka, N.; Urabe, Y.; Yasuda, T.; Yamada, H.; Ichikawa, O.; Fukuhara, N.; Hata, M.; Takenaka, M.

    2013-10-01

    MOSFETs using channel materials with high mobility and low effective mass have been regarded as strongly important for obtaining high current drive and low supply voltage CMOS under sub 10 nm regime. From this viewpoint, attentions have recently been paid to Ge and III-V channels. In this paper, possible solutions for realizing III-V/Ge MOSFETs on the Si platform are presented. The high quality III-V channel formation on Si substrates can be realized through direct wafer bonding. The gate stack formation is constructed on a basis of atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al2O3 gate insulators for both InGaAs and Ge MOSFETs. As the source/drain (S/D) formation, Ni-based metal S/D is implemented for both InGaAs and Ge MOSFETs. By combining these technologies, we demonstrate successful integration of InGaAs-OI nMOSFETs and Ge p-MOSFETs on a same wafer and their superior device performance.

  2. III–V quantum light source and cavity-QED on Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Luxmoore, I. J.; Toro, R.; Pozo-Zamudio, O. Del; Wasley, N. A.; Chekhovich, E. A.; Sanchez, A. M.; Beanland, R.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Liu, H. Y.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    Non-classical light sources offer a myriad of possibilities in both fundamental science and commercial applications. Single photons are the most robust carriers of quantum information and can be exploited for linear optics quantum information processing. Scale-up requires miniaturisation of the waveguide circuit and multiple single photon sources. Silicon photonics, driven by the incentive of optical interconnects is a highly promising platform for the passive optical components, but integrated light sources are limited by silicon's indirect band-gap. III–V semiconductor quantum-dots, on the other hand, are proven quantum emitters. Here we demonstrate single-photon emission from quantum-dots coupled to photonic crystal nanocavities fabricated from III–V material grown directly on silicon substrates. The high quality of the III–V material and photonic structures is emphasized by observation of the strong-coupling regime. This work opens-up the advantages of silicon photonics to the integration and scale-up of solid-state quantum optical systems. PMID:23393621

  3. Electrically driven hybrid Si/III-V Fabry-Pérot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers.

    PubMed

    Ben Bakir, B; Descos, A; Olivier, N; Bordel, D; Grosse, P; Augendre, E; Fulbert, L; Fedeli, J M

    2011-05-23

    We report the first demonstration of an electrically driven hybrid silicon/III-V laser based on adiabatic mode transformers. The hybrid structure is formed by two vertically superimposed waveguides separated by a 100-nm-thick SiO2 layer. The top waveguide, fabricated in an InP/InGaAsP-based heterostructure, serves to provide optical gain. The bottom Si-waveguides system, which supports all optical functions, is constituted by two tapered rib-waveguides (mode transformers), two distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and a surface-grating coupler. The supermodes of this hybrid structure are controlled by an appropriate design of the tapers located at the edges of the gain region. In the middle part of the device almost all the field resides in the III-V waveguide so that the optical mode experiences maximal gain, while in regions near the III-V facets, mode transformers ensure an efficient transfer of the power flow towards Si-waveguides. The investigated device operates under quasi-continuous wave regime. The room temperature threshold current is 100 mA, the side-mode suppression ratio is as high as 20 dB, and the fiber-coupled output power is ~7 mW. PMID:21643289

  4. First principles investigation of water adsorption and charge transfer on III-V(110) semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kristen S.; Lenhart, Joseph L.; Andzelm, Jan W.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Baril, Neil F.; Henry, Nathan C.; Tidrow, Meimei Z.

    2014-04-01

    We report a DFT/GGA study of water adsorption and charge transfer at the relaxed (110) surfaces of several III-V binary semiconductors: GaAs, GaSb, and InAs. Our calculations are the first to show that adsorption of dissociated water changes the (110) surface structure. The characteristic III-V bond rotation through an angle of 30° is reversed. The buckled III-V bond at the semiconductor/water interface rotates into the surface through a new angle, which we calculate to be approximately 11° on all three binaries. Only dissociation of water - as opposed to chemisorption or physisorption - leads to this pseudo-unrelaxed configuration. We calculate geometries and reaction energies for several different adsorption mechanisms and find that molecular adsorption is the most favorable. We are able to reproduce binding configurations and energies for known adsorption sites on GaAs(110), but we also show new calculations for water on GaSb(110) and InAs(110). Lastly, we calculate the shift in electronic work function and induced surface dipole moment due to adsorbed water. We show that shifts in work function maximize at 1 ML of water, consistent with previous experimental works. Analysis of the partial charges and electron density reveals that adsorption of water polarizes the (110) surface, leading to local charge transfer across the semiconductor/water interface.

  5. Anisotropic photonic properties of III-V nanowires in the zinc-blende and wurtzite phase.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Christophe; Larrue, Alexandre; Dai, Xing; Migas, Dmitri; Soci, Cesare

    2012-03-01

    Some critical aspects of the anisotropic absorption and emission properties of quasi one-dimensional structures are reviewed in the context of III-V compound semiconductor nanowires. The unique optical and electronic properties of III-V nanowires stem from the combination of dielectric effects due to their large aspect ratio, and their specific crystallographic structure which can differ significantly from the bulk case. The growth conditions leading to single-crystal nanowires with either zinc blende or wurtzite phase are first presented. Dipole selection rules for interband transitions in common III-V compounds are then summarized for the two different phases, and corroborated by ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations of the oscillator strength. The optical anisotropy is discussed considering both the effect of refractive index mismatch between the nanowire and its surroundings and the polarization of the emitting dipoles set by the nanowire crystallographic structure and orientation. Finite Difference Time Domain simulations are finally employed to illustrate the influence of the emitting dipole orientation and the nanowire diameter on the distribution of radiation in the far-field. The importance of the correlation between structural and optoelectronic properties is highlighted in view of potential applications in future nanowire photonics. PMID:22327202

  6. Natural interface states in coherent and isovalent III-V heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Voicu; Zunger, Alex

    2011-03-01

    Interface states occur in semiconductor heterojunctions whenever a significant perturbation is present, caused by interface defects, lattice mismatch, discontinuities in the effective mass or sharp variations in the potential across the interface. We discuss the natural interface states appearing in perfectly coherent and isovalent III-V heterojunctions when a ? -well and an X -anti-well coexist in the conduction band. We use empirical pseudopotential calculation to illustrate this type of states for a few III-V heterostructures. For InP/GaP the interface localised states lie energetically in the band-gap and possess, because of their mixed ? - X character, a strong optical signature. This allows us to provide a different interpretation of the photoemission data existent in the literature for InP/GaP quantum wells and dots. We further discuss the presence of the interface localised states in other III-V heterojunctions, investigating the conditions under which they might be experimentally observed. Funded by DOE, EFRC for Inverse Design, NREL Subcontract XGC-0-40445-01.

  7. Present Status in the Development of III-V Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipps, Simon P.; Guter, Wolfgang; Welser, Elke; Schöne, Jan; Steiner, Marc; Dimroth, Frank; Bett, Andreas W.

    During the last yearshigh-concentration photovoltaics (HCPV) technology has gained growing attention. Excellent operatingAC-system efficiencies of up to 25% have been reported. One of the driving forces for this high system efficiency has been the continuous improvement of III-V multi-junction solar cell efficiencies. In consequence, the demand for these solar cells has risen, and strong efforts are undertaken to further increase the solar cell efficiency as well as the volume of cell output. The production capacity for multi-junction solar cells does not constitute a limitation. Already now several tens of MWp per year can be produced and the capacities can easily be increased. The state-of-the art approach for highly efficient photovoltaic energy conversion is marked by the Ga0.50In0.50P/Ga0.99In0.01As/Ge structure. This photovoltaic device is today well established in space applications and recently has entered the terrestrial market. The following chapter presents an overview about the present research status in III-V multi-junction solar cells at Fraunhofer ISE regarding cell design, expected performance, numerical simulation tools, adaptation of devices to different incident spectra and the fabrication of these devices. Finally, an outlook on future developments of III-V multi-junction solar cells is given.

  8. Monte Carlo analysis of the dynamic behavior of III-V MOSFETs for low-noise RF applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ming; Saint-Martin, Jérôme; Bournel, Arnaud; Querlioz, Damien; Wichmann, Nicolas; Bollaert, Sylvain; Danneville, François; Dollfus, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    III-V Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) with a high-κ dielectric gate stack are investigated as a possible route to enhance the performance of either microwave or logic circuits with low supply voltage (VDD). The intrinsic performance of III-V MOSFETs in both static and dynamic regimes under low VDD is estimated using device Monte Carlo simulation. The characteristics of a Bulk-like and XOI-like III-V MOSFETs are quantitatively assessed and compared in terms of DC transconductance, high frequency performance and noise behavior. Finally, the comparison with Si-based devices shows the potential of III-V nano-MOSFET architectures for high-frequency and low noise application under low operating power.

  9. III-V compound semiconductors for mass-produced nano-electronics: theoretical studies on mobility degradation by dislocation.

    PubMed

    Hur, Ji-Hyun; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    As silicon-based electronics approach the limit of scaling for increasing the performance and chip density, III-V compound semiconductors have started to attract significant attention owing to their high carrier mobility. However, the mobility benefits of III-V compounds are too easily accepted, ignoring a harmful effect of unavoidable threading dislocations that could fundamentally limit the applicability of these materials in nanometer-scale electronics. In this paper, we present a theoretical model that describes the degradation of carrier mobility by charged dislocations in quantum-confined III-V semiconductor metal oxide field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Based on the results, we conclude that in order for III-V compound MOSFETs to outperform silicon MOSFETs, Fermi level pinning in the channel should be eliminated for yielding carriers with high injection velocity. PMID:26911249

  10. Ultraviolet photodetectors and imaging arrays based on III-V nitride heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jeffrey David

    2000-10-01

    The III-V nitride class of compound semiconductors has received much attention in the last decade. These materials have a wide, direct bandgap, making them a prime candidate for optoelectronic devices in the blue, green, and ultraviolet spectral regions. These materials exhibit impressive optical, electrical, and thermal properties, even though there are fundamental materials issues that are thus far unresolved. This work explores the application of III-V nitride semiconductors to optical detectors in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy was used to synthesize thin film p-i-n photodiode structures on double side polished sapphire substrates; these films were characterized for optical, electrical and structural properties. The grown structures were designed to respond to a predetermined region of the UV spectrum when illuminated from the substrate side. These structures were fabricated into devices using generally accepted techniques for dry etching and p and n-contact metallizations. Test devices were characterized using tools developed by the author. These devices demonstrated as high as 80% quantum efficiency and extremely low dark currents; resulting in spectral detectivities as large as 6 * 1013 cmHz1/2W-1. Devices were designed and demonstrated for a series of detection regions ranging from 365 nm to 250 nm. Photolithography masks were designed to allow the fabrication of photodiode arrays that would hybridize to commercially available CMOS based readout integrated circuits (ROICs), used routinely for infrared photodiode imaging. Photodiode arrays were fabricated and indium bumps were deposited onto the diode contacts and the ROICs to provide electrical connection. The hybrid detector arrays were placed in leadless chip carriers, wirebonded, and connected to commercially available drive and readout circuitry. Images of UV scenes were focused onto the arrays using fused quartz lenses. These images and movies were successfully collected at frame rates up to 240 Hz using both 32 x 32 and 128 x 128 III-V nitride based UV photodiode imagers.

  11. Piezoelectric Effects in Misfit-Strained Iii-V Compound Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, Elisa Ava

    1990-01-01

    Elasticity and piezoelectricity are anisotropic properties of a crystal. In pseudomorphic strained layers, these properties will depend critically on the orientation of growth relative to the crystallographic orientation. Microscopically, the state of strain modifies the crystal Hamiltonian, changes the optical selection rules, and produces splittings of otherwise degenerate states. Macroscopically, the elastic accommodation of misfit-strain in (hkk) growth oriented heterostructures, unlike the conventional (001) growth axis, induces a homogeneous electric polarization in the strained layer via the piezoelectric effect. Large internal electric fields result, which can approach the dielectric breakdown field. To date, our understanding of the microscopic properties has come from a rich resource of literature on the (001) oriented III-V compounds. This fact is in no small part due to the inherent ease of achieving stoichiometric growth on this surface. Conversely, the achievement of stoichiometric growth on the (111) oriented III-V compounds has not been so successful. By employing vicinal substrates, and with the aid of the in-situ surface analysis in the MBE growth chamber, excellent morphology of GaAs and strained GaInAs on the (111) orientation are demonstrated in this thesis. With this achievement, the macroscopic piezoelectric effect has been demonstrated in a (111) growth axis zincblende heterostructure, for the first time. Misfit-strained (hkk) heterostructures provide an important new class of piezoelectrically active materials for use in designing novel structures with unique electronic and optical properties. The modelling of these properties, the MBE crystal growth of (111) strained III-V compound films, and the first direct experimental evidence of misfit-strain generated electric fields, are the subject of this thesis.

  12. Vertical bridgman and gradient freeze growth of III-V compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bourret, E.D.

    1990-07-01

    Major improvements in the structural and electrical perfection of single crystals of III-V compound semiconductors have been achieved by using new vertical Bridgman-type and vertical gradient freeze techniques. A general review of experimental set-ups used for growth of large diameter crystals of GaP, InP and GaAs is presented. Crystal properties and characteristic features are discussed to illustrate advantages and disadvantages of the vertical Bridgman-type growth techniques. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  13. III-V site-controlled quantum dots on Si patterned by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S.; Pozzato, A.; Tormen, M.; Zannier, V.; Biasiol, G.

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully grown regular arrays of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on patterned Si substrates. Thanks to the capability of nanoimprint lithography, we were able to obtain uniform patterns extended over some cm2 areas, with periods of 300 nm. Ex-situ and in-situ treatments of the surface allowed us to completely remove any residual oxides prior to growth without the use of hydrogen beams, at temperatures compatible with standard III-V molecular beam epitaxy. The growth protocol was optimized in order to obtain a perfect selectivity of InAs/GaAs nanostructures in the holes, without any deposition on the planar areas.

  14. The theory of nucleation and polytypism of III-V semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2015-02-01

    The polytypism between cubic and hexagonal phases in III-V semiconductor nanowires has been analyzed on the basis of nucleation theory. Model calculations have been performed for the parameters of GaAs nanowhiskers grown on Au catalysts according to the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. New results are obtained for the critical chemical potentials and the dependence of percentage content of wurtzite phase on the concentration of group III element (Ga) in the liquid drop. These results have been used for the interpretation of some experimental data on the crystalline phase of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown by various epitaxial techniques.

  15. Empirical modeling of the cross section of damage formation in ion implanted III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wendler, E.; Wendler, L.

    2012-05-07

    In this letter, the cross section of damage formation per individual ion is measured for III-V compound semiconductors ion implanted at 15 K, applying Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. An empirical model is proposed that explains the measured cross sections in terms of quantities representing the primary energies deposited in the displacement of lattice atoms and in electronic interactions. The resulting formula allows the prediction of damage formation for low temperatures and low ion fluences in these materials and can be taken as a starting point for further quantitative modeling of damage formation including secondary effects such as temperature and ion flux.

  16. Electronic Structure and Valence of Mn impurities in III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulthess, Thomas C.

    2003-11-01

    Mn doped III-V semiconductors have recently become very popular materials since they are ferromagnetic at reasonably high temperatures and in some cases show carrier induced magnetism, where the Curie temperature can be altered by changes in the carrier concentration. It is expected that these materials will play an important role in Spintronics devices. Substitutional Mn impurities in III-V semiconductors can acquire either a divalent or a trivalent configuration. For example, it is generally accepted that Mn in GaAs is in a (d^5+h) configuration with five occupied Mn d-orbitals and a delocalized hole in the valence band. In contrast, Mn in GaN is believed to be in a d^4 configuration with a deep impurity state that has d-character. But there have recently been some discussions about the possibility of having some Mn ion in GaN assuming a divalent (d^5+h) type configuration. In order to achieve carrier induced ferromagnetism, the desired state of the Mn ions in III-V semiconductors is the (d^5+h) configuration. We have therefore performed ab-initio calculations of the Mn valence when it substitutes Ga in various III-V semiconductor hosts. We use the self-interaction corrected local spin density (SIC-LSD) method which is able to treat localized impurity orbitals properly. In particular we find that the method is capable of predicting the (d^5+h) state of Mn in GaAs. For Mn in GaP and GaN the calculations predict a trivalent d^4 state in the idealized system. The energy differences between d^4 and (d^5+h) configurations in GaP are, however, very small. Introduction of defects or donors does change the valence of Mn in GaP, favoring the divalent state under certain circumstances. Work done in collaboration with W. Temmerman and S. Szotek, Daresbury Laboratory, G. M. Stocks, ORNL, and W. H. Butler, MINT Center University of Alabama. This work supported by the Defense Advanced Research Agency and by DOE Office of Science trough ASCR/MICS and BES/DMSE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle LLC.

  17. Lattice-Mismatched Approaches for High-Performance, III-V Photovoltaic Energy Converters

    SciTech Connect

    Wanlass, M. W.; Ahrenkiel, S. P.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Albin, D. S.; Carapella, J. J.; Duda, A.; Geisz, J. F.; Kurtz, S.; Moriarty, T.; Wehrer, R. J.; Wernsman, B.

    2005-02-01

    We discuss lattice-mismatched (LMM) approaches using compositionally step-graded layers and buffer layers that yield III-V photovoltaic devices with performance parameters equaling those of similar lattice-matched (LM) devices. Our progress in developing high-performance, LMM, InP-based GaInAs/InAsP materials and devices for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion is highlighted. A novel, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem device for solar PV (SPV) conversion involving LMM materials is also presented, along with promising preliminary performance results.

  18. Solid-state lighting : the III-V Epi Killer App.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien

    2010-06-01

    Throughout its history, lighting technology has made tremendous progress: the efficiency with which power is converted into usable light has increased 2.8 orders of magnitude over three centuries. This progress has, in turn, fueled large increases in the consumption of light and productivity of human society. In this talk, we review an emerging new technology, solid-state lighting: its frontier performance potential; the underlying advances in physics and materials that might enable this performance potential; the resulting energy consumption and human productivity benefits; and the impact on worldwide III-V epi manufacture.

  19. III-V/silicon photonic integrated circuits for communication and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelkens, Gunther; Keyvaninia, Shahram; Stankovic, Stevan; De Koninck, Yannick; Tassaert, Martijn; Mechet, Pauline; Spuesens, Thijs; Hattasan, N.; Gassenq, A.; Muneeb, M.; Ryckeboer, E.; Ghosh, Samir; Van Thourhout, D.; Baets, R.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we review our work in the field of heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors and non-reciprocal optical materials on a silicon waveguide circuit. We elaborate on the heterogeneous integration technology based on adhesive DVS-BCB die-to-wafer bonding and discuss several device demonstrations. The presented devices are envisioned to be used in photonic integrated circuits for communication applications (telecommunications and optical interconnects) as well as in spectroscopic sensing systems operating in the short-wave infrared wavelength range.

  20. Progress in the Development of Metamorphic Multi-Junction III-V Space-Solar Cells at Essential Research Incorporated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinharoy, Samar; Patton, Martin O.; Valko, Thomas M., Sr.; Weizer, Victor G.

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical calculations have shown that highest efficiency III-V multi-junction solar cells require alloy structures that cannot be grown on a lattice-matched substrate. Ever since the first demonstration of high efficiency metamorphic single junction 1.1 eV and 1.2 eV InGaAs solar cells by Essential Research Incorporated (ERI), interest has grown in the development of multi-junction cells of this type using graded buffer layer technology. ERI is currently developing a dual-junction 1.6 eV InGaP/1.1 eV InGaAs tandem cell (projected practical air-mass zero (AM0), one-sun efficiency of 28%, and 100-sun efficiency of 37.5%) under a Ballistic Missile Defense Command (BMDO) SBIR Phase II program. A second ongoing research effort at ERI involves the development of a 2.1 eV AlGaInP/1.6 eV InGaAsP/1.2 eV InGaAs triple-junction concentrator tandem cell (projected practical AM0 efficiency of 36.5% under 100 suns) under a SBIR Phase II program funded by the Air Force. We are in the process of optimizing the dual-junction cell performance. In case of the triple-junction cell, we have developed the bottom and the middle cell, and are in the process of developing the layer structures needed for the top cell. A progress report is presented in this paper.

  1. III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon is highly sought after for high-speed, low-power-consumption silicon photonics and low-cost, light-weight photovoltaics. Here we present a GaAs/Si direct fusion bonding technique to provide highly conductive and transparent heterojunctions by heterointerfacial band engineering in relation to doping concentrations. Metal- and oxide-free GaAs/Si ohmic heterojunctions have been formed at 300°C; sufficiently low to inhibit active material degradation. We have demonstrated 1.3 ?m InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates with the lowest threshold current density of any laser on Si to date, and AlGaAs/Si dual-junction solar cells, by p-GaAs/p-Si and p-GaAs/n-Si bonding, respectively. Our direct semiconductor bonding technique opens up a new pathway for realizing ultrahigh efficiency multijunction solar cells with ideal bandgap combinations that are free from lattice-match restrictions required in conventional heteroepitaxy, as well as enabling the creation of novel high performance and practical optoelectronic devices by III-V/Si hybrid integration. PMID:22470842

  2. III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon is highly sought after for high-speed, low-power-consumption silicon photonics and low-cost, light-weight photovoltaics. Here we present a GaAs/Si direct fusion bonding technique to provide highly conductive and transparent heterojunctions by heterointerfacial band engineering in relation to doping concentrations. Metal- and oxide-free GaAs/Si ohmic heterojunctions have been formed at 300°C; sufficiently low to inhibit active material degradation. We have demonstrated 1.3 ?m InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates with the lowest threshold current density of any laser on Si to date, and AlGaAs/Si dual-junction solar cells, by p-GaAs/p-Si and p-GaAs/n-Si bonding, respectively. Our direct semiconductor bonding technique opens up a new pathway for realizing ultrahigh efficiency multijunction solar cells with ideal bandgap combinations that are free from lattice-match restrictions required in conventional heteroepitaxy, as well as enabling the creation of novel high performance and practical optoelectronic devices by III-V/Si hybrid integration. PMID:22470842

  3. Theoretical discovery of stable structures of group III-V monolayers: The materials for semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2015-11-01

    Group III-V compounds are very important as the materials of semiconductor devices. Stable structures of the monolayers of group III-V binary compounds have been discovered by using first-principles calculations. The primitive unit cell of the discovered structures is a rectangle, which includes four group-III atoms and four group-V atoms. A group-III atom and its three nearest-neighbor group-V atoms are placed on the same plane; however, these connections are not the sp2 hybridization. The bond angles around the group-V atoms are less than the bond angle of sp3 hybridization. The discovered structure of GaP is an indirect transition semiconductor, while the discovered structures of GaAs, InP, and InAs are direct transition semiconductors. Therefore, the discovered structures of these compounds have the potential of the materials for semiconductor devices, for example, water splitting photocatalysts. The discovered structures may become the most stable structures of monolayers which consist of other materials.

  4. Analysis and Control of III-V-MOVPE by Real Time Reflectance Anisotropy and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Wolfgang

    1998-03-01

    Among the optical in-situ techniques for epitaxial growth analysis Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS) and Spectroscopic Ellispsometry (SE) offer large advantages as far as sensitivity, reproducibility and speed of measurement are concerned. While RAS due to its high surface sensitivity directly gives information on structural symmetry and chemical bonding within the surface, SE turns out to be outstanding for analysis of layer thickness and bulk composition. They both together give a rather complete picture of the growth process and can be moreover utilized to compare the different growth techniques (MBE, CBE, MOVPE). Examples presented from III-V-semiconductor epitaxy include fingerprint spectra of stabilized surfaces, monolayer oscillations of growing surfaces, signatures during interface formation and feed-back controlled growth of lattice matched ternary III-V's (InGaAs/InP, InGaP/GaAs). The optical response to surface morphology is discussed within the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode of quantum dots. Finally, specific challenges occuring in commercial growth environments such as rotating and wobbling samples will be discussed. with respect to system design.

  5. Structure, energetics, and electronic states of III-V compound polytypes.

    PubMed

    Bechstedt, Friedhelm; Belabbes, Abderrezak

    2013-07-10

    Recently several hexagonal polytypes such as 2H, 4H, and 6H have been discovered for conventional III-V semiconductor compounds in addition to the cubic 3C zinc-blende polytype by investigating nanorods grown in the [111] direction in different temperature regimes. Also III-mononitrides crystallizing in the hexagonal 2H wurtzite structure under ambient conditions can be deposited in zinc-blende geometry using various growth techniques. The polytypic crystal structures influence the local electronic properties and the internal electric fields due to the spontaneous polarization in non-cubic crystals.In this paper we give a comprehensive review on the thermodynamic, structural, and electronic properties of twelve Al, Ga, and In antimonides, arsenides, phosphides, and nitrides as derived from ab initio calculations. Their lattice parameters, energetic stability, and characteristic band structure energies are carefully discussed and related to the atomic geometries of the polytypes. Chemical trends are investigated. Band offsets between polytypes and their consequences for heterocrystalline structures are derived. The described properties are discussed in the light of available experimental data and previous computations. Despite several contradictory results in the literature, a unified picture of the III-V polytypes and their heterocrystalline structures is developed. PMID:23778868

  6. Structure, energetics, and electronic states of III-V compound polytypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechstedt, Friedhelm; Belabbes, Abderrezak

    2013-07-01

    Recently several hexagonal polytypes such as 2H, 4H, and 6H have been discovered for conventional III-V semiconductor compounds in addition to the cubic 3C zinc-blende polytype by investigating nanorods grown in the [111] direction in different temperature regimes. Also III-mononitrides crystallizing in the hexagonal 2H wurtzite structure under ambient conditions can be deposited in zinc-blende geometry using various growth techniques. The polytypic crystal structures influence the local electronic properties and the internal electric fields due to the spontaneous polarization in non-cubic crystals. In this paper we give a comprehensive review on the thermodynamic, structural, and electronic properties of twelve Al, Ga, and In antimonides, arsenides, phosphides, and nitrides as derived from ab initio calculations. Their lattice parameters, energetic stability, and characteristic band structure energies are carefully discussed and related to the atomic geometries of the polytypes. Chemical trends are investigated. Band offsets between polytypes and their consequences for heterocrystalline structures are derived. The described properties are discussed in the light of available experimental data and previous computations. Despite several contradictory results in the literature, a unified picture of the III-V polytypes and their heterocrystalline structures is developed.

  7. Properties of Group-IV, III-V and II-VI Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Sadao

    2005-03-01

    Almost all the semiconductors of practical interest are the group-IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors and the range of technical applications of such semiconductors is extremely wide. The purpose of this book is twofold: * to discuss the key properties of the group-IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors * to systemize these properties from a solid-state physics aspect The majority of the text is devoted to the description of the lattice structural, thermal, elastic, lattice dynamic, electronic energy-band structural, optical and carrier transport properties of these semiconductors. Some corrective effects and related properties, such as piezoelectric, elastooptic and electrooptic properties, are also discussed. The book contains convenient tables summarizing the various material parameters and the definitions of important semiconductor properties. In addition, graphs are included in order to make the information more quantitative and intuitive. The book is intended not only for semiconductor device engineers, but also physicists and physical chemists, and particularly students specializing in the fields of semiconductor synthesis, crystal growth, semiconductor device physics and technology.

  8. Integrating III-V compound semiconductors with silicon using wafer bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yucai

    2000-12-01

    From Main Street to Wall Street, everyone has felt the effects caused by the Internet revolution. The Internet has created a new economy in the New Information Age and has brought significant changes in both business and personal life. This revolution has placed strong demands for higher bandwidth and higher computing speed due to high data traffic on today's information highway. In order to alleviate this problem, growing interconnection bottlenecks in digital designs have to be solved. The most feasible and practical way is to replace the conventional electrical interconnect with an optical interconnect. Since silicon does not have the optical properties necessary to accommodate these optical interconnect requirements, III-V based devices, most of which are GaAs-based or InP-based, must be intimately interconnected with the Si circuit at chip level. This monolithic integration technology enables the development of both intrachip and interchip optical connectors to take advantage of the enormous bandwidth provided by both high-performance very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits and allied fiber and free-space optical technologies. However, lattice mismatch and thermal expansion mismatches between III-V materials and Si create enormous challenges for developing a feasible technology to tackle this problem. Among all the available approaches today, wafer bonding distinguishes itself as the most promising technology for integration due to its ability to overcome the constraints of both lattice constant mismatch and thermal expansion coefficient differences and even strain due to the crystal orientation. We present our development of wafer bonding technology for integrating III-V with Si in my dissertation. First, the pick-and-place multiple-wafer bonding technology was introduced. Then we systematically studied the wafer bonding of GaAs and InP with Si. Both high temperature wafer fusion and low/room temperature (LT/RT) wafer bonding have been investigated for different applications. We also systematically studied the electrical properties of bonding interfaces for high temperature wafer fusion of GaAs/Si and InP/Si. Room temperature and low temperature wafer bonding technology has been invented primarily for bonding GaAs with Si due to larger thermal expansion coefficient mismatches. Finally, we showed the feasibility and practicality of our wafer bonding technologies by fabricating high performance devices. A high performance InP-based avalanche photodetector on Si was fabricated utilizing the high temperature wafer fusion of InP and Si. And a 0.85 μm GaAs-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) were fabricated by utilizing the low temperature wafer bonding of GaAs and Si.

  9. Implications of the Differential Toxicological Effects of III-V Ionic and Particulate Materials for Hazard Assessment of Semiconductor Slurries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ruibin; Pon, Nanetta; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-12-22

    Because of tunable band gaps, high carrier mobility, and low-energy consumption rates, III-V materials are attractive for use in semiconductor wafers. However, these wafers require chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) for polishing, which leads to the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste including particulate and ionic III-V debris. Although the toxic effects of micron-sized III-V materials have been studied in vivo, no comprehensive assessment has been undertaken to elucidate the hazardous effects of submicron particulates and released III-V ionic components. Since III-V materials may contribute disproportionately to the hazard of CMP slurries, we obtained GaP, InP, GaAs, and InAs as micron- (0.2-3 ?m) and nanoscale (<100 nm) particles for comparative studies of their cytotoxic potential in macrophage (THP-1) and lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines. We found that nanosized III-V arsenides, including GaAs and InAs, could induce significantly more cytotoxicity over a 24-72 h observation period. In contrast, GaP and InP particulates of all sizes as well as ionic GaCl3 and InCl3 were substantially less hazardous. The principal mechanism of III-V arsenide nanoparticle toxicity is dissolution and shedding of toxic As(III) and, to a lesser extent, As(V) ions. GaAs dissolves in the cell culture medium as well as in acidifying intracellular compartments, while InAs dissolves (more slowly) inside cells. Chelation of released As by 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid interfered in GaAs toxicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that III-V arsenides, GaAs and InAs nanoparticles, contribute in a major way to the toxicity of III-V materials that could appear in slurries. This finding is of importance for considering how to deal with the hazard potential of CMP slurries. PMID:26549624

  10. New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; O'Bradovich, G.J.; Young, M.P. )

    1993-01-01

    This report describes progress during the first year of a three-year project. The objective of the research is to examine new design approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program is divided into two areas. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for III-V semiconductors. The second area centers on exploring design approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high quality material. Research activities consisted of an experimental study of minority carrier recombination in n-type, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-deposited GaAs, an assessment of the minority carrier lifetimes in n-GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and developing a high-efficiency cell fabrication process.

  11. Development of molecular beam epitaxy technology for III–V compound semiconductor heterostructure devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K. Y.

    2013-09-15

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is a versatile ultrahigh vacuum technique for growing multiple epitaxial layers of semiconductor crystals with high precision. The extreme control of the MBE technique over composition variation, interface sharpness, impurity doping profiles, and epitaxial layer thickness to the atomic level makes it possible to demonstrate a wide variety of novel semiconductor structures. Since its invention nearly 40 years ago, the MBE technique has evolved from a laboratory apparatus for exploring new materials and novel devices to a favored tool for the mass production of III–V high-speed devices. This paper will review some of the past developments in this technology and propose an outlook of future developments.

  12. New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; Patkar, M.P.; Young, M.P. )

    1993-04-01

    This report describes to examine new solar cell desip approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program consists of two elements. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for M-III semiconductors. Substantial efficiency gains may be possible by employing light trapping techniques to confine the incident photons, as well as the photons emitted by radiative recombination. The thin-film approach is a promising route for achieving substantial performance improvements in the already high-efficiency, single-junction, III-V cell. The second element of the research involves exploring desip approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high-quality material. This work has applications to multiple-junction cells, for which the selection of a component cell often involves a compromise between optimum band pp and optimum material quality. It could also be a benefit manufacturing environment by making the cell's efficiency less dependent on materialquality.

  13. Seebeck Enhancement Through Miniband Conduction in III-V Semiconductor Superlattices at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bahk, JH; Sadeghian, RB; Bian, ZX; Shakouri, A

    2012-02-08

    We present theoretically that the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient of InGaAs/InGaAlAs III-V semiconductor superlattices can be significantly enhanced through miniband transport at low temperatures. The miniband dispersion curves are calculated by self-consistently solving the Schrodinger equation with the periodic potential, and the Poisson equation taking into account the charge transfer between the two layers. Boltzmann transport in the relaxation-time approximation is used to calculate the thermoelectric transport properties in the cross-plane direction based on the modified density of states and group velocity. It is found that the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient can be enhanced more than 60% over the bulk values at an equivalent doping level at 80 K when the Fermi level is aligned at an edge of the minibands. Other thermoelectric transport properties are also calculated and discussed to further enhance the thermoelectric power factor.

  14. The reliability study of III-V solar cell with copper based contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Edward Yi; Chang, Hsun-Jui; Maa, Jer-Shen; Pande, Krishna

    2015-12-01

    The reliability of III-V solar cell with copper based contacts as low-cost metallurgy option for solar cells including Cu-based Cu/Ge/Pd contact on n-type GaAs and Cu/Pt/Ti/Pt contact on p-type Ge is studied in this paper. The Cu-based contacts have low specific contact resistances of the order of 10-6 Ω cm2. The solar cells with the proposed Cu-based structures were subjected to high-temperature annealing (250 °C) and a high DC current (6.5 × 10-4 mA/μm2) stress test. Overall, the solar cell adopting these Cu based contacts remained quite stable and demonstrated excellent performances after these reliability tests.

  15. Design High-Efficiency III-V Nanowire/Si Two-Junction Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, D; He, S; Li, X

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report the electrical simulation results of a proposed GaInP nanowire (NW)/Si two-junction solar cell. The NW physical dimensions are determined for optimized solar energy absorption and current matching between each subcell. Two key factors (minority carrier lifetime, surface recombination velocity) affecting power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cell are highlighted, and a practical guideline to design high-efficiency two-junction solar cell is thus provided. Considering the practical surface and bulk defects in GaInP semiconductor, a promising PCE of 27.5 % can be obtained. The results depict the usefulness of integrating NWs to construct high-efficiency multi-junction III-V solar cells. PMID:26123270

  16. Ultraviolet photosulfidation of III-V compound semiconductors for electronic passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, K.R.; Ashby, C.I.H.; Howard, A.J.; Hammons, B.E.

    1993-10-01

    A new vacuum-compatible passivation technique for III-V compound semiconductors has been developed. Sulfur passivation of GaAs(100) is produced by ultraviolet photolytic deposition of a sulfide species from vapor phase elemental sulfur. Photoluminescence studies of the photosulfided GaAs reveal a degree of passivation greater than or equal to that produced by conventional (NH{sub 4}{sub 2}S) solution treatment. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy has shown that the sulfur resides on the surface as a single reduced sulfur species, either as sulfide of disulfide, indicating complete fragmentation of the S{sub 8} ring by UV light in proximity to the surface. The degree of photosulfidation depends strongly on surface preparation as demonstrated by the described surface oxide removal studies.

  17. Dilute Group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man

    2012-07-31

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  18. Dilute group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man

    2015-02-24

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  19. Lattice-Mismatched III-V Epilayers for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrenkiel, Scott Phillip

    2013-06-30

    The project focused on development of new approaches and materials combinations to expand and improve the quality and versatility of lattice-mismatched (LMM) III-V semiconductor epilayers for use in high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaic (PV) devices. To address these goals, new capabilities for materials synthesis and characterization were established at SDSM&T that have applications in modern opto- and nano-electronics, including epitaxial crystal growth and transmission electron microscopy. Advances were made in analyzing and controlling the strain profiles and quality of compositional grades used for these technologies. In particular, quaternary compositional grades were demonstrated, and a quantitative method for characteristic X-ray analysis was developed. The project allowed enhanced collaboration between scientists at NREL and SDSM&T to address closely related research goals, including materials exchange and characterization.

  20. Towards a low noise class-A hybrid III-V/silicon laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Nils; Baili, Ghaya; Nouchi, Pascale; Dolfi, Daniel; Le Liepvre, Alban; Accard, Alain; Kaspar, Peter; Make, Dalila; Charbonnier, Philippe; Mallecot, Franck; Faugeron, Mickael; Van Dijk, Frederic; Duan, Guang-Hua; Olivier, Ségolène; Malhouitre, Stephan; Kopp, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    We describe a hybrid III-V on Silicon laser designed for low noise class-A dynamics. The laser is based on an InP active region and a passive silicon region integrated in a long laser cavity. High-Q ring resonators are used as optical filters in order to achieve single frequency operation. A fiber-coupled output power of 4.6 mW and a 55 dB side mode suppression ratio are obtained. For a pumping rate of 5.2, the hybrid laser exhibits a Relative Intensity Noise below -145 dB/Hz over a wide frequency bandwidth, from 100 MHz to 40 GHz but still suffers from some noise excess due to relaxation oscillations phenomena and side modes noise. The optimization of the laser cavity design is discussed in order to reach class-A dynamics while reducing residual noise excess.

  1. Scanning tunneling microscopy of III-V compound semiconductor (001) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qi-Kun; Hashizume, T.; Sakurai, T.

    1997-10-01

    While the (001) oriented substrate of compound semiconductors are most commonly used in fabrication of wireless and opto-electronic devices by molecular beam epitaxy, metallorganic chemical vapor deposition and related techniques, their surface structures have been puzzling from the beginning of the development of the techniques with which these materials are artificially prepared. This paper reviews the advances in comprehensive understanding of the geometric and electronic structures and chemical properties of the principal reconstructions found on the (001) surface of III-V compound semiconductors including arsenides, such as GaAs, InAs and AlAs, phosphides, such as.GaP and InP, antimonides, such as GaSb, AlSb and InSb, and also nitrides (GaN), with the emphasis on the GaAs(001), during the first decade following the invention of scanning tunneling microscopy.

  2. Long-wave infrared (LWIR) detectors based on III-V materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Future NASA missions for earth observation and planetary science require large photovoltaic detector arrays with high performance in the long wavelength region to 18 microns and at operating temperatures above 65 K where single-cycle long-life cryocoolers are being developed. Since these detector array requirements exceed the state of current HgCdTe technology, alternative detector materials are being investigated as a possible option for future missions. Advanced growth techniques (e.g., MBE and MOCVD) of column III-V semiconductors have opened opportunities for engineering new detector materials and device structures. The technical approaches under investigation at JPL (with university and industry participation) include: quantum well infrared photodetectors, heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) photodetectors, type-II strained layer superlattices, and nipi doping superlattices. Each of these options are briefly described with some of their pros and cons. A more detailed description is given for the HIP approach being pioneered at JPL.

  3. Structure-dependent ferromagnetism in Mn-doped III-V nanowires.

    PubMed

    Galicka, Marta; Buczko, Ryszard; Kacman, Perla

    2011-08-10

    The electronic and magnetic properties of (Ga,Mn)As and (In,Mn)As nanowires are studied by ab initio methods. The results suggest that, in contrast to the bulk, in nanowires (In,Mn)As may exhibit better ferromagnetic behavior than (Ga,Mn)As. Moreover, the calculations show that in one-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors the distribution of Mn ions and the magnetic order depend crucially on the crystallographic structure. Since the growth of III-V nanowires of a given, either zinc blende or wurtzite, crystal structure is nowadays well controlled, these results can help to find the preferable material and conditions for the growth of ferromagnetic semiconductor nanowires. PMID:21770435

  4. Heterogeneously integrated III-V/silicon dual-mode distributed feedback laser array for terahertz generation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Haifeng; Keyvaninia, Shahram; Vanwolleghem, Mathias; Ducournau, Guillaume; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Morthier, Geert; Lampin, Jean-Francois; Roelkens, Gunther

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate an integrated distributed feedback (DFB) laser array as a dual-wavelength source for narrowband terahertz (THz) generation. The laser array is composed of four heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon DFB lasers with different lengths enabling dual-mode lasing tolerant to process variations, bias fluctuations, and ambient temperature variations. By optical heterodyning the two modes emitted by the dual-wavelength DFB laser in the laser array using a THz photomixer composed of an uni-traveling carrier photodiode (UTC-PD), a narrow and stable carrier signal with a frequency of 0.357 THz is generated. The central operating frequency and the emitted terahertz wave linewidth are analyzed, along with their dependency on the bias current applied to the laser diode and ambient temperature. PMID:25490479

  5. Optical devices for ultra-compact photonic integrated circuits based on III-V/polymer nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvernier, D.; Garidel, S.; Zegaoui, M.; Vilcot, J. P.; Harari, J.; Magnin, V.; Decoster, D.

    2007-04-01

    We demonstrated the potential application of III-V/polymer nanowires for photonic integrated circuits in a previous paper. Hereby, we report the use of a spot size converter based on 2D reverse nanotaper structure in order to improve the coupling efficiency between the nanowire and optical fiber. A total coupling enhancement of up to a factor 60 has been measured from an 80 nm × 300 nm cross-section tip which feeds an 300 nm-side square nanowire at its both ends. Simultaneously, micro-radius bends have been fabricated to increase the circuit density; for a radius of 5 µm, the 90º bend losses were measured as low as 0.60 dB and 0.80 dB for TE and TM polarizations respectively.

  6. Optical transmission between III-V chips on Si using photonic wire bonding.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhichen; Amemiya, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Hiratani, Takuo; Suzuki, Junichi; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Takuo; Arai, Shigehisa

    2015-08-24

    Photonic wire bonding (PWB) was used to achieve flexible chip-scale optical interconnection as a kind of 3D-freeform polymer waveguide based on the two-photon polymerization of SU-8. First, the fabrication conditions of PWB were determined for the two-photon absorption process, and the coupling structure between PWB and III-V optical components was numerically simulated in order to obtain high coupling efficiency. Then, using PWB, chip-to-chip optical transmission was realized between laser and detector chips located on a common Si substrate. We fabricated a 2.5-?m-wide PWB with 1:3 aspect ratio between two optical chips of 140-?m gap and achieved a connection loss of approximately 10 dB. PMID:26368209

  7. Field effect transistors for terahertz detection - silicon versus III-V material issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knap, W.; Videlier, H.; Nadar, S.; Coquillat, D.; Dyakonova, N.; Teppe, F.; Bialek, M.; Grynberg, M.; Karpierz, K.; Lusakowski, J.; Nogajewski, K.; Seliuta, D.; Kašalynas, I.; Valušis, G.

    2010-09-01

    Resonant frequencies of the two-dimensional plasma in FETs reach the THz range for nanometer transistor channels. Non-linear properties of the electron plasma are responsible for detection of THz radiation with FETs. Resonant excitation of plasma waves with sub-THz and THz radiation was demonstrated for short gate transistors at cryogenic temperatures. At room temperature, plasma oscillations are usually over-damped, but the FETs can still operate as efficient broadband THz detectors. The paper presents the main theoretical and experimental results on detection with FETs stressing their possible THz imaging applications. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of application of III-V GaAs and GaN HEMTs and silicon MOSFETs.

  8. Modeling of axial heterostructure formation in ternary III-V nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koryakin, A. A.; Sibirev, N. V.; Zeze, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    A model is proposed to depict the formation of axial heterostructure in ternary III-V nanowires (NW) grown by the catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. Our approach is based on the determination of chemical potential of a four-component liquid using the regular solution model and Stringfellow's scheme for the computation of the interaction coefficients of species present in the droplet. The model allows the estimation of the heterojunction width dependence on the growth temperature. This dependence has not been reported before by any previous theoretical studies. The AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction formation in the Au-catalyzed AlGaAs NWs was considered as an example of ternary system. The heterojunction width was found to increase with the growth temperature with a second-order polynomial dependence.

  9. Advances in Single and Multijunction III-V Photovoltaics on Silicon for Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Ringel, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative research effort at MIT, Ohio State University and NASA has resulted in the demonstration of record quality gallium arsenide (GaAs) based single junction photovoltaic devices on silicon (Si) substrates. The ability to integrate highly efficient, radiation hard III-V based devices on silicon offers the potential for dramatic reductions in cell mass (approx.2x) and increases in cell area. Both of these improvements offer the potential for dramatic reductions in the cost of on-orbit electrical power. Recently, lattice matched InGaP/GaAs and metamorphic InGaP/InGaAs dual junction solar cells were demonstrated by MBE and OMVPE, respectively. Single junction GaAs on Si devices have been integrated into a space flight experiment (MISSES), scheduled to be launched to the International Space Station in March of 2005. I-V performance data from the GaAs/Si will be collected on-orbit and telemetered to ground stations daily. Microcracks in the GaAs epitaxial material, generated because of differences in the thermal expansion coefficient between GaAs and Si, are of concern in the widely varying thermal environment encountered in low Earth orbit. Ground based thermal life cycling (-80 C to + 80 C) equivalent to 1 year in LEO has been conducted on GaAs/Si devices with no discernable degradation in device performance, suggesting that microcracks may not limit the ability to field GaAs/Si in harsh thermal environments. Recent advances in the development and testing of III-V photovoltaic devices on Si will be presented.

  10. Use of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane deposited from aqueous solution for surface modification of III-V materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Daniel B., Jr.; Williams, Kristen S.; Baril, Neil F.; Weiland, Conan; Andzelm, Jan W.; Lenhart, Joseph L.; Woicik, Joseph C.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Tidrow, Meimei Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Henry, Nathan C.

    2014-11-01

    Focal plane arrays of strained layer superlattices (SLSs) composed of InAs/GaSb are excellent candidates for infrared imaging, but one key factor limiting their utility is the lack of a surface passivation technique capable of protecting the mesa sidewall from degradation. Along these lines, we demonstrate the use of aqueous 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) deposited as a surface functionalizing agent for subsequent polymer passivation on InAs and GaSb surfaces following a HCl/citric acid procedure to remove the conductive oxide In2O3. Using atomic force microscopy, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and modeling with density functional theory (DFT), we demonstrate that APTES films can successfully be deposited on III-V substrates by spin coating and directly compare these films to those deposited on silicon substrates. The HCl/citric acid surface preparation treatment is particularly effective at removing In2O3 without the surface segregation of In oxides observed from use of HCl alone. However, HCl/citric acid surface treatment method does result in heavy oxidation of both Ga and Sb, accompanied by segregation of Ga oxide to the surface. Deposited APTES layer thickness did not depend on the substrate choice, and thicknesses between 1 and 20 nm were obtained for APTES solution concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 vol %. XPS results for the N1s band of APTES showed that the content of ionic nitrogen was high (?50%) for the thinnest films (?1 nm), and decreased with increasing film thickness. These results indicate that APTES can indeed be used to form a silane surface layer to cover III-V materials substrates. Such APTES silane layers may prove useful in surface passivation of these materials alone, or as surface functionalizing agents for subsequent covalent binding with polymer overlayers like polyimide.

  11. Bismuth-induced surface structure and morphology in III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duzik, Adam J.

    2015-04-01

    Bi is the largest group V element and has a number of advantages in III-V semiconductor properties, such as bandgap reduction, spin-orbit coupling, a preserved electron mobility over III-V-N materials, and nearly ideal surfactant properties resulting in a surface smoothing effect on GaAs. However, the mechanism for this behavior is not well understood. Insight on the mechanism is obtained through study of the Bi-terminated GaAs surface morphology and atomic reconstructions produced via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Experimental scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) characterization of the Bi/GaAs surface reveal disordered (1x3), (2x3), and (4x3) reconstructions, often sharing the same reflective high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns. Roughness on the micron length scale decreases as the step widen, attributed to the concurrent increase of opposite direction step edges on the nanometer length scale. Corresponding cluster expansion, density functional theory (DFT), and Monte Carlo simulations all point to the stability of the disordered (4x3) reconstruction at finite temperature as observed in experimental STM. The effects of incorporated Bi are determined through epitaxial GaSbBi growth on GaSb with various Ga:Sb:Bi flux ratios. Biphasic surface droplets are observed with sub-droplets, facets, and substrate etching. Despite the rough growth front, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscatter (RBS) measurements show significant Bi incorporation of up to 12% into GaSb, along with a concurrent increase of background As concentration. This is attributed to a strain auto-compensation effect. Bi incorporation of up to 10% is observed for the highest Bi fluxes while maintaining low surface droplet density.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Optoelectronics Devices Based on III-V Materials for Infrared Applications by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torfi, Amin

    Optoelectronic devices based on III-V materials operating in infrared wavelength range have been attracting intensive research effort due to their applications in optical communication, remote sensing, spectroscopy, and environmental monitoring. The novel semiconductor lasers and photodetectors structures and materials investigated in this thesis cover the spectral range from 1.3µm to 12µm. This spectral region includes near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR) and long wavelength infrared. This thesis demonstrated infrared optoelectronic devices, based on III-V compound semiconductors grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), utilizing various combinations of novel III-V materials, device structures and substrate orientations. This thesis will be presented in two parts; the first part focuses on two types of photodetectors; type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice IR detector and AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb mid-infrared heterojunction p-i-n photodetector. The second part of this thesis focuses on the three types of quantum well (QW) lasers; phosphor-free1.3µm InAlGaAs strain-compensated multiple-quantum-well (SCMQW) lasers on InP (100), InGaAsNSb/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) grown on GaAs (411)A substrates and mid-infrared InGaAsSb lasers with digitally grown tensile-strained AlGaAsSb barriers. Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice IR detectors with various spectral ranges were grown by MBE. Two superlattice structures with 15 monolayers (ML) of InAs/12ML GaSb and 17ML InAs/7ML GaSb are discussed. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements both InAs/GaSb superlattices exhibit excellent material qualities with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the 0th-order peak about 20arcsec, which is among the narrowest ever reported. The 50% cutoff wavelengths at 80K of the two photodiodes with 15ML InAs/12ML GaSb and 17ML InAs/7ML GaSb superlattices are measured to be 10.2µm and 6.6µm, respectively. Mid-infrared heterojunction p-i-n photodetector, AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb lattice-matched to GaSb grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy using As and Sb valved crackers greatly facilitated the lattice-matching of the quaternary InGaAsSb absorbing layer to the GaSb substrates, as characterized by X-ray diffraction. The resulting device exhibited low dark current and a breakdown voltage of 32V at room temperature. A record Johnson-noise-limited detectivity of 9.0 × 1010 cm Hz½/W was achieved at 290K. The 50% cutoff wavelength of the device was 2.57 µm. Thus, our result has clearly demonstrated the potential of very high-performance lattice-matched InGaAsSb p-i-n photodetectors for mid-infrared wavelengths. For phosphor-free1.3 µm InAlGaAs multiple-quantum-well (MQW) lasers, the substrate temperature has been found to be a critical growth parameter for lattice-matched InAl(Ga)As layers in the laser structures. As shown by X-ray diffraction measurements, in the temperature range of 485-520° C, spontaneously ordered superlattices (SLs) with periods around 7-10 nm were formed in the bulk InAl(Ga)As layers. Based on photoluminescence (PL) measurements, a large band gap reduction of 300 meV and a broadened PL peak were observed for the In0.52 Al0.48As layers with SL, as compared to those without SL. The undesirable, spontaneously-ordered SL can be avoided by using MBE growth temperatures higher than 530 °C. This results in a high laser performance. Threshold-current density as low as 690 A/cm2 and T0 as high as 80 K were achieved for InAlGaAs laser bars emitting at 1310 nm. InGaAsNSb/GaAs QWs on GaAs (411)A exhibited remarkably enhanced photoluminescence efficiency compared with the same structures on conventional GaAs (100) substrates. It was further observed that the optimum growth temperature for (411)A was 30 °C higher than that for (100). To explain this phenomenon, a model based on the self-assembling of local rough surface domains into a unique global smooth surface at the lowest energy state of the system is proposed. Lastly, the digital-growth approach for tensile-strained AlGaAsSb barriers improved the reliability and controllability of MBE growth for the MQW active region in the mid-infrared InGaAsSb quantum well lasers. The optical and structural qualities of InGaAsSb MQW were improved significantly, as compared to those with random-alloy barriers due to the removal of growth interruption at the barrier/well interfaces in digital growth. As a result, high-performance devices were achieved in the InGaAsSb lasers with digital AlGaAsSb barriers. A low threshold current density of 163 A/cm2 at room temperature was achieved for 1000-µm-long lasers emitting at 2.38 µm. An external differential quantum efficiency as high as 61% was achieved for the 880-µm-long lasers, the highest ever reported for any lasers in this wavelength range.

  13. Analytical Electron Diffraction from Iii-V and II-Vi Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spellward, Paul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a number of new TEM-based techniques for the measurement of composition in ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors. New methods of polarity determination in binary and ternary compounds are also presented. The theory of high energy electron diffraction is outlined, with particular emphasis on zone axis diffraction from well-defined strings. An account of TEM microstructural studies of Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te and CdTe epitaxial layers, which provided the impetus for developing the diffraction-based analytical techniques, is given. The wide range of TEM-based compositional determination techniques is described. The use of HOLZ deficiency lines to infer composition from a lattice parameter measurement is evaluated. In the case of Cd_{ rm x}Hg_{rm 1-x}Te, it is found to be inferior to other techniques developed. Studies of dynamical aspects of HOLZ diffraction can yield information about the dispersion surface from which a measure of composition may be obtained. This technique is evaluated for Al_{rm x}Ga_{rm 1-x} As, in which it is found to be of some use, and for Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te, in which the large Debye-Waller factor associated with mercury in discovered to render the method of little value. A number of critical voltages may be measured in medium voltage TEMs. The (111) zone axis critical voltage of Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te is found to vary significantly with x and forms the basis of an accurate technique for composition measurement in that ternary compound. Other critical voltage phenomena are investigated. In Al _{rm x}Ga_ {rm 1-x}As and other light ternaries, a non-systematic critical voltage is found to vary with x, providing a good indicator of composition. Critical voltage measurements may be made by conventional CBED or by various other techniques, which may also simultaneously yield information on the spatial variation of composition. The use of diffraction contrast imaging, large angle CBED and convergent beam imaging is evaluated and shown to have some advantages for flat samples. In studies of growth mechanisms, microstructures and even macroscopic properties, knowledge of the polarity of a zincblende structure crystal may be valuable. Methods of polarity determination are surveyed. Two new TEM-based techniques are described and results from a range of II -VI and III-V semiconductors are presented.

  14. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong potential for net gains in efficiency at high concentration.

  15. Interface engineering and chemistry of Hf-based high-k dielectrics on III-V substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Sun, Zhaoqi

    2013-03-01

    Recently, III-V materials have been extensively studied as potential candidates for post-Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) channel materials. The main obstacle to implement III-V compound semiconductors for CMOS applications is the lack of high quality and thermodynamically stable insulators with low interface trap densities. Due to their excellent thermal stability and relatively high dielectric constants, Hf-based high-k gate dielectrics have been recently highlighted as the most promising high-k dielectrics for III-V-based devices. This paper provides an overview of interface engineering and chemistry of Hf-based high-k dielectrics on III-V substrates. We begin with a survey of methods developed for generating Hf-based high-k gate dielectrics. To address the impact of these hafnium based materials, their interfaces with GaAs as well as a variety of semiconductors are discussed. After that, the integration issues are highlighted, including the development of high-k deposition without Fermi level pinning, surface passivation and interface state, and integration of novel device structure with Si technology. Finally, we conclude this review with the perspectives and outlook on the future developments in this area. This review explores the possible influences of research breakthroughs of Hf-based gate dielectrics on the current and future applications for nano-MOSFET devices.

  16. Band structure effects on resonant tunneling in III-V quantum wells versus two-dimensional vertical heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Philip M.; Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Ready, W. Jud; Vogel, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.

  17. Group V sensitive vapor-liquid-solid growth of Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed III-V nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.

    2016-04-01

    We present a new theoretical model that treats the group V sensitive growth rates and structures of Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed III-V nanowires within a single kinetic picture. It is shown that Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires can grow with a time-independent radius within a wide range of parameters. At high V/III flux ratios, the vapor-liquid-solid growth of Au catalyzed III-V nanowires is controlled by surface diffusion of the group III adatoms, while at low V/III flux ratios it becomes nucleation-limited. Conversely, self-catalyzed III-V nanowires cannot grow with a time-independent droplet size and instead such nanowires may either swell or shrink or converge to a certain stationary radius depending on the V/III flux ratio. Quite importantly, the results are presented in a concise analytical form which is convenient for comparison with experimental data or prior theoretical works. We demonstrate how the model fits the data obtained previously for Au- and Ga-catalyzed GaAs nanowires.

  18. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hash, G. L.; Schwank, J. R.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Sandoval, C. E.; Connors, M. P.; Sheridan, T. J.; Sexton, F. W.; Slayton, E. M.; Heise, J. A.; Foster, C.

    1994-01-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10(exp 10) to 2 x 10(exp 14) protons/sq cm. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 x 10(exp -5) errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10(exp -5) errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-(mu)m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10(exp 14) protons/sq cm (equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad(GaAs)).

  19. Robust Large Gap Two-Dimensional Topological Insulators in Hydrogenated III-V Buckled Honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Crisostomo, Christian P; Yao, Liang-Zi; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Lin, Hsin; Albao, Marvin A; Bansil, Arun

    2015-10-14

    A large gap two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator (TI), also known as a quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator, is highly desirable for low-power-consuming electronic devices owing to its spin-polarized backscattering-free edge conducting channels. Although many freestanding films have been predicted to harbor the QSH phase, band topology of a film can be modified substantially when it is placed or grown on a substrate, making the materials realization of a 2D TI challenging. Here we report a first-principles study of possible QSH phases in 75 binary combinations of group III (B, Al, Ga, In, and Tl) and group V (N, P, As, Sb, and Bi) elements in the 2D buckled honeycomb structure, including hydrogenation on one or both sides of the films to simulate substrate effects. A total of six compounds (GaBi, InBi, TlBi, TlAs, TlSb, and TlN) are identified to be nontrivial in unhydrogenated case; whereas for hydrogenated case, only four (GaBi, InBi, TlBi, and TlSb) remains nontrivial. The band gap is found to be as large as 855 meV for the hydrogenated TlBi film, making this class of III-V materials suitable for room temperature applications. TlBi remains topologically nontrivial with a large band gap at various hydrogen coverages, indicating the robustness of its band topology against bonding effects of substrates. PMID:26390082

  20. III-V Multi-junction solar cells and concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipps, Simon P.; Bett, Andreas W.

    2014-12-01

    It has been proven that the only realistic path to practical ultra-high efficiency solar cells is the monolithic multi-junction approach, i.e., to stack pn-junctions made of different semiconductor materials on top of each other. Each sub pn-junction, i.e., sub solar cell, converts a specific part of the sun's spectrum. In this way, the energy of the sunlight photons is converted with low thermalization losses. However, large-area multi-junction solar cells are still far too expensive if applied in standard PV modules. A viable solution to solve the cost issue is to use tiny solar cells in combination with optical concentrating technology, in particular, high concentrating photovoltaics (HCPV), in which the light is concentrated over the solar cells more than 500 times. The combination of ultra-high efficient solar cells and optical concentration lead to low cost on system level and eventually to low levelized cost of electricity, today, well below 8 €cent/kWh and, in the near future, below 5 €cent/kWh. A wide variety of approaches exists for III-V multi-junction solar cells and HCPV systems. This article is intended to provide an overview about the different routes being followed.

  1. Electroless Deposition of III-V Semiconductor Nanostructures from Ionic Liquids at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Abhishek; Borisenko, Natalia; Olschewski, Mark; Gustus, René; Zahlbach, Janine; Endres, Frank

    2015-09-28

    Group III-V semiconductor nanostructures are important materials in optoelectronic devices and are being researched in energy-related fields. A simple approach for the synthesis of these semiconductors with well-defined nanostructures is desired. Electroless deposition (galvanic displacement) is a fast and versatile technique for deposition of one material on another and depends on the redox potentials of the two materials. Herein we show that GaSb can be directly synthesized at room temperature by galvanic displacement of SbCl3 /ionic liquid on electrodeposited Ga, on Ga nanowires, and also on commercial Ga. In situ AFM revealed the galvanic displacement process of Sb on Ga and showed that the displacement process continues even after the formation of GaSb. The bandgap of the deposited GaSb was 0.9±0.1 eV compared to its usual bandgap of 0.7 eV. By changing the cation in the ionic liquid, the redox process could be varied leading to GaSb with different optical properties. PMID:26290478

  2. Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiye; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Runyu; Sardela, Mauro; Zuo, Jianmin; Balaji, Manavaimaran; Lourdudoss, Sebastian; Sun, Yan-Ting; Braun, Paul V.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy, and the resultant attractive electronic properties, would enable new functionalities for optoelectronic devices. Here we utilize self-assembled colloidal templates to fabricate epitaxially grown single crystal 3D mesostructured GaxIn1-xP (GaInP) semiconductor photonic crystals using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The epitaxial relationship between the 3D GaInP and the substrate is preserved during the growth through the complex geometry of the template as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. XRD reciprocal space mapping of the 3D epitaxial layer further demonstrates the film to be nearly fully relaxed with a negligible strain gradient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflection measurement indicates the optical properties of the photonic crystal which agree with finite difference time domain simulations. This work extends the scope of the very few known methods for the fabrication of epitaxial III-V 3D mesostructured materials to the well-developed HVPE technique.

  3. Passively mode-locked III-V/silicon laser with continuous-wave optical injection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanbing; Luo, Xianshu; Song, Junfeng; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Cao, Yulian; Hu, Xiaonan; Li, Xiaohui; Lim, Peng Huei; Wang, Qi Jie

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate electrically pumped two-section mode locked quantum well lasers emitting at the L-band of telecommunication wavelength on silicon utilizing die to wafer bonding techniques. The mode locked lasers generate pulses at a repetition frequency of 30 GHz with signal to noise ratio above 30 dB and 1 mW average output power per facet. Optical injection-locking scheme was used to improve the noise properties of the pulse trains of passively mode-locked laser. The phases of the mode-locked frequency comb are shown to be coherent with that of the master continuous-wave (CW) laser. The radio-frequency (RF)-line-width is reduced from 7.6 MHz to 150 kHz under CW optical injection. The corresponding pulse-to-pulse jitter and integrated RMS jitter are 29.7 fs/cycle and 1.0 ps, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that optical injection can reduce the noise properties of the passively mode locked III-V/Si laser in terms of frequency linewidth and timing jitter, which makes the devices attractive for photonic analog-to-digital converters and clock generation and recovery. PMID:25836859

  4. III-V GaAs based plasmonic lasers (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafone, Lucas; Nguyen, Ngoc; Clarke, Ed; Fry, Paul; Oulton, Rupert F.

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonics is a potential route to new and improved optical devices. Many predict that sub wavelength optical systems will be essential in the development of future integrated circuits, offering the only viable way of simultaneously increasing speed and reducing power consumption. Realising this potential will be contingent on the ability to exploit plasmonic effects within the framework of the established semiconductor industry and to this end we present III-V (GaAs) based surface plasmon laser platform capable of effective laser light generation in highly focussed regions of space. Our design utilises a suspended slab of GaAs with a metallic slot printed on top. Here, hybridisation between the plasmonic mode of the slot and the photonic mode of the slab leads to the formation of a mode with confinement and loss that can be adjusted through variation of the slot width alone. As in previous designs the use of a hybrid mode provides strong confinement with relatively low losses, however the ability to print the metal slot removes the randomness associated with device fabrication and the requirement for etching that can deteriorate the semiconductor's properties. The deterministic fabrication process and the use of bulk GaAs for gain make the device prime for practical implementation.

  5. Impact of photon recycling and luminescence coupling in III-V photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. W.; Höhn, O.; Micha, D. N.; Wagner, L.; Helmers, H.; Bett, A. W.; Dimroth, F.

    2015-03-01

    Single junction photovoltaic devices composed of direct bandgap III-V semiconductors such as GaAs can exploit the effects of photon recycling to achieve record-high open circuit voltages. Modeling such devices yields insight into the design and material criteria required to achieve high efficiencies. For a GaAs cell to reach 28 % efficiency without a substrate, the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetimes of the electrons and holes must be longer than 3 ?s and 100 ns respectively in a 2 ?m thin active region coupled to a very high reflective (>99%) rear-side mirror. The model is generalized to account for luminescence coupling in tandem devices, which yields direct insight into the top cell's non-radiative lifetimes. A heavily current mismatched GaAs/GaAs tandem device is simulated and measured experimentally as a function of concentration between 3 and 100 suns. The luminescence coupling increases from 14 % to 33 % experimentally, whereas the model requires an increasing SRH lifetime for both electrons and holes to explain these experimental results. However, intermediate absorbing GaAs layers between the two sub-cells may also increasingly contribute to the luminescence coupling as a function of concentration.

  6. Simulation of III-V strained quantum well lasers with coupled concentric racetrack resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viegas, Jaime; Xing, Peng; Serunjogi, Solomon M.

    2014-03-01

    The simulation of the lasing behavior of semiconductor quantum well structures with accurate description of transport phenomena and optical propagation poses great challenges when complex epitaxial layers are coupled with optical cavities in the transverse direction that are more complex than the well know Fabry-Pérot and distributed feedbackreflector based resonators. In this work, we present an approximate approach for the simulation of an electricallypumped III-V strained quantum well laser with coupled concentric racetrack resonators. The electrical, thermal and optical behavior of an epitaxial stack with at least one quantum well is obtained from a physics based simulator for a reduced dimensionality problem, and this solution is coupled with the cold cavity analysis of the resonator using either finite difference time domain simulation or coupled-mode analysis. The effects of gain and charge transport on the active resonator are then taken into account as a perturbation and the approximate solution derived. Comparison with actual devices based on InGaAlAs/InGaAs/InP and InGaSb/AlGaAsSb/GaSb shows reasonable agreement. The concentric racetrack resonator exhibits complex dispersive behavior, with possible applications in sensing, nonlinear phenomena and optical signal processing.

  7. Etched-wall bent-guide structure for integrated optics in the III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, T. M.

    1984-02-01

    A method is proposed for forming bends in waveguides in the III-V semiconductors. It involves the reflection of light from an etched wall acting as a totally reflecting mirror. Even though the experimental results for photoelastic waveguides in n/n(+) GaAs structures are encouraging, they are seen as limited by the roughness of the etched wall. It is pointed out that improved results will require a better definition of the reflecting edge, perhaps using a combination of electron-beam lithography and dry etching. The similarity between the proposed structure and that of the truncated right-angle corner in a waveguide at microwave frequencies as analyzed by Campbell and Jones (1968) is noted. In the present case, however, owing to the small refractive-index differences between the waveguide core and the surrounding regions, the waveguide mode reflects from the guide walls at a grazing angle (Kogelnik, 1982). Therefore, to a good approximation, the guided waves for this structure can be regarded as collimated.

  8. Variational Rashba splitting in two-dimensional electron gases in III-V semiconductor heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, M. A. Toloza; Ferreira da Silva, A.; de Andrada E Silva, E. A.; La Rocca, G. C.

    2009-06-01

    Control of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling in semiconductor two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) is of fundamental interest to the rapidly evolving semiconductor spintronics and depends on the detailed knowledge of the controversial interface and barrier penetration effects. Based on the 8×8 k?p Kane model for the bulk, we propose a spin-dependent variational solution for the conduction subbands of III-V heterojuctions, which reveals analytically the different contributions to the Rashba splitting and its dependency on heterostructure and band parameters as the band offset and effective masses. Perturbation expansions are used to derive renormalized parameters for an effective, simple, and yet accurate one band model. Spin-dependent modified Fang-Howard trial functions, which satisfy the spin-dependent boundary conditions, are then introduced. The subband splitting is given as a function of the variational parameter which is obtained minimizing the total energy of the 2DEG. Our calculations applied to InAlAs/InGaAs heterojunctions, where a near 20% increase in the splitting is observed due to the barrier penetration, are in good agreement with both experiment and exact numerical calculations. Well-known expressions in the limit of a perfect insulating barrier are exactly reproduced.

  9. Variational analysis of the Rashba splitting in III-V semiconductor inversion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloza Sandoval, M. A.; Ferreira da Silva, A.; de Andrada E Silva, E. A.; La Rocca, G. C.

    2011-06-01

    A spin-dependent variational theory is used to analyze the Rashba spin-orbit splitting in two-dimensional electron gases formed in III-V semiconductor inversion layers. The spin split conduction subbands in CdTe/InSb, insulator/InAs, InP/InGaAs, InAlAs/InGaAs, and AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunctions are calculated. The theory, presented here in detail, is based on the 8 × 8 k·p Kane model and on the introduction of simple and convenient spin-dependent Fang-Howard trial functions, and leads to analytical expressions for the split subbands, as well as allows for a detailed knowledge of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, including its explicit dependence on structure parameters and its decomposition into separate contributions. The Rashba coupling parameter and the population difference in the spin-split subbands, as experimentally determined from the beating pattern of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations, are obtained as a function of the electron density (ns). The separate contributions to the particularly large Rashba splitting in CdTe/InSb heterojunctions are also computed and discussed. It is shown, for example, that due to the spin-dependent boundary conditions, the direct Rashba spin-orbit coupling term in the effective Hamiltonian dominates the splitting only for ns>1010 cm-2 while it is the barrier penetration kinetic energy term that gives the largest contribution to the Rashba effect at lower densities.

  10. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sandoval, C.E.; Connors, M.P.; Sheridan, T.J.; Sexton, F.W.; Slayton, E.M.; Heise, J.A.; Foster, C.

    1994-09-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10{sup 10} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-{mu}m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2} [equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad(GaAs)].

  11. General synthesis of manganese-doped II-VI and III-V semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Pavle V; Barrelet, Carl J; Gradecak, Silvija; Qian, Fang; Lieber, Charles M

    2005-07-01

    A general approach for the synthesis of manganese-doped II-VI and III-V nanowires based on metal nanocluster-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has been developed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies of Mn-doped CdS, ZnS, and GaN nanowires demonstrate that the nanowires are single-crystal structures and homogeneously doped with controllable concentrations of manganese ions. Photoluminescence measurements of individual Mn-doped CdS and ZnS nanowires show characteristic pseudo-tetrahedral Mn2+ ((4)T1-->(6)A1) transitions that match the corresponding transitions in bulk single-crystal materials well. Photoluminescence studies of Mn-doped GaN nanowires suggest that manganese is incorporated as a neutral (Mn3+) dopant that partially quenches the GaN band-edge emission. The general and controlled synthesis of nanowires doped with magnetic metal ions opens up opportunities for fundamental physical studies and could lead to the development of nanoscale spintronic devices. PMID:16178248

  12. Theoretical Studies of Jahn-Teller Impurity Ion Complexes in Iii-V Semiconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, James

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Recent photoluminescence studies on chromium (II) ions in semi-insulating, chromium-doped gallium arsenide have revealed the existence of a group of related zero -phonon-lines at or near 839meV. The observed spectra are thought to be the result of internal electronic transitions of a Cr^{2+} ion in association with an adjacent impurity ligand (or vacancy) at a trigonal lattice site. In this thesis, a Jahn-Teller model of the trigonal complex is presented for the orbital triplet ground states of impurity ions in III-V semiconductors. This is carried out by including a first-order trigonal field perturbation in the electrostatic crystal field potential that is experienced by an impurity electron in a trigonally-distorted tetrahedral ligand environment. A Taylor expansion of the potential is made in terms of the dynamic co-ordinates of the system, and a second quantised form of the Jahn-Teller Hamiltonian is obtained. Subsequently, a unitary transformation and minimisation method is applied to obtain the ground states of the system to first order in the asymmetry, from which the inversion splittings and first order reduction factors can be found. A detailed computer analysis of Zeeman photoluminescence data obtained from the trigonal chromium complex Cr ^{2+}-Te:GaAs is also given.

  13. Raising the Efficiency Ceiling with Multijunction III-V Concentrator Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    King, R. R.; Boca, A.; Edmondson, K. M.; Romero, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Law, D. C.; Fetzer, C. M.; Haddad, M.; Zakaria, A.; Hong, W.; Mesropian, S.; Krut, D. D.; Kinsey, G. S.; Pien, R.; Sherif, R. A.; Karam, N. H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the question 'how high can solar cell efficiency go?' from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. First-principle efficiency limits are analyzed for some of the main candidates for high-efficiency multijunction terrestrial concentrator cells. Many of these cell designs use lattice-mismatched, or metamorphic semiconductor materials in order to tune subcell band gaps to the solar spectrum. Minority-carrier recombination at dislocations is characterized in GaInAs inverted metamorphic solar cells, with band gap ranging from 1.4 to 0.84 eV, by light I-V, electron-beam-induced current (EBIC), and cathodoluminescence (CL). Metamorphic solar cells with a 3-junction GaInP/ GaInAs/ Ge structure were the first cells to reach over 40% efficiency, with an independently confirmed efficiency of 40.7% (AM1.5D, low-AOD, 240 suns, 25 C). The high efficiency of present III-V multijunction cells now in high-volume production, and still higher efficiencies of next-generation cells, is strongly leveraging for low-cost terrestrial concentrator PV systems.

  14. Monolithic integration of III-V nanowire with photonic crystal microcavity for vertical light emission.

    PubMed

    Larrue, Alexandre; Wilhelm, Christophe; Vest, Gwenaelle; Combrié, Sylvain; de Rossi, Alfredo; Soci, Cesare

    2012-03-26

    A novel photonic structure formed by the monolithic integration of a vertical III-V nanowire on top of a L3 two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity is proposed to enhance light emission from the nanowire. The impact on the nanowire spontaneous emission rate is evaluated by calculating the spontaneous emission factor β, and the material gain at threshold is used as a figure of merit of this vertical emitting nanolaser. An optimal design is identified for a GaAs nanowire geometry with r = 155 nm and L~1.1 μm, where minimum gain at threshold (gth~13×10³ cm⁻¹) and large spontaneous emission factor (β~0.3) are simultaneously achieved. Modification of the directivity of the L3 photonic crystal cavity via the band-folding principle is employed to further optimize the far-field radiation pattern and to increase the directivity of the device. These results lay the foundation for a new approach toward large-scale integration of vertical emitting nanolasers and may enable applications such as intra-chip optical interconnects. PMID:22453454

  15. Ion implantation for high performance III-V JFETS and HFETS

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-06-01

    Ion implantation has been an enabling technology for realizing many high performance electronic devices in III-V semiconductor materials. We report on advances in ion implantation processing for GaAs JFETs (joint field effect transistors), AlGaAs/GaAs HFETs (heterostructure field effect transistors), and InGaP or InAlP-barrier HFETs. The GaAs JFET has required the development of shallow p-type implants using Zn or Cd with junction depths down to 35 nm after the activation anneal. Implant activation and ionization issues for AlGaAs are reported along with those for InGaP and InAlP. A comprehensive treatment of Si-implant doping of AlGaAs is given based on donor ionization energies and conduction band density-of-states dependence on Al-composition. Si and Si+P implants in InGaP are shown to achieve higher electron concentrations than for similar implants in AlGaAs due to absence of the deep donor level. An optimized P co- implantation scheme in InGaP is shown to increase the implanted donor saturation level by 65%.

  16. New Materials for Future Generations of III-V Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Olson, J. M.; Kramer, C.; Kibbler, A.; Kurtz, S. R.

    1998-10-06

    Three- and four-junction III-V devices are proposed for ultrahigh-efficiency solar cells using a new 1-eV material lattice-matched to GaAs, namely, GaInNAs. We demonstrate working prototypes of a GaInNAs-based solar cell lattice-matched to GaAs with photoresponse down to 1 eV. Under the AM1.5 direct spectrum with all the light higher in energy than the GaAs band gap filtered out, the prototypes grown with base doping of about 10{sup 17} cm-3 have open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.35 to 0.44 V, short-circuit current densities of 1.8 mA/cm2, and fill factors from 61% to 66%. To improve on the current record-efficiency tandem GaInP/GaAs solar cell by adding a GaInNAs junction, the short-circuit current density of this 1-eV cell must be significantly increased. Because these low short-circuit current densities are due to short diffusion lengths, we have demonstrated a depletion-width-enhanced variation of one of the prototype devices that trades off decreased voltage for increased photocurrent, with a short-circuit current density of 7.4 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage of 0.28 V.

  17. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R. )

    1994-12-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10[sup 10] to 2 [times] 10[sup 14] protons/cm[sup 2]. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10[sup [minus]5] errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-[mu]m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10[sup 14] protons/cm[sup 2] [equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad (GaAs)].

  18. Few-body properties of interacting spins in III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, Ryan

    We perform theoretical analyses of several novel device applications which make use of the distinctive electronic and optical properties of III-V semiconductors. Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are a promising candidate for the physical realization of a solid-state quantum computer. Whenever three or more spins interact simultaneously, the system's full Hamiltonian is found to include nonlinear interactions that significantly influence its dynamics in experimentally relevant parameter regimes. We consider the implications of these results for the proposed implementations of known quantum algorithms; in particular, we describe a method for circumventing the four-body effects in an encoded system (four spins per logical bit) by the appropriate tuning of material parameters. We calculate the spin coherence lifetime of a conduction electron in a semiconductor due to exchange scattering from neutral donors. The average lifetime is computed in two and in three dimensions using the Born approximation. We find that, for realistic values of the impurity concentrations, these lifetimes are comparable to those of spin decoherence mechanisms commonly ascribed to experimentally observed lifetimes. We also develop a numerical model for charge diffusion in a GaAs heterostructure laser. We construct and solve rate equations for conduction electrons coupled to a single optical cavity mode in a microdisk. Our results extend previous theoretical approaches to diffusion and are consistent with applicable experiments.

  19. Gate control of Berry phase in III-V semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis L.

    2014-06-01

    We analyze the Berry phase in III-V semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). We show that the Berry phase is highly sensitive to electric fields arising from the interplay between the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit (SO) couplings. We report that the accumulated Berry phase can be induced from other available quantum states that differ only by one quantum number of the corresponding spin state. The sign change in the g-factor due to the penetration of Bloch wave functions into the barrier materials can be reflected in the Berry phase. We provide characteristics of the Berry phase for three different length scales (spin-orbit length, hybrid orbital length, and orbital radius). We solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation by utilizing the Feynman disentangling technique, and we investigate the evolution of spin dynamics during the adiabatic transport of QDs in the two-dimensional plane. Our results can pave the way to building a topological quantum computer in which the Berry phase can be engineered and be manipulated with the application of the spin-orbit couplings through gate-controlled electric fields.

  20. Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabeza, Sandra; Garcés, Gerardo; Pérez, Pablo; Adeva, Paloma

    2014-07-01

    The Mg98.5Gd1Zn0.5 alloy produced by a powder metallurgy route was studied and compared with the same alloy produced by extrusion of ingots. Atomized powders were cold compacted and extruded at 623 K and 673 K (350 °C and 400 °C). The microstructure of extruded materials was characterized by α-Mg grains, and Mg3Gd and 14H-LPSO particles located at grain boundaries. Grain size decreased from 6.8 μm in the extruded ingot, down to 1.6 μm for powders extruded at 623 K (350 °C). Grain refinement resulted in an increase in mechanical properties at room and high temperatures. Moreover, at high temperatures the PM alloy showed superplasticity at high strain rates, with elongations to failure up to 700 pct.

  1. Recent advances on antimony(III/V) compounds with potential activity against tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hadjikakou, S K; Ozturk, I I; Banti, C N; Kourkoumelis, N; Hadjiliadis, N

    2015-12-01

    Antimony one of the heavier pnictogens, has been in medical use against microbes and parasites as well. Antimony-based drugs have been prescribed against leishmaniasis since the parasitic transmission of the tropical disease was understood in the beginning of the 20th century. The activity of arsenic against visceral leishmaniasis led to the synthesis of an array of arsenic-containing parasitic agents, among them the less toxic pentavalent antimonials: Stibosan, Neostibosan, and Ureastibamine. Other antimony drugs followed: sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and melglumine antimoniate (Glucantim or Glucantime); both continue to be in use today despite their toxic side effects and increasing loss in potency due to the growing resistance of the parasite against antimony. Antimony compounds and their therapeutic potentials are under consideration from many research groups, while a number of early reviews recording advances of antimony biomedical applications are also available. However, there are only few reports on the screening for antitumor potential of antimony compounds. This review focuses upon results obtained on the anti-proliferative activity of antimony compounds in the past years. This survey shows that antimony(III/V) complexes containing various types of ligands such as thiones, thiosemicarbazones, dithiocarbamates, carboxylic acids, or ketones, nitrogen donor ligands, exhibit selectivity against a variety of cancer cells. The role of the ligand type of the complex is elucidated within this review. The complexes and their biological activity are already reported elsewhere. However quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling studies have been carried out and they are reported for the first time here. PMID:26092367

  2. A novel surface preparation methodology for epi-ready antimonide based III-V substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, P. S.; Rajagopalan, G.; Kim, H. J.; Kumar, A.

    2005-05-01

    Surfaces of GaSb substrates currently available from various commercial vendors are nowhere close to device grade GaAs, Si or InP wafer surfaces. Hence epitaxial growth and device fabrication on as-received commercial substrates poses significant difficulties amongst antimonide based researchers. Antimonide based materials are known to have poor surface oxide quality and not so well understood chemical reactions with various chemicals used to remove the oxides prior to growth. There are no existing reports on the detailed recipe for the preparation of "atomically flat and clean" surfaces that works on wafers obtained from various commercial vendors. This paper presents a detailed recipe for obtaining atomically flat and clean GaSb surfaces, irrespective of the initial polishing source. The same recipe (with slight modification) has been found to be successful with other III-V and II-VI compounds. The novel surface preparation process developed in our laboratory includes, chemical-mechanical polishing using an agglomerate-free sub-micron alumina slurry on a soft pad such as velvet, surface cleaning using dilute ammonium or potassium hydroxide-H2O solution and surfactant or glycerol, surface degreasing using organic solvents, oxide desorption using HCl-H2O and HF-H2O mixtures, mild chemical etching using ammonium sulfide and a final rinse in high purity deionized (DI) water and methanol. Using this recipe, we have been able to achieve surfaces with atomic flatness (RMS surface roughness close to 0.5 nm over a 10 x 10 mm2) and extremely clean surfaces, irrespective of the initial contamination or the sources of the wafers. Results of wafer surfaces before and after polishing using our recipe will be presented.

  3. Protective capping and surface passivation of III-V nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaka, Veer; Perros, Alexander; Naureen, Shagufta; Shahid, Naeem; Jiang, Hua; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Haggren, Tuomas; Kauppinen, Esko; Srinivasan, Anand; Lipsanen, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature (˜200 °C) grown atomic layer deposition (ALD) films of AlN, TiN, Al2O3, GaN, and TiO2 were tested for protective capping and surface passivation of bottom-up grown III-V (GaAs and InP) nanowires (NWs), and top-down fabricated InP nanopillars. For as-grown GaAs NWs, only the AlN material passivated the GaAs surface as measured by photoluminescence (PL) at low temperatures (15K), and the best passivation was achieved with a few monolayer thick (2Å) film. For InP NWs, the best passivation (˜2x enhancement in room-temperature PL) was achieved with a capping of 2nm thick Al2O3. All other ALD capping layers resulted in a de-passivation effect and possible damage to the InP surface. Top-down fabricated InP nanopillars show similar passivation effects as InP NWs. In particular, capping with a 2 nm thick Al2O3 layer increased the carrier decay time from 251 ps (as-etched nanopillars) to about 525 ps. Tests after six months ageing reveal that the capped nanostructures retain their optical properties. Overall, capping of GaAs and InP NWs with high-k dielectrics AlN and Al2O3 provides moderate surface passivation as well as long term protection from oxidation and environmental attack.

  4. The Genetic Analysis of a Reciprocal Translocation, eT1(III; V), in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbluth, Raja E.; Baillie, David L.

    1981-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans mutation e873, which results in a recessive uncoordinated phenotype (formerly named Unc-72) and which had been isolated after 32P treatment (Brenner 1974), has now been found to act as a crossover suppressor and to be associated with a translocation between linkage groups (LG's) III and V. The translocation has been named, eT1(III; V); eT1 acts as a dominant crossover suppressor for both the right half of LGIII and the left half of LGV, providing a balancer for a total of 39 map units. The uncoordinated e873 phenotype has been shown to be a consequence of an inactive unc-36III gene. It was possible to demonstrate that, in translocation heterozygotes, eT1 chromosomes marked with either sma-3 or dpy-11 segregate from normal LGIII, while those marked with bli-5, sma-2 or unc-42 segregate from normal LGV. Since bli-5 and sma-2 are normally on LGIII, and dpy-11 is normally on LGV, it is concluded that: (a) eT1 is a reciprocal translocation; (b) there is a breakpoint between sma-3 and sma-2 in LGIII (the region containing unc-36) and one between dpy-11 and unc-42 in LGV; (c) there is no dominant centromere between sma-2 and bli-5 on LGIII, since in eT1 these genes are not linked to a LGIII centromere. Similarly, it is highly unlikely that there is a centromere to the left of dpy-11 on LGV. The new gene order in eT1 was determined by measuring recombination rates between markers in eT1 homozygotes. It is concluded that the new order is: dpy-1 sma-3 (break) dpy-11 unc-60, and bli-5 sma-2 (break) unc-42 unc-51.—This is the first analysis of a C. elegans translocation with respect to reciprocity, breakpoints and new gene order. PMID:6953041

  5. Semiconductor quantum well lasers and related optoelectronic devices on silicon, III-V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holonyak, N., Jr.; Hsieh, K. C.; Stillman, G. E.

    1989-06-01

    Although an ultimate goal of this work is to achieve long term reliable laser operation of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs quantum well heterostructures (QWH's), or similar III-V QWH's, grown on Si, this has proven to be a formidable enough problem that to the best of our knowledge no one has exceeded the results we reported in 1987 and 1988. This problem is of such dimensions that it may not be solved for as much as 10 years, or even more. All we know so far is that continuous (CW) 300 K Al(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs QWH lasers can be grown on Si, and that, indeed, the heat sinking of an Al(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs QWH laser on Si is better than a similar laser on a GaAs substrate. Nevertheless, the problem of growing better versions of these devices (i.e., long-lived high performance CW 300 K lasers on Si) has run into the fundamental issue of the large GaAs-Si lattice and thermal expansion mismatch, and hence the built-in difficulty in reducing the defects guaranteed by mismatch. Accordingly, and as much as we have worked further on the problem of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs QWH lasers on Si, we have worked as hard on other QWH laser problems, as well as a impurity-induced layer disordering (or layer intermixing, IILD) and its application in laser devices. We briefly describe this work below and append the titles and abstracts of the papers we have published on laser studies and IILD.

  6. A survey of ohmic contacts to III-V compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Briggs, R.D.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.

    1997-04-01

    A survey of ohmic contact materials and properties to GaAs, InP, GaN will be presented along with critical issues pertaining to each semiconductor material. Au-based alloys (e.g., GeAuNi for n-type GaAs) are the most commonly used contacts for GaAs and InP materials for both n- and p-type contacts due to the excellent contact resistivity, reliability, and usefulness over a wide range of doping levels. Research into new contacting schemes for these materials has focused on addressing limitations of the conventional Au-alloys in thermal stability, propensity for spiking, poor edge definition, and new approaches for a non-alloyed contact. The alternative contacts to GaAs and InP include alloys with higher temperature stability, contacts based on solid phase regrowth, and contacts that react with the substrate to form lower bandgap semiconductors alloys at the interface. A new area of contact studies is for the wide bandgap group III-Nitride materials. At present, low resistivity ohmic contact to p-type GaN has not been obtained primarily due to the large acceptor ionization energy and the resultant difficulty in achieving high free hole concentrations at room temperature. For n-type GaN, however, significant progress has been reported with reactive Ti-based metalization schemes or the use of graded InGaN layers. The present status of these approaches will be reviewed.

  7. alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z. B.; Liu, J. J.; Wang, R.; Liu, X. Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, N. K.; Si, P. Z.

    2014-06-01

    Structural, magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Tb0.4Nd0.6(Fe0.8Co0.2) x (1.50 ? x ? 1.90) alloys have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a vibrating sample magnetometer and a standard strain technique. XRD analysis shows the presence of single Laves phase with a cubic MgCu2-type structure for the high Nd content alloy around the composition of x = 1.80, which tends to be formed by curing at relatively low annealing temperature. The easy direction of magnetization at room temperature is observed toward <111> axis, accompanied by a rhombohedral distortion with a large spontaneous magnetostriction ?111. An optimized effect on the linear anisotropic magnetostriction, 360 ppm at 3 kOe, was observed for the high Nd content Tb0.4Nd0.6(Fe0.8Co0.2)1.80 alloy, which can be attributed to its single Laves phase, the large ?111 (~1,520 ppm) of the MgCu2-type (Tb,Nd)(Fe,Co)2 phase and the good soft magnetic behaviors.

  8. Mono- and polynucleation, atomistic growth, and crystal phase of III-V nanowires under varying group V flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2015-05-28

    We present a refined model for the vapor-liquid-solid growth and crystal structure of Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires, which revisits several assumptions used so far and is capable of describing the transition from mononuclear to polynuclear regime and ultimately to regular atomistic growth. We construct the crystal phase diagrams and calculate the wurtzite percentages, elongation rates, critical sizes, and polynucleation thresholds of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires depending on the As flow. We find a non-monotonic dependence of the crystal phase on the group V flow, with the zincblende structure being preferred at low and high group V flows and the wurtzite structure forming at intermediate group V flows. This correlates with most of the available experimental data. Finally, we discuss the atomistic growth picture which yields zincblende crystal structure and should be very advantageous for fabrication of ternary III-V nanowires with well-controlled composition and heterointerfaces.

  9. Mono- and polynucleation, atomistic growth, and crystal phase of III-V nanowires under varying group V flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2015-05-01

    We present a refined model for the vapor-liquid-solid growth and crystal structure of Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires, which revisits several assumptions used so far and is capable of describing the transition from mononuclear to polynuclear regime and ultimately to regular atomistic growth. We construct the crystal phase diagrams and calculate the wurtzite percentages, elongation rates, critical sizes, and polynucleation thresholds of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires depending on the As flow. We find a non-monotonic dependence of the crystal phase on the group V flow, with the zincblende structure being preferred at low and high group V flows and the wurtzite structure forming at intermediate group V flows. This correlates with most of the available experimental data. Finally, we discuss the atomistic growth picture which yields zincblende crystal structure and should be very advantageous for fabrication of ternary III-V nanowires with well-controlled composition and heterointerfaces.

  10. Vertical-coupled high-efficiency tunable III-V- CMOS SOI hybrid external-cavity laser.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiyun; Djordjevic, Stevan S; Cunningham, John E; Shubin, Ivan; Luo, Ying; Yao, Jin; Li, Guoliang; Thacker, Hiren; Lee, Jin-Hyoung; Raj, Kannan; Zheng, Xuezhe; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V

    2013-12-30

    We demonstrate a hybrid III-V/SOI laser by vertically coupling a III-V RSOA chip with a SOI-CMOS chip containing a tunable wavelength selective reflector. We report a waveguide-coupled wall-plug-efficiency of 5.5% and output power of 10 mW. A silicon resistor-based microheater was integrated to thermally tune a ring resonator for precise lasing wavelength control. A high tuning efficiency of 2.2 nm/mW over a range of 18 nm was achieved by locally removing the SOI handler substrate. C-band single mode lasing was confirmed with a side mode suppression ratio of 35 dB. This grating coupler based vertical integration approach can be scaled up in two dimensions for efficient multi-wavelength sources in silicon photonics. PMID:24514836

  11. Study of ultrathin SiO2 Interlayer wafer bonding for heterogeneous III-V/Si photonic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chee-Wei; Liang, Ying Shun; Keh-Ting Ng, Doris; Yang, Yi; Hnin, Yu Yu Ko; Wang, Qian

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrated low-temperature bonding of III-V InP-based compound semiconductor on silicon via nano-thin SiO2 interlayer down to thickness of 20 nm, with ultra-smooth surface for heterogeneous photonic integration. The bonding is achieved with chemical cleaning of the sample surface, followed by oxygen plasma surface activation, which gives high quality bonding between the two different materials. Detail analyses on the bonded samples are carried out. From the photoluminescence and the x-ray diffraction measurements, in which no significant peak shift and peak broadening are observed, we conclude that the crystalline quality of the bonded thin film is preserved. The cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that bonded III-V-SiO2-Si interface has no observable defect. These results reinforce that the proposed bonding offers a promising technology for realizing versatile heterogeneous photonics integration.

  12. Accumulation capacitance frequency dispersion of III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor devices due to disorder induced gap states

    SciTech Connect

    Galatage, R. V.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M.; Vogel, E. M.

    2014-07-07

    The origin of the anomalous frequency dispersion in accumulation capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices on InGaAs and InP substrates is investigated using modeling, electrical characterization, and chemical characterization. A comparison of the border trap model and the disorder induced gap state model for frequency dispersion is performed. The fitting of both models to experimental data indicate that the defects responsible for the measured dispersion are within approximately 0.8 nm of the surface of the crystalline semiconductor. The correlation between the spectroscopically detected bonding states at the dielectric/III-V interface, the interfacial defect density determined using capacitance-voltage, and modeled capacitance-voltage response strongly suggests that these defects are associated with the disruption of the III-V atomic bonding and not border traps associated with bonding defects within the high-k dielectric.

  13. Gold-free ternary III-V antimonide nanowire arrays on silicon: twin-free down to the first bilayer.

    PubMed

    Conesa-Boj, Sònia; Kriegner, Dominik; Han, Xiang-Lei; Plissard, Sébastien; Wallart, Xavier; Stangl, Julian; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Caroff, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    With the continued maturation of III-V nanowire research, expectations of material quality should be concomitantly raised. Ideally, III-V nanowires integrated on silicon should be entirely free of extended planar defects such as twins, stacking faults, or polytypism, position-controlled for convenient device processing, and gold-free for compatibility with standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing tools. Here we demonstrate large area vertical GaAsxSb1-x nanowire arrays grown on silicon (111) by molecular beam epitaxy. The nanowires' complex faceting, pure zinc blende crystal structure, and composition are mapped using characterization techniques both at the nanoscale and in large-area ensembles. We prove unambiguously that these gold-free nanowires are entirely twin-free down to the first bilayer and reveal their three-dimensional composition evolution, paving the way for novel infrared devices integrated directly on the cost-effective Si platform. PMID:24329502

  14. Second-order optical susceptibility in doped III-V piezoelectric semiconductors in the presence of a magnetostatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, B.; Aghamkar, P.; Kumar, S.; Kashyap, M. K.

    2011-02-01

    A detailed analytical investigation of second-order optical susceptibility has been made in moderately doped III-V weakly piezoelectric semiconductor crystal, viz. n-InSb, in the absence and presence of an external magnetostatic field, using the coupled mode theory. The second-order optical susceptibility arises from the nonlinear interaction of a pump beam with internally generated density and acoustic perturbations. The effect of doping concentration, magnetostatic field and pump intensity on second-order optical susceptibility of III-V semiconductors has been studied in detail. The numerical estimates are made for n-type InSb crystals duly shined by pulsed 10.6 ?m CO2 laser and efforts are made towards optimising the doping level, applied magnetostatic field and pump intensity to achieve a large value of second-order optical susceptibility and change of its sign. The enhancement in magnitude and change of sign of second-order optical susceptibility, in weakly piezoelectric III-V semiconductor under proper selection of doping concentration and externally applied magnetostatic field, confirms the chosen nonlinear medium as a potential candidate material for the fabrication of nonlinear optical devices. In particular, at B 0 = 14.1 T, the second-order susceptibility was found to be 3.4 × 10-7 (SI unit) near the resonance condition.

  15. Electrical and optical characterization of Group III-V heterostructures with emphasis on terahertz devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasekara, Aruna B.

    Electrical and optical characterizations of heterostructures and thin films based on group III-V compound semiconductors are presented. Optical properties of GaMnN thin films grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on GaN/Sapphire templates were investigated using IR reflection spectroscopy. Experimental reflection spectra were fitted using a non-linear fitting algorithm, and the high frequency dielectric constant (epsiloninfinity), optical phonon frequencies of E1TO and E1 LO, and their oscillator strengths (S) and broadening constants (Gamma) were obtained for GaMnN thin films with different Mn fraction. The high frequency dielectric constant (epsiloninfinity) of InN thin films grown by the high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method was also investigated by IR reflection spectroscopy and the average was found to vary between 7.0--8.6. The mobility of free carriers in InN thin films was calculated using the damping constant of the plasma oscillator. The terahertz detection capability of n-type GaAs/AlGaAs Heterojunction Interfacial Workfunction Internal Photoemission (HEIWIP) structures was demonstrated. A threshold frequency (fc) of 3.2 THz (93 mum) with a peak responsivity of 6.5 A/W at 7.1 THz was obtained using a 0.7 mum thick 1x1018 cm-3 n-type doped GaAs emitter layer and a 1 mum thick undoped Al0.04Ga0.96As barrier layer. Using n-type doped GaAs emitter layers, the possibility of obtaining small workfunctions (Delta) required for terahertz detectors has been successfully demonstrated. In addition, the possibility of using GaN (GaMnN) and InN materials for terahertz detection was investigated and a possible GaN base terahertz detector design is presented. The non-linear behavior of the Inter Pulse Time Intervals (IPTI) of neuron-like electric pulses triggered externally in a GaAs/InGaAs Multi Quantum Well (MQW) structure at low temperature (˜ 10 K) was investigated. It was found that a grouping behavior of IPTIs exists at slow triggering pulse rates. Furthermore, the calculated correlation dimension reveals that the dimensionality of the system is higher than the average dimension found in most of the natural systems. Finally, an investigation of terahertz radiation effect on biological system is reported. Index words. Infrared, Detectors, Terahertz, Optical Phonon, Plasmon, Heterojunction, Homojunction, Free carrier absorption, Quantum efficiency, Responsivity, Dark current, Arrhenius, Absorption coefficient, Dielectric function, High frequency dielectric constant, Plasma frequency, Neuron-like pulses, Negative differential resistance, Correlation dimension, Embedding dimension, Return maps, Bifurcation, and Power spectrum.

  16. III-V nitride micro- and nano-scale cantilevers for multimodal sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quddus, Ehtesham B.

    Recent research trends in chemical and biological sensing have been geared toward developing molecular sensor devices that are fast, label free, miniaturized and portable. The performance of these devices can be dramatically improved by utilizing multimodal detection techniques, new materials and micro-/nanofabrication technologies. This is especially true for micro-/nanoscale cantilever sensors, which undergo changes in mechanical or electrical properties upon the specific binding of molecules. To develop the sensor devices with the above attributes, we utilized III-V nitride materials: InN nanowires for realizing nanoscale cantilevers and AlGaN/GaN heterostuctures with or without embedded HFETs, for developing microcantilevers. There are mainly two approaches of fabricating these sensor devices: bottom-up approach for nanocantilevers, and top-down approach for microcantilevers. InN NWs, which exhibit interesting properties such as high carrier density, superior electron mobility, strong surface charge accumulation, and chemical inertness, were synthesized using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique by Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism. The synthesis process was optimized to obtain growth direction modulation and enhanced performance of the devices, largely avoiding the complexity of nanofabrication/etching typically involved in the realization of nanoscale sensors. With dimensions much smaller than conventional cantilevers, the nanocantilevers are expected to have dramatically improved physical, chemical, and biological sensitivity for sensor applications. The piezoresistive and piezoelectric properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, their wide bandgap, and chemical inertness make the microcantilevers very attractive for developing highly sensitive sensors suitable for harsh environment applications. The large variation in 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface with mechanical strain makes these microcantilevers much more sensitive than conventional Si based piezoresistive microcantilevers. A process was developed to fabricate free standing AlGaN/GaN microcantilevers on Si(111) substrate using various processing steps involving photolithography, GaN and through wafer Si etching, and dielectric and metal deposition. The detection performance of these cantilevers is largely improved by the utilization of a multimodal detection technique.

  17. Update on III-V antimonide-based superlattice FPA development and material characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lucy; Tidrow, Meimei; Bandara, Sumith; Aitcheson, Leslie; Shih, Tiffany

    2011-06-01

    Much progress has been made in the past 2 years in developing III-V antimonide-based superlattice infrared detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs). In the area of detector material growth by molecular beam epitaxy, the wafer foundry group, helped by government-trusted entities and other partnering institutions, has leapfrogged many years of R&D effort to become the premier detector wafer supplier. The wafers produced are of high quality as measured by surface morphology, defect density, photoluminescence property, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, and diode current-voltage characteristics. In the area of detector design and FPA processing, the team-consisting of members from government laboratories, academia, and the FPA industry-has made rapid progress in device structure design, detector array etching, passivation, hybridization, and packaging. The progress is reflected in the steady reduction in FPA median darkcurrent density and improvement in median quantum efficiency, as well as reasonably low median noise-equivalent different temperature under 300 K scene background, when compared with the performance from some of the commercially available HgCdTe FPAs. In parallel with the FPA research and development effort, a small amount of funding has been devoted to measuring minority carrier lifetimes and to understanding life-killing defects and mechanisms of superlattice devices. Results of direct time-resolved photoluminescence measurement on superlattice absorbers indicate relatively short lifetimes (on the order of 30 ns) due to Shockley-Read-Hall mechanism. Modeling and curve fitting with diode current-voltage data indicate longer minority carrier lifetimes, although the best fit lifetime values differ greatly, possibly due to the difference in material quality and device structure. Several models or hypotheses have been proposed to explain experimental data. More data are required to validate these models and hypotheses. Further work is also necessary to reconcile the substantially different results from different groups and to truly understand the physics of minority carrier lifetimes, which is necessary to improve the lifetime and realize the theoretical promise of superlattice materials.

  18. Developing high-performance III-V superlattice IRFPAs for defense: challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lucy; Tidrow, Meimei; Aitcheson, Leslie; O'Connor, Jerry; Brown, Steven

    2010-04-01

    The antimonide superlattice infrared detector technology program was established to explore new infrared detector materials and technology. The ultimate goal is to enhance the infrared sensor system capability and meet challenging requirements for many applications. Certain applications require large-format focal plane arrays (FPAs) for a wide field of view. These FPAs must be able to detect infrared signatures at long wavelengths, at low infrared background radiation, and with minimal spatial cross talk. Other applications require medium-format pixel, co-registered, dual-band capability with minimal spectral cross talk. Under the technology program, three leading research groups have focused on device architecture design, high-quality material growth and characterization, detector and detector array processing, hybridization, testing, and modeling. Tremendous progress has been made in the past few years. This is reflected in orders-of-magnitude reduction in detector dark-current density and substantial increase in quantum efficiency, as well as the demonstration of good-quality long-wavelength infrared FPAs. Many technical challenges must be overcome to realize the theoretical promise of superlattice infrared materials. These include further reduction in dark current density, growth of optically thick materials for high quantum efficiency, and elimination of FPA processing-related performance degradation. In addition, challenges in long-term research and development cost, superlattice material availability, FPA chip assembly availability, and industry sustainability are also to be met. A new program was established in 2009 with a scope that is different from the existing technology program. Called Fabrication of Superlattice Infrared FPA (FastFPA), this 4-year program sets its goal to establish U.S. industry capability of producing high-quality superlattice wafers and fabricating advanced FPAs. It uses horizontal integration strategy by leveraging existing III-V industry resources and taking advantage of years of valuable experiences amassed by the HgCdTe FPA industry. By end of the program span, three sets of FPAs will be demonstrated-a small-format long-wave FPA, a large-format long-wave FPA, and a medium-format dual-band FPA at long-wave and mid-wave infrared.

  19. Silicon, germanium, and III-V-based tunneling devices for low-power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joshua T.

    While the scaling of transistor dimensions has kept pace with Moore's Law, the voltages applied to these devices have not scaled in tandem, giving rise to ever-increasing power/heating challenges in state-of-the-art integrated circuits. A primary reason for this scaling mismatch is due to the thermal limit---the 60 mV minimum required at room temperature to change the current through the device by one order of magnitude. This voltage scaling limitation is inherent in devices that rely on the mechanism of thermal emission of charge carriers over a gate-controlled barrier to transition between the ON- and OFF-states, such as in the case of conventional CMOS-based technologies. To overcome this voltage scaling barrier, several steep-slope device concepts have been pursued that have experimentally demonstrated sub-60-mV/decade operation since 2004, including the tunneling-field effect transistor (TFET), impact ionization metal-oxide-semiconductor (IMOS), suspended-gate FET (SG-FET), and ferroelectric FET (Fe-FET). These reports have excited strong efforts within the semiconductor research community toward the realization of a low-power device that will support continued scaling efforts, while alleviating the heating issues prevalent in modern computer chips. Literature is replete with claims of sub-60-mV/decade operation, but often with neglect to other voltage scaling factors that offset this result. Ideally, a low-power device should be able to attain sub-60-mV/decade inverse subthreshold slopes (S) employing low supply and gate voltages with a foreseeable path toward integration. This dissertation describes the experimental development and realization of CMOS-compatible processes to enhance tunneling efficiency in Si and Si/Ge nanowire (NW) TFETs for improved average S (S avg) and ON-currents (ION), and a novel, III-V-based tunneling device alternative is also proposed. After reviewing reported efforts on the TFET, IMOS, and SG-FET, the TFET is highlighted as the most promising low-power device candidate, owing to its potential to operate within small supply and gate voltage windows. In a critical analysis of the TFET, the advantages of 1-D systems, such as NWs, that can potentially access the so-called quantum capacitance limit (QCL) are discussed, and the remaining challenges for TFETs, such as source/channel doping abruptness, and material tradeoffs are considered. To this end, substantial performance improvements, as measured by Savg and ION, are experimentally realized in top-down fabricated Si NW-TFET arrays by systematically varying the annealing process used to enhance doping abruptness at the source/channel junction---a critical feature for maximizing tunneling efficiency. A combination of excimer laser annealing (ELA) and a low-temperature rapid thermal anneal (LT-RTA) are identified as an optimum choice, resulting in a 36% decrease in Savg as well as ˜500% improvement in ION over the conventional RTA approach. Extrapolation of these results with simulation shows that sub-60-mV/decade operation is possible on a Si-based platform for aggressively scaled, yet realistic, NW-TFET devices. Back-gated NW-FET measurements are also presented to assess the material quality of Ge/Si core/shell NW heterostructures with an n+-doped shell, and these NWs are found to be suitable building blocks for the fabrication of more efficient TFET systems, owing to the very abrupt doping profile at the shell/core (source/channel) interface and smaller bandgap/effective mass of the Ge channel. Finally, low current levels in conventional TFETs have recently led researchers to re-examine III-V heterostructures, particularly those with a broken-gap band alignment to allow a tunneling probability near unity. Along these lines, a novel tunnel-based alternative is presented---the broken-gap tunnel MOS---that enables a constant S < 60 mV/decade. The proposed device permits the use of 2-D device architectures without degradation of S given the source-controlled operation mechanism, while simultaneously avoiding undesirable nonlinearities in the output characteristics.

  20. Low-frequency noise sources in III-V semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeng, Susie

    III-V semiconductor heterostructures have widespread interest in both electrical and optical applications. Their figure-of-merit low-frequency noise level directly sets the limits of the performance of devices and indirectly serves as the indicator of material properties and device reliability. In particular, generation-recombination noise signals in the low-frequency noise range directly indicate the dominant traps that impact device operation. In this dissertation, low-frequency noise source investigations of GaAs/buffer and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures in the applications of microwave power amplifiers will be presented. For GaAs/buffer heterostructures, low-frequency noise characteristics of GaAs-On-Insulator metal-semiconductor field effect transistors, for which the insulating buffer layer was produced by lateral wet-oxidation of AlAs, are studied. Devices with different gate widths were fabricated resulting in different over-oxidation times for the AlAs layer. Three characteristic generation-recombination noise signatures are observed depending on the measurement temperature and the gate bias. A generation-recombination noise signature with energy level at Ec-0.69 eV is found to increase with the amount of over-oxidation time. This near mid-gap trap shows an increase in concentration towards the oxide interface, and it is tentatively assigned to an arsenic-antisite related defect known from previous studies as EB4. A possible mechanism for the formation and the microscopic origin of this defect are discussed. 1/f interface noise model is applied to analyze the GaAs/buffer interfacial quality. The effective interface state density was found to be as high as 1015 cm-2 and increase with additional over-oxidation. A correlation between the amount of over-oxidation and the number of calculated interface states is observed. For AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures, low-frequency noise characteristics of AlxGa1-xN/GaN HEMTs with Al composition of 28--35% in the barrier layer are studied. A generation-recombination noise signature is attributed to a trap in AlxGa1-x N barrier layer which increases in concentration towards the Al xGa1-xN/GaN interface. The origin and the location of low-frequency noise were differentiated by the drain current dependent measurement. When the long-channel device is operated with an open channel (e.g. VG = 0), the main noise source resides in the gated channel instead of in the ungated region. Hooge's parameter of the gated channel (alpha ˜ 10-4) is found to be independent of the Al composition but dependent on the AlxGa1-x N barrier thickness. This is proposed to correspond to the onset of barrier relaxation. Even though the AlxGa1-xN/GaN HEMT exhibits a low level of gate leakage current (<1% of drain current), the low-frequency noise is still heavily influenced by the gate leakage current at certain bias conditions. The effect of gate leakage current on the low-frequency noise properties is discussed. The surface leakage path appeared to dominate the low-frequency noise properties for devices operated at a high IG/ID ratio.

  1. Metabolomic and proteomic biomarkers for III-V semiconductors: Chemical-specific porphyrinurias and proteinurias

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Bruce A. . E-mail: bxf9@cdc.gov; Conner, Elizabeth A.; Yamauchi, Hiroshi

    2005-08-07

    A pressing need exists to develop and validate molecular biomarkers to assess the early effects of chemical agents, both individually and in mixtures. This is particularly true for new and chemically intensive industries such as the semiconductor industry. Previous studies from this laboratory and others have demonstrated element-specific alterations of the heme biosynthetic pathway for the III-V semiconductors gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium arsenide (InAs) with attendant increased urinary excretion of specific heme precursors. These data represent an example of a metabolomic biomarker to assess chemical effects early, before clinical disease develops. Previous studies have demonstrated that the intratracheal or subcutaneous administration of GaAs and InAs particles to hamsters produces the induction of the major stress protein gene families in renal proximal tubule cells. This was monitored by 35-S methionine labeling of gene products followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis after exposure to InAs particles. The present studies examined whether these effects were associated with the development of compound-specific proteinuria after 10 or 30 days following subcutaneous injection of GaAs or InAs particles in hamsters. The results of these studies demonstrated the development of GaAs- and InAs-specific alterations in renal tubule cell protein expression patterns that varied at 10 and 30 days. At the 30-day point, cells in hamsters that received InAs particles showed marked attenuation of protein expression, suggesting inhibition of the stress protein response. These changes were associated with GaAs and InAs proteinuria patterns as monitored by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The intensity of the protein excretion patterns increased between the 10- and 30-day points and was most pronounced for animals in the 30-day InAs treatment group. No overt morphologic signs of cell death were seen in renal tubule cells of these animals. Western blot analyses of the urines with antibodies to the 32-, 70-, and 90-kDa stress protein families did not show the presence of these molecules, indicating that these proteins were not excreted in the urine samples. These data suggest that the observed proteinuria patterns were not a result of cell death and that the observed chemical-specific proteinurias were produced before marked cellular toxicity. These findings suggest a hypothesis involving GaAs and InAs interference with stress protein chaperoning of reabsorbed proteins for proteosomic degradation and the probable chaperoning of damaged intracellular proteins from renal proximal tubule cells into the urinary filtrate. Overall, the results of these studies provide further information on the nephrotoxicity of these semiconductor compounds. They also suggest the use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with silver staining of urinary protein patterns as a potentially useful proteomic approach to renal damage early in relation to intracellular proteotoxicity in kidney tubule cells.

  2. Ellipsometric study of metal-organic chemically vapor deposited III-V semiconductor structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Sekula-Moise, Patricia A.; Sieg, Robert M.; Drotos, Mark N.; Bogner, Nancy A.

    1992-01-01

    An ellipsometric study of MOCVD-grown layers of AlGaAs and InGaAs in thick films and strained layer complex structures is presented. It is concluded that the ternary composition of thick nonstrained layers can be accurately determined to within experimental errors using numerical algorithms. In the case of complex structures, thickness of all layers and the alloy composition of nonstrained layers can be determined simultaneously, provided that the correlations between parameters is no higher than 0.9.

  3. Optimized III-V Multijunction Concentrator Solar Cells on Patterned Si and Ge Substrates: Final Technical Report, 15 September 2004--30 September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ringel, S. A.

    2008-11-01

    Goal is to demo realistic path to III-V multijunction concentrator efficiencies > 40% by substrate-engineering combining compositional grading with patterned epitaxy for small-area cells for high concentration.

  4. InAsSbBi, a direct band-gap, III-V, LWIR material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, G. B.; Jones, Colin E.; Frodsham, John

    1990-01-01

    In the last several years Dr. Stringfellow's group at the University of Utah has reported success in incorporating over 3 percent Bi in InAs and 1.5 percent in InAsSb using Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE) growth techniques. For InAs the lattice constant increase is linear with a=6.058+0.966x (InAs(1-x)Bi(x)), and a decrease in band gap energy of dEg / dx = -55meV / at a percentage Bi. Extrapolating this to the ternary minimum band gap at InAs(0.35)Sb(0.65), an addition of 1 to 2 percent Bi should drop the band gap to the 0.1 to 0.05eV range (10 to 20 microns). These alloys are direct band gap semiconductors making them candidates for far IR detectors. The current status of the InAsSbBi alloys is that good crystal morphology and x ray diffraction data has been obtained for up to 3.4 percent Bi. The Bi is metastable at these concentrations but the OMVPE grown material has been able to withstand the 400 C growth temperature for several hours without phase separation.

  5. III-V-N materials for super high-efficiency multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Bouzazi, Boussairi; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Kazuma; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio

    2012-10-06

    We have been studying concentrator multi-junction solar cells under Japanese Innovative Photovoltaic R and D program since FY2008. InGaAsN is one of appropriate materials for 4-or 5-junction solar cell configuration because this material can be lattice-matched to GaAs and Ge substrates. However, present InGaAsN single-junction solar cells have been inefficient because of low minority-carrier lifetime due to N-related recombination centers and low carrier mobility due to alloy scattering and non-homogeneity of N. This paper presents our major results in the understanding of majority and minority carrier traps in GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy and their relationships with the poor electrical properties of the materials.

  6. DX centers in III-V semiconductors under hydrostatic pressure. [GaAs:Si; InP:S

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    DX centers are deep level defects found in some III-V semiconductors. They have persistent photoconductivity and large difference between thermal and optical ionization energies. Hydrostatic pressure was used to study microstructure of these defects. A new local vibrational mode (LVM) was observed in hydrostatically stressed, Si-doped GaAs. Corresponding infrared absorption peak is distinct from the Si[sub Ga] shallow donor LVM peak, which is the only other LVM peak observed in our samples, and is assigned to the Si DX center. Analysis of the relative intensities of the Si DX LVM and the Si shallow donor LVM peaks, combined with Hall effect and resistivity indicate that the Si DX center is negatively charged. Frequency of this new mode provides clues to the structure of this defect. A pressure induced deep donor level in S-doped InP was also discovered which has the properties of a DX center. Pressure at which the new defect becomes more stable than the shallow donor is 82 kbar. Optical ionization energy and energy dependence of the optical absorption cross section was measured for this new effect. Capture barrier from the conduction band into the DX state were also determined. That DX centers can be formed in InP by pressure suggests that DX states should be common in n-type III-V semiconductors. A method is suggested for predicting under what conditions these defects will be the most stable form of the donor impurity.

  7. A direct thin-film path towards low-cost large-area III-V photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Rehan; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Hsin-Hua H; Zheng, Maxwell; Battaglia, Corsin; Hettick, Mark; Kiriya, Daisuke; Takei, Kuniharu; Lobaccaro, Peter; Beeman, Jeffrey W; Ager, Joel W; Maboudian, Roya; Chrzan, Daryl C; Javey, Ali

    2013-01-01

    III-V photovoltaics (PVs) have demonstrated the highest power conversion efficiencies for both single- and multi-junction cells. However, expensive epitaxial growth substrates, low precursor utilization rates, long growth times, and large equipment investments restrict applications to concentrated and space photovoltaics (PVs). Here, we demonstrate the first vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of high-quality III-V thin-films on metal foils as a promising platform for large-area terrestrial PVs overcoming the above obstacles. We demonstrate 1-3??m thick InP thin-films on Mo foils with ultra-large grain size up to 100??m, which is ~100 times larger than those obtained by conventional growth processes. The films exhibit electron mobilities as high as 500?cm²/V-s and minority carrier lifetimes as long as 2.5?ns. Furthermore, under 1-sun equivalent illumination, photoluminescence efficiency measurements indicate that an open circuit voltage of up to 930?mV can be achieved, only 40?mV lower than measured on a single crystal reference wafer. PMID:23881474

  8. Towards large size substrates for III-V co-integration made by direct wafer bonding on Si

    SciTech Connect

    Daix, N. Uccelli, E.; Czornomaz, L.; Caimi, D.; Rossel, C.; Sousa, M.; Siegwart, H.; Marchiori, C.; Fompeyrine, J.; Hartmann, J. M.; Shiu, K.-T.; Cheng, C.-W.; Krishnan, M.; Lofaro, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sadana, D.

    2014-08-01

    We report the first demonstration of 200 mm InGaAs-on-insulator (InGaAs-o-I) fabricated by the direct wafer bonding technique with a donor wafer made of III-V heteroepitaxial structure grown on 200 mm silicon wafer. The measured threading dislocation density of the In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (InGaAs) active layer is equal to 3.5 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup ?2}, and it does not degrade after the bonding and the layer transfer steps. The surface roughness of the InGaAs layer can be improved by chemical-mechanical-polishing step, reaching values as low as 0.4 nm root-mean-square. The electron Hall mobility in 450 nm thick InGaAs-o-I layer reaches values of up to 6000 cm{sup 2}/Vs, and working pseudo-MOS transistors are demonstrated with an extracted electron mobility in the range of 2000–3000 cm{sup 2}/Vs. Finally, the fabrication of an InGaAs-o-I substrate with the active layer as thin as 90 nm is achieved with a Buried Oxide of 50 nm. These results open the way to very large scale production of III-V-o-I advanced substrates for future CMOS technology nodes.

  9. Novel hybrid III-V/II-VI mid-infrared laser structures with high asymmetric band offset confinements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Yury P.; Ivanov, Sergey V.; Moiseev, Konstantin D.; Monakhov, Andrei M.; Solov'ev, Victor A.; Sedova, Irina V.; Terent'ev, Yakov V.; Toropov, Alexei A.; Mikhailova, Maya P.; Meltzer, Boris Y.; Kop'ev, Petr S.

    2002-05-01

    We present a novel hybrid laser structure based on III-V and II-VI compounds combining some advantages of type I and type II heterojunctions in one heterostructure. Such design allows the achievement of large energy offsets at the interface in the conduction and the valence band exceeding of 1.0 eV in order to provide good electron and hole confinement. P-AlAsSb/n-InAs/N-Cd(Mg)Se laser heterostructures were grown on p-InAs substrates by original technology of MBE method in two separate growth chambers consequently. Photoluminescence spectra included tow emission bands at hv=0.41 eV and hv=2.08 eV associated with InAs and CdMgSe bulk recombination transitions, respectively. Intense electroluminescence was observed at (lambda) =2.73micrometers (77K) and (lambda) =3.12micrometers (300K). Weak temperature dependence of spontaneous emission indicated the effective carrier confinement in the InAs layer due to large potential barriers ((Delta) sEc=1.28eV and (Delta) EV=1.68eV). Proposed hybrid III-V/II-VI heterostructure is very promising for creation the mid-infrared lasers with improved performances operating in the spectral range of 3- 5micrometers .

  10. Generation of substrate-free III-V nanodisks from user-defined multilayer nanopillar arrays for integration on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naureen, S.; Shahid, N.; Dev, A.; Anand, S.

    2013-06-01

    High material quality InP-based multilayer nanopillar (NP) arrays are fabricated using a combination of self-assembly of silica particles for mask generation and dry etching. In particular, the NP arrays are made from user-defined epitaxial multilayer stacks with specific materials and layer thicknesses. An additional degree of flexibility in the structures is obtained by changing the lateral diameters of the NP multilayer stacks. Pre-defined NP arrays made from InGaAsP/InP and InGaAs/InP NPs are then used to generate substrate-free nanodisks of a chosen material from the stack by selective etching. A soft-stamping method is demonstrated to transfer the generated nanodisks with arbitrary densities onto Si. The transferred nanodisks retain their smooth surface morphologies and their designed geometrical dimensions. Both InP and InGaAsP nanodisks display excellent photoluminescence properties, with line-widths comparable to unprocessed reference epitaxial layers of similar composition. The multilayer NP arrays are potentially attractive for broad-band absorption in third-generation solar cells. The high optical quality, substrate-free InP and InGaAsP nanodisks on Si offer a new path to explore alternative ways to integrate III-V on Si by bonding nanodisks to Si. The method also has the advantage of re-usable III-V substrates for subsequent layer growth.

  11. A direct thin-film path towards low-cost large-area III-V photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Rehan; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Hsin-Hua H.; Zheng, Maxwell; Battaglia, Corsin; Hettick, Mark; Kiriya, Daisuke; Takei, Kuniharu; Lobaccaro, Peter; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Ager, Joel W.; Maboudian, Roya; Chrzan, Daryl C.; Javey, Ali

    2013-07-01

    III-V photovoltaics (PVs) have demonstrated the highest power conversion efficiencies for both single- and multi-junction cells. However, expensive epitaxial growth substrates, low precursor utilization rates, long growth times, and large equipment investments restrict applications to concentrated and space photovoltaics (PVs). Here, we demonstrate the first vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of high-quality III-V thin-films on metal foils as a promising platform for large-area terrestrial PVs overcoming the above obstacles. We demonstrate 1-3 μm thick InP thin-films on Mo foils with ultra-large grain size up to 100 μm, which is ~100 times larger than those obtained by conventional growth processes. The films exhibit electron mobilities as high as 500 cm2/V-s and minority carrier lifetimes as long as 2.5 ns. Furthermore, under 1-sun equivalent illumination, photoluminescence efficiency measurements indicate that an open circuit voltage of up to 930 mV can be achieved, only 40 mV lower than measured on a single crystal reference wafer.

  12. High-coherence semiconductor lasers based on integral high-Q resonators in hybrid Si/III-V platforms.

    PubMed

    Santis, Christos Theodoros; Steger, Scott T; Vilenchik, Yaakov; Vasilyev, Arseny; Yariv, Amnon

    2014-02-25

    The semiconductor laser (SCL) is the principal light source powering the worldwide optical fiber network. The ever-increasing demand for data is causing the network to migrate to phase-coherent modulation formats, which place strict requirements on the temporal coherence of the light source that no longer can be met by current SCLs. This failure can be traced directly to the canonical laser design, in which photons are both generated and stored in the same, optically lossy, III-V material. This leads to an excessive and large amount of noisy spontaneous emission commingling with the laser mode, thereby degrading its coherence. High losses also decrease the amount of stored optical energy in the laser cavity, magnifying the effect of each individual spontaneous emission event on the phase of the laser field. Here, we propose a new design paradigm for the SCL. The keys to this paradigm are the deliberate removal of stored optical energy from the lossy III-V material by concentrating it in a passive, low-loss material and the incorporation of a very high-Q resonator as an integral (i.e., not externally coupled) part of the laser cavity. We demonstrate an SCL with a spectral linewidth of 18 kHz in the telecom band around 1.55 ?m, achieved using a single-mode silicon resonator with Q of 10(6). PMID:24516134

  13. Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III-V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, H.; Borg, M.; Moselund, K.; Gignac, L.; Breslin, C. M.; Bruley, J.; Cutaia, D.; Riel, H.

    2015-06-01

    III-V nanoscale devices were monolithically integrated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates by template-assisted selective epitaxy (TASE) using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Single crystal III-V (InAs, InGaAs, GaAs) nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanostructures containing constrictions, and cross junctions, as well as 3D stacked nanowires were directly obtained by epitaxial filling of lithographically defined oxide templates. The benefit of TASE is exemplified by the straightforward fabrication of nanoscale Hall structures as well as multiple gate field effect transistors (MuG-FETs) grown co-planar to the SOI layer. Hall measurements on InAs nanowire cross junctions revealed an electron mobility of 5400 cm2/V s, while the alongside fabricated InAs MuG-FETs with ten 55 nm wide, 23 nm thick, and 390 nm long channels exhibit an on current of 660 ?A/?m and a peak transconductance of 1.0 mS/?m at VDS = 0.5 V. These results demonstrate TASE as a promising fabrication approach for heterogeneous material integration on Si.

  14. Inter-band optoelectronic properties in quantum dot structure of low band gap III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Anup; Maiti, Biswajit; Chanda, Debasree

    2014-04-14

    A generalized theory is developed to study inter-band optical absorption coefficient (IOAC) and material gain (MG) in quantum dot structures of narrow gap III-V compound semiconductor considering the wave-vector (k{sup ?}) dependence of the optical transition matrix element. The band structures of these low band gap semiconducting materials with sufficiently separated split-off valance band are frequently described by the three energy band model of Kane. This has been adopted for analysis of the IOAC and MG taking InAs, InSb, Hg{sub 1?x}Cd{sub x}Te, and In{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1?y} lattice matched to InP, as example of III–V compound semiconductors, having varied split-off energy band compared to their bulk band gap energy. It has been found that magnitude of the IOAC for quantum dots increases with increasing incident photon energy and the lines of absorption are more closely spaced in the three band model of Kane than those with parabolic energy band approximations reflecting the direct the influence of energy band parameters. The results show a significant deviation to the MG spectrum of narrow-gap materials having band nonparabolicity compared to the parabolic band model approximations. The results reflect the important role of valence band split-off energies in these narrow gap semiconductors.

  15. High-coherence semiconductor lasers based on integral high-Q resonators in hybrid Si/III-V platforms

    PubMed Central

    Santis, Christos Theodoros; Steger, Scott T.; Vilenchik, Yaakov; Vasilyev, Arseny; Yariv, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The semiconductor laser (SCL) is the principal light source powering the worldwide optical fiber network. The ever-increasing demand for data is causing the network to migrate to phase-coherent modulation formats, which place strict requirements on the temporal coherence of the light source that no longer can be met by current SCLs. This failure can be traced directly to the canonical laser design, in which photons are both generated and stored in the same, optically lossy, III-V material. This leads to an excessive and large amount of noisy spontaneous emission commingling with the laser mode, thereby degrading its coherence. High losses also decrease the amount of stored optical energy in the laser cavity, magnifying the effect of each individual spontaneous emission event on the phase of the laser field. Here, we propose a new design paradigm for the SCL. The keys to this paradigm are the deliberate removal of stored optical energy from the lossy III-V material by concentrating it in a passive, low-loss material and the incorporation of a very high-Q resonator as an integral (i.e., not externally coupled) part of the laser cavity. We demonstrate an SCL with a spectral linewidth of 18 kHz in the telecom band around 1.55 ?m, achieved using a single-mode silicon resonator with Q of 106. PMID:24516134

  16. A direct thin-film path towards low-cost large-area III-V photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Rehan; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Hsin-Hua H.; Zheng, Maxwell; Battaglia, Corsin; Hettick, Mark; Kiriya, Daisuke; Takei, Kuniharu; Lobaccaro, Peter; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Ager, Joel W.; Maboudian, Roya; Chrzan, Daryl C.; Javey, Ali

    2013-01-01

    III-V photovoltaics (PVs) have demonstrated the highest power conversion efficiencies for both single- and multi-junction cells. However, expensive epitaxial growth substrates, low precursor utilization rates, long growth times, and large equipment investments restrict applications to concentrated and space photovoltaics (PVs). Here, we demonstrate the first vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of high-quality III-V thin-films on metal foils as a promising platform for large-area terrestrial PVs overcoming the above obstacles. We demonstrate 1–3 μm thick InP thin-films on Mo foils with ultra-large grain size up to 100 μm, which is ~100 times larger than those obtained by conventional growth processes. The films exhibit electron mobilities as high as 500 cm2/V-s and minority carrier lifetimes as long as 2.5 ns. Furthermore, under 1-sun equivalent illumination, photoluminescence efficiency measurements indicate that an open circuit voltage of up to 930 mV can be achieved, only 40 mV lower than measured on a single crystal reference wafer. PMID:23881474

  17. Monte Carlo model for the analysis and development of III-V Tunnel-FETs and Impact Ionization-MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbo, V.; Mateos, J.; González, T.; Lechaux, Y.; Wichmann, N.; Bollaert, S.; Vasallo, B. G.

    2015-10-01

    Impact-ionization metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs (I-MOSFETs) are in competition with tunnel FETs (TFETs) in order to achieve the best behaviour for low power logic circuits. Concretely, III-V I-MOSFETs are being explored as promising devices due to the proper reliability, since the impact ionization events happen away from the gate oxide, and the high cutoff frequency, due to high electron mobility. To facilitate the design process from the physical point of view, a Monte Carlo (MC) model which includes both impact ionization and band-to-band tunnel is presented. Two ungated InGaAs and InAlAs/InGaAs 100 nm PIN diodes have been simulated. In both devices, the tunnel processes are more frequent than impact ionizations, so that they are found to be appropriate for TFET structures and not for I- MOSFETs. According to our simulations, other narrow bandgap candidates for the III-V heterostructure, such as InAs or GaSb, and/or PININ structures must be considered for a correct I-MOSFET design.

  18. Material growth and characterization directed toward improving III-V heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanakos, E. K.; Alexander, W. E.; Collis, W.; Abul-Fadl, A.

    1979-01-01

    In addition to the existing materials growth laboratory, the photolithographic facility and the device testing facility were completed. The majority of equipment for data acquisition, solar cell testing, materials growth and device characterization were received and are being put into operation. In the research part of the program, GaAs and GaA1As layers were grown reproducibly on GaAs substrates. These grown layers were characterized as to surface morphology, thickness and thickness uniformity. The liquid phase epitaxial growth process was used to fabricate p-n junctions in Ga(1-x)A1(x)As. Sequential deposition of two alloy layers was accomplished and detailed analysis of the effect of substrate quality and dopant on the GaA1As layer quality is presented. Finally, solar cell structures were formed by growing a thin p-GaA1As layer upon an epitaxial n-GaA1As layer. The energy gap corresponding to the long wavelength cutoff of the spectral response characteristic was 1.51-1.63 eV. Theoretical calculations of the spectral response were matched to the measured response.

  19. Toward the Development of Group III-V Photodetectors and Imaging Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickenden, Dennis K.

    2003-01-01

    A collaboration between researchers at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) (Code 718.1) and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) on the development of gallium nitride (GaN) based photodetectors has been in existence since July 1994. This collaboration, based on APL undertaking the material growth and GSFC undertaking the device processing, has led to discrete GaN photoconductive detectors with superior characteristics to those of similar devices reported in the literature and, more recently, to the development of state-of-the art 256x256 imaging arrays with the pixels indium bump-bonded to a silicon readout circuit (RIOC). The object of this proposal is to continue the collaboration for the period 1998-2002 by outlining a program of work at the APL on the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of GaN and related materials for UV detector applications. In particular, emphasis will be placed on the optimization of growth on 2 in diameter substrates, on the growth of In(sub x)Ga(1-x)N and Al(sub x)Ga(1-x)N alloy structures to produce devices with a wider range of tailored cut-off wavelengths, and on the growth of pn-junction structures for photovoltaic devices.

  20. Nucleation, Growth, and Strain Relaxation of Lattice-Mismatched III-V Semiconductor Epitaxial Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welser, R. E.; Guido, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the early stages of evolution of highly strained 2-D InAs layers and 3-D InAs islands grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on (100) and (111) B GaAs substrates. The InAs epilayer / GaAs substrate combination has been chosen because the lattice-mismatch is severe (approx. 7.20%), yet these materials are otherwise very similar. By examining InAs-on-GaAs composites Instead of the more common In(x)Ga(1-x)As alloy, we remove an additional degree of freedom (x) and thereby simplify data interpretation. A matrix of experiments is described in which the MOCVD growth parameters -- susceptor temperature, TMIn flux, and AsH3 flux -- have been varied over a wide range. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis have been employed to observe the thin film surface morphology. In the case of 3-D growth, we have extracted activation energies and power-dependent exponents that characterize the nucleation process. As a consequence, optimized growth conditions have been identified for depositing approx. 250 A thick (100) and (111)B oriented InAs layers with relatively smooth surfaces. Together with preliminary data on the strain relaxation of these layers, the above results on the evolution of thin InAs films indicate that the (111)B orientation is particularly promising for yielding lattice-mismatched films that are fully relaxed with only misfit dislocations at the epilayer / substrate interface.

  1. High-performance III-V MOSFET with nano-stacked high-k gate dielectric and 3D fin-shaped structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Hung; Liao, Wen-Shiang; Yang, Hsin-Chia; Wang, Shea-Jue; Liaw, Yue-Gie; Wang, Hao; Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Mu-Chun

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) fin-shaped field-effect transistor structure based on III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) fabrication has been demonstrated using a submicron GaAs fin as the high-mobility channel. The fin-shaped channel has a thickness-to-width ratio (TFin/WFin) equal to 1. The nano-stacked high-k Al2O3 dielectric was adopted as a gate insulator in forming a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure to suppress gate leakage. The 3D III-V MOSFET exhibits outstanding gate controllability and shows a high Ion/Ioff ratio?>?105 and a low subthreshold swing of 80 mV/decade. Compared to a conventional Schottky gate metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor or planar III-V MOSFETs, the III-V MOSFET in this work exhibits a significant performance improvement and is promising for future development of high-performance n-channel devices based on III-V materials. PMID:22853458

  2. Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si single mode lasers based on a MMI-ring configuration and triplet-ring reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyvaninia, S.; Verstuyft, S.; Lelarge, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Messaoudene, S.; Fédéli, J. M.; Geluk, E. J.; De Vries, T.; Smalbrugge, B.; Bolk, J.; Smit, M.; Van Thourhout, D.; Roelkens, G.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we show that using a DVS-BCB adhesive bonding process compact heterogeneously integrated III-V/silicon single mode lasers can be realized. Two new designs were implemented: in a first design a multimode interferometer coupler (MMI) - ring resonator combination is used to provide a comb-like reflection spectrum, while in a second design a triplet-ring reflector design is used to obtain the same. A broadband silicon Bragg grating reflector is implemented on the other side of the cavity. The III-V optical amplifier is heterogeneously integrated on the 400nm thick silicon waveguide layer, which is compatible with high-performance modulator designs and allows for efficient coupling to a standard 220nm high index contrast silicon waveguide layer. In order to make the optical coupling efficient, both the III-V waveguide and the silicon waveguide are tapered, with a tip width of the III-V waveguide of around 500nm. The III-V thin film optical amplifier is implemented as a 3?m wide mesa etched through to the n-type InP contact layer. In this particular device implementation the amplifier section was 500?m long. mW-level waveguide coupled output power at 20°C and a side mode suppression ratio of more than 40dB is obtained.

  3. Iii-V Compound Multiple Quantum Well Based Modulator and Switching Devices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Songcheol

    A general formalism to study the absorption and photocurrent in multiple quantum well is provided with detailed consideration of quantum confined Stark shift, exciton binding energy, line broadening, tunneling, polarization, and strain effects. Results on variation of exciton size, binding energies and transition energies as a function electric field and well size have been presented. Inhomogeneous line broadening of exciton lines due to interface roughness, alloy disorder and well to well size fluctuation is calculated. The potential of material tailoring by introducing strain for specific optical response is discussed. Theoretical and experimental results on excitonic and band-to-band absorption spectra in strained multi-quantum well structures are shown. I also report on polarization dependent optical absorption for excitonic and interband transitions in lattice matched and strained multiquantum well structures in presence of transverse electric field. Photocurrent in a p-i(MQW)-n diode with monochromatic light is examined with respect to different temperatures and intensities. The negative resistance of I-V characteristic of the p-i-n diode is based on the quantum confined Stark effect of the heavy hole excitonic transition in a multiquantum well. This exciton based photocurrent characteristic allows efficient switching. A general purpose low power optical logic device using the controller-modulator concept bas been proposed and realized. The controller is a heterojunction phototransistor with multiquantum wells in the base-collector depletion region. This allows an amplified photocurrent controlled voltage feedback with low light intensity levels. Detailed analysis of the sensitivity of this device in various modes of operation is studied. Studies are also presented on the cascadability of the device as well as its integrating -thresholding properties. A multiquantum well heterojunction bipolar transistor (MHBT), which has N^+ -p^+-i(MQW)-N structure has been fabricated to test the concept. Gain (>30) is obtained in the MBE grown devices and efficient switching occurs due to the amplification of the exciton based photocurrent. The level shift operation of the base contacted MHBT are demonstrated.

  4. Multi-Band and Broad-Band Infrared Detectors Based on III-V Materials for Spectral Imaging Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandara, S. V.; Gunapala, S. D.; Liu, J. K.; Rafol, S. B.; Hill, C. J.; Ting, D. Z.; Mumolo, J. M.; Trinh, T. Q.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum well infrared photodetector technology has shown remarkable success by realizing large-format focal plane arrays in both broad-bands and in multi-bands. The spectral response of these detectors based on the III-V material system are tailorable within the mid and long wavelength IR bands (similar to 3-25 mu m) and possibly beyond. Multi-band and broad-band detector arrays have been developed by vertically integrating stacks of multi quantum wells tailored for response in different wavelengths bands. Each detector stack absorbs photons within the specified wavelength band while allowing the transmission other photons, thus efficiently permitting multiband detection. Flexibility in many design parameters of these detectors allows for tuning and tailoring the spectral shape according to application requirements, specifically for spectral imaging instruments.

  5. Monolithic in-based III-V compound semiconductor focal plane array cell with single stage CCD output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Krabach, Timothy N. (Inventor); Staller, Craig O. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A monolithic semiconductor imager includes an indium-based III-V compound semiconductor monolithic active layer of a first conductivity type, an array of plural focal plane cells on the active layer, each of the focal plane cells including a photogate over a top surface of the active layer, a readout circuit dedicated to the focal plane cell including plural transistors formed monolithically with the monolithic active layer and a single-stage charge coupled device formed monolithically with the active layer between the photogate and the readout circuit for transferring photo-generated charge accumulated beneath the photogate during an integration period to the readout circuit. The photogate includes thin epitaxial semiconductor layer of a second conductivity type overlying the active layer and an aperture electrode overlying a peripheral portion of the thin epitaxial semiconductor layer, the aperture electrode being connectable to a photogate bias voltage.

  6. Effects of proton irradiation on luminescence and carrier dynamics of self-assembled III-V quatum dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R.; Marcinkevicius, S.; Siegert, J.; Magness, B.; Taylor, W.; Lobo, C.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of proton irradiation (1.5 MeV) on photoluminescence intensities and carrier dynamics were compared between III-V quantum dots and similar quantum well structures. A significant enhancement in radiation tolerance is seen with three-dimensional quantum confinement. Measurements were carried out in different quantum dot (QD) structures, varying in material (InGaAs/GaAs and InAlAs/AlGaAs), QD surface density (4x10^8 to 3x10'^10 cm^-2), and substrate orientation [(100) and (311) B]. Similar trends were observed for all QD samples. A slight increase in PL emission after low to intermediate proton doses, are also observed in InGaAs/GaAs (100) QD structures. The latter is explained in terms of more efficient carrier transfer from the wetting layer via radiation-induced defects.

  7. Comprehensive comparison and experimental validation of band-structure calculation methods in III-V semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerveas, George; Caruso, Enrico; Baccarani, Giorgio; Czornomaz, Lukas; Daix, Nicolas; Esseni, David; Gnani, Elena; Gnudi, Antonio; Grassi, Roberto; Luisier, Mathieu; Markussen, Troels; Osgnach, Patrik; Palestri, Pierpaolo; Schenk, Andreas; Selmi, Luca; Sousa, Marilyne; Stokbro, Kurt; Visciarelli, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We present and thoroughly compare band-structures computed with density functional theory, tight-binding, k · p and non-parabolic effective mass models. Parameter sets for the non-parabolic Γ, the L and X valleys and intervalley bandgaps are extracted for bulk InAs, GaAs and InGaAs. We then consider quantum-wells with thickness ranging from 3 nm to 10 nm and the bandgap dependence on film thickness is compared with experiments for In0.53Ga0.47 As quantum-wells. The impact of the band-structure on the drain current of nanoscale MOSFETs is simulated with ballistic transport models, the results provide a rigorous assessment of III-V semiconductor band structure calculation methods and calibrated band parameters for device simulations.

  8. Monolithic in-based III-V compound semiconductor focal plane array cell with single stage CCD output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Krabach, Timothy N. (Inventor); Staller, Craig O. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A monolithic semiconductor imager includes an indium-based III-V compound semiconductor monolithic active layer of a first conductivity type, an array of plural focal plane cells on the active layer, each of the focal plane cells including a photogate over a top surface of the active layer, a readout circuit dedicated to the focal plane cell including plural transistors formed monolithically with the monolithic active layer and a single-stage charge coupled device formed monolithically with the active layer between the photogate and the readout circuit for transferring photo-generated charge accumulated beneath the photogate during an integration period to the readout circuit. The photogate includes thin epitaxial semiconductor layer of a second conductivity type overlying the active layer and an aperture electrode overlying a peripheral portion of the thin epitaxial semiconductor layer, the aperture electrode being connectable to a photogate bias voltage.

  9. Molecular beam epitaxy engineered III-V semiconductor structures for low-power optically addressed spatial light modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, Anders G.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Device approaches are investigated for optically addressed SLMs based on molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) engineered III-V materials and structures. Strong photooptic effects can be achieved in periodically delta-doped multiple-quantum-well structures, but are still insufficient for high-contrast modulation with only single- or double-pass absorption through active layers of practical thickness. The asymmetric Fabry-Perot cavity approach is employed to permit extinction of light due to interference of light reflected from the front and back surfaces of the cavity. This approach is realized with an all-MBE-grown structure consisting of GaAs/AlAs quarter-wave stack reflector grown over the GaAs substrate as the high reflectance mirror and the GaAs surface as the low reflectance mirror. High-contrast modulation is achieved using a low-power InGaAs/GaAs quantum well laser for the control signal.

  10. Performance Evaluation of III-V Hetero/Homojunction Esaki Tunnel Diodes on Si and Lattice Matched Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul M.

    Understanding of quantum tunneling phenomenon in semiconductor systems is increasingly important as CMOS replacement technologies are investigated. This work studies a variety of heterojunction materials and types to increase tunnel currents to CMOS competitive levels and to understand how integration onto Si substrates affects performance. Esaki tunnel diodes were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on Si substrates via a graded buffer and control Esaki tunnel diodes grown on lattice matched substrates for this work. Peak current density for each diode is extracted and benchmarked to build an empirical data set for predicting diode performance. Additionally, statistics are used as tool to show peak to valley ratio for the III-V on Si sample and the control perform similarly below a threshold area. This work has applications beyond logic, as multijunction solar cell, heterojunction bipolar transistor, and light emitting diode designs all benefit from better tunnel contact design.

  11. Iii-v semiconductor quantum-well lasers and related opto-electronic devices on silicon. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Holonyak, N.; Hsieh, K.C.; Stillman, G.E.

    1989-12-01

    The research goal is to further develop quantum well heterostructure (QWH) lasers and to realize reliable Al(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs QWH lasers on Si. In spite of the significant lattice and thermal expansion mismatch between GaAs and Si, the idea of splicing III-V semiconductor technology, i.e., optoelectronics and photonics, onto Si has obvious appeal. Adding to this is the fact, as shown earlier in this work, that cw 300 K Al(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs QWH lasers can be grown on Si, and that the Si substrate serves as a better heat sink than GaAs. This makes possible the right-side-up heat sinking needed for electronic-photonic integrated circuits. This report contains research results on quantum well heterostructures on Si, impurity-induced layer disordering, phonon-assisted laser operations and other laser studies.

  12. Removal of Arsenic (III, V) from aqueous solution by nanoscale zero-valent iron stabilized with starch and carboxymethyl cellulose

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, synthetic nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) stabilized with two polymers, Starch and Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were examined and compared for their ability in removing As (III) and As (V) from aqueous solutions as the most promising iron nanoparticles form for arsenic removal. Batch operations were conducted with different process parameters such as contact time, nanoparticles concentration, initial arsenic concentration and pH. Results revealed that starch stabilized particles (S-nZVI) presented an outstanding ability to remove both arsenate and arsenite and displayed ~ 36.5% greater removal for As (V) and 30% for As (III) in comparison with CMC-stabilized nanoparticles (C-nZVI). However, from the particle stabilization viewpoint, there is a clear trade off to choosing the best stabilized nanoparticles form. Removal efficiency was enhanced with increasing the contact time and iron loading but reduced with increasing initial As (III, V) concentrations and pH. Almost complete removal of arsenic (up to 500 μg/L) was achieved in just 5 min when the S-nZVI mass concentration was 0.3 g/L and initial solution pH of 7 ± 0.1. The maximum removal efficiency of both arsenic species was obtained at pH = 5 ± 0.1 and starched nanoparticles was effective in slightly acidic and natural pH values. The adsorption kinetics fitted well with pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption data obeyed the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14 mg/g for arsenic (V), and 12.2 mg/g for arsenic (III). It could be concluded that starch stabilized Fe0 nanoparticles showed remarkable potential for As (III, V) removal from aqueous solution e.g. contaminated water. PMID:24860660

  13. The metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of III-V nitrides for optoelectronic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudowski, Paul Alexander

    Nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes are important for large-area LED displays, flat-panel displays, traffic signals, and optical data storage, due to their characteristic ultraviolet and visible light emission. However, much of the research and development addressing material related problems is recent. The room-temperature continuous wave (CW) operation of nitride-based laser diodes remains a major milestone because the material quality requirements for these devices are extremely high. This study investigates nitride material development by the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and characterization of GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN, and by qualifying these materials with fabricated devices. The ultimate goal was to develop a working laser diode. The nitride epitaxial films were characterized by 300K Hall effect, x-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). GaN grown heteroepitaxially on (0001) sapphire substrates was first optimized. A low-temperature GaN nucleation layer was developed that gave subsequent high-temperature GaN layers with low background carrier concentrations (n < 1×10sp{17}\\ cmsp{-3}). Intentional p-type hole concentrations up to 2× 10sp{18} cmsp{-3} and n-type electron concentrations up to 1× 10sp{19} cmsp{-3} were achieved at 300K with magnesium and silicon, respectively. The ternary alloy Insb{x}Gasb{1-x}N was grown with indium compositions up to x = 0.25. These films exhibited strong and narrow 300K PL bandedge peaks. Multiple-quantum-well structures with Insb{0.13}Gasb{0.87}N wells and Insb{0.03}Gasb{0.97}N barriers were grown and gave enhanced PL intensity compared to single InGaN layers. Modulation-doped MQW's produced enhanced PL intensity compared to uniformly-doped MQW's. 300K photopumping experiments produced stimulated emission from a five-period MQW. Light-emitting device structures comprised of InGaN MQW active regions and p-type and n-type GaN contact layers and AlGaN confinement layers were grown and fabricated. LED's showed bright emission at a wavelength of 400 nm. While optically pumped lasers were demonstrated, no injection lasing action was achieved in these devices. GaN grown by selective area lateral epitaxial overgrowth (SALEO) has reduced dislocation defect density and, therefore, may prove to be a promising substrate for nearly defect-free device structures. Plan-view and cross-sectional CL was used to compare spatial inhomogeneities in the bandedge luminescence.

  14. High-Throughput Multiple Dies-to-Wafer Bonding Technology and III/V-on-Si Hybrid Lasers for Heterogeneous Integration of Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xianshu; Cao, Yulian; Song, Junfeng; Hu, Xiaonan; Cheng, Yungbing; Li, Chengming; Liu, Chongyang; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Yu, Mingbin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Qijie; Lo, Patrick Guo-Qiang

    2015-04-01

    Integrated optical light source on silicon is one of the key building blocks for optical interconnect technology. Great research efforts have been devoting worldwide to explore various approaches to integrate optical light source onto the silicon substrate. The achievements so far include the successful demonstration of III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers through III/V-gain material to silicon wafer bonding technology. However, for potential large-scale integration, leveraging on mature silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication technology and infrastructure, more effective bonding scheme with high bonding yield is in great demand considering manufacturing needs. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a high-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer (D2W) bonding technology which is then applied for the demonstration of hybrid silicon lasers. By temporarily bonding III/V dies to a handle silicon wafer for simultaneous batch processing, it is expected to bond unlimited III/V dies to silicon device wafer with high yield. As proof-of-concept, more than 100 III/V dies bonding to 200 mm silicon wafer is demonstrated. The high performance of the bonding interface is examined with various characterization techniques. Repeatable demonstrations of 16-III/V-die bonding to pre-patterned 200 mm silicon wafers have been performed for various hybrid silicon lasers, in which device library including Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, lateral-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) laser with side wall grating, and mode-locked laser (MLL). From these results, the presented multiple D2W bonding technology can be a key enabler towards the large-scale heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits (H-OEIC).

  15. Solid-State Precursor Routes to Iii-V Type Electronic (13-15) and Magnetic (3-15) Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treece, Randolph Edward

    An interest in electronic materials has led me to investigate new synthetic approaches to "III-V" type semiconducting (13-15, current IUPAC designation for B and N groups in the Periodic Table) and magnetic (3-15) compounds. It is now possible to prepare binary (GaAs and GdP) and ternary mixed-metal (Al_ {x}Ga_{1-x}As) and mixed -pnictide (rm GaP_{x}As_ {1-x}) compounds in seconds from rapid, low-temperature-initiated metathesis reactions between a metal (III) trihalide and a trisodium pnictide, exemplified by MX_3 + Na_3Pn to MPn + 3 NaX, where M is Al, Ga, In, (Al,Ga), or a lanthanide; X is F, Cl, or I; and Pn is P, As, Sb, or (P,As). The precursors are mixed together in a dry box and ignited by light grinding with a mortar and pestle, or by brief, local heating from a hot filament. These reactions are very exothermic (calculated Delta H_{rxn} (GaAs) = -138 kcal/mol) and typically reach temperatures in excess of 700^circ C within seconds of initiation, and cool to room temperature in less than 15 seconds. The byproduct sodium halide is simply removed by washing with water or methanol, leaving the polycrystalline "III-V" products. In spite of the brief and explosive nature of these reactions, there are some clues as to the initiation and reaction processes. The initial steps in the reactions appear to be the decomposition of the precursors and the formation of the sodium halides. Since initiation occurs when one of the precursors goes through a phase change, such as melting or decomposing, the melting points of the GaX_3 precursors are good indicators of how easily the reactions can be initiated. Physical methods have been employed to characterize the bulk products. The 13-15 materials have been investigated using MAS-NMR spectroscopy. The 3-15 compounds have been extensively studied using magnetometry, and the effectiveness of the metathesis processes was examined by comparing the ignition reaction products to those generated by direct combination of the elements at elevated temperatures. Both the 3-15 and 13-15 materials have been examined by SEM and EDS techniques.

  16. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and ventilation tubing shall be approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7, or shall bear a BC or...

  17. Ion beam nanopatterning of III-V semiconductors: consistency of experimental and simulation trends within a chemistry-driven theory.

    PubMed

    El-Atwani, O; Norris, S A; Ludwig, K; Gonderman, S; Allain, J P

    2015-01-01

    Several proposed mechanisms and theoretical models exist concerning nanostructure evolution on III-V semiconductors (particularly GaSb) via ion beam irradiation. However, making quantitative contact between experiment on the one hand and model-parameter dependent predictions from different theories on the other is usually difficult. In this study, we take a different approach and provide an experimental investigation with a range of targets (GaSb, GaAs, GaP) and ion species (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) to determine new parametric trends regarding nanostructure evolution. Concurrently, atomistic simulations using binary collision approximation over the same ion/target combinations were performed to determine parametric trends on several quantities related to existing model. A comparison of experimental and numerical trends reveals that the two are broadly consistent under the assumption that instabilities are driven by chemical instability based on phase separation. Furthermore, the atomistic simulations and a survey of material thermodynamic properties suggest that a plausible microscopic mechanism for this process is an ion-enhanced mobility associated with energy deposition by collision cascades. PMID:26670948

  18. Ion beam nanopatterning of III-V semiconductors: consistency of experimental and simulation trends within a chemistry-driven theory

    PubMed Central

    El-Atwani, O.; Norris, S. A.; Ludwig, K.; Gonderman, S.; Allain, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Several proposed mechanisms and theoretical models exist concerning nanostructure evolution on III-V semiconductors (particularly GaSb) via ion beam irradiation. However, making quantitative contact between experiment on the one hand and model-parameter dependent predictions from different theories on the other is usually difficult. In this study, we take a different approach and provide an experimental investigation with a range of targets (GaSb, GaAs, GaP) and ion species (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) to determine new parametric trends regarding nanostructure evolution. Concurrently, atomistic simulations using binary collision approximation over the same ion/target combinations were performed to determine parametric trends on several quantities related to existing model. A comparison of experimental and numerical trends reveals that the two are broadly consistent under the assumption that instabilities are driven by chemical instability based on phase separation. Furthermore, the atomistic simulations and a survey of material thermodynamic properties suggest that a plausible microscopic mechanism for this process is an ion-enhanced mobility associated with energy deposition by collision cascades. PMID:26670948

  19. Covalent Attachment to GaP(110) - Engineering the Chemical Functionalization of a III-V Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, A. J.; Ugeda, M. M.; Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Min; Tilley, T. Don; Pérez, Rubén; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Crommie, M. F.

    2014-03-01

    With its 2.3 eV bulk bandgap, relatively high conduction band edge, and low chemical reactivity, the (110) surface of GaP is an excellent candidate for many UV and visible light applications, such as photo-catalysis and light-induced chemical reduction. However, the reconstruction and resulting charge transfer of the surface makes it difficult to covalently attach the required molecules. Indeed, very little work has been done to understand either covalent functionalization or passivation of this surface. Here we report on a Staudinger-type, thermally-driven covalent attachment of perfluorophenyl azide (pfpa) to GaP(110). We have studied the adsorption of pfpa molecules by means of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in combination with first principles calculations. We show a progression from a physisorbed state at room temperature to a covalently attached state after exposure to slightly higher temperatures (~ 50°C). The developed approach is expected to be valid for various other functional groups attached to the azide, as well as other III-V semiconductors.

  20. Impact of photon recycling and luminescence coupling on III-V single and dual junction photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Alexandre W.; Höhn, Oliver; Micha, Daniel N.; Wagner, Lukas; Helmers, Henning; Bett, Andreas W.; Dimroth, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Modeling single junction solar cells composed of III-V semiconductors such as GaAs with the effects of photon recycling yields insight into design and material criteria required for high efficiencies. For a thin-film single junction GaAs cell to reach 28.5% efficiency, simulation results using a recently developed model which accounts for photon recycling indicate that Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetimes of electrons and holes must be longer than 3 and 1 ?s, respectively, in a 2-?m thin active region, and that the native substrate must be removed such that the cell is coupled to a highly reflective rear-side mirror. The model is generalized to account for luminescence coupling in tandem devices, which yields direct insight into the top cell's nonradiative lifetimes. A heavily current mismatched GaAs/GaAs tandem device is simulated and measured experimentally as a function of concentration between 3 and 100 suns. The luminescence coupling increases from 14% to 33% experimentally, whereas the model requires increasing electron and hole SRH lifetimes to explain these results. This could be an indication of the saturating defects which mediate the SRH process. However, intermediate GaAs layers between the two subcells may also contribute to the luminescence coupling as a function of concentration.

  1. Predicted Growth of Two-Dimensional Topological Insulator Thin Films of III-V Compounds on Si(111) Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Liang-Zi; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Yeh, Chun-Chen; Lai, Shu-Ming; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2015-11-01

    We have carried out systematic first-principles electronic structure computations of growth of ultrathin films of compounds of group III (B, Al, In, Ga, and Tl) with group V (N, P, As, Sb, and Bi) elements on Si(111) substrate, including effects of hydrogenation. Two bilayers (BLs) of AlBi, InBi, GaBi, TlAs, and TlSb are found to support a topological phase over a wide range of strains, in addition to BBi, TlN, and TlBi which can be driven into the nontrivial phase via strain. A large band gap of 134?meV is identified in hydrogenated 2 BL film of InBi. One and two BL films of GaBi and 2 BL films of InBi and TlAs on Si(111) surface possess nontrivial phases with a band gap as large as 121?meV in the case of 2 BL film of GaBi. Persistence of the nontrivial phase upon hydrogenations in the III-V thin films suggests that these films are suitable for growing on various substrates.

  2. Ion beam nanopatterning of III-V semiconductors: Consistency of experimental and simulation trends within a chemistry-driven theory

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atwani, O.; Norris, S. A.; Ludwig, K.; Gonderman, S.; Allain, J. P.

    2015-12-16

    In this study, several proposed mechanisms and theoretical models exist concerning nanostructure evolution on III-V semiconductors (particularly GaSb) via ion beam irradiation. However, making quantitative contact between experiment on the one hand and model-parameter dependent predictions from different theories on the other is usually difficult. In this study, we take a different approach and provide an experimental investigation with a range of targets (GaSb, GaAs, GaP) and ion species (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) to determine new parametric trends regarding nanostructure evolution. Concurrently, atomistic simulations using binary collision approximation over the same ion/target combinations were performed to determine parametric trends on several quantities related to existing model. A comparison of experimental and numerical trends reveals that the two are broadly consistent under the assumption that instabilities are driven by chemical instability based on phase separation. Furthermore, the atomistic simulations and a survey of material thermodynamic properties suggest that a plausible microscopic mechanism for this process is an ion-enhanced mobility associated with energy deposition by collision cascades.

  3. Ion beam nanopatterning of III-V semiconductors: Consistency of experimental and simulation trends within a chemistry-driven theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    El-Atwani, O.; Norris, S. A.; Ludwig, K.; Gonderman, S.; Allain, J. P.

    2015-12-16

    In this study, several proposed mechanisms and theoretical models exist concerning nanostructure evolution on III-V semiconductors (particularly GaSb) via ion beam irradiation. However, making quantitative contact between experiment on the one hand and model-parameter dependent predictions from different theories on the other is usually difficult. In this study, we take a different approach and provide an experimental investigation with a range of targets (GaSb, GaAs, GaP) and ion species (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) to determine new parametric trends regarding nanostructure evolution. Concurrently, atomistic simulations using binary collision approximation over the same ion/target combinations were performed to determine parametric trends onmore » several quantities related to existing model. A comparison of experimental and numerical trends reveals that the two are broadly consistent under the assumption that instabilities are driven by chemical instability based on phase separation. Furthermore, the atomistic simulations and a survey of material thermodynamic properties suggest that a plausible microscopic mechanism for this process is an ion-enhanced mobility associated with energy deposition by collision cascades.« less

  4. Predicted Growth of Two-Dimensional Topological Insulator Thin Films of III-V Compounds on Si(111) Substrate

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yao, Liang-Zi; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Yeh, Chun-Chen; Lai, Shu-Ming; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2015-11-05

    We have carried out systematic first-principles electronic structure computations of growth of ultrathin films of compounds of group III (B, Al, In, Ga, and Tl) with group V (N, P, As, Sb, and Bi) elements on Si(111) substrate, including effects of hydrogenation. Two bilayers (BLs) of AlBi, InBi, GaBi, TlAs, and TlSb are found to support a topological phase over a wide range of strains, in addition to BBi, TlN, and TlBi which can be driven into the nontrivial phase via strain. A large band gap of 134 meV is identified in hydrogenated 2 BL film of InBi. One andmore » two BL films of GaBi and 2 BL films of InBi and TlAs on Si(111) surface possess nontrivial phases with a band gap as large as 121 meV in the case of 2 BL film of GaBi. Persistence of the nontrivial phase upon hydrogenations in the III-V thin films suggests that these films are suitable for growing on various substrates.« less

  5. Predicted Growth of Two-Dimensional Topological Insulator Thin Films of III-V Compounds on Si(111) Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Liang-Zi; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Yeh, Chun-Chen; Lai, Shu-Ming; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2015-11-05

    We have carried out systematic first-principles electronic structure computations of growth of ultrathin films of compounds of group III (B, Al, In, Ga, and Tl) with group V (N, P, As, Sb, and Bi) elements on Si(111) substrate, including effects of hydrogenation. Two bilayers (BLs) of AlBi, InBi, GaBi, TlAs, and TlSb are found to support a topological phase over a wide range of strains, in addition to BBi, TlN, and TlBi which can be driven into the nontrivial phase via strain. A large band gap of 134 meV is identified in hydrogenated 2 BL film of InBi. One and two BL films of GaBi and 2 BL films of InBi and TlAs on Si(111) surface possess nontrivial phases with a band gap as large as 121 meV in the case of 2 BL film of GaBi. Persistence of the nontrivial phase upon hydrogenations in the III-V thin films suggests that these films are suitable for growing on various substrates.

  6. Predicted Growth of Two-Dimensional Topological Insulator Thin Films of III-V Compounds on Si(111) Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Liang-Zi; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Yeh, Chun-Chen; Lai, Shu-Ming; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out systematic first-principles electronic structure computations of growth of ultrathin films of compounds of group III (B, Al, In, Ga, and Tl) with group V (N, P, As, Sb, and Bi) elements on Si(111) substrate, including effects of hydrogenation. Two bilayers (BLs) of AlBi, InBi, GaBi, TlAs, and TlSb are found to support a topological phase over a wide range of strains, in addition to BBi, TlN, and TlBi which can be driven into the nontrivial phase via strain. A large band gap of 134?meV is identified in hydrogenated 2 BL film of InBi. One and two BL films of GaBi and 2 BL films of InBi and TlAs on Si(111) surface possess nontrivial phases with a band gap as large as 121?meV in the case of 2 BL film of GaBi. Persistence of the nontrivial phase upon hydrogenations in the III-V thin films suggests that these films are suitable for growing on various substrates. PMID:26537227

  7. III-V tri-gate quantum well MOSFET: Quantum ballistic simulation study for 10 nm technology and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Kanak; Khosru, Quazi D. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, quantum ballistic simulation study of a III-V tri-gate MOSFET has been presented. At the same time, effects of device parameter variation on ballistic, subthreshold and short channel performance is observed and presented. The ballistic simulation result has also been used to observe the electrostatic performance and Capacitance-Voltage characteristics of the device. With constant urge to keep in pace with Moore's law as well as aggressive scaling and device operation reaching near ballistic limit, a full quantum transport study at 10 nm gate length is necessary. Our simulation reveals an increase in device drain current with increasing channel cross-section. However short channel performance and subthreshold performance get degraded with channel cross-section increment. Increasing device cross-section lowers threshold voltage of the device. The effect of gate oxide thickness on ballistic device performance is also observed. Increase in top gate oxide thickness affects device performance only upto a certain value. The thickness of the top gate oxide however shows no apparent effect on device threshold voltage. The ballistic simulation study has been further used to extract ballistic injection velocity of the carrier and ballistic carrier mobility in the channel. The effect of device dimension and gate oxide thickness on ballistic velocity and effective carrier mobility is also presented.

  8. Novel Approaches to High-Efficiency III-V Nitride Heterostructure Emitters for Next-Generation Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Russell D. Dupuis

    2004-09-30

    We report research activities and technical progress on the development of high-efficiency long wavelength ({lambda} {approx} 540nm) green light emitting diodes which covers the first year of the three-year program ''Novel approaches to high-efficiency III-V nitride heterostructure emitters for next-generation lighting applications''. The first year activities were focused on the installation, set-up, and use of advanced equipment for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of III-nitride films and the characterization of these materials (Task 1) and the design, fabrication, testing of nitride LEDs (Task 4). As a progress highlight, we obtained improved quality of {approx} 2 {micro}m-thick GaN layers (as measured by the full width at half maximum of the asymmetric (102) X-ray diffraction peak of less than 350 arc-s) and higher p-GaN:Mg doping level (free hole carrier higher than 1E18 cm{sup -3}). Also in this year, we have developed the growth of InGaN/GaN active layers for long-wavelength green light emitting diodes, specifically, for emission at {lambda} {approx} 540nm. The effect of the Column III precursor (for Ga) and the post-growth thermal annealing effect were also studied. Our LED device fabrication process was developed and initially optimized, especially for low-resistance ohmic contacts for p-GaN:Mg layers, and blue-green light emitting diode structures were processed and characterized.

  9. Faceting, composition and crystal phase evolution in III-V antimonide nanowire heterostructures revealed by combining microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Dick, Kimberly A; Plissard, Sébastien; Nguyen, Thanh Hai; Makoudi, Younes; Berthe, Maxime; Nys, Jean-Philippe; Wallart, Xavier; Grandidier, Bruno; Caroff, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    III-V antimonide nanowires are among the most interesting semiconductors for transport physics, nanoelectronics and long-wavelength optoelectronic devices due to their optimal material properties. In order to investigate their complex crystal structure evolution, faceting and composition, we report a combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of gold-nucleated ternary InAs/InAs(1-x)Sb(x) nanowire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. SEM showed the general morphology and faceting, TEM revealed the internal crystal structure and ternary compositions, while STM was successfully applied to characterize the oxide-free nanowire sidewalls, in terms of nanofaceting morphology, atomic structure and surface composition. The complementary use of these techniques allows for correlation of the morphological and structural properties of the nanowires with the amount of Sb incorporated during growth. The addition of even a minute amount of Sb to InAs changes the crystal structure from perfect wurtzite to perfect zinc blende, via intermediate stacking fault and pseudo-periodic twinning regimes. Moreover, the addition of Sb during the axial growth of InAs/InAs(1-x)Sb(x) heterostructure nanowires causes a significant conformal lateral overgrowth on both segments, leading to the spontaneous formation of a core-shell structure, with an Sb-rich shell. PMID:22322440

  10. Ion beam nanopatterning of III-V semiconductors: consistency of experimental and simulation trends within a chemistry-driven theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Atwani, O.; Norris, S. A.; Ludwig, K.; Gonderman, S.; Allain, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Several proposed mechanisms and theoretical models exist concerning nanostructure evolution on III-V semiconductors (particularly GaSb) via ion beam irradiation. However, making quantitative contact between experiment on the one hand and model-parameter dependent predictions from different theories on the other is usually difficult. In this study, we take a different approach and provide an experimental investigation with a range of targets (GaSb, GaAs, GaP) and ion species (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) to determine new parametric trends regarding nanostructure evolution. Concurrently, atomistic simulations using binary collision approximation over the same ion/target combinations were performed to determine parametric trends on several quantities related to existing model. A comparison of experimental and numerical trends reveals that the two are broadly consistent under the assumption that instabilities are driven by chemical instability based on phase separation. Furthermore, the atomistic simulations and a survey of material thermodynamic properties suggest that a plausible microscopic mechanism for this process is an ion-enhanced mobility associated with energy deposition by collision cascades.

  11. Proteomic and metabolomic biomarkers for III-V semiconductors: And prospects for application to nano-materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Bruce A. Conner, Elizabeth A.; Yamauchi, Hiroshi

    2008-11-15

    There has been an increased appreciation over the last 20 years that chemical agents at very low dose levels can produce biological responses in protein expression patterns (proteomic responses) or alterations in sensitive metabolic pathways (metabolomic responses). Marked improvements in analytical methodologies, such as 2-D gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and surface enhanced laser desorption-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) technologies are capable of identifying specific protein patterns related to exposure to chemicals either alone or as mixtures. The detection and interpretation of early cellular responses to chemical agents have also made great advances through correlative ultrastructural morphometric and biochemical studies. Similarly, advances in analytical technologies such as HPLC, proton NMR, MALDI-TOF, and SELDI-TOF have permitted early detection of changes in a number of essential metabolic pathways following chemical exposures by measurement of alterations in metabolic products from those pathways. Data from these approaches are increasingly regarded as potentially useful biomarkers of chemical exposure and early cellular responses. Validation and establishment of linkages to biological outcomes are needed in order for biomarkers of effect to be established. This short review will cover a number of the above techniques and report data from chemical exposures to two binary III-V semiconductor compounds to illustrate gender differences in proteomic responses. In addition, the use of these methodologies in relation to rapid safety evaluations of nanotechnology products will be discussed. (Supported in part by NIH R01-ES4879)

  12. Generalized valence-force-field model of (Ga,In)(N,P) ternary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Koushik; Franceschetti, Alberto; Lany, Stephan

    2008-08-01

    We present a generalized valence-force-field (VFF) model for the ternary III V alloys ( III=Ga , In and V=N , P) to predict the formation energies and atomic structures of ordered and disordered alloy configurations. For each alloy (GaInN, GaInP, GaNP, and InNP) the VFF parameters, which include bond-angle/bond-length interactions, are fitted to the first-principles calculated formation energies of 30 ternary structures. Compared to standard approaches where the VFF parameters are transferred from the individual binary III V compounds, our generalized VFF approach predicts alloy formation energies and atomic structures with considerably improved accuracy. Using this generalized approach and random realizations in large supercells (4096 atoms), we determine the temperature-composition phase diagram, i.e., the binodal and spinodal decomposition curves, of the (Ga, In) (N, P) ternary alloys.

  13. Generalized Valence-Force-Field Model of (Ga,In)(N,P) Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, K.; Franceschetti, A.; Lany, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a generalized valence-force-field (VFF) model for the ternary III-V alloys (III=Ga, In and V=N, P) to predict the formation energies and atomic structures of ordered and disordered alloy configurations. For each alloy (GaInN, GaInP, GaNP, and InNP) the VFF parameters, which include bond-angle/bond-length interactions, are fitted to the first-principles calculated formation energies of 30 ternary structures. Compared to standard approaches where the VFF parameters are transferred from the individual binary III-V compounds, our generalized VFF approach predicts alloy formation energies and atomic structures with considerably improved accuracy. Using this generalized approach and random realizations in large supercells (4096 atoms), we determine the temperature-composition phase diagram, i.e., the binodal and spinodal decomposition curves, of the (Ga, In) (N, P) ternary alloys.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of III-V Tunnel Field-Effect Transistors for Low Voltage Logic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanczyk, Brian R.

    With voltage scaling to reduce power consumption in scaled transistors the subthreshold swing is becoming a critical factor influencing the minimum voltage margin between the transistor on and off-states. Conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are fundamentally limited to a 60 mV/dec swing due to the thermionic emission current transport mechanism at room temperature. Tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) utilize band-to-band tunneling as the current transport mechanism resulting in the potential for sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold swings and have been identified as a possible replacement to the MOSFET for low-voltage logic applications. The TFET operates as a gated p-i-n diode under reverse bias where the gate electrode is placed over the intrinsic channel allowing for modulation of the tunnel barrier thickness. When the barrier is sufficiently thin the tunneling probability increases enough to allow for significant number of electrons to tunnel from the source into the channel. To date, experimental TFET reports using III-V semiconductors have failed to produce devices that combine a steep subthreshold swing with a large enough drive current to compete with scaled CMOS. This study developed the foundations for TFET fabrication by improving an established Esaki tunnel diode process flow and extending it to include the addition of a gate electrode to form a TFET. The gating process was developed using an In0.53Ga 0.57As TFET which demonstrated a minimum subthreshold slope of 100 mV/dec. To address the issue of TFET drive current an InAs/GaSb heterojunction TFET structure was investigated taking advantage of the smaller tunnel barrier height.

  15. Novel Approaches to High-Efficiency III-V Nitride Heterostructure Emitters for Next-Generation Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Russell D. Dupuis

    2006-01-01

    We report research activities and technical progress on the development of high-efficiency long wavelength ({lambda} {approx} 540nm) green light emitting diodes which covers the second year of the three-year program ''Novel approaches to high-efficiency III-V nitride heterostructure emitters for next-generation lighting applications''. The second year activities were focused on the development of p-type layer that has less/no detrimental thermal annealing effect on green LED active region as well as excellent structural and electrical properties and the development of green LED active region that has superior luminescence quality for {lambda} {approx}540nm green LEDs. We have also studied the thermal annealing effect on blue and green LED active region during the p-type layer growth. As a progress highlight, we obtained green-LED-active-region-friendly In{sub 0.04}Ga{sub 0.96}N:Mg exhibiting low resistivity with higher hole concentration (p=2.0 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and a low resistivity of 0.5 {Omega}-cm) and improved optical quality green LED active region emitting at {lambda} {approx}540nm by electroluminescence. The active region of the green LEDs was found to be much more sensitive to the thermal annealing effect during the p-type layer growth than that of the blue LEDs. We have designed grown, fabricated green LED structures for both 520 nm and 540 nm for the evaluation of second year green LED development.

  16. Novel Approaches to High-Efficiency III-V Nitride Heterostructure Emitters for Next-Generation Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Russell Dupuis

    2007-06-30

    We report research activities and technical progress on the development of high-efficiency long wavelength ({lambda} {approx} 540nm) green light emitting diodes which covers whole years of the three-year program 'Novel approaches to high-efficiency III-V nitride heterostructure emitters for next-generation lighting applications'. The research activities were focused on the development of p-type layer that has less/no detrimental thermal annealing effect on as well as excellent structural and electrical properties and the development of green LED active region that has superior luminescence quality for {lambda}{approx}540nm green LEDs. We have also studied (1) the thermal annealing effect on blue and green LED active region during the p-type layer growth; (2) the effect of growth parameters and structural factors for LED active region on electroluminescence properties; (3) the effect of substrates and orientation on electrical and electro-optical properties of green LEDs. As a progress highlight, we obtained green-LED-active-region-friendly In{sub 0.04}Ga{sub 0.96}N:Mg exhibiting low resistivity with higher hole concentration (p=2.0 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and a low resistivity of 0.5 {omega}-cm) and improved optical quality green LED active region emitting at {approx}540nm by electroluminescence. The LEDs with p-InGaN layer can act as a quantum-confined Stark effect mitigation layer by reducing strain in the QW. We also have achieved (projected) peak IQE of {approx}25% at {lambda}{approx}530 nm and of {approx}13% at {lambda}{approx}545 nm. Visible LEDs on a non-polar substrate using (11-20) {alpha}-plane bulk substrates. The absence of quantum-confined Stark effect was confirmed but further improvement in electrical and optical properties is required.

  17. Influence of the group V element on the chemical potential and crystal structure of Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2014-02-03

    We present a kinetic growth model having a particular emphasis on the influence of the group V element on the preferred crystal structure of Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires. The model circumvents the uncertainty in the group V contribution into the overall liquid chemical potential. We show why the nanowire elongation rate is limited by the group III transport, while the crystal structure depends on the effective group V to III imbalance. Within the model, we are able to explain some important structural trends in Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires. In particular, we show that high group V flux always favors wurtzite structure in molecular-beam epitaxy. This tendency could be inverted in vapor deposition techniques due to suppression of the group III diffusion at high group V flux.

  18. 30 CFR 57.22234 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22234 Section 57.22234 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and ventilation tubing shall be approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7, or shall bear a BC or VT... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A,...

  2. Distinct antinociceptive actions mediated by different opioid receptors in the region of lamina I and laminae III-V of the dorsal horn of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Hope, P. J.; Fleetwood-Walker, S. M.; Mitchell, R.

    1990-01-01

    1. In view of the presence of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors in the spinal dorsal horn and their apparent involvement in behavioural analgesia, the present experiments addressed the action of selective agonists ionophoresed in the vicinity of rat dorsal horn neurones which were located either in lamina I or in laminae III-V. 2. In laminae III-V, kappa agonists (U50488H and dynorphin A) caused a selective inhibition of the nociceptive responses of multireceptive cells, whilst mu and delta agonists [( D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol]enkephalin and [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin respectively) failed to alter either the spontaneous activity or the response to noxious and innocuous cutaneous stimuli and to D,L-homocysteic acid or glutamate. Nocispecific neurones were encountered too rarely in laminae III-V to study their properties. 3. In lamina I, agonists had no effects on either nocispecific or multireceptive neurones. In contrast, the mu agonist [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol]enkephalin consistently inhibited nociceptive responses of both multireceptive and nocispecific lamina I cells. The delta agonist [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin consistently caused selective inhibition of the nociceptive responses of multireceptive cells but had a mixed profile of action on nocispecific cells. 4. These results suggest that mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors mediate different antinociceptive actions in both laminae III-V and lamina I. The study reveals a distinct physiological role for delta receptors in modulating nociceptive inputs to lamina I neurones. In contrast to mu and kappa receptor actions, delta receptors heterogeneously influence subpopulations of neurones. PMID:2175238

  3. GaN as an interfacial passivation layer: tuning band offset and removing fermi level pinning for III-V MOS devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaofu; Cao, Ruyue; Wang, Changhong; Li, Hao-Bo; Dong, Hong; Wang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Yahui; Xie, Xinjian; Liu, Hui; Cho, Kyeongjae; Wallace, Robert; Wang, Weichao

    2015-03-11

    The use of an interfacial passivation layer is one important strategy for achieving a high quality interface between high-k and III-V materials integrated into high-mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) devices. Here, we propose gallium nitride (GaN) as the interfacial layer between III-V materials and hafnium oxide (HfO2). Utilizing first-principles calculations, we explore the structural and electronic properties of the GaN/HfO2 interface with respect to the interfacial oxygen contents. In the O-rich condition, an O8 interface (eight oxygen atoms at the interface, corresponding to 100% oxygen concentration) displays the most stability. By reducing the interfacial O concentration from 100 to 25%, we find that the interface formation energy increases; when sublayer oxygen vacancies exist, the interface becomes even less stable compared with O8. The band offset is also observed to be highly dependent on the interfacial oxygen concentration. Further analysis of the electronic structure shows that no interface states are present at the O8 interface. These findings indicate that the O8 interface serves as a promising candidate for high quality III-V MOS devices. Moreover, interfacial states are present when such interfacial oxygen is partially removed. The interface states, leading to Fermi level pinning, originate from unsaturated interfacial Ga atoms. PMID:25639492

  4. Increased bismuth concentration in MBE GaAs{sub 1?x}Bi{sub x} films by oscillating III/V flux ratio during growth

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Adam W. Babcock, Susan E.; Li, Jincheng; Brown, April S.

    2015-05-15

    The authors have examined bismuth concentration profiles in GaAs{sub 1?x}Bi{sub x} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy using high angle annular dark field imaging (Z-contrast imaging) in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in conjunction with x-ray diffraction. Samples were grown with a gradient in each of the component fluxes, and therefore, the III/V ratio across the substrate. Rotating the sample during growth exposed the growth surface to an oscillating III/V flux ratio. Sinusoidal [Bi] profiles resulted in the growth direction, the wavelength and number of which were consistent with the growth rate and the rate of substrate rotation. However, the magnitude of [Bi] in the observed fluctuations was greater than the maximum [Bi] achieved using the same Bi flux and Ga/As flux ratios in steady-state conditions on a stationary substrate, suggesting that varying the III/V flux ratio during growth promotes the incorporation of Bi in GaAs{sub 1?x}Bi{sub x} films. A proposed qualitative model for how this enhancement might occur hypothesizes a critical role for alternating growth and shrinkage of Ga-Bi predroplet clusters on the surface as the growing material is rotated through Ga-rich and As-rich flux compositions.

  5. Liquid phase epitaxy of binary III-V nanocrystals in thin Si layers triggered by ion implantation and flash lamp annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutzler, Rene; Rebohle, Lars; Prucnal, Slawomir; Bregolin, Felipe L.; Hübner, Rene; Voelskow, Matthias; Helm, Manfred; Skorupa, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    The integration of III-V compound semiconductors in Si is a crucial step towards faster and smaller devices in future technologies. In this work, we investigate the formation process of III-V compound semiconductor nanocrystals, namely, GaAs, GaSb, and InP, by ion implantation and sub-second flash lamp annealing in a SiO2/Si/SiO2 layer stack on Si grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy were performed to identify the structural and optical properties of these structures. Raman spectra of the nanocomposites show typical phonon modes of the compound semiconductors. The formation process of the III-V compounds is found to be based on liquid phase epitaxy, and the model is extended to the case of an amorphous matrix without an epitaxial template from a Si substrate. It is shown that the particular segregation and diffusion coefficients of the implanted group-III and group-V ions in molten Si significantly determine the final appearance of the nanostructure and thus their suitability for potential applications.

  6. Modeling and design of an advanced high pressure system for III-V compound synthesis and crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafri, Ijaz Hussain

    Indium Phosphide (InP) is an important substrate material for opto-electronics and light-wave communications. In many applications InP-based devices are found to be superior in performance than GaAs, Ge or Si based devices. However, its broad use has been limited because of the quality and cost of commercially available substrates. The primary objective of this research is to design and develop an advanced high pressure system to implement the novel technique of "one-step" in-situ synthesis and growth of InP crystals. Detailed numerical modeling and engineering analysis/design is performed to examine the critical issues associated with the growth of large diameter (up to 150 mm) III-V compound crystals. After design and fabrication, experimental work on conducted for InP synthesis. The research indicates that multiple hotzones are needed to reduce the thermal stresses in as-grown crystals. The hotzone insulation package should be strategically designed to allow more heat loss in the axial direction; a water-cooled shaft can help to accomplish this. To reduce gas convection, empty spaces should be minimized. To obtain uniform temperature and dopant distributions, a moderate rotation rate may be appropriate in the proposed configurations; higher rotation rates may cause the flow to become unsteady and turbulent. It may be desirable to use slightly higher rotation rates in the beginning and lower towards the end of growth. The modeling study also supports the use of a magnetic field to suppress flow oscillations and to control interface shape. Several innovations are proposed in the new design. The most significant are the independently-controlled injection system with its unique ball valve and multi-component arrangement that allows flexibility not seen in other high pressure systems, and a multi-span high-resolution weight monitoring system for crucible and crystal/injector. Experiments are conducted to study the effect of pressure, the thermal profiling, and the synthesis of InP. For the first time quantitative analysis is available on the effect of pressure on power consumption in the system. The thermal profiling indicates the presence of low temperature gradients in the system. The experimental program led to several successful runs for polycrystalline InP synthesis.

  7. Optimization and Characterization of Indium Arsenide Quantum Dots for Application in III-V Material Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podell, Adam P.

    In this work, InAs quantum dots grown by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy (OMVPE) are investigated for application in III - V material solar cells. The first focus is on the opti- mization of growth parameters to produce high densities of uniform defect-free quantum dots via growth on 2" vicinal GaAs substrates. Parameters studied are InAs coverage, V/III ratio and growth rate. QDs are grown by the Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode on (100) GaAs substrates misoriented toward (110) or (111) planes with various degrees of misorientation from 0° to 6°. Atomic force microscopy results indicated that as misorientation angle increased toward(110),critical thickness for quantum dot formation increased with theta c =1.8ML,1.9ML and 2.0 ML corresponding to 0°, 2° and 6°, respectively. Results for quantum dots grown on (111) misoriented substrates indicated, on average, that higher densities of quantum dots were achieved, compared with similar growths on substrates misoriented toward (110). Most notably, a stable average number density of 8 x 1010cm -2 was observed over a range of growth rates of 0.1ML/s - 0.4ML/s on (111) misoriented substrates compared with a decreasing number density as low as 2.85 x 1010cm -2 corresponding to a growth rate of 0.4ML/s grown on (110) misoriented substrates. p-i-n solar cell devices with a 10-layer quantum dot super- lattice imbedded in the i-region were also grown on (100) GaAs substrates misoriented 0°, 2° and 6° toward (110) as well as a set of devices grown on substrates misoriented toward (111). Device results showed a 1.0mA/cm2 enhancement to the short-circuit current for a v 2° misoriented device with 2.2 ML InAs coverage per quantum dot layer. Spectral response measurements were performed and integrated spectral response showed sub-GaAs bandgap short-circuit contribution which increased with increasing InAs coverage in the quantum dot layers from 0.04mA/cm2/ML, 0.28mA/cm2/ ML and 0.19mA/cm2/ML corresponding to 0°, 2° and 6° misorientation, respectively. The second focus of this study was on the OMVPE growth of InAs quantum dots in a large-area commercial reactor. Quantum dot growth parameters require careful balancing in the large-scale reactor due to different thermodynamic and flow profiles compared with smaller- area reactors. The goal of the work was to control the growth process in order to produce high densities of uniform quantum dots for inclusion in double and triple junction III - V material solar cells. Initial growth proved unsuccessful due to lack of familiarity with the process but through balancing of injector flows of alkyl gasses, coherent and optically active quantum dots were able to first be formed at low densities (0.5 - 0.7 x 1010 cm-2). Further optimization included increased quantum dot growth times leading to number densities in the (2.1-2.7x10 10cm-2 with improved optical performance as measured by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Finally, an investigation of GaAs spacer layer thickness for improved optical coupling was performed, indicating that a combined low temperature and high temperature GaAs thickness of 9.3nm led to strong PL intensity indicating good optical coupling of QD layers. Ge/(In)GaAs double junction solar cells were grown and fabricated with and without quantum dots in the (In)GaAs cell to investigate the effect of quantum dot inclusion on device performance. AM 0 measurements showed an average increase of 1.0mA/cm 2 in short-circuit current for these devices. Integrated spectral response measurements revealed a contribution to short-circuit current of 0.02mA/cm2/QDlayer which is consistent with reports seen in literature. The current improvement for the double junction solar cells motivated the investigation of quantum dot inclusion in the (In)GaAs junction of a Ge/(In)GaAs/InGaP triple junction solar cell. AM0 measurements on these cells did not reveal any increase in current for quantum dot enhanced devices over a baseline device. Integrated spectral response for each junction revealed an increase of 0.3mA/cm 2 in cur

  8. A thermodynamic analysis of native point defect and dopant solubilities in zinc-blende III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hurle, D. T. J.

    2010-06-15

    A thermodynamic model is used to analyze available experimental data relevant to point defects in the binary zinc-blende III-V compounds (Ga,In)-(P,As,Sb). The important point defects and their complexes in each of the materials are identified and included in the model. Essentially all of the available experimental data on dopant solubility, crystal density, and lattice parameter of melt and solution grown crystals and epilayers are reproduced by the model. It extends an earlier study [Hurle, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6957 (1999)] devoted solely to GaAs. Values for the enthalpy and entropy of formation of both native and dopant related point defects are obtained by fitting to experimental data. In undoped material, vacancies, and interstitials on the Group V sublattice dominate in the vicinity of the melting point (MP) in both the phosphides and arsenides, whereas, in the antimonides, vacancies on both sublattices dominate. The calculated concentrations of the native point defects are used to construct the solidus curves of all the compounds. The charged native point defect concentrations at the MP in four of the six materials are significantly higher than their intrinsic carrier concentrations. Thus the usually assumed high temperature 'intrinsic' electroneutrality condition for undoped material (n=p) is not valid for these materials. In GaSb, the Ga{sub Sb} antisite defect appears to be grown-in from the melt. This contrasts with the As{sub Ga} defect in GaAs for which the concentration grown-in at the MP is negligibly small. Compensation of donor-doped material by donor-Group III vacancy complexes is shown to exist in all the compounds except InP where Group VI doped crystals are uncompensated and in InSb where there is a lack of experimental data. The annealing effects in n{sup +} GaAs, including lattice superdilation, which were shown in the earlier paper to be due to Group III vacancy undersaturation during cooling, are found to be present also in GaSb and InAs. Results for native point defects are compared with reported ''first principles'' calculations for GaAs. It is seen that, while there is some accord with experimental findings for low temperature molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth, they fail totally to predict the behavior under high temperature growth conditions. The analysis of data on liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth of GaAs from Bi solution in the earlier paper has been re-calculated in the light of experimental data that showed that the model used in that paper to represent the Ga-As-Bi phase equilibria was inadequate. An improved model reveals that Ga vacancies exert a greater effect in controlling the extent of the linear range of donor dopant solubility than previously predicted. It has also led to a re-evaluation of the equilibrium EL2 and Ga vacancy concentrations in GaAs during MBE growth under As-rich conditions at low temperatures ({approx}500 K). The amended model predicts that the very high concentrations of EL2 and of Ga vacancies observed experimentally are near equilibrium values. The predicted increase in the equilibrium concentrations of these defects at low temperatures results from coulombic attraction between the two defects. At temperatures somewhat lower than 500 K the rate of increase becomes catastrophic.

  9. Arsenic (III, V), indium (III), and gallium (III) toxicity to zebrafish embryos using a high-throughput multi-endpoint in vivo developmental and behavioral assay.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Christopher I; Field, Jim A; Simonich, Michael; Tanguay, Robert L; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2016-04-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other III/V materials are finding increasing application in microelectronic components. The rising demand for III/V-based products is leading to increasing generation of effluents containing ionic species of gallium, indium, and arsenic. The ecotoxicological hazard potential of these streams is unknown. While the toxicology of arsenic is comprehensive, much less is known about the effects of In(III) and Ga(III). The embryonic zebrafish was evaluated for mortality, developmental abnormalities, and photomotor response (PMR) behavior changes associated with exposure to As(III), As(V), Ga(III), and In(III). The As(III) lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for mortality was 500 μM at 24 and 120 h post fertilization (hpf). As(V) exposure was associated with significant mortality at 63 μM. The Ga(III)-citrate LOEL was 113 μM at 24 and 120 hpf. There was no association of significant mortality over the tested range of In(III)-citrate (56-900 μM) or sodium citrate (213-3400 μM) exposures. Only As(V) resulted in significant developmental abnormalities with LOEL of 500 μM. Removal of the chorion prior to As(III) and As(V) exposure was associated with increased incidence of mortality and developmental abnormality suggesting that the chorion may normally attenuate mass uptake of these metals by the embryo. Finally, As(III), As(V), and In(III) caused PMR hypoactivity (49-69% of control PMR) at 900-1000 μM. Overall, our results represent the first characterization of multidimensional toxicity effects of III/V ions in zebrafish embryos helping to fill a significant knowledge gap, particularly in Ga(III) and In(III) toxicology. PMID:26824274

  10. Beyond CMOS: heterogeneous integration of III-V devices, RF MEMS and other dissimilar materials/devices with Si CMOS to create intelligent microsystems.

    PubMed

    Kazior, Thomas E

    2014-03-28

    Advances in silicon technology continue to revolutionize micro-/nano-electronics. However, Si cannot do everything, and devices/components based on other materials systems are required. What is the best way to integrate these dissimilar materials and to enhance the capabilities of Si, thereby continuing the micro-/nano-electronics revolution? In this paper, I review different approaches to heterogeneously integrate dissimilar materials with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In particular, I summarize results on the successful integration of III-V electronic devices (InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs)) with Si CMOS on a common silicon-based wafer using an integration/fabrication process similar to a SiGe BiCMOS process (BiCMOS integrates bipolar junction and CMOS transistors). Our III-V BiCMOS process has been scaled to 200 mm diameter wafers for integration with scaled CMOS and used to fabricate radio-frequency (RF) and mixed signals circuits with on-chip digital control/calibration. I also show that RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can be integrated onto this platform to create tunable or reconfigurable circuits. Thus, heterogeneous integration of III-V devices, MEMS and other dissimilar materials with Si CMOS enables a new class of high-performance integrated circuits that enhance the capabilities of existing systems, enable new circuit architectures and facilitate the continued proliferation of low-cost micro-/nano-electronics for a wide range of applications. PMID:24567473

  11. Detection of soft X-rays with NEA III-V photocathodes. [Negative Electron Affinity X-ray detector for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardas, D.; Kellogg, E.; Murray, S.; Enck, R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of tests on an X-ray photomultiplier containing a negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathode. This device makes it possible to investigate the response of the NEA photocathode to X-rays of various energies. The obtained data provide a basis for the determination of the photoelectron yield and energy resolution of the considered photocathode as a function of energy in the range from 0.8 to 3 keV. The investigation demonstrates the feasibility of using an NEA III-V photocathode for the detection of soft X-rays.

  12. An MBE growth facility for real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray topography studies of strained-layer III--V epitaxial materials

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehouse, C.R.; Barnett, S.J.; Soley, D.E.J.; Quarrell, J.; Aldridge, S.J.; Cullis, A.G.; Emeny, M.T.; Johnson, A.D. , St. Andrews Road, Malvern, Worcs WR14 3PS ); Clarke, G.F.; Lamb, W. ); Tanner, B.K.; Cottrell, S. ); Lunn, B.; Hogg, C.; Hagston, W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a unique combined UHV MBE growth x-ray topography facility designed to allow the first real-time synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study of strained-layer III--V growth processes. This system will enable unambiguous determination of dislocation nucleation and multiplication processes as a function of controlled variations in growth conditions, and also during post-growth thermal processing. The planned experiments have placed very stringent demands upon the engineering design of the system, and design details regarding the growth chamber; sample manipulator, x-ray optics, and real-time imaging systems are described. Results obtained during a feasibility study are also presented.

  13. An MBE growth facility for real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray topography studies of strained-layer III-V epitaxial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, C. R.; Barnett, S. J.; Soley, D. E. J.; Quarrell, J.; Aldridge, S. J.; Cullis, A. G.; Emeny, M. T.; Johnson, A. D.; Clarke, G. F.; Lamb, W.; Tanner, B. K.; Cottrell, S.; Lunn, B.; Hogg, C.; Hagston, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a unique combined UHV MBE growth x-ray topography facility designed to allow the first real-time synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study of strained-layer III-V growth processes. This system will enable unambiguous determination of dislocation nucleation and multiplication processes as a function of controlled variations in growth conditions, and also during post-growth thermal processing. The planned experiments have placed very stringent demands upon the engineering design of the system, and design details regarding the growth chamber; sample manipulator, x-ray optics, and real-time imaging systems are described. Results obtained during a feasibility study are also presented.

  14. Nanostructures produced by phase-separation during growth of (III-V).sub.1-x(IV.sub.2).sub.x alloys

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Andrew G. (Evergreen, CO); Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    2007-06-12

    Nanostructures (18) and methods for production thereof by phase separation during metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). An embodiment of one of the methods may comprise providing a growth surface in a reaction chamber and introducing a first mixture of precursor materials into the reaction chamber to form a buffer layer (12) thereon. A second mixture of precursor materials may be provided into the reaction chamber to form an active region (14) on the buffer layer (12), wherein the nanostructure (18) is embedded in a matrix (16) in the active region (14). Additional steps are also disclosed for preparing the nanostructure (18) product for various applications.

  15. Temperature dependence of frequency dispersion in III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor C-V and the capture/emission process of border traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vais, Abhitosh; Lin, Han-Chung; Dou, Chunmeng; Martens, Koen; Ivanov, Tsvetan; Xie, Qi; Tang, Fu; Givens, Michael; Maes, Jan; Collaert, Nadine; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; DeMeyer, Kristin; Thean, Aaron

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the temperature dependence of frequency dispersion observed in capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. The dispersion in the accumulation region of the capacitance data is found to change from 4%-9% (per decade frequency) to ˜0% when the temperature is reduced from 300 K to 4 K in a wide range of MOS capacitors with different gate dielectrics and III-V substrates. We show that such significant temperature dependence of C-V frequency dispersion cannot be due to the temperature dependence of channel electrostatics, i.e., carrier density and surface potential. We also show that the temperature dependence of frequency dispersion, and hence, the capture/emission process of border traps can be modeled by a combination of tunneling and a "temperature-activated" process described by a non-radiative multi-phonon model, instead of a widely believed single-step elastic tunneling process.

  16. Nanoscale opening fabrication on Si (111) surface from SiO2 barrier for vertical growth of III-V nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tuanwei; Wang, Xiaoye; Wang, Baojun; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yang, Wenyuan; Chen, Qing; Xu, Hongqi; Xu, Shengyong; Yang, Tao

    2015-07-01

    We reported here a selectively additive process to fabricate nanoscale openings of an Si (111) surface from an SiO2 barrier layer. Such nanoscale openings are made for the growth of vertical III-V nanowires. The Si (111) surface protected by a patterned SiNx layer was thermally oxidized, which resulted in a selectively added SiO2 barrier layer. After removing the SiNx, nanoscale openings of the Si (111) surface were exposed for the nanowire growth. Arrays with patterned nanoholes of varied diameters from 60 nm to 334 nm have been used for position-controlled catalyst-free growth of vertical InAs nanowire arrays by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Correlations between the nanohole diameter and the diameter, length and growth yield of as-fabricated nanowire arrays have been investigated, showing a repeatable stability. This technique offers an alternative approach for the fabrication of novel III-V nanowire devices using vertical array configuration. A lateral thermal oxidation effect led to a smaller size of the Si opening than that of the SiNx protection nanoislands; therefore, the technique also offers a controllable way to produce nanoholes with an ultra-small diameter. PMID:26062784

  17. Nanoscale opening fabrication on Si (111) surface from SiO2 barrier for vertical growth of III-V nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tuanwei; Wang, Xiaoye; Wang, Baojun; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yang, Wenyuan; Chen, Qing; Xu, Hongqi; Xu, Shengyong; Yang, Tao

    2015-07-01

    We reported here a selectively additive process to fabricate nanoscale openings of an Si (111) surface from an SiO2 barrier layer. Such nanoscale openings are made for the growth of vertical III-V nanowires. The Si (111) surface protected by a patterned SiNx layer was thermally oxidized, which resulted in a selectively added SiO2 barrier layer. After removing the SiNx, nanoscale openings of the Si (111) surface were exposed for the nanowire growth. Arrays with patterned nanoholes of varied diameters from 60 nm to 334 nm have been used for position-controlled catalyst-free growth of vertical InAs nanowire arrays by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Correlations between the nanohole diameter and the diameter, length and growth yield of as-fabricated nanowire arrays have been investigated, showing a repeatable stability. This technique offers an alternative approach for the fabrication of novel III-V nanowire devices using vertical array configuration. A lateral thermal oxidation effect led to a smaller size of the Si opening than that of the SiNx protection nanoislands; therefore, the technique also offers a controllable way to produce nanoholes with an ultra-small diameter.

  18. A study on room-temperature photoluminescence and crystallinity of RF-sputtered GaN for a cost-effective III-V-on-Si platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Hong-Seok; Han, Jae-Hee; Cho, Seongjae

    2015-11-01

    Recently, Si technology has been searching for ways to develop Si-driven future electronics by overcoming the limitations in its electrical and optical properties through more Moore (MM), morethan- Moore (MtM), and beyond complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) approaches. Among the suggested strategies, III-V-on-Si heterogeneous integration can be a solution that allows the merger of III-V-based devices and Si CMOS logic blocks on Si monolithically and costeffectively. GaN has wide applicability owing to its high electron mobility and large energy bandgap for high-speed low-power transistors and visible light sources. In this work, the room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) characteristics and the crystallinity of GaN-on-Si were empirically studied. GaN was deposited by using RF sputtering on p-type Si substrates. The results show that the peak location near 520 nm does not vary with the wavelength of the excitation laser, which is strongly supported by the fact that the signals are not from higher-order harmonics but are genuinely from the prepared GaN. Further, a sharp peak is observed in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis cooperatively performed with PL experiments. Consequently, partially-crystallized GaN has been obtained on Si by using conventional CMOS processing with a low thermal budget and high cost-effectiveness.

  19. Demonstration of 12.2% wall plug efficiency in uncooled single mode external-cavity tunable Si/III-V hybrid laser.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Hyoung; Bovington, Jock; Shubin, Ivan; Luo, Ying; Yao, Jin; Lin, Shiyun; Cunningham, John E; Raj, Kannan; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V; Zheng, Xuezhe

    2015-05-01

    A Si/III-V hybrid laser has been a highly sought after device for energy-efficient and cost-effective high-speed silicon photonics communication. We present a high wall-plug efficiency external-cavity hybrid laser created by integrating an independently optimized SOI ring reflector and a III-V gain chip. In our demonstration, the uncooled integrated laser achieved a waveguide-coupled wall-plug efficiency of 12.2% at room temperature with an optical output power of ~10 mW. The laser operated single-mode near 1550 nm with a linewidth of 0.22 pm. This is a tunable light source with 8 nm wavelength tuning range. A proof-of-concept laser wavelength stabilization technique has also been demonstrated. Using a simple feedback loop, we achieved mode-hop-free operation in a packaged external-cavity hybrid laser as bias current was varied by 60mA. PMID:25969296

  20. Midwave (3-5 um) III-V infrared LEDs and diode lasers as a source for gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Boris A.; Aidaraliev, M.; Zotova, Nonna V.; Karandashev, Sergey A.; Stus', Nikolai M.; Talalakin, Georgii N.

    1995-09-01

    Recently developed mid-IR LEDs and diode lasers can be used to fabricate spectroscopic analyzers of a new generation. The LED-based design is advantageous, especially in process and portable instruments and fiber optic applications. The benefits are smaller instrument size, rugged operation without any moving parts, and high output pulse power. The availability of new ambient temperature operating LEDs based on A3B5 alloys in the spectral range of 2.8-4.7 micrometers and cooled diode lasers has made it possible to monitor several gases having strong absorption bands in this region. This paper briefly describes the properties and fabrication of infrared light emitting diodes and diode lasers by liquid phase epitaxy for emission wavelengths from 3.8 micrometers to 4.85 micrometers and 3-3.6 micrometers respectively. Some of the first applications of these LEDs and diode lasers in spectroscopic instrumentation (nondispersive CO2 and fiber optic CnHm analyzers) are described.

  1. Characterization of molecular nitrogen in III-V compound semiconductors by near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure and photoemission spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Bozanic, A.; Majlinger, Z.; Petravic, M.; Gao, Q.; Llewellyn, D.; Crotti, C.; Yang, Y.-W.

    2008-07-15

    Formation of molecular nitrogen under low-energy nitrogen bombardment of III-V compound semiconductor surfaces has been studied by photoemission spectroscopy around N 1s core-level and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) around N K edge. Interstitial molecular nitrogen N{sub 2} has been formed in all of the samples under consideration. The presence of N{sub 2} produces a sharp resonance in low-resolution NEXAFS spectra, showing the characteristic vibrational fine structure in high-resolution measurements, and at the same time, a new peak, shifted toward higher binding energies for several eV, in all N 1s photoemission spectra.

  2. Ultrahigh-vacuum four-circle diffractometer for grazing incidence x-ray diffraction on in situ MBE grown III-V semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claverie, P.; Massies, J.; Pinchaux, R.; Sauvage-Simkin, M.; Frouin, J.; Bonnet, J.; Jedrecy, N.

    1989-07-01

    An ultrahigh-vacuum compatible four-circle diffractometer coupled to a molecular-beam epitaxy growth chamber has been designed to collect grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) spectra on in situ grown III-V semiconductor surfaces and interfaces. The unit is on line at the D25 bending magnet beam port of the LURE-DCI hard x-ray synchrotron-radiation facility (Orsay, France). Epilayer growth, surface processing, and diffraction data collection are performed without interruption of the ultrahigh-vacuum environment (in the low 10-10-mbar range) around the sample. The setup has been first applied to the determination of the atomic structures of GaAs(001) reconstructed surfaces. Results concerning the As-saturated c(4×4) phase are presented together with preliminary information on the As-stabilized 2×4 reconstruction.

  3. New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency. Annual subcontract report, 1 August 1990--31 July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; O`Bradovich, G.J.; Young, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes progress during the first year of a three-year project. The objective of the research is to examine new design approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program is divided into two areas. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for III-V semiconductors. The second area centers on exploring design approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high quality material. Research activities consisted of an experimental study of minority carrier recombination in n-type, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-deposited GaAs, an assessment of the minority carrier lifetimes in n-GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and developing a high-efficiency cell fabrication process.

  4. The role of the split-off band in electron-hole energy exchange dynamics in selected III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadra, K.; Maziar, C. M.; Streetman, B. G.

    1989-09-01

    We report a Monte-Carlo investigation of Coulomb electron-hole scattering processes involving the split-off band in selected III-V semiconductors in the context of steady-state high-field minority-electron transport. Due to the small value of the relevant hole overlap factors, as well as the relative values of the Γ-L energy separation and the split-off energy, such processes do not make a significant contribution to the minority electron energy loss rate in In0.53Ga0.47As. In InP, however, the ΓhΓs process accounts for a significant fraction of the total Γ-electron energy loss to holes.

  5. New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency. Annual subcontract report, 1 August 1991--31 July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; Patkar, M.P.; Young, M.P.

    1993-04-01

    This report describes to examine new solar cell desip approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program consists of two elements. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for M-III semiconductors. Substantial efficiency gains may be possible by employing light trapping techniques to confine the incident photons, as well as the photons emitted by radiative recombination. The thin-film approach is a promising route for achieving substantial performance improvements in the already high-efficiency, single-junction, III-V cell. The second element of the research involves exploring desip approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high-quality material. This work has applications to multiple-junction cells, for which the selection of a component cell often involves a compromise between optimum band pp and optimum material quality. It could also be a benefit manufacturing environment by making the cell`s efficiency less dependent on materialquality.

  6. The recombination velocity at III-V compound heterojunctions with applications to Al (x) Ga(1-x)As-GaAs(1-y)Sb(y)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Interface recombination velocity in AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs and A10.85 Ga0.15As-GaAs1-ySby heterojunction systems was studied as a function of lattice mismatch. The results are applied to the design of highly efficient III-V heterojunction solar cells. A horizontal liquid-phase epitaxial growth system was used to prepare p-p-p and p-p-n double heterojunction test samples with specified values of x and y. Samples were grown at each composition, with different GaAs and GaAsSb layer thicknesses. A method was developed to obtain the lattice mismatch and lattice constants in mixed single crystals grown on (100) and (111)B oriented GaAs substrates.

  7. Syntheses and X-ray structures of potassium derivatives and a paramagnetic nickel(II) complex of a cyclodiphosph(III/V)azane monoselenide.

    PubMed

    Chivers, Tristram; Krahn, Mark; Schatte, Gabriele

    2002-08-26

    The cyclodiphosph(III/V)azane monoselenide [(t)Bu(H)N(Se)P(micro-N(t)Bu)(2)PN(H)(t)Bu] (6, H(2)cdppSe where cdpp = cyclodiphosphazane) is obtained in quantitative yield from the comproportionation reaction of equimolar amounts of H(2)cdpp (7) and H(2)cdppSe(2) (3) in toluene at 85 degrees C. The X-ray structures of 3 and 6 reveal that both the monoselenide and the diselenide adopt a cis,endo,exo arrangement of the (t)BuNH groups. Metalation of 6 with 1 equiv of KO(t)Bu or 2 equiv of KCH(2)Ph in THF produces [(THF)K[HcdppSe

  8. Design and Analysis of CMOS-Compatible III-V Compound Electron-Hole Bilayer Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor for Ultra-Low-Power Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Yoon; Seo, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Seong Min; Cho, Seongjae; Kang, In Man

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we design and analyze complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible III-V compound electron-hole bilayer (EHB) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) by using two-dimensional (2D) technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. A recently proposed EHB TFET exploits a bias-induced band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) across the electron-hole bilayer by an electric field from the top and bottom gates. This is in contrast to conventional planar p(+)-p(-)-n TFETs, which utilize BTBT across the source-to-channel junction. We applied III-V compound semiconductor materials to the EHB TFETs in order to enhance the current drivability and switching performance. Devices based on various compound semiconductor materials have been designed and analyzed in terms of their primary DC characteristics. In addition, the operational principles were validated by close examination of the electron concentrations and energy-band diagrams under various operation conditions. The simulation results of the optimally designed In0.533Ga0.47As EHB TFET show outstanding performance, with an on-state current (Ion) of 249.5 ?A/?m, subthreshold swing (S) of 11.4 mV/dec, and threshold voltage (Vth) of 50 mV at VDS = 0.5 V. Based on the DC-optimized InGaAs EHB TFET, the CMOS inverter circuit was simulated in views of static and dynamic behaviors of the p-channel device with exchanges between top and bottom gates or between source and drain electrodes maintaining the device structure. PMID:26726356

  9. Structural properties of bismuth-bearing semiconductor alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berding, M. A.; Sher, A.; Chen, A.-B.; Miller, W. E.

    1988-01-01

    The structural properties of bismuth-bearing III-V semiconductor alloys InPBi, InAsBi, and InSbBi were studied theoretically. Bond energies, bond lengths, and strain coefficients were calculated for pure AlBi, GaBi, and InBi compounds and their alloys, and predictions were made for the mixing enthalpies, miscibility gaps, and critical metastable-to-stable material transition temperatures. Miscibility calculations indicate that InSbBi will be the most miscible, and the InPBi will be the the most difficult to mix. However, calculations of the hardness of the Bi compounds indicate that, once formed, the InPBi alloy will be harder than the other Bi alloys and substantially harder than the currently favored narrow-gap semiconductor HgCdTe.

  10. Is kidney function affecting the management of myocardial infarction? A retrospective cohort study in patients with normal kidney function, chronic kidney disease stage III-V, and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Saad, Marc; Karam, Boutros; Faddoul, Geovani; Douaihy, Youssef El; Yacoub, Harout; Baydoun, Hassan; Boumitri, Christine; Barakat, Iskandar; Saifan, Chadi; El-Charabaty, Elie; Sayegh, Suzanne El

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are three times more likely to have myocardial infarction (MI) and suffer from increased morbidity and higher mortality. Traditional and unique risk factors are prevalent and constitute challenges for the standard of care. However, CKD patients have been largely excluded from clinical trials and little evidence is available to guide evidence-based treatment of coronary artery disease in patients with CKD. Our objective was to assess whether a difference exists in the management of MI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) among patients with normal kidney function, CKD stage III-V, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients admitted to Staten Island University Hospital for the diagnosis of MI between January 2005 and December 2012. Patients were assigned to one of three groups according to their kidney function: Data collected on the medical management and the use of statins, platelet inhibitors, beta-blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers were compared among the three cohorts, as well as medical interventions including: catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) when indicated. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions between nominal variables. Binary logistic analysis was used in order to determine associations between treatment modalities and comorbidities, and to account for possible confounding factors. Three hundred and thirty-four patients (mean age 67.2±13.9 years) were included. In terms of management, medical treatment was not different among the three groups. However, cardiac catheterization was performed less in ESRD when compared with no CKD and CKD stage III-V (45.6% vs 74% and 93.9%) (P<0.001). CABG was performed in comparable proportions in the three groups and CABG was not associated with the degree of CKD (P=0.078) in binary logistics regression. Cardiac catheterization on the other hand carried the strongest association among all studied variables (P<0.001). This association was maintained after adjusting for other comorbidities. The length of stay for the three cohorts (non-CKD, CKD stage III-V, and ESRD on hemodialysis) was 16, 17, and 15 days, respectively and was not statistically different. Many observations have reported discrimination of care for patients with CKD considered suboptimal candidates for aggressive management of their cardiac disease. In our study, medical therapy was achieved at high percentage and was comparable among groups of different kidney function. However, kidney disease seems to affect the management of patients with acute MI; percutaneous coronary angiography is not uniformly performed in patients with CKD and ESRD when compared with patients with normal kidney function. PMID:26858529

  11. Revetements antireflet-passivation a base de nitrure de silicium PECVD pour cellules solaires triple-jonction III-V/ Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homier, Ram

    Dans le contexte environnemental actuel, le photovoltaïque bénéficie de l'augmentation des efforts de recherche dans le domaine des énergies renouvelables. Pour réduire le coût de la production d'électricité par conversion directe de l'énergie lumineuse en électricité, le photovoltaïque concentré est intéressant. Le principe est de concentrer une grande quantité d'énergie lumineuse sur des petites surfaces de cellules solaires multi-jonction à haute efficacité. Lors de la fabrication d'une cellule solaire, il est essentiel d'inclure une méthode pour réduire la réflexion de la lumière à la surface du dispositif. Le design d'un revêtement antireflet (ARC) pour cellules solaires multi-jonction présente des défis à cause de la large bande d'absorption et du besoin d'égaliser le courant produit par chaque sous-cellule. Le nitrure de silicium déposé par PECVD en utilisant des conditions standards est largement utilisé dans l'industrie des cellules solaires à base de silicium. Cependant, ce diélectrique présente de l'absorption dans la plage des courtes longueurs d'onde. Nous proposons l'utilisation du nitrure de silicium déposé par PECVD basse fréquence (LFSiN) optimisé pour avoir un haut indice de réfraction et une faible absorption optique pour l'ARC pour cellules solaires triple-jonction III-V/Ge. Ce matériau peut aussi servir de couche de passivation/encapsulation. Les simulations montrent que l'ARC double couche SiO2/LFSiN peut être très efficace pour réduire les pertes par réflexion dans la plage de longueurs d'onde de la sous-cellule limitante autant pour des cellules solaires triple-jonction limitées par la sous-cellule du haut que pour celles limitées par la sous-cellule du milieu. Nous démontrons aussi que la performance de la structure est robuste par rapport aux fluctuations des paramètres des couches PECVD (épaisseurs, indice de réfraction). Mots-clés : Photovoltaïque concentré (CPV), cellules solaires multi-jonction (MJSC), revêtement antireflet (ARC), passivation des semiconducteurs III-V, nitrure de silicium (Si?Ny), PECVD.

  12. Theoretical modeling and optimization of III-V GaInP/GaAs/Ge monolithic triple-junction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su; Kim, Jong Nam; Noh, Sam Kyu

    2014-05-01

    We design and optimize monolithic III-V GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction (TJ) solar cells by using a commercial software Silvaco ATLAS simulator to obtain the maximum short-circuit current density J sc . The maximum J sc , which is a current matching value between the GaInP top and GaAs middle subcells, can be determined by varying the base thicknesses of the GaInP top and GaAs middle subcells. From the numerical simulation results, a matched maximum J sc value of 13.92 mA/cm2 is obtained at base thicknesses of 0.57 ?m and 3 ?m for the GaInP top and GaAs middle subcells, respectively, under 1-sun air mass 1.5 global spectrum illumination, leading to a high power conversion efficiency of 30.72%. The open-circuit voltage and the fill factor are 2.55 V and 86.55%, respectively. For the optimized cell structure, the external quantum efficiency and the photogeneration rate distributions are also investigated. To obtain efficient antireflection coatings (ARCs), we perform optical reflectance calculations by using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. For this, a silicon oxide/titanium oxide double-layer is used as an ARC on the TJ solar cell.

  13. A comprehensive study of the magnetic, structural, and transport properties of the III-V ferromagnetic semiconductor InMnP

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, M.; Hübner, R.; Baehtz, C.; Skorupa, W.; Zhou, Shengqiang; Gao, Kun; Helm, M.; Weschke, E.; Gordan, O.; Salvan, G.; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2015-01-28

    The manganese induced magnetic, electrical, and structural modification in InMnP epilayers, prepared by Mn ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing, are investigated in the following work. All samples exhibit clear hysteresis loops and strong spin polarization at the Fermi level. The degree of magnetization, the Curie temperature, and the spin polarization depend on the Mn concentration. The bright-field transmission electron micrographs show that InP samples become almost amorphous after Mn implantation but recrystallize after pulsed laser annealing. We did not observe an insulator-metal transition in InMnP up to a Mn concentration of 5 at. %. Instead all InMnP samples show insulating characteristics up to the lowest measured temperature. Magnetoresistance results obtained at low temperatures support the hopping conduction mechanism in InMnP. We find that the Mn impurity band remains detached from the valence band in InMnP up to 5 at. % Mn doping. Our findings indicate that the local environment of Mn ions in InP is similar to GaMnAs, GaMnP, and InMnAs; however, the electrical properties of these Mn implanted III-V compounds are different. This is one of the consequences of the different Mn binding energy in these compounds.

  14. Systematic defect donor levels in III-V and II-VI semiconductors revealed by hybrid functional density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petretto, Guido; Bruneval, Fabien

    2015-12-01

    The identification of defect levels from photoluminescence spectroscopy is a useful but challenging task. Density-functional theory (DFT) is a highly valuable tool to this aim. However, the semilocal approximations of DFT that are affected by a band gap underestimation are not reliable to evaluate defect properties, such as charge transition levels. It is now established that hybrid functional approximations to DFT improve the defect description in semiconductors. Here we demonstrate that the use of hybrid functionals systematically stabilizes donor defect states in the lower part of the band gap for many defects, impurities or vacancies, in III-V and in II-VI semiconductors, even though these defects are usually considered as acceptors. These donor defect states are a very general feature and, to the best of our knowledge, have been overlooked in previous studies. The states we identify here may challenge the older assignments to photoluminescent peaks. Though appealing to screen quickly through the possible stable charge states of a defect, semilocal approximations should not be trusted for that purpose.

  15. Polarity-Driven Quasi-3-Fold Composition Symmetry of Self-Catalyzed III-V-V Ternary Core-Shell Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunyan; Sanchez, Ana M; Wu, Jiang; Aagesen, Martin; Holm, Jeppe V; Beanland, Richard; Ward, Thomas; Liu, Huiyun

    2015-05-13

    A quasi-3-fold composition symmetry has for the first time been observed in self-catalyzed III-V-V core-shell nanowires. In GaAsP nanowires, phosphorus-rich sheets on radial {110} planes originating at the corners of the hexagonal core were observed. In a cross section, they appear as six radial P-rich bands that originate at the six outer corners of the hexagonal core, with three of them higher in P content along ?112?A direction and others along ?112?B, forming a quasi-3-fold composition symmetry. We propose that these P-rich bands are caused by a curvature-induced high surface chemical potential at the small corner facets, which drives As adatoms away more efficiently than P adatoms. Moreover, their polarity related P content difference can be explained by the different adatom bonding energies at these polar corner facets. These results provide important information on the further development of shell growth in the self-catalyzed core-shell NW structure and, hence, device structure for multicomponent material systems. PMID:25822399

  16. Electrochemically synthesized broadband antireflective and hydrophobic GaOOH nanopillars for III-V InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Leem, Jung Woo; Lee, Hee Kwan; Jun, Dong-Hwan; Heo, Jonggon; Park, Won-Kyu; Park, Jin-Hong; Yu, Jae Su

    2014-03-10

    We report the efficiency enhancement of III-V InGaP/GaAs/ Ge triple-junction (TJ) solar cells using a novel structure, i.e., vertically-oriented gallium oxide hydroxide (GaOOH) nanopillars (NPs), as an antireflection coating. The optical reflectance properties of rhombus-shaped GaOOH NPs, which were synthesized by a simple, low-cost, and large-scalable electrochemical deposition method, were investigated, together with a theoretical analysis using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. For the GaOOH NPs, the solar weighted reflectance of ~8.5% was obtained over a wide wavelength range of 300-1800 nm and their surfaces exhibited a high water contact angle of ~130° (i.e., hydrophobicity). To simply demonstrate the feasibility of device applications, the GaOOH NPs were incorporated into a test-grown InGaP/GaAs/Ge TJ solar cell structure. For the InGaP/GaAs/Ge TJ solar cell with broadband antireflective GaOOH NPs, the conversion efficiency (η) of ~16.47% was obtained, indicating an increased efficiency by 3.47% compared to the bare solar cell (i.e., η~13%). PMID:24922242

  17. Electrochemically synthesized broadband antireflective and hydrophobic GaOOH nanopillars for III-V InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Leem, Jung Woo; Lee, Hee Kwan; Jun, Dong-Hwan; Heo, Jonggon; Park, Won-Kyu; Park, Jin-Hong; Yu, Jae Su

    2014-03-10

    We report the efficiency enhancement of III-V InGaP/GaAs/ Ge triple-junction (TJ) solar cells using a novel structure, i.e., vertically-oriented gallium oxide hydroxide (GaOOH) nanopillars (NPs), as an antireflection coating. The optical reflectance properties of rhombus-shaped GaOOH NPs, which were synthesized by a simple, low-cost, and large-scalable electrochemical deposition method, were investigated, together with a theoretical analysis using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. For the GaOOH NPs, the solar weighted reflectance of ~8.5% was obtained over a wide wavelength range of 300-1800 nm and their surfaces exhibited a high water contact angle of ~130° (i.e., hydrophobicity). To simply demonstrate the feasibility of device applications, the GaOOH NPs were incorporated into a test-grown InGaP/GaAs/Ge TJ solar cell structure. For the InGaP/GaAs/Ge TJ solar cell with broadband antireflective GaOOH NPs, the conversion efficiency (η) of ~16.47% was obtained, indicating an increased efficiency by 3.47% compared to the bare solar cell (i.e., η~13%). PMID:24800289

  18. Fabrication of HfO2 patterns by laser interference nanolithography and selective dry etching for III-V CMOS application

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructuring of ultrathin HfO2 films deposited on GaAs (001) substrates by high-resolution Lloyd's mirror laser interference nanolithography is described. Pattern transfer to the HfO2 film was carried out by reactive ion beam etching using CF4 and O2 plasmas. A combination of atomic force microscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis was used to characterise the various etching steps of the process and the resulting HfO2/GaAs pattern morphology, structure, and chemical composition. We show that the patterning process can be applied to fabricate uniform arrays of HfO2 mesa stripes with tapered sidewalls and linewidths of 100 nm. The exposed GaAs trenches were found to be residue-free and atomically smooth with a root-mean-square line roughness of 0.18 nm after plasma etching. PACS: Dielectric oxides 77.84.Bw, Nanoscale pattern formation 81.16.Rf, Plasma etching 52.77.Bn, Fabrication of III-V semiconductors 81.05.Ea PMID:21711946

  19. Large-grain (>1-mm), recrystallized germanium films on alumina, fused silica, oxide-coated silicon substrates for III V solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, Michael G.; Balliet, Jeremy R.; Feyock, Bryan W.

    2003-03-01

    Recrystallized germanium films on ceramics and other materials can serve as a low-cost replacement for the single-crystal germanium wafers currently used for high-efficiency III-V semiconductor solar cells. Related work implies that Ge films with large-grain sizes (>1 mm) formed on thermal-expansion matched substrates, such as sintered alumina ceramic, would function as suitable alternative substrates for epitaxy of high-performance GaAs-based solar cells. For this purpose, we describe a process wherein Ge layers, 0.5-5 ?m thick, are deposited by close-spaced vapor transport or sputtering on sintered alumina ceramics, fused silica, or thermally oxidized polysilicon substrates, capped with metal layers deposited by electron-beam evaporation, and recrystallized in an annealing step. Post-growth, the metal cap is stripped with a selective liquid etchant. Recrystallized Ge films have large (1-5 mm) grains and highly oriented textures. These structures provide suitable substrates for epitaxy of GaAs solar cells.

  20. The role of the substrate on the dispersion in accumulation in III-V compound semiconductor based metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Igor; Ritter, Dan; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2015-09-01

    Dispersion in accumulation is a widely observed phenomenon in metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stacks based on III-V compound semiconductors. The physical origin of this phenomenon is attributed to border traps located in the dielectric material adjacent to the semiconductor. Here, we study the role of the semiconductor substrate on the electrical quality of the first layers at atomic layer deposited (ALD) dielectrics. For this purpose, either Al2O3 or HfO2 dielectrics with variable thicknesses were deposited simultaneously on two technology important semiconductors—InGaAs and InP. Significantly larger dispersion was observed in InP based gate stacks compared to those based on InGaAs. The observed difference is attributed to a higher border trap density in dielectrics deposited on InP compared to those deposited on InGaAs. We therefore conclude that the substrate plays an important role in the determination of the electrical quality of the first dielectric monolayers deposited by ALD. An additional observation is that larger dispersion was obtained in HfO2 based capacitors compared to Al2O3 based capacitors, deposited on the same semiconductor. This phenomenon is attributed to the lower conduction band offset rather than to a higher border trap density.

  1. 100 mm integration of III-V and silicon-on-insulator wafers for the realization of distributed feedback silicon evanescent lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Di; Fang, Alexander W.; Bowers, John E.

    2008-11-01

    Abstract 100 mm wafer bonding of InP-based structure and silicon-on-insulator wafers is presented with the use of a lowtemperature (300 °C) O2 plasma-assisted wafer bonding process. An efficient vertical outgassing channels (VOCs) design is developed to eliminate the fundamental obstacle of interfacial voids in bonding due to intrinsic chemical reactions. Generated gas species of H2O and H2 can quickly diffuse to VOCs, etched through-holes to buried oxide layer (BOX), and absorbed by the BOX layer owing to the open network structure and large gas permeability. The interfacial void density is reduced from 55,093 cm-2 down to 3 cm-2, more than five orders of magnitude reduction for appropriate design of VOCs. Uniform patterning of VOCs leads to no outgassing "dead zone" across the entire bonding area, and decrease of the thermal mismatch-induced interfacial strain potentially as well, which both result in the wafer scale-independent bonding. In addition, we present distributed feedback silicon lasers realized on the hybrid silicon evanescent platform. The laser operates continuous wave with a single mode output at 1600 nm. A continuous wave (CW) low threshold of 25 mA with a maximum output power of 5.4 mW is demonstrated at 10 °C. The obtained side mode suppression ratio of 50 dB, 3.6 MHz linewidth, and over 100 nm single mode operation band are comparable to those of commercial III-V DFB devices. These highly single mode lasers may find applications in computer interconnect.

  2. Comment on ``Atomic structure and ordering in semiconducting alloys''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgórny, M.; Czyzyk, M. T.

    1987-08-01

    Recently, an ab initio total-energy calculation for the ordered ternary phases of a III-V zinc-blende semiconductor was reported [G.P. Srivastava, J. L. Martins, and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B 31, 2561 (1985)]. We compare these results with those of a simple empirical model. Both models are used in a new approach to the calculation of thermodynamic properties of ternary alloys including the calculation of the cation distribution in the mixed sublattice. The applicability of the models is critically discussed.

  3. Absorption enhancement of GaInP nanowires by tailoring transparent shell thicknesses and its application in III-V nanowire/Si film two-junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Tongfei; Liu, Guangqiang; Wen, Long; Zhou, BuKang; Wang, Yuqi

    2015-09-21

    A non-absorbing transparent shell is proposed to be coated on the outer surface of the core photoactive GaInP nanowire array (NWA) of the III-V nanowire (NW)/Si film two-junction solar cell. Interestingly, the diluted (at the filling ratio of 0.25) GaInP NWA with core / transparent shell structure can absorb more light than that in bare denser (at the filling ratio of 0.5) NWA. This allows for less source material consumption during the fabrication of III-V NWA/Si film two-junction cell. Meanwhile, the condition of current matching between the top III-V NWA and Si film sub cell can be easily fulfilled by tailoring the coating thickness of the transparent coating. Beyond the advantages on light absorption, the surface passivation effects introduced by the addition of some transparent dielectric coatings can reduce the surface recombination rate at the top NWA sub cell surface. This facilitates the effective extraction of photo-generated carriers and enhances output stability of the top NWA sub cell. From electrical simulation, a power conversion efficiency of 29.9% can be obtained at the optimized coating geometry. PMID:26406728

  4. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive belts and nonmetallic fan blades shall be constructed of static-conducting material; and (3) Aluminum alloy fan blades shall not contain more than 0.5 percent magnesium. . (d) When an internal...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive belts and nonmetallic fan blades shall be constructed of static-conducting material; and (3) Aluminum alloy fan blades shall not contain more than 0.5 percent magnesium. . (d) When an internal...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive belts and nonmetallic fan blades shall be constructed of static-conducting material; and (3) Aluminum alloy fan blades shall not contain more than 0.5 percent magnesium. . (d) When an internal...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive... alloy fan blades shall not contain more than 0.5 percent magnesium. . (d) When an internal combustion engine is used to power a main fan or as standby power, the engine shall be— (1) Installed in...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive... alloy fan blades shall not contain more than 0.5 percent magnesium. . (d) When an internal combustion... noncombustible housing; (2) Protected from a possible fuel supply fire or explosion; and (3) Located out...

  9. Investigating the growth, structural and electrical properties of III-V semiconductor nanopillars for the next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Andrew

    Extensive research efforts have been devoted to the study and development of III-V compound semiconductor nanowires (NWs) and nanopillars (NPs) because of their unique physical properties and ability to form high quality, highly lattice-mismatched axial and radial heterostructures. These advantages lead to precise nano-bandgap engineering to achieve new device functionalities. One unique and powerful approach to realize these NPs is by catalyst-free, selective-area epitaxy (SAE) via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, in which the NP location and diameter can be precisely controlled lithographically. Early demonstrations of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on these NPs, however, are often inferior compared to their planar counterparts due to a few factors: (1) interface/surface states, (2) inaccurate doping calibration, and (3) increased carrier scattering and trapping from stacking fault formation in the NPs. In this study, the detailed growth mechanisms of different III-As, III-Sb and III-P NPs and their heterostructures are investigated. These NPs are then fabricated into single-NP field-effect transistors (FETs) to probe their electrical properties. It is shown that these devices are highly diameter-dependent, mainly because of the effects of surface states. By growing a high band-gap shell around the NP cores to passivate the surface, the device performance can be significantly improved. Further fabrication and characterization of vertical surround-gate FETs using a high-mobility InAs/InP NP channel is also discussed. Aside from the radial NP heterostructures, different approaches to achieve purely axial heterostructures in InAs/In(As)P materials are also presented with excellent interface quality. Both single barrier and double barrier structures are realized and fabricated into devices that show carrier transport characteristics over a barrier and even resonant tunneling behavior. Antimonide-based NPs are also studied for their immense application in high-speed electronics and mid-IR optoelectronics. Different growth regimes are probed to achieve InSb NPs and InAsSb NPs.

  10. GaAsPN-based PIN solar cells MBE-grown on GaP substrates: toward the III-V/Si tandem solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, M.; Almosni, S.; Cornet, C.; Létoublon, A.; Levallois, C.; Rale, P.; Lombez, L.; Guillemoles, J.-F.; Durand, O.

    2015-03-01

    GaAsPN semiconductors are promising material for the elaboration of high efficiencies tandem solar cells on silicon substrates. GaAsPN diluted nitride alloy is studied as the top junction material due to its perfect lattice matching with the Si substrate and its ideal bandgap energy allowing a perfect current matching with the Si bottom cell. We review our recent progress in materials development of the GaAsPN alloy and our recent studies of some of the different building blocks toward the elaboration of a PIN solar cell. A lattice matched (with a GaP(001) substrate, as a first step toward the elaboration on a Si substrate) 1μm-thick GaAsPN alloy has been grown by MBE. After a post-growth annealing step, this alloy displays a strong absorption around 1.8-1.9 eV, and efficient photoluminescence at room temperature suitable for the elaboration of the targeted solar cell top junction. Early stage GaAsPN PIN solar cells prototypes have been grown on GaP (001) substrates, with 2 different absorber thicknesses (1μm and 0.3μm). The external quantum efficiencies and the I-V curves show that carriers have been extracted from the GaAsPN alloy absorbers, with an open-circuit voltage of 1.18 V, while displaying low short circuit currents meaning that the GaAsPN structural properties needs a further optimization. A better carrier extraction has been observed with the absorber displaying the smallest thickness, which is coherent with a low carriers diffusion length in our GaAsPN compound. Considering all the pathways for improvement, the efficiency obtained under AM1.5G is however promising.

  11. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  12. Arsenic(III, V) adsorption on a goethite-based adsorbent in the presence of major co-existing ions: Modeling competitive adsorption consistent with spectroscopic and molecular evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Young, Thomas M.; Fukushi, Keisuke; Green, Peter G.; Darby, Jeannie L.

    2013-04-01

    Adsorption of the two oxyanions, arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)), on a common goethite-based granular porous adsorbent is studied in the presence of major co-existing ions in groundwater (i.e., phosphate, silicic acid, sulfate, carbonate, magnesium, and calcium) and predicted using the extended triple layer model (ETLM), a dipole modified single-site triple layer surface complexation model consistent with spectroscopic and molecular evidence. Surface species of all ions were selected according to the previous ETLM studies and published experimental spectroscopic/theoretical molecular information. The adsorption equilibrium constants for all ions were determined using adsorption data obtained in single-solute systems. The adsorption equilibrium constants referenced to the site-occupancy standard state (indicated by K?) were compared with those for goethite in the literature if available. The values of these constants for the goethite-based adsorbent are found to be close to the values for goethite previously studied. These "constrained" adsorption equilibrium constants determined in single-solute systems were used in the ETLM to predict the competitive interactions of As(III, V) with the co-existing ions in binary-solute systems. The ETLM is capable of predicting As(III, V) adsorption in the presence of oxyanions (phosphate, silicic acid, sulfate, and carbonate). This study presents the first successful and systematic prediction of the competitive interactions of As(III, V) with these oxyanions using the ETLM. The ETLM prediction of surface (and aqueous) speciation also provides insights into the distinct adsorption behavior of As(III, V) in the presence of the oxyanions. Magnesium and calcium significantly enhanced As(V) adsorption at higher pH values, while they had little effect on As(III) adsorption. The enhanced adsorption of As(V), however, could not be predicted by the ETLM using the surface species proposed in previous ETLM studies. Further studies are necessary to identify ternary complexes, especially at high pH. Adsorption isotherms of As(V), a dominant form of arsenic in adsorptive water treatment systems, in the presence of the co-existing ions under relevant conditions of water treatment systems are also obtained and predicted by the ETLM to study and compare the effect of the co-existing ions on As(V) removal.

  13. Ballistic transport in II-VI semiconductor compounds and alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berding, M. A.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Sher, A.; Chen, A.-B.

    1988-01-01

    Realistic band structures are used in calculating the group velocity and scattering rates for electrons with injection energies up to 1 eV in ZnTe, CdTe, and the low-effective-mass alloy Hg(0.7)Cd(0.3)Te. Scattering from longitudinal optical phonons, ionized impurities, and alloy disorder have been included in the full band-structure calculation, which automatically includes both intra- and intervalley scattering. Of the II-VI materials considered, at 77 K HgCdTe is superior for low injection energies (up to 0.25 eV) while CdTe is superior at higher injection energies (1 eV) at room temperature. The attainable mean free paths (equal to or greater than 1000 A) and group velocities (equal to or greater than 10 to the 8th cm/s) for both systems are comparable to values found in III-V systems.

  14. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  15. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    A brazing alloy which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability, said alloy being capable of forming a corrosion resistant brazed joint wherein at least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion resistant refractory metal, said alloy consisting essentially of 20 to 50 per cent by weight of gold, 20 to 50 per cent by weight of nickel, and 15 to 45 per cent by weight of molybdenum. (AEC)

  16. Quantitative evaluation of microtwins and antiphase defects in GaP/Si nanolayers for a III–V photonics platform on silicon using a laboratory X-ray diffraction setup1

    PubMed Central

    Ping Wang, Yan; Letoublon, Antoine; Nguyen Thanh, Tra; Bahri, Mounib; Largeau, Ludovic; Patriarche, Gilles; Cornet, Charles; Bertru, Nicolas; Le Corre, Alain; Durand, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This study is carried out in the context of III–V semiconductor monolithic integration on silicon for optoelectronic device applications. X-ray diffraction is combined with atomic force microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy for structural characterization of GaP nanolayers grown on Si. GaP has been chosen as the interfacial layer, owing to its low lattice mismatch with Si. But, microtwins and antiphase boundaries are still difficult to avoid in this system. Absolute quantification of the microtwin volume fraction is used for optimization of the growth procedure in order to eliminate these defects. Lateral correlation lengths associated with mean antiphase boundary distances are then evaluated. Finally, optimized growth conditions lead to the annihilation of antiphase domains within the first 10?nm. PMID:26089763

  17. The III V nitride semiconductors for blue light emission: Recent progress and a critical evaluation of their potential in comparison to the ZnSe based II VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strite, S.

    The GaN based III-V nitride material system holds great promise for optical device technologies in the blue and ultraviolet spectra. Past researchers were hindered by high background electron concentrations, an inability to dope GaN p-type, and lack of a suitable substrate material. In the last several years, significant progress in overcoming each of these difficulties has created widespread interest in GaN device applications. These breakthroughs are reviewed and the remaining obstacles to the fabrication of a GaN laser are identified. Based on a detailed comparison of the material properties of GaN to ZnSe, it is predicted that GaN based lasers will have significantly better performance and reliability.

  18. A standards-based method for compositional analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry using multivariate statistical analysis: application to multicomponent alloys.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Monika; Ahrenkiel, S P; Carapella, J J; Wanlass, M W

    2013-02-01

    Given an unknown multicomponent alloy, and a set of standard compounds or alloys of known composition, can one improve upon popular standards-based methods for energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry to quantify the elemental composition of the unknown specimen? A method is presented here for determining elemental composition of alloys using transmission electron microscopy-based EDX with appropriate standards. The method begins with a discrete set of related reference standards of known composition, applies multivariate statistical analysis to those spectra, and evaluates the compositions with a linear matrix algebra method to relate the spectra to elemental composition. By using associated standards, only limited assumptions about the physical origins of the EDX spectra are needed. Spectral absorption corrections can be performed by providing an estimate of the foil thickness of one or more reference standards. The technique was applied to III-V multicomponent alloy thin films: composition and foil thickness were determined for various III-V alloys. The results were then validated by comparing with X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence analysis, demonstrating accuracy of approximately 1% in atomic fraction. PMID:23298470

  19. ZIRCONIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Ames, D.P.

    1959-02-01

    A binary zirconiuin--antimony alloy is presented which is corrosion resistant and hard containing from 0.07% to 1.6% by weight of Sb. The alloys have good corrosion resistance and are useful in building equipment for the chemical industry.

  20. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  1. Structural properties of bismuth-bearing semiconductor alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berding, M. A.; Sher, A.; Chen, A. B.

    1986-01-01

    The structural properties of bismuth-bearing III-V semiconductor alloys are addressed. Because the Bi compounds are not known to form zincblende structures, only the anion-substituted alloys InPBi, InAsBi, and InSbBi are considered candidates as narrow-gap semiconductors. Miscibility calculations indicate that InSbBi will be the most miscible, and InPBi, with the large lattice mismatch of the constituents, will be the most difficult to mix. Calculations of the hardness of the Bi compounds indicate that, once formed, the InPBi alloy will be harder than the other Bi alloys, and substantially harder than the currently favored narrow-gap semiconductor HgCdTe. Thus, although InSbBi may be an easier material to prepare, InPBi promises to be a harder material. Growth of the Bi compounds will require high effective growth temperatures, probably attainable only through the use of nonequilibrium energy-assisted epitaxial growth techniques.

  2. Far Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Bulk and Epitaxial Iii-V Iv-Vi and II-Vi Binary, Ternary and Quaternary Semiconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirtharaj, Paul Manohar

    1981-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) spectroscopy, in the frequency range 10 cm('-1) to 500 cm('-1), has been used to study the free carriers and their spatial distribution at the epitaxial film/substrate interface in PbSe/NaCl, GaAs/GaAs and InAs/GaAs; the optical phonons in In(,1-x) Ga(,x)As(,y)P(,1 -y); and the interband transitions, free carriers and phonons in Hg(,1-x)Mn(,x)Te. The measurement of both reflection and transmission spectra, using a Fourier Interferometer and a CO(,2) laser pumped FIR laser spectrometer, combined with detailed computer fitting of the spectra yield reliable information on many parameters. A classical multioscillator model, for the dielectric constant is found adequate to describe the optical properties of all the materials except Hg(,1-x)Mn(,x)Te, where the contribution due to the interband transitions had to be taken into account. The epitaxial film/substrate interface in three different systems were studied at 300(DEGREES)K. They are: a 2 (mu)m PbSe film on a highly ionic NaCl substrate; three GaAs films, with thickness ranging from 2 to 3 (mu)m, on high resisitivity GaAs substrates; and a (TURN) 15 (mu)m thick InAs film on a high resistivity GaAs substrate. All the samples were grown by vapor and liquid phase epitaxy. The interface is found to be abrupt, on a scale measurable using FIR wavelengths, in PbSe/NaCl and GaAs/GaAs. Significant interface effects are present in InAs/GaAs. A mixed In(,x)Ga(,1 -x)As interface region is found to be present, the thickness, free carrier density and mobility are determined to be .074 (mu)m, (TURN) 6 x 19('17) cm('-3) and 400 cm('2)/V.sec respectively. The free carrier density is much higher than 4 x 10('15) cm('-3) and the mobility much lower than 16400 cm('2)/V.sec, the values in the epitaxial film. The presence of a (TURN) 0.1 (mu)m thick surface accumulation layer on the InAs film was also detected. The 300(DEGREES)K FIR spectra of the quaternary alloy, In(,1-x)Ga(,x)As(,y)P(,1-y) were analyzed to determine the optimal phonon structure. All the samples were n-type and were grown from the liquid phase on high resistivity InP substrates and ranged in thickness from 1 to 6 (mu)m; the range of y values extended from 0.22 to 0.66, with y/x (TURNEQ) 2.2 to ensure lattice matching to the substrate. The observed longitudinal and transverse optical phonons could be assigned to InP-, GaAs- and InAs-like vibrations. The assignments were made using the phonon and relevant impurity mode frequencies in the constituent binaries. Such a model satisfactorily describes the variations of the phonon frequences with the compositional parameter, y. The FIR reflection spectra of two samples of bulk Hg(,1-x)Mn(,x)Te, with x values of 0.015 and 0.082, were measured in the temperature range 5(DEGREES)K to 300(DEGREES)K. The transmission of a sample with x = 0.094 was measured at 6(DEGREES)K. The transmission was also measured as a function of the temperature at fixed FIR laser frequencies. All the low temperature (5(DEGREES) to 30(DEGREES)K) show strong evidence of interband transitions between the (GAMMA)(,8) valence and conduction bands. The interband transition effect calculated using a non-parabolic conduction band and a finite heavy hole mass of 0.55 m(,o); m(,o) is the free electron mass. The energy gap, E(,o), determined from the fit to the spectra shows a semimetal-semiconductor transition at x (TURNEQ) 0.10. The Fermi energies and the conduction band bottom effective mass values are also determined. The high temperature spectra (77(DEGREES)K to 300(DEGREES)K) were analyzed to determine the free carrier and phonon parameters. The results are in substantial agreement with previous studies.

  3. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  4. Peculiarities of the hydrogenated In(AsN) alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birindelli, S.; Kesaria, M.; Giubertoni, D.; Pettinari, G.; Velichko, A. V.; Zhuang, Q. D.; Krier, A.; Patanè, A.; Polimeni, A.; Capizzi, M.

    2015-10-01

    The electronic properties of In(AsN) before and after post-growth sample irradiation with increasing doses of atomic hydrogen have been investigated by photoluminescence. The electron density increases in In(AsN) but not in N-free InAs, until a Fermi stabilization energy is established. A hydrogen ?+/? transition level just below the conduction band minimum accounts for the dependence of donor formation on N, in agreement with a recent theoretical report highlighting the peculiarity of InAs among III–V compounds. Raman scattering measurements indicate the formation of N–H complexes that are stable under thermal annealing up to ?500 K. Finally, hydrogen does not passivate the electronic activity of N, thus leaving the band gap energy of In(AsN) unchanged, once more in stark contrast to what has been reported in other dilute nitride alloys.

  5. Multiple doping of silicon-germanium alloys for thermoelectric applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Vining, Cronin B.; Borshchevsky, Alex

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that heavy doping of n-type Si/Ge alloys with phosphorus and arsenic (V-V doping interaction) by diffusion leads to a significant enhancement of their carrier concentration and possible improvement of the thermoelectric figure of merit. High carrier concentrations were achieved by arsenic doping alone, but for a same doping level higher carrier mobilities and lower resistivities are obtained through phosphorus doping. By combining the two dopants with the proper diffusion treatments, it was possible to optimize the different properties, obtaining high carrier concentration, good carrier mobility and low electrical resistivity. Similar experiments, using the III-V doping interaction, were conducted on boron-doped p-type samples and showed the possibility of overcompensating the samples by diffusing arsenic, in order to get n-type behavior.

  6. Nanoscale assembly of silicon-like [Al(As1-xNx)]ySi5-2y alloys: Fundamental theoretical and experimental studies of structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Sims, P. E.; Grzybowski, G.; Beeler, R. T.; Chizmeshya, A. V. G.; Smith, D. J.; Kouvetakis, J.; Menéndez, J.

    2013-07-01

    Ab initio theoretical simulations of Al(As1-xNx)Si3 alloys, a new class of optoelectronic materials, confirm that these compounds are likely to be disordered via a mechanism that preserves the integrity of the constituent III-V-Si3 tetrahedra but randomizes their orientation in the average diamond lattice of the compound. This type of disorder is consistent with experimental structural data and with the proposed growth mechanism for such alloys, according to which “III:V(SiH3)3” intermediate complexes are formed in the gas phase from reactions between group-III atomic beams and V(SiH3)3 molecules, delivering the entire III-V-Si3 tetrahedra to the growing film. Experimental optical studies of these Al(As1-xNx)Si3 alloys as well as more general [Al(As1-xNx)]ySi5-2y compounds grown on Si substrates were carried out using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The resulting dielectric functions are found to be similar to broadened versions of their counterparts in pure Si. This broadening may have important practical applications, particularly in photovoltaics, because it dramatically enhances the optical absorption of Si in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. A critical point analysis reveals the existence of direct optical transitions at energies as low as 2.5 eV, well below the lowest direct absorption edge of Si at 3.3 eV. Such transitions are predicted theoretically for perfectly ordered III-V-Si3 compounds, and the experimental results suggest that they are robust against tetrahedra orientational disorder.

  7. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-02-20

    A brazing alloy is described which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability and is capable of forming a corrosion-resistant brazed joint. At least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion-resistant refractory metal. The brazing alloy consists essentially of 40 to 90 wt % of gold, 5 to 35 wt% of nickel, and 1 to 45 wt% of tantalum. (AEC)

  8. Systematic approach for simultaneously correcting the band-gap and p -d separation errors of common cation III-V or II-VI binaries in density functional theory calculations within a local density approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-07-01

    We propose a systematic approach that can empirically correct three major errors typically found in a density functional theory (DFT) calculation within the local density approximation (LDA) simultaneously for a set of common cation binary semiconductors, such as III-V compounds, (Ga or In)X with X =N ,P ,As ,Sb , and II-VI compounds, (Zn or Cd)X , with X =O ,S ,Se ,Te . By correcting (1) the binary band gaps at high-symmetry points ? , L , X , (2) the separation of p -and d -orbital-derived valence bands, and (3) conduction band effective masses to experimental values and doing so simultaneously for common cation binaries, the resulting DFT-LDA-based quasi-first-principles method can be used to predict the electronic structure of complex materials involving multiple binaries with comparable accuracy but much less computational cost than a GW level theory. This approach provides an efficient way to evaluate the electronic structures and other material properties of complex systems, much needed for material discovery and design.

  9. Systematic approach for simultaneously correcting the band-gap andp-dseparation errors of common cation III-V or II-VI binaries in density functional theory calculations within a local density approximation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-07-31

    We propose a systematic approach that can empirically correct three major errors typically found in a density functional theory (DFT) calculation within the local density approximation (LDA) simultaneously for a set of common cation binary semiconductors, such as III-V compounds, (Ga or In)X with X = N,P,As,Sb, and II-VI compounds, (Zn or Cd)X, with X = O,S,Se,Te. By correcting (1) the binary band gaps at high-symmetry points , L, X, (2) the separation of p-and d-orbital-derived valence bands, and (3) conduction band effective masses to experimental values and doing so simultaneously for common cation binaries, the resulting DFT-LDA-based quasi-first-principles methodmore » can be used to predict the electronic structure of complex materials involving multiple binaries with comparable accuracy but much less computational cost than a GW level theory. This approach provides an efficient way to evaluate the electronic structures and other material properties of complex systems, much needed for material discovery and design.« less

  10. Hybrid III-V Silicon Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, John

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: A number of important breakthroughs in the past decade have focused attention on Si as a photonic platform. We review here recent progress in this field, focusing on efforts to make lasers, amplifiers, modulators and photodetectors on or in silicon. We also describe optimum quantum well design and distributed feedback cavity design to reduce the threshold and increase the efficiency and power output. The impact active silicon photonic integrated circuits could have on interconnects, telecommunications and on silicon electronics is reviewed. Biography: John Bowers holds the Fred Kavli Chair in Nanotechnology, and is the Director of the Institute for Energy Efficiency and a Professor in the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials at UCSB. He is a cofounder of Aurrion, Aerius Photonics and Calient Networks. Dr. Bowers received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University and worked for AT&T Bell Laboratories and Honeywell before joining UC Santa Barbara. Dr. Bowers is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the IEEE, OSA and the American Physical Society. He is a recipient of the OSA/IEEE Tyndall Award, the OSA Holonyak Prize, the IEEE LEOS William Streifer Award and the South Coast Business and Technology Entrepreneur of the Year Award. He and coworkers received the EE Times Annual Creativity in Electronics (ACE) Award for Most Promising Technology for the hybrid silicon laser in 2007. Bowers' research is primarily in optoelectronics and photonic integrated circuits. He has published ten book chapters, 600 journal papers, 900 conference papers and has received 54 patents. He has published 180 invited papers and conference papers, and given 16 plenary talks at conferences. As well as Chong Zhang.

  11. Elevated temperature aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meschter, Peter (Inventor); Lederich, Richard J. (Inventor); O'Neal, James E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Three aluminum-lithium alloys are provided for high performance aircraft structures and engines. All three alloys contain 3 wt % copper, 2 wt % lithium, 1 wt % magnesium, and 0.2 wt % zirconium. Alloy 1 has no further alloying elements. Alloy 2 has the addition of 1 wt % iron and 1 wt % nickel. Alloy 3 has the addition of 1.6 wt % chromium to the shared alloy composition of the three alloys. The balance of the three alloys, except for incidentql impurities, is aluminum. These alloys have low densities and improved strengths at temperatures up to 260.degree. C. for long periods of time.

  12. GaSb based ternary and quaternary diffused junction devices for TPV applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, V.S.; Saban, S.B.; Morgan, M.D.; Horne, W.E.; Evans, B.D.; Ketterl, J.R.; Morosini, M.B.; Patel, N.B.; Field, H.

    1997-03-01

    In this work we report the characteristics of ternary, GaInSb (Eg=0.70eV) and quarternary, GaInAsSb (Eg=0.5eV) diffused junction photovoltaic devices. The unique feature of the quarternary device is the extended long-wavelength response to 2.1 microns enabling the efficient use of the blackbody-like thermal sources operating at 1373 K in thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems. The ternary device was fabricated by diffusing zinc into a n-type (100) oriented GaInSb substrate. For the quarternary, a four micron thick Te doped GaInAsSb layer grown by LPE on a n-type GaSb(100) wafer was used as the starting substrate for zinc diffusion. The ternary device exhibits an open circuit voltage of 0.38 V, Fill Factor of 0.63 and a short circuit current of 0.8A/cm{sup 2}, while the corresponding values for the quarternary device are 0.25 V, 0.58 and 0.8A/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The peak internal quantum efficiency for the ternary is over 90{percent} and that of the quarternary is above 75{percent}. Process optimization should improve the performance charcateristics of the quarternary. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Distributed feedback GaSb based laser diodes with buried grating

    SciTech Connect

    Gaimard, Q.; Cerutti, L.; Teissier, R.; Vicet, A.

    2014-04-21

    We report on the growth, fabrication, and experimental study of distributed feed-back antimonide diode lasers with buried grating. A second order index-coupled grating was defined by interferometric lithography on the top of the laser waveguide and dry etched by reactive ion etching. The grating was then buried thanks to an overgrowth of the top cladding layer using molecular beam epitaxy. The wafer was then processed using standard photolithography and wet etching into 15??m-wide laser ridges. Single frequency laser emission at a wavelength of 2.2??m was measured with a side mode suppression ratio of 34?dB, a maximum output power of 30 mW, and a total continuous tuning range of 6.5?nm.

  14. Alloy softening in binary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to Mo, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  15. Electroluminescence and phototrigger effect in single crystals of GaS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kyazym-Zade, A. G. Salmanov, V. M.; Mokhtari, A. G.; Dadashova, V. V.; Agaeva, A. A.

    2008-05-15

    The effects of switching and electroluminescence as well as the interrelation between these effects in single crystals of GaS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} alloys are detected and studied. It is established that the threshold voltage for switching depends on temperature, resistivity, and composition of alloys, and also on the intensity and spectrum of photoactive light. As a result, a phototrigger effect is observed; this effect arises under irradiation with light from the fundamental-absorption region. Electroluminescence is observed in the subthreshold region of the current-voltage characteristic; the electroluminescence intensity decreases drastically to zero as the sample is switched from a high-resistivity state to a low-resistivity state. Experimental data indicating that the electroluminescence and the switching effect are based on the injection mechanism (as it takes place in other layered crystals of the III-V type) are reported.

  16. Towards III-V solar cells on Si: Improvement in the crystalline quality of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates through low porosity porous silicon buffer layer and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, Gabriele; Baricordi, Stefano; Bernardoni, Paolo; Fin, Samuele; Guidi, Vincenzo; Vincenzi, Donato

    2014-09-26

    A comparison between the crystalline quality of Ge grown on bulk Si and on a low porosity porous Si (pSi) buffer layer using low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is reported. Omega/2Theta coupled scans around the Ge and Si (004) diffraction peaks show a reduction of the Ge full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of 22.4% in presence of the pSi buffer layer, indicating it is effective in improving the epilayer crystalline quality. At the same time atomic force microscopy analysis shows an increase in root means square roughness for Ge grown on pSi from 38.5 nm to 48.0 nm, as a consequence of the larger surface roughness of pSi compared to bulk Si. The effect of 20 minutes vacuum annealing at 580°C is also investigated. The annealing leads to a FWHM reduction of 23% for Ge grown on Si and of 36.5% for Ge on pSi, resulting in a FWHM of 101 arcsec in the latter case. At the same time, the RMS roughness is reduced of 8.8% and of 46.5% for Ge grown on bulk Si and on pSi, respectively. The biggest improvement in the crystalline quality of Ge grown on pSi with respect to Ge grown on bulk Si observed after annealing is a consequence of the simultaneous reorganization of the Ge epilayer and the buffer layer driven by energy minimization. A low porosity buffer layer can thus be used for the growth of low defect density Ge on Si virtual substrates for the successive integration of III-V multijunction solar cells on Si. The suggested approach is simple and fast –thus allowing for high throughput-, moreover is cost effective and fully compatible with subsequent wafer processing. Finally it does not introduce new chemicals in the solar cell fabrication process and can be scaled to large area silicon wafers.

  17. First-principles calculation on dilute magnetic alloys in zinc blend crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Hamid; Inayat, Kalsoom; Khan, S. A.; Mohammad, S.; Ali, A.; Alahmed, Z. A.; Reshak, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Ab-initio calculations are performed to investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of spin-polarized diluted magnetic alloys in zinc blende structure. The first-principles study is carried out on Mn doped III-V semiconductors. The calculated band structures, electronic properties and magnetic properties of Ga1-xMnxX (X=P, As) compounds reveal that Ga0.75Mn0.25P is half metallic turned to be metallic with increasing x to 0.5 and 0.75, whereas substitute P by As cause to maintain the half-metallicity nature in both of Ga0.75Mn0.25As and Ga0.5Mn0.5As and tune Ga0.25Mn0.75As to be metallic. Calculated total magnetic moments and the robustness of half-metallicity of Ga0.75Mn0.25P, Ga0.75Mn0.25As and Ga0.5Mn0.5As with respect to the variation in lattice parameters are also discussed. The predicted theoretical evidence shows that some Mn-doped III-V semiconductors can be effectively used in spintronic devices.

  18. Semiconductor structures having electrically insulating and conducting portions formed from an AlSb-alloy layer

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, O.B.; Lear, K.L.

    1998-03-10

    The semiconductor structure comprises a plurality of semiconductor layers formed on a substrate including at least one layer of a III-V compound semiconductor alloy comprising aluminum (Al) and antimony (Sb), with at least a part of the AlSb-alloy layer being chemically converted by an oxidation process to form superposed electrically insulating and electrically conducting portions. The electrically insulating portion formed from the AlSb-alloy layer comprises an oxide of aluminum (e.g., Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), while the electrically conducting portion comprises Sb. A lateral oxidation process allows formation of the superposed insulating and conducting portions below monocrystalline semiconductor layers for forming many different types of semiconductor structures having particular utility for optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, edge-emitting lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, photodetectors and optical modulators (waveguide and surface normal), and for electronic devices such as heterojunction bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors and quantum-effect devices. The invention is expected to be particularly useful for forming light-emitting devices for use in the 1.3--1.6 {mu}m wavelength range, with the AlSb-alloy layer acting to define an active region of the device and to effectively channel an electrical current therein for efficient light generation. 10 figs.

  19. Interacting quasi-band model for electronic states in compound semiconductor alloys: Zincblende structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Yuzo; Oda, Masato

    2015-09-01

    The interacting quasi-band model proposed for electronic states in simple alloys is extended for compound semiconductor alloys with general lattice structures containing several atoms per unit cell. Using a tight-binding model, a variational electronic wave function for quasi-Bloch states yields a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian matrix characterized by matrix elements of constituent crystals and concentration of constituents. Solving secular equations for each k-state yields the alloy’s energy spectrum for any type of randomness and arbitrary concentration. The theory is used to address III-V (II-VI) alloys with a zincblende lattice with crystal band structures well represented by the sp3s* model. Using the resulting 15 × 15 matrix, the concentration dependence of valence and conduction bands is calculated in a unified scheme for typical alloys: Al1-xGaxAs, GaAs1-xPx, and GaSb1-xPx. Results agree well with experiments and are discussed with respect to the concentration dependence, direct-indirect gap transition, and band-gap-bowing origin.

  20. Semiconductor structures having electrically insulating and conducting portions formed from an AlSb-alloy layer

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B. (Albuquerque, NM); Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure comprises a plurality of semiconductor layers formed on a substrate including at least one layer of a III-V compound semiconductor alloy comprising aluminum (Al) and antimony (Sb), with at least a part of the AlSb-alloy layer being chemically converted by an oxidation process to form superposed electrically insulating and electrically conducting portions. The electrically insulating portion formed from the AlSb-alloy layer comprises an oxide of aluminum (e.g. Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), while the electrically conducting portion comprises Sb. A lateral oxidation process allows formation of the superposed insulating and conducting portions below monocrystalline semiconductor layers for forming many different types of semiconductor structures having particular utility for optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, edge-emitting lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, photodetectors and optical modulators (waveguide and surface normal), and for electronic devices such as heterojunction bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors and quantum-effect devices. The invention is expected to be particularly useful for forming light-emitting devices for use in the 1.3-1.6 .mu.m wavelength range, with the AlSb-alloy layer acting to define an active region of the device and to effectively channel an electrical current therein for efficient light generation.

  1. Effect of alloy nanostructure on the electronic properties of GaAsN, GaPN, and InGaN alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Paul

    2001-03-01

    The III-V nitrides (GaAsN, InGaN) have emerged as a novel class of semiconductor alloys with important optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. The optical and electronic properties of these alloys exhibit a surprisingly strong dependence on the detailed internal nanostructure. We calculated the electronic structure of GaAsN, GaPN, and InGaN alloys using the modern, atomistic, empirical pseudopotential method with large (14,000 atom) supercells. This method fully includes the effects of atomic relaxation, strain, and multi-band coupling necessary for accurate calculations of these materials. Unlike earlier, simplified calculations or phenomenological models, these calculations demonstrate the critical dependence of the physical properties of these materials on alloy nanostructure. We find: (1) GaAsN/GaPN: We examine the evolution and formation of the electronic properties of low nitrogen content GaAsN and GaPN alloys with increasing nitrogen concentration. On the basis of our calculations we present a model of alloy formation involving highly localized nitrogen “cluster states” inside the band gap, and “perturbed host states” inside the conduction band. The cluster states include various N-N pairs and triplets, calculated in detail. As the nitrogen composition increases, the energy of the “cluster states” is fixed, but the energy of the perturbed conduction band move down (“bowing”), overtaking one-by-one the gap levels. The ensuing conduction band edge, having both localized and delocalized features explains the anomalous effective masses, temperature and pressure dependences of these alloys. (2) InGaN: We examine the role of composition fluctuation and “intrinsic quantum dot” formation in InGaN alloys, believed responsible for the efficient blue luminescence of these alloys. Considering an InN-rich quantum dot embedded in a random InGaN alloy, we show how the effects of dot-induced quantum confinement and alloy-induced hole localization explain the luminescence properties of currently grown InGaN material. Supported by SC/BES/OER.

  2. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  3. Carrier and Spin Dynamics in InAsP Ternary Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeker, Michael; McCutcheon, Kelly; Bhowmick, Mithun; Magill, Brenden; Khodaparast, Giti A.; Tischler, Joe G.; Choi, Sukgeun G.; Palmstrøm, Chris J.

    2013-03-01

    The recent rapid progress in the field of spintronics involves extensive measurements of carrier and spin relaxation dynamics in III-V semiconductors. In addition, as the switching rates in electronic and optoelectronic devices are pushed to higher frequencies, it is important to understand carrier dynamic phenomena in semiconductors on femtosecond time-scales. In this work, we employed time and polarization-resolved differential transmission measurements in near and mid-infrared, to probe carrier and spin relaxation times in several InAsP ternary alloys. Our results demonstrate the unique and complex dynamics in this material system that can be important for electronic and optoelectronic devices. We present our experimental observations and compare them with the observations in InAs and InP. Supported by: NSF-Career Award DMR-0846834 and Virginia Tech ICTAS

  4. Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1-x semiconducting alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberi, K.; Blacksberg, J.; Bell, L. D.; Nikzad, S.; Yu, K. M.; Dubon, O. D.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2008-02-01

    We show that at dilute Sn concentrations (x<10%) , the composition dependence of the direct band gap and spin-orbit splitting energies of SnxGe1-x can be described by a valence band anticrossing model. Hybridization of the extended and localized p -like states of the Ge host matrix and the Sn minority atoms, respectively, leads to a restructuring of the valence band into E+ and E- subbands. The notably large reduction in the band gap follows from an upward shift in the valence band edge by approximately 22meV per x=0.01 . These results demonstrate that like III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors, group IV elements may form highly mismatched alloys in which the band anticrossing phenomenon is responsible for their unique properties.

  5. Theory of the electronic properties of mercury-cadmium-telluride alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. B.; Sher, A.

    1984-02-01

    An accurate band-structure theory for semiconductor alloys was achieved. It has been successfully applied to Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride alloys (MCT), and is being extended to III-V and other II-VI semiconductor alloys. As a result of this research, ten papers have been published. Several other papers and one book are in progress. The most important finding was the origin of the major disorder and its effects on different parts of the band structure. The large s-energy fluctuation between the Hg and Cd sites was found to cause a large smearing in the density of states about 5 eV below the top of the valence band, but it produced very little bowing and scattering for the states near the band gap. A detailed study of these facts accounts for the lattice instability of MCT and its very high electron mobility. Another significant result is that, while Cd weakens a neighboring Hg-Te bond, Zn strengthens it. Such structural studies may help resolve the adverse structural difficulties affecting MCT as an infrared material.

  6. Turbine Blade Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    The High Speed Research Airfoil Alloy Program developed a fourth-generation alloy with up to an +85 F increase in creep rupture capability over current production airfoil alloys. Since improved strength is typically obtained when the limits of microstructural stability are exceeded slightly, it is not surprising that this alloy has a tendency to exhibit microstructural instabilities after high temperature exposures. This presentation will discuss recent results obtained on coated fourth-generation alloys for subsonic turbine blade applications under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. Progress made in reducing microstructural instabilities in these alloys will be presented. In addition, plans will be presented for advanced alloy development and for computational modeling, which will aid future alloy development efforts.

  7. Cobalt-base alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Sandrock, G. D.; Freche, J. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A microstructurally stable, high strength cobalt based alloy for use at elevated temperatures to 2125 F was developed. The alloys are particularly directed for use in stators and other low stress components in advanced gas turbines.

  8. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  9. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  10. High strength alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  11. High strength alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  12. Spark alloying of an AL9 alloy by hard alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuptsov, S. G.; Fominykh, M. V.; Mukhinov, D. V.; Magomedova, R. S.; Nikonenko, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    The phase compositions of spark coatings of Kh12M steel with a VT1-0 (titanium) alloy and T15K6 and T30K4 hard alloys are studied. It is shown that the TiC titanium carbide forms in all cases and tungsten carbide decomposes with the formation of tungsten in a coating. These processes are intensified by increasing time, capacitance, and frequency. The surface hardness, the sample weight, and the white layer thickness increase monotonically.

  13. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  14. Weldability of High Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maroef, I

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon and iron on the weldability of HAYNES HR-160{reg_sign} alloy. HR-I60 alloy is a solid solution strengthened Ni-Co-Cr-Si alloy. The alloy is designed to resist corrosion in sulfidizing and other aggressive high temperature environments. Silicon is added ({approx}2.75%) to promote the formation of a protective oxide scale in environments with low oxygen activity. HR-160 alloy has found applications in waste incinerators, calciners, pulp and paper recovery boilers, coal gasification systems, and fluidized bed combustion systems. HR-160 alloy has been successfully used in a wide range of welded applications. However, the alloy can be susceptible to solidification cracking under conditions of severe restraint. A previous study by DuPont, et al. [1] showed that silicon promoted solidification cracking in the commercial alloy. In earlier work conducted at Haynes, and also from published work by DuPont et al., it was recognized that silicon segregates to the terminal liquid, creating low melting point liquid films on solidification grain boundaries. Solidification cracking has been encountered when using the alloy as a weld overlay on steel, and when joining HR-160 plate in a thickness greater than19 millimeters (0.75 inches) with matching filler metal. The effect of silicon on the weldability of HR-160 alloy has been well documented, but the effect of iron is not well understood. Prior experience at Haynes has indicated that iron may be detrimental to the solidification cracking resistance of the alloy. Iron does not segregate to the terminal solidification product in nickel-base alloys, as does silicon [2], but iron may have an indirect or interactive influence on weldability. A set of alloys covering a range of silicon and iron contents was prepared and characterized to better understand the welding metallurgy of HR-160 alloy.

  15. Alloying of aluminum-beryllium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanova, L. V.; Ilyushin, V. N.

    2013-01-01

    The existing phase diagrams of Al-Be- X alloys, where X is an alloying element, are analyzed. Element X is noted to poorly dissolve in both aluminum and beryllium. It is shown that the absence of intermetallic compounds in the Al-Be system affects the phase equilibria in an Al-Be- X system. Possible phase equilibria involving phases based on aluminum, beryllium, and intermetallic compounds are proposed, and the types of strengthening of Al-Be alloys by an addition of a third element are classified.

  16. Alloy 10: A 1300F Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    2000-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickel-base superalloy disks with 13000 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, Allied Signal's Alloy 10, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines to be used on smaller, regional aircraft. For this application, compressor/turbine disks must withstand temperatures of 1300 F for several hundred hours over the life of the engine. In this paper, three key properties of Alloy 10--tensile, 0.2% creep, and fatigue crack growth--will be assessed at 1300 F.

  17. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  18. Surface alloying of Mg alloys after surface nanocrystallization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Xing; Shi, Yi-Nong; Sun, Haiqing; Kelly, Patrick M

    2008-05-01

    Surface nanocrystallization using a surface mechanical attrition treatment effectively activates the surface of magnesium alloys due to the increase in grain boundary diffusion channels. As a result, the temperature of subsequent surface alloying treatment of pure Mg and AZ91 alloy can be reduced from 430 degrees C to 380 degrees C. Thus, it is possible to combine the surface alloying process with the solution treatment for this type of alloy. After surface alloying, the hardness of the alloyed layer is 3 to 4 times higher than that of the substrate and this may significantly improve the wear resistance of magnesium alloys. PMID:18572716

  19. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  20. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  1. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  2. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  3. Machinability of Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Wong, Yoke San; Zareena, A. Rahmath

    Titanium and its alloys find wide application in many industries because of their excellent and unique combination of high strength-to-weight ratio and high resistance to corrosion. The machinability of titanium and its alloys is impaired by its high chemical reactivity, low modulus of elasticity and low thermal conductivity. A number of literatures on machining of titanium alloys with conventional tools and advanced cutting tool materials is reviewed. The results obtained from the study on high speed machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with cubic boron nitride (CBN), binderless cubic boron nitride (BCBN) and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) are also summarized.

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy of compound semiconductor heterostructures: From alloy ordering to composition determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning

    Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (XSTM) has been employed to explore various material properties of III-V compound semiconductor heterostructures. Regarding GaInP alloys, the (111)-type alloy ordering is observed in organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) grown alloy region, while the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown region shows a very small degree of ordering. Two types of ordering, namely (InP)1(GaP)1 and (InP)2(GaP) 1, have been found in OMVPE grown GaInP alloys. Then, the focus is shifted to the structural properties of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE) and heterogeneous droplet epitaxy (HDE) respectively. Size, shape, orientation, spatial distribution, strain, and composition have been examined. Regarding MEE grown InGaAs QDs, the composition appears highly non-uniform, with an Indium-rich core having an inverted-triangle shape. With atomic resolution, compositional analysis has been done for both the QDs and wetting layers quantitatively. Depletion of the wetting layer, due to the formation of the QDs, is also demonstrated. For HDE grown InGaAs QDs, the size, shape, composition, and strain, etc., are quite different from that of MEE or MBE grown InGaAs QDs. Indium distribution inside the QDs is rather uniform compared with MEE grown InGaAs QDs. More importantly, it is found that the self-compensation between the size and indium concentration of the QDs appears to be the key factor that controls the sharpness of the photoluminescence (PL) linewidths in the investigated samples.

  5. In situ measurement of CuPt alloy ordering using strain anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    France, Ryan M.; McMahon, William E.; Kang, Joongoo; Steiner, Myles A.; Geisz, John F.

    2014-02-07

    The optical and electrical properties of many III-V alloys change with the degree of CuPt atomic ordering, which is very sensitive to growth conditions. The bulk ordered alloy is elongated along the normal to the ordered planes, and is asymmetrically strained when coherent to a cubic substrate. Here, we demonstrate in situ measurement of the anisotropic strain due to ordering using two-dimensional wafer curvature. The measurement is sensitive to bulk anisotropies, and so is complementary to other in situ measurements that are sensitive to surface anisotropies. Using ab initio calculations, we determine a maximum strain anisotropy of 0.27% between [110] and [1{sup ¯}10] when perfectly ordered single-variant GaInP{sub 2} is coherent to a (001) cubic substrate. We relate the in situ measurement of strain anisotropy on various GaInP{sub 2} samples to ex situ measurements of the order parameter to validate the measurement and confirm the capability to predict material properties. The measurement monitors change in ordering during growth, useful for quickly determining the growth condition dependence of ordering or monitoring order-disorder transitions. More generally, this measurement technique could, in principle, be used to monitor phase changes in any epitaxial system for which the strain anisotropy of the two phases differs.

  6. Copper-tantalum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  7. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  8. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  9. Shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.

    1983-10-04

    A shape memory alloy is disclosed consisting essentially of, by weight ratio, 2 to 15% aluminium, 0.01 to 3% beryllium and the balance being substantially copper, with impurities being inevitably present in the process of preparation, and a shape memory alloy further including 0.05 to 15% zinc, both including composition ranges which allows cold work.

  10. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  11. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  12. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  13. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kim, H.E.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1992-12-15

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy is described having additions of monovalent iodides. Although the preferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy with outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance properties. 6 figs.

  14. Alloy coated fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.J.; Fuhrman, N.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes an improvement in a fuel element for use in a nuclear reactor which includes a fissionable material contained within a zirconium-alloy cladding tube. The improvement comprises a coating on the inside of the zirconium-alloy cladding tube. The coating including a nickel-thallium -boron burnable poison compound.

  15. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shaber, Eric L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DuPont, John N. (Whitehall, PA); Robino, Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, David B. (Bethlehem, PA)

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  16. Alloys in energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, B.R.T.

    1984-02-01

    The development of new and advanced energy systems often requires the tailoring of new alloys or alloy combinations to meet the novel and often stringent requirements of those systems. Longer life at higher temperatures and stresses in aggressive environments is the most common goal. Alloy theory helps in achieving this goal by suggesting uses of multiphase systems and intermediate phases, where solid solutions were traditionally used. However, the use of materials under non-equilibrium conditions is now quite common - as with rapidly solidified metals - and the application of alloy theory must be modified accordingly. Under certain conditions, as in a reactor core, the rate of approach to equilibrium will be modified; sometimes a quasi-equilibrium is established. Thus an alloy may exhibit enhanced general diffusion at the same time as precipitate particles are being dispersed and solute atoms are being carried to vacancy sinks. We are approaching an understanding of these processes and can begin to model these complex systems.

  17. First-principles calculations of bismuth induced changes in the band structure of dilute Ga-V-Bi and In-V-Bi alloys: chemical trends versus experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, M. P.; Scharoch, P.; Kudrawiec, R.

    2015-09-01

    Bi-induced changes in the band structure of Ga-V-Bi and In-V-Bi alloys are calculated within the density functional theory (DFT) for alloys with Bi ?3.7% and the observed chemical trends are discussed in the context of the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) and the valence band anticrossing (VBAC) model. It is clearly shown that the incorporation of Bi atoms into III-V host modifies both the conduction band (CB) and the valence band (VB). The obtained shifts of bands in GaP1-xBix, GaAs1-xBix, GaSb1-xBix, InP1-xBix, InAs1-xBix, and InSb1-xBix are respectively, 15, -29, -16, -27, -15, and -10 meV/%Bi for CB, 82, 62, 16, 79, 45, and 16 meV/%Bi for VB, and -17, -3, -2, -8, -6, and 14 meV/%Bi for spin-orbit split off band. The Bi-induced reduction of the band gap is very consistent with the available experimental data. The chemical trends observed in our calculations as well as in experimental data are very clear: in a sequence of alloys from III-P-Bi to III-Sb-Bi the Bi-induced changes in the band structure weaken. For dilute GaSb1-xBix and InSb1-xBix alloys the band structure modification, in the first approximation, can be described within the VCA, while for Ga-V-Bi and In-V-Bi alloys with V = As or P another phenomenological approach is needed to predict the Bi-induced changes in their band structure. We have found that a combination of the VCA with the VBAC model, which is widely applied for highly mismatched alloys, is suitable for this purpose. The chemical trends for III-V-Bi alloys observed in our DFT calculations are also exhibited by the coupling parameter {C}BiM, which describes the magnitude of interaction between Bi-induced levels and VB states in the VBAC model. This coupling parameter monotonously decreases along the sequence of alloys from III-P-Bi to III-Sb-Bi.

  18. THORIUM-SILICON-BERYLLIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.

    1959-02-10

    Th, Si, anol Bt alloys where Be and Si are each present in anmounts between 0.1 and 3.5% by weight and the total weight per cent of the minor alloying elements is between 1.5 and 4.5% are discussed. These ternary alloys show increased hardness and greater resistant to aqueous corrosion than is found in pure Th, Th-Si alloys, or Th-Be alloys.

  19. 2.2-2.7 ?m side wall corrugated index coupled distributed feedback GaSb based laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaimard, Q.; Larrue, A.; Triki, M.; Adelin, B.; Nguyen-Ba, T.; Rouillard, Y.; Gauthier-Lafaye, O.; Teissier, R.; Vicet, A.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the modeling, growth, processing, characterization and integration in a gas detection setup of side wall corrugated distributed feed-back antimonide diode lasers emitting at 2.28 and 2.67 ?m. The laser structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb substrate. Ridge lasers were fabricated from the grown wafers according to the following process: a second order Bragg grating was defined on the sides of the ridges by interferometric lithography, optical lithography and etched in a Cl-based inductively coupled plasma reactor. The devices exhibit a power reaching 40 mW, a side mode suppression ratio better than 28 dB and a tuning range of 3 nm at room temperature. One of these devices was successfully integrated in a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy setup, thus demonstrating that they are suitable for gas analysis.

  20. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  1. (Si){sub 5-2y}(AlP){sub y} alloys assembled on Si(100) from Al-P-Si{sub 3} building units

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, T.; Chizmeshya, A. V. G.; Kouvetakis, J.; Jiang, L.; Xu, C.; Smith, D. J.; Menendez, J.

    2012-01-09

    An original class of IV/III-V hybrid (Si){sub 5-2y}(AlP){sub y}/Si(100) semiconductors have been produced via tailored interactions of molecular P(SiH{sub 3}){sub 3} and atomic Al yielding tetrahedral ''Al-P-Si{sub 3}'' building blocks. Extensive structural, optical, and vibrational characterization corroborates that these units condense to assemble single-phase, monocrystalline alloys containing 60%-90% Si (y = 0.3-1.0) as nearly defect-free layers lattice-matched to Si. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and density functional theory band structure calculations indicate mild compositional bowing of the band gaps, suggesting that the tuning needed for optoelectronic applications should be feasible.

  2. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ca.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOEpatents

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5.mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photovoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of the growing layer.

  3. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOEpatents

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5 .mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photolvoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of growing layer.

  4. (NH{sub 4})[V{sub 1-x}{sup III}V{sub x}{sup IV}(AsO{sub 4})F{sub 1-x}O{sub x}]: A new mixed valence vanadium(III,IV) fluoro-arsenate with ferromagnetic interactions and electronic conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Berrocal, Teresa

    2009-01-15

    A new mixed valence vanadium(III,IV) fluoro-arsenate compound, with formula (NH{sub 4})[V{sub 1-x}{sup III}V{sub x}{sup IV}(AsO{sub 4})F{sub 1-x}O{sub x}] and KTP structure-type, has been synthesized by mild hydrothermal techniques. The crystal structure has been solved from single crystal X-ray diffraction data in the Pna2{sub 1} orthorhombic space group. The unit-cell parameters are a=13.196(2) A, b=6.628(1) A and c=10.7379(7) A with Z=8. The final R factors were R1=0.0438 and wR2=0.0943 [all data]. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional framework formed by (V{sup III,IV}O{sub 4}F{sub 2}) octahedra and (AsO{sub 4}){sup 3-} tetrahedra arsenate oxoanions. The vanadium(III,IV) cations, from the (V{sup III,IV}O{sub 4}F{sub 2}) octahedra, are linked through the fluorine atoms giving rise to zigzag chains. The ammonium cations are located in the cavities of the structure compensating the anionic charge of the [V{sub 1-x}{sup III}V{sub x}{sup IV}(AsO{sub 4})F{sub 1-x}O{sub x}]{sup -} inorganic skeleton. The thermal stability limit of the phase is 345 deg. C, around to this temperature the ammonium cation and fluoride anion are lost. The IR spectrum shows the characteristic bands of the (NH{sub 4}){sup +} and (AsO{sub 4}){sup 3-} ions. Magnetic measurements indicate the existence of weak ferromagnetic interactions. Electronic conductivity, via a hopping mechanism, occurs with an activation energy of 0.66 eV. - Graphical abstract: Polyhedral view of the crystal structure of (NH{sub 4})[V{sup III}{sub 1-x}V{sup IV}{sub x}(AsO{sub 4})F{sub 1-x}O{sub x}].

  5. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  6. Systematic approach for simultaneously correcting the band-gap andp-dseparation errors of common cation III-V or II-VI binaries in density functional theory calculations within a local density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-07-31

    We propose a systematic approach that can empirically correct three major errors typically found in a density functional theory (DFT) calculation within the local density approximation (LDA) simultaneously for a set of common cation binary semiconductors, such as III-V compounds, (Ga or In)X with X = N,P,As,Sb, and II-VI compounds, (Zn or Cd)X, with X = O,S,Se,Te. By correcting (1) the binary band gaps at high-symmetry points , L, X, (2) the separation of p-and d-orbital-derived valence bands, and (3) conduction band effective masses to experimental values and doing so simultaneously for common cation binaries, the resulting DFT-LDA-based quasi-first-principles method can be used to predict the electronic structure of complex materials involving multiple binaries with comparable accuracy but much less computational cost than a GW level theory. This approach provides an efficient way to evaluate the electronic structures and other material properties of complex systems, much needed for material discovery and design.

  7. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys.

    PubMed

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan E L; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2016-01-20

    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that there is a correlation between the alloying energy of an alloy, and the diffusion barriers of the minority component. Alloys with a negative alloying energy may show improved long term stability, despite the fact that there is typically a greater thermodynamic driving force towards dissolution of the solute metal over alloying. In addition to Pt, we find that this trend also appears to hold for alloys based on Al and Pd. PMID:26750475

  8. Ferromagnetic bulk amorphous alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Akihisa; Takeuchi, Akira; Zhang, T.

    1998-07-01

    This article reviews the authors recent results on the development of ferromagnetic bulk amorphous alloys prepared by casting processes. The multicomponent Fe-(Al,Ga)-(P,C,B,Si) alloys are amorphized in the bulk form with diameters up to 2 mm, and the temperature interval of the supercooled liquid region before crystallization is in the range of 50 to 67 K. These bulk amorphous alloys exhibit good soft magnetic properties, i.e., high B{sub s} of 1.1 to 1.2 T, low H{sub c} of 2 to 6 A/m, and high {mu}{sub e} of about 7,000 at 1 kHz. The Nd-Fe-Al and Pr-Fe-Al bulk amorphous alloys are also produced in the diameter range of up to 12 mm by the copper mold casting process and exhibit rather good hard magnetic properties, i.e., B{sub r} of about 0.1 T, high H{sub c} of 300 to 400 kA/m, and rather high (JH){sub max} of 13 to 20 kJ/m{sup 3}. The crystallization causes the disappearance of the hard magnetic properties. Furthermore, the melt-spun Nd-Fe-Al and Pr-Fe-Al alloy ribbons exhibit soft-type magnetic properties. Consequently, the hard magnetic properties are concluded to be obtained only for the bulk amorphous alloys. The Nd- and Pr-based bulk amorphous alloys can be regarded as a new type of clustered amorphous material, and the control of the clustered amorphous structure is expected to enable the appearance of novel functional properties which cannot be obtained for an ordinary amorphous structure.

  9. III-V Solar Cells and Concentrator Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alferov, Z. I.; Andreev, V. M.; Rumyantsev, V. D.

    Semiconductor heterostructures allow us to solve the problems of controlling the fundamental parameters of the semiconductor devices. These heterostructures provide the ability to change the electronic band structure, band gaps and refractive indices of the material itself during epitaxial growth, as well as to control the effective masses and mobilities of the charge carriers in it. The development of the physics and technology of semiconductor heterostructures has resulted in remarkable changes in our everyday life. Heterostructure electronics is widely used in many areas. It is hardly possible to imagine our life without double heterostructure (DHS) laser-based telecommunication systems, heterostructure solar cells (HSSCs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), heterostructure bipolar transistors and low-noise, high-electron mobility transistors for high-frequency applications including, for example, satellite television. Now DHS lasers exist in practically every home in CD players. Heterostructure solar cells are widely used for space and terrestrial applications.

  10. Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Michael D

    2006-09-28

    Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.

  11. Monolithic III-V/Silicon Spatial Light Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph; Eng, Sverre T.

    1989-01-01

    Current techniques for growth of device-quality GaAs on silicon substrates enables fabrication of silicon-based version of photodiode-coupled spatial light modulator. Monolithic photodiode-coupled light-modulator array constructed on silicon substrate by growing InAs/GaAs multiple-quantum-wells over silicon PIN diode layer. Intermediate GaAs buffer layer confines attice-misfit dislocations to vicinity of silicon. Use of silicon makes available wider range of auxiliary on-chip signal-processing circuitry for coding and decoding of data, addition or subtraction of brightness levels, spatial reformatting, and rescaling.

  12. Carbon films grown from plasma on III-V semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, J. J.; Warner, J. D.; Liu, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Dielectric carbon films were grown on n- and p-type GaAs and InP substrates using plasmas generated at 30 KHz from gaseous hydrocarbons. The effect of gas source, flow rate, and power on film growth were investigated. Methane and n-butane gases were utilized. The flow rate and power ranged from 30 to 50 sccm and 25 to 300 W, respectively. AES measurements show only carbon to be present in the films. The relative Ar ion sputtering rate (3 KeV) of carbon depends on the ratio power/pressure. In addition, the degree of asymmetry associated with the carbon-semiconductor interface is approximately power-independent. SIMS spectra indicate different H-C bonding configurations to be present in the films. Band gaps as high as 3.05 eV are obtained from optical absorption studies.

  13. Unidirectional III-V microdisk lasers heterogeneously integrated on SOI.

    PubMed

    Mechet, P; Verstuyft, S; de Vries, T; Spuesens, T; Regreny, P; Van Thourhout, D; Roelkens, G; Morthier, G

    2013-08-12

    We demonstrate unidirectional bistability in microdisk lasers electrically pumped and heterogeneously integrated on SOI. The lasers operate in continuous wave regime at room temperature and are single mode. Integrating a passive distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on the waveguide to which the microdisk is coupled feeds laser emission back into the laser cavity. This introduces an extra unidirectional gain and results in unidirectional emission of the laser, as demonstrated in simulations as well as in experiment. PMID:23938850

  14. Chemical beam epitaxy growth of III–V semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Mohummed Noori, Farah T.

    2013-12-16

    Indium- Arsenide (InAs) nanowires were grown in a high vacuum chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) unit on InAs(111) wafers substrates at 425–454°C. Two types of nanogold were used as orientation catalyst, 40nm and 80nm. The measurements were performed using scanning electron microscopy showed that uniform nanowires. The nanowires orient vertically in the InAs nanowire scanning electron microscopy of an array 80nm diameter InAs nanowire with length is in the range 0.5–1 ?m and of an array 40nm diameter with length is in the range 0.3–0.7?m. The nanowire length with growth time shows that the linear increase of nanowires start to grow as soon as TMIn is available. The growth rate with temperature was studied.

  15. Large, Tunable Magnetoresistance in Nonmagnetic III-V Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Sichao; Luo, Wei; Gu, Jiangjiang; Cheng, Xiang; Ye, Peide D; Wu, Yanqing

    2015-12-01

    Magnetoresistance, the modulation of resistance by magnetic fields, has been adopted and continues to evolve in many device applications including hard-disk, memory, and sensors. Magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic semiconductors has recently raised much attention and shows great potential due to its large magnitude that is comparable or even larger than magnetic materials. However, most of the previous work focus on two terminal devices with large dimensions, typically of micrometer scales, which severely limit their performance potential and more importantly, scalability in commercial applications. Here, we investigate magnetoresistance in the impact ionization region in InGaAs nanowires with 20 nm diameter and 40 nm gate length. The deeply scaled dimensions of these nanowires enable high sensibility with less power consumption. Moreover, in these three terminal devices, the magnitude of magnetoresistance can be tuned by the transverse electric field controlled by gate voltage. Large magnetoresistance between 100% at room temperature and 2000% at 4.3 K can be achieved at 2.5 T. These nanoscale devices with large magnetoresistance offer excellent opportunity for future high-density large-scale magneto-electric devices using top-down fabrication approaches, which are compatible with commercial silicon platform. PMID:26561728

  16. Compensation, interstitial defects and ferromagnetism in III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziman, Timothy; Bouzerar, Georges; Kudrnovský, Josef

    2005-03-01

    In diluted magnetic semi-conductors, e.g. Ga(Mn)As, Ga(Mn)N and In(Mn)As, the observed magnetism depends strongly on methods of preparation and sample history, with correlation between the Curie temperature Tc and the conductivity for the same concentration of magnetic ions. The transport measurements show that the simple picture of substitution of Mn^2+ ions for Ga sites is insufficient and effects of defects, e.g. Mn interstitials and As anti-sites, must be included. We present a quantitative theory, using magnetic exchange interactions from carrier- and impurity- concentration dependent ab initio estimates, and a recently developed semi-analytic theory^1,2. Spin fluctuations are treated in a locally self-consistent RPA approach, and disorder exactly, by sampling. Very good agreement, without ajustable parameters, is obtained for the Tc of different samples. We predict Tc as a function of hole concentration for MnxGa1-xAs and InxGa1-xAs. For fixed x, Tc is non-monotonic in carrier concentration for a restricted region of carrier density and vanishes outside. [1]G. Bouzerar, T. Ziman, J.Kudrnovsk'y, cond-mat/0405322 [2]G. Bouzerar, T. Ziman, J.Kudrnovsk'y, Appl. Phys. Lett. (scheduled Nov. 29 2004), cond-mat/0407101

  17. Nanopillars for bandgap engineering in III-V optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, Aaron; Wei, Yajun; Hood, Andrew; Bajowala, Adnan; Nguyen, Quang; Yazdanpanah, Vahid R.; Razeghi, Manijeh; Brown, Gail J.; Tidrow, Meimei Z.

    2004-06-01

    The absorption or emission wavelength in optoelectronic devices such as quantum well infrared photodetectors, quantum cascade lasers, and type II superlattice photodiodes can be controlled by the thickness and composition of the quantum wells that constitute their active layers. By further confining the charge carriers, for instance in a quantum dot, even more control can be gained over energy transitions within the semiconductor crystal. We propose a method for manipulating the semiconductor band structure by confining carriers within nanopillar structures. Using electron beam lithography and dry plasma etching, we can precisely control the pillar placement, density and dimensions, and thus the performance characteristics, of the optoelectronic device. Furthermore, by patterning different size structures, it is possible to create arrays of multi-color devices on the same substrate, a technique that lends itself to large-scale monolithic integration. We demonstrate the fabrication of nanopillar arrays in the GaSb, GaInP, GaInAs, and type II InAs/GaSb superlattice material systems and show initial photoluminescence data, which seems to indicate quantum confinement within these structures.

  18. [Update of breast cancer in Primary Care (III/V)].

    PubMed

    Álvarez Hernández, C; Vich Pérez, P; Brusint, B; Cuadrado Rouco, C; Díaz García, N; Robles Díaz, L

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a prevalent disease with implications in all aspects of patients? life, therefore, family doctors must know this pathology in depth, in order to optimize the health care provided to these patients with the best available resources. This series of five articles on breast cancer is based on a review of the scientific literature of the last ten years. This third article will review the clinical context and the staging and prognostic factors of the disease. This summary report aims to provide a global, current and practical review about this problem, providing answers to family doctors and helping them to be by the patients for their benefit throughout their illness. PMID:24953699

  19. Novel compound semiconductor devices based on III-V nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Ren, F.

    1995-10-01

    New developments in dry and wet etching, ohmic contacts and epitaxial growth of Ill-V nitrides are reported. These make possible devices such as microdisk laser structures and GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors with improved InN ohmic contacts.

  20. ICP dry etching of III-V nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Vartuli, C.B.; Lee, J.W.; MacKenzie, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    Inductively coupled plasma etching of GaN, AlN, InN, InGaN and InAlN was investigated in CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasmas as a function of dc bias, and ICP power. The etch rates were generally quite low, as is common for III-nitrides in CH{sub 4} based chemistries. The etch rates increased with increasing dc bias. At low rf power (150 W), the etch rates increased with increasing ICP power, while at 350 W rf power, a peak was found between 500 and 750 W ICP power. The etched surfaces were found to be smooth, while selectivities of etch were {le} 6 for InN over GaN, AlN, InGaN and InAlN under all conditions.

  1. Comparison of plasma etch techniques for III V nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shul, R. J.; Vawter, G. A.; Willison, C. G.; Bridges, M. M.; Lee, J. W.; Pearton, S. J.; Abernathy, C. R.

    1998-12-01

    Fabrication of group-III nitride devices relies on the ability to pattern features to depths ranging from ˜1000 Å to >5 μm with anisotropic profiles, smooth morphologies, selective etching of one material over another and a low degree of plasma-induced damage. In this study, GaN etch rates and etch profiles are compared using reactive ion etch (RIE), reactive ion beam etching (RIBE), electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch systems. RIE yielded the slowest etch rates and sloped etch profiles despite dc-biases >-900 V. ECR and ICP etching yielded the highest rates with anisotropic profiles due to their high plasma flux and the ability to control ion energies independently of plasma density. RIBE etch results also showed anisotropic profiles but with slower etch rates than either ECR or ICP possibly due to lower ion flux. InN and AlN etch characteristics are also compared using ICP and RIBE.

  2. Ion implantation and annealing studies in III-V nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Pearton, S.J.; Williams, J.S.; Tan, H.H.; Karlicek, R.J. Jr.; Stall, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation doping and isolation is expected to play an enabling role for the realization of advanced III-Nitride based devices. In fact, implantation has already been used to demonstrate n- and p-type doping of GaN with Si and Mg or Ca, respectively, as well as to fabricate the first GaN junction field effect transistor. Although these initial implantation studies demonstrated the feasibility of this technique for the III-Nitride materials, further work is needed to realize its full potential. After reviewing some of the initial studies in this field, the authors present new results for improved annealing sequences and defect studies in GaN. First, sputtered AlN is shown by electrical characterization of Schottky and Ohmic contacts to be an effect encapsulant of GaN during the 1,100 C implant activation anneal. The AlN suppresses N-loss from the GaN surface and the formation of a degenerate n{sup +}-surface region that would prohibit Schottky barrier formation after the implant activation anneal. Second, they examine the nature of the defect generation and annealing sequence following implantation using both Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Hall characterization. They show that for a Si-dose of 1 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}2} 50% electrical donor activation is achieved despite a significant amount of residual implantation-induced damage in the material.

  3. Large diameter III-V substrates current issues and perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, S.; Oida, K.; Miyajima, H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents prospects for the future market, availability and cost of 6-in.-diam. GaAs substrates from a substrate supplier`s point of view. Outlining the challenges to the substrate supplier, the authors discuss the current issues and the future potential of production technologies (crystal growth, annealing, and wafer processing) for 6-in.-diam. GaAs substrates, and mention current issues for 3-in.-diam. InP substrates. In addition, they introduce 6-in.-diam. GaAs and 3-in.-diam. InP crystals grown by the VCZ method, which is a promising technology for the production of large substrates for multimedia devices.

  4. The Performance of Advanced III-V Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert L.; Gaddy, Edward; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Test results show triple junction solar cells with efficiencies as high as 27% at 28C and 136.7 mw/sq cm. Triple junction cells also achieve up to 27.5% at -120 C and 5 mw/sq cm, conditions applicable to missions to Jupiter. Some triple junction cells show practically no degradation as a result of Low Intensity Low Temperature (LILT) effects, while others show some; this degradation can be overcome with minor changes to the cell design.

  5. Elastic layered waves in (001) III-V nitride systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchani, N.; Nougaoui, A.; Velasco, V. R.; Aynaou, H.; Bria, D.; El Boudouti, E. H.

    2006-07-01

    We have studied the acoustic waves in (001) single and multielastic wells formed by AlN, GaN, and InN in the zinc-blende structure. We have used the surface Green function matching method to obtain the dispersion relations and the local density of states. The anisotropy of the materials is included and the different propagation directions ranging from the [1,0,0] to the [1,1,0] have been considered. In these symmetry directions the sagittal waves are associated with a different velocity threshold than the transverse ones, thus showing a different behavior to that found in the isotropic case. For the [1,1,0] direction the sagittal modes are confined to a different range of velocities than the transverse modes. It has been found that the anisotropy introduces a more complex picture with a different mixing of the displacement components and the existence of different characteristics for different ranges of propagation direction.

  6. Si-Ge-Sn alloys with 1.0 eV gap for CPV multijunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roucka, Radek; Clark, Andrew; Landini, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Si-Ge-Sn ternary group IV alloys offer an alternative to currently used 1.0 eV gap materials utilized in multijunction solar cells. The advantage of Si-Ge-Sn is the ability to vary both the bandgap and lattice parameter independently. We present current development in fabrication of Si-Ge-Sn alloys with gaps in the 1.0 eV range. Produced material exhibits excellent structural properties, which allow for integration with existing III-V photovoltaic cell concepts. Time dependent room temperature photoluminescence data demonstrate that these materials have long carrier lifetimes. Absorption tunable by compositional changes is observed. As a prototype device set utilizing the 1 eV Si-Ge-Sn junction, single junction Si-Ge-Sn device and triple junction device with Si-Ge-Sn subcell have been fabricated. The resulting I-V and external quantum efficiency data show that the Si-Ge-Sn junction is fully functional and the performance is comparable to other 1.0 eV gap materials currently used.

  7. Quenching Alloys in Containerless Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oran, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic levitation and gas quenching combined in proposed method to melt and rapidly solidify alloys without contacting container walls. Method used to develop new carbides for drill bits, high-ductility structured steel and new high-strength superplastic alloys.

  8. Finding the Alloy Genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gus L. W.; Nelson, Lance J.; Zhou, Fei; Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2012-10-01

    First-principles codes can nowadays provide hundreds of high-fidelity enthalpies on thousands of alloy systems with a modest investment of a few tens of millions of CPU hours. But a mere database of enthalpies provides only the starting point for uncovering the ``alloy genome.'' What one needs to fundamentally change alloy discovery and design are complete searches over candidate structures (not just hundreds of known experimental phases) and models that can be used to simulate both kinetics and thermodynamics. Despite more than a decade of effort by many groups, developing robust models for these simulations is still a human-time-intensive endeavor. Compressive sensing solves this problem in dramatic fashion by automatically extracting the ``sparse model'' of an alloy in only minutes. This new paradigm to model building has enabled a new framework that will uncover, automatically and in a general way across the periodic table, the important components of such models and reveal the underlying ``genome'' of alloy physics.

  9. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Strasser, Peter; Koh, Shirlaine; Mani, Prasanna; Ratndeep, Srivastava

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  10. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-07-28

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic of good mechanical workability.

  11. Superplastic aluminum alloys containing scandium

    SciTech Connect

    Sawtell, R.R.; Bretz, P.E.; Jensen, C.L.

    1987-08-25

    This patent describes a method of superplastic forming wherein aluminum alloy stock is brought to superplastic forming temperature and superplastically formed into a shaped form at superplastic forming temperature. The improvement described here consists of providing the aluminum alloy stock as an alloy comprising more than 50% aluminum and including 0.05 to 10% scandium.

  12. Semiconductor alloys - Structural property engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M.; Chen, A.-B.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor alloys have been used for years to tune band gaps and average bond lengths to specific applications. Other selection criteria for alloy composition, and a growth technique designed to modify their structural properties, are presently considered. The alloys Zn(1-y)Cd(y)Te and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) are treated as examples.

  13. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wille, G W; Davis, J W

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500/sup 0/C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150/sup 0/C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement.

  14. Magnesium and magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Avedesian, M.; Baker, H.

    1998-12-31

    This new handbook is the most comprehensive publication of engineering information on commercial magnesium alloys under one cover in the last sixty years. Prepared with the cooperation of the International Magnesium Association, it presents the industrial practices currently used throughout the world, as well as the properties of the products critical to their proper application. Contents include: general characteristics; physical metallurgy; melting, refining, alloying, recycling, and powder production; casting; heat treatment; forging, rolling, and extrusion; semisolid processing; forming; joining; cleaning and finishing; selection, application, and properties of grades and alloys; design considerations; mechanical behavior and wear resistance; fatigue and fracture-mechanics; high-temperature strength and creep; corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking; specification.

  15. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  16. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700.degree. C.-1200.degree. C. to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy.

  17. Alloyed coatings for dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wermuth, F. R.; Stetson, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Processing techniques were developed for applying several diffusion barriers to TD-Ni and TD-NiCr. Barrier coated specimens of both substrates were clad with Ni-Cr-Al and Fe-Cr-Al alloys and diffusion annealed in argon. Measurement of the aluminum distribution after annealing showed that, of the readily applicable diffusion barriers, a slurry applied tungsten barrier most effectively inhibited the diffusion of aluminum from the Ni-Cr-Al clad into the TD-alloy substrates. No barrier effectively limited interdiffusion of the Fe-Cr-Al clad with the substrates. A duplex process was then developed for applying Ni-Cr-Al coating compositions to the tungsten barrier coated substrates. A Ni-(16 to 32)Cr-3Si modifier was applied by slurry spraying and firing in vacuum, and was then aluminized by a fusion slurry process. Cyclic oxidation tests at 2300 F resulted in early coating failure due to inadequate edge coverage and areas of coating porosity. EMP analysis showed that oxidation had consumed 70 to 80 percent of the aluminum in the coating in less than 50 hours.

  18. Microstructural studies on Alloy 693

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, R.; Dutta, R. S.; Sengupta, P.; Samajdar, I.; Dey, G. K.

    2014-10-01

    Superalloy 693, is a newly identified ‘high-temperature corrosion resistant alloy’. Present study focuses on microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy prepared by double ‘vacuum melting’ route. In general, the alloy contains ordered Ni3Al precipitates distributed within austenitic matrix. M6C primary carbide, M23C6 type secondary carbide and NbC particles are also found to be present. Heat treatment of the alloy at 1373 K for 30 min followed by water quenching (WQ) brings about a microstructure that is free from secondary carbides and Ni3Al type precipitates but contains primary carbides. Tensile property of Alloy 693 materials was measured with as received and solution annealed (1323 K, 60 min, WQ) and (1373 K, 30 min, WQ) conditions. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness of the alloy are found to drop with annealing. It is noted that in annealed condition, considerable cold working of the alloy can be performed.

  19. Superplasticity in aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T. G.

    1997-12-01

    We have characterized in the Al-Mg system the microstructure and mechanical properties of a cold-rolled Al-6Mg-0.3Sc alloy. The alloy exhibited superplasticity at relatively high strain rates (about 10-2 s-1). At a strain rate of 10-2 s-1 there exists a wide temperature range (475-520`C) within which the tensile elongation is over 1000%. There also exists a wide strain rate range (10-3 - 10-1 s-1) within which the tensile elongation is over 500%. The presence of Sc in the alloy results in a uniform distribution of fine coherent Al3SC precipitates which effectively pin grain and subgrain boundaries during static and continuous recrystallization. As a result, the alloy retains its fine grain size (about 7 micron), even after extensive superplastic deformation (>1000%). During deformation, dislocations Mg with a high Schmidt factor slip across subgrains but are trapped by subgrain boundaries, as a result of the strong pining of Al3Sc. This process leads to the conversion of low-angled subgrain boundaries to high-angled grain boundaries and the subsequent grain boundary sliding, which produces superelasticity. A model is proposed to describe grain boundary sliding accommodated by dislocation glide across grains with a uniform distribution of coherent precipitates. The model predictions is consistent with experimental observations.

  20. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  1. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  2. Annealing strained alloy 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    Report shows that grain coarsening in Alloy 718 can result in greatly reduced resistance to weld-heat-produced zone fissuring, especially when final grain size is ASTM 2. Tensile tests and metallographic examination of bend test specimens provide necessary data.

  3. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  4. Ductile quasicrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, A.; Zhang, T.; Chen, M. W.; Sakurai, T.; Saida, J.; Matsushita, M.

    2000-02-01

    An icosahedral (I) quasicrystalline phase with a grain size below 40 nm was formed as a metastable phase in crystallization of the bulk glassy Zr65Al7.5Cu17.5-xNi10Mx (M=Ag, Pd, Au, or Pt; x=5 and 10 at %) alloys. The volume fraction (Vf) of the I phase is about 85% for the 5% M alloy and nearly 100% for the 10% M alloy. The I phase changes to Zr2Cu+Zr2Ni+Zr2Al3 in a fully annealed state. Compressive fracture strength (?c,f) and fracture elongation (?c,f) of the 10% Pd cylinder with a diameter of 2 mm are respectively 1640 MPa and 2.2% for the glassy phase and increase to 1830 MPa and 3.1% for the I phase. The increase in ?c,f is due to the suppression effect of the I particles against the shear deformation of the intergranular glassy phase, and the increase in ?c,f results from the localization effect of deformation into the glassy layer. The precipitation of the I phase implies that the glassy alloys include randomly oriented I configurations. The present work shows promise for the new class of high-strength nanoquasicrystalline materials.

  5. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  6. Weldable ductile molybdenum alloy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockeram, B. V.; Ohriner, E. K.; Byun, T. S.; Miller, M. K.; Snead, L. L.

    2008-12-01

    Molybdenum and its alloys are attractive structural materials for high-temperature applications. However, various practical issues have limited its use. One concern relates to the loss of ductility occurring in the heat-affected weld zone caused by segregation of oxygen to grain boundaries. In this study, a series of arc melted molybdenum alloys have been produced containing controlled additions of B, C, Zr, and Al. These alloys were characterized with respect to their tensile properties, smooth bend properties, and impact energy for both the base metal and welds. These alloys were compared with a very high purity low carbon arc cast molybdenum reference. For discussion purposes the alloys produced are separated into two categories: Mo-Al-B alloys, and Mo-Zr-B alloys. The properties of Mo-Zr-B alloy welds containing higher carbon levels exhibited slight improvement over unalloyed molybdenum, though the base-metal properties for all Mo-Zr-B alloys were somewhat inconsistent with properties better, or worse, than unalloyed molybdenum. A Mo-Al-B alloy exhibited the best DBTT values for welds, and the base metal properties were comparable to or slightly better than unalloyed molybdenum. The Mo-Al-B alloy contained a low volume fraction of second-phase particles, with segregation of boron and carbon to grain boundaries believed to displace oxygen resulting in improved weld properties. The volume fractions of second-phase particles are higher for the Mo-Zr-B alloys, and these alloys were prone to brittle fracture. It is also noted that these Mo-Zr-B alloys exhibited segregation of zirconium, boron and carbon to the grain boundaries.

  7. Grindability of dental magnetic alloys.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Eisei; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu; Kimura, Kohei

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the grindability of cast magnetic alloys (Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and magnetic stainless steel) was evaluated and compared with that of conventional dental casting alloys (Ag-Pd-Au alloy, Type 4 gold alloy, and cobalt-chromium alloy). Grindability was evaluated in terms of grinding rate (i.e., volume of metal removed per minute) and grinding ratio (i.e., volume ratio of metal removed compared to wheel material lost). Solution treated Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy had a significantly higher grinding rate than the aged one at a grinding speed of 750-1500 m x min(-1). At 500 m x min(-1), there were no significant differences in grinding rate between solution treated and aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloys. At a lower speed of 500 m x min(-1) or 750 m x min(-1), it was found that the grinding rates of aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and stainless steel were higher than those of conventional casting alloys. PMID:16022434

  8. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  9. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  10. Mechanical behavior and properties of mechanically alloyed aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Last, H.R.; Garrett, R.K. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    The fracture and deformation behaviors of several product forms produced from mechanically alloyed (MA) aluminum alloys 9052 and 905XL were studied. The main operative strengthening mechanism is strengthening due to the submicron grain size. Ductility and toughness were found to be controlled by the morphology of the prior particle boundaries. The authors propose that the work-hardening behavior of these MA alloys is similar to the behavior exhibited by a deformed fcc alloy that (a) contains rigid barriers to dislocation motion, (b) deforms by wavy slip, and (c) forms a cell substructure upon deformation.

  11. Mechanical behavior and properties of mechanically alloyed aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, H. R.; Garrett, R. K.

    1996-03-01

    The fracture and deformation behaviors of several product forms produced from mechanically alloyed (MA) aluminum alloys 9052 and 905XL were studied. The main operative strengthening mechanism is strengthening due to the submicron grain size. Ductility and toughness were found to be controlled by the morphology of the prior particle boundaries. We propose that the work-hardening behavior of these MA alloys is similar to the behavior exhibited by a deformed fcc alloy that (a) contains rigid barriers to dislocation motion, (b) deforms by wavy slip, and (c) forms a cell substructure upon deformation.

  12. Two phase titanium aluminide alloy

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Liu, C. T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

  13. Magnesium-lithium casting alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latenko, V. P.; Silchenko, T. V.; Tikhonov, V. A.; Maltsev, V. P.; Korablin, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    The strength properties of magnesium-lithium alloys at room, low, and high temperatures are investigated. It is found that the alloys may have practical application at ambient temperatures up to 100 C, that negative temperatures have a favorable influence on the alloy strength, and that cyclic temperature variations have practically no effect on the strength characteristics. The influence of chemical coatings on corrosion resistance of the MgLi alloys is examined. Several facilities based on pressure casting machines, low-pressure casting machines, and magnetodynamic pumps were designed for producing MgLi alloy castings. Results were obtained for MgLi alloys reinforced with fibers having a volumetric content of 15%.

  14. TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Waber, J.T.

    1960-02-23

    Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

  15. Alloys for crown and bridgework.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, P J; Cannon, R W

    1981-10-01

    The requirements of alloys for metal-ceramic crowns and bridgework are examined. The functional requirements and manipulative behaviour and cost of cheaper alternatives to high gold alloys are discussed. All types use--high gold, reduced gold, silver palladium and base metal--appear to function satisfactorily in the mouth. Nickel and beryllium do not appear to be health hazards. Dental laboratory procedures and materials must be chosen to suit the type of alloy employed, although all alloy types appear suitable for crown and bridgework. The cost of alloy must be carefully examined in the context of total cost to the patient, and the use of alternatives to gold alloys in many cases may not warrant the required changes to laboratory procedures, but the saving is real, and can make permanent restorations available to greater proportion of the community. PMID:7036968

  16. Alloy Interface Interdiffusion Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Garces, Jorge E.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    With renewed interest in developing nuclear-powered deep space probes, attention will return to improving the metallurgical processing of potential nuclear fuels so that they remain dimensionally stable over the years required for a successful mission. Previous work on fuel alloys at the NASA Glenn Research Center was primarily empirical, with virtually no continuing research. Even when empirical studies are exacting, they often fail to provide enough insight to guide future research efforts. In addition, from a fundamental theoretical standpoint, the actinide metals (which include materials used for nuclear fuels) pose a severe challenge to modern electronic-structure theory. Recent advances in quantum approximate atomistic modeling, coupled with first-principles derivation of needed input parameters, can help researchers develop new alloys for nuclear propulsion.

  17. Shape memory alloy actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  18. Nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H. (Inventor); Allen, Donald R. (Inventor); Foley, James C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions and methods for obtaining nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys are described. A composition includes an amorphous matrix forming element (e.g., Al or Fe); at least one transition metal element; and at least one crystallizing agent that is insoluble in the resulting amorphous matrix. During devitrification, the crystallizing agent causes the formation of a high density nanocrystal dispersion. The compositions and methods provide advantages in that materials with superior properties are provided.

  19. Duct and cladding alloy

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    An austenitic alloy having good thermal stability and resistance to sodium corrosion at 700.degree. C. consists essentially of 35-45% nickel 7.5-14% chromium 0.8-3.2% molybdenum 0.3-1.0% silicon 0.2-1.0% manganese 0-0.1% zirconium 2.0-3.5% titanium 1.0-2.0% aluminum 0.02-0.1% carbon 0-0.01% boron and the balance iron.

  20. Materials data handbook, Inconel alloy 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sessler, J.; Weiss, V.

    1967-01-01

    Materials data handbook on Inconel alloy 718 includes data on the properties of the alloy at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures and other pertinent engineering information required for the design and fabrication of components and equipment utilizing this alloy.

  1. Materials data handbook, aluminum alloy 7075

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sessler, J.; Weiss, V.

    1967-01-01

    Materials data handbook on aluminum alloy 7075 includes data on the properties of the alloy at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures, and other pertinent engineering information required for the design and fabrication of components and equipment utilizing this alloy.

  2. Amorphous metal alloy and composite

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Rong (Richland, WA); Merz, Martin D. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  3. Surface Segregation in Ternary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2000-01-01

    Surface segregation profiles of binary (Cu-Ni, Au-Ni, Cu-Au) and ternary (Cu-Au-Ni) alloys are determined via Monte Carlo-Metropolis computer simulations using the BFS method for alloys for the calculation of the energetics. The behavior of Cu or Au in Ni is contrasted with their behavior when both are present. The interaction between Cu and Au and its effect on the segregation profiles for Cu-Au-Ni alloys is discussed.

  4. New hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, G. H.; Kapur, M.; Bockris, J. O'M.

    1990-07-01

    New alloys of hydogenated amorphous silicon with Al, Ga, S, and Se have been prepared by the rf glow discharge method. The energy gap of these materials can be varied in the 1-2 eV range, with the Al and Ga alloys being low band-gap semiconductors, and the S and Se alloys having higher energy gaps. The light to dark conductivity ratios of the various systems have been measured. The best photoresponse (102-103) was obtained with the Se and S alloys.

  5. Fluoride technology of obtaining REM magnetic alloys and master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sophronov, V. L.; Zhiganov, A. N.; Makaseev, Yu N.; Rusakov, I. Yu; Verkhoturova, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Rare earth permanent magnets (REPM) based on neodymium-Fe-boron system are the most promising, since they have the highest magnetic and satisfactory mechanical characteristics. The paper covers physical-chemical principles and shows the results of experimental studies of the process of obtaining REM alloys and master alloys using fundamentally new fluoride technology based on ladle calciothermal REM fluorides and Fe reduction.

  6. Radiation Effects in Refractory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J.; Wiffen, F.W.

    2004-02-04

    In order to achieve the required low reactor mass per unit electrical power for space reactors, refractory alloys are essential due to their high operating temperature capability that in turn enables high thermal conversion efficiencies. One of the key issues associated with refractory alloys is their performance in a neutron irradiation environment. The available radiation effects data are reviewed for alloys based on Mo, W, Re, Nb and Ta. The largest database is associated with Mo alloys, whereas Re, W and Ta alloys have the least available information. Particular attention is focused on Nb-1Zr, which is a proposed cladding and structural material for the reactor in the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) project. All of the refractory alloys exhibit qualitatively similar temperature-dependent behavior. At low temperatures up to {approx}0.3TM, where TM is the melting temperature, the dominant effect of radiation is to produce pronounced radiation hardening and concomitant loss of ductility. The radiation hardening also causes a dramatic decrease in the fracture toughness of the refractory alloys. These low temperature radiation effects occur at relatively low damage levels of {approx}0.1 displacement per atom, dpa ({approx}2x1024 n/m2, E>0.1 MeV). As a consequence, operation at low temperatures in the presence of neutron irradiation must be avoided for all refractory alloys. At intermediate temperatures (0.3 to 0.6 TM), void swelling and irradiation creep are the dominant effects of irradiation. The amount of volumetric swelling associated with void formation in refractory alloys is generally within engineering design limits (<5%) even for high neutron exposures (>>10 dpa). Very little experimental data exist on irradiation creep of refractory alloys, but data for other body centered cubic alloys suggest that the irradiation creep will produce negligible deformation for near-term space reactor applications.

  7. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  8. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  9. Palladium alloys for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Shor, Kavita

    2010-07-01

    In the biomedical field, palladium has primarily been used as a component of alloys for dental prostheses. However, recent research has shown the utility of palladium alloys for devices such as vascular stents that do not distort magnetic resonance images. Dental palladium alloys may contain minor or major percentages of palladium. As a minor constituent, palladium hardens, strengthens and increases the melting range of alloys. Alloys that contain palladium as the major component also contain copper, gallium and sometimes tin to produce strong alloys with high stiffness and relatively low corrosion rates. All current evidence suggests that palladium alloys are safe, despite fears about harmful effects of low-level corrosion products during biomedical use. Recent evidence suggests that palladium poses fewer biological risks than other elements, such as nickel or silver. Hypersensitivity to palladium alone is rare, but accompanies nickel hypersensitivity 90-100% of the time. The unstable price of palladium continues to influence the use of palladium alloys in biomedicine. PMID:20583886

  10. Aluminum and its light alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merica, Paul D

    1920-01-01

    Report is a summary of research work which has been done here and abroad on the constitution and mechanical properties of the various alloy systems with aluminum. The mechanical properties and compositions of commercial light alloys for casting, forging, or rolling, obtainable in this country are described.

  11. Irradiation Resistance of Multicomponent Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, T.; Guo, W.; Rack, P. D.; Nagase, T.

    2014-01-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are characterized not only by high values of entropy but also by high atomic-level stresses originating from mixing of elements with different atomic sizes. Particle irradiation on solids produces atomic displacements and thermal spikes. The high atomic-level stresses in HEAs facilitate amorphization upon particle irradiation, followed by local melting and re-crystallization due to thermal spikes. We speculate that this process will leave much less defects in HEAs than in conventional alloys. For this reason, they may be excellent candidates as new nuclear materials. We discuss initial results of computer simulation on model binary alloys and an electron microscopy study on Zr-Hf-Nb alloys, which demonstrate extremely high irradiation resistance of these alloys against electron damage to support this speculation.

  12. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.; Farkas, D.; Labdon, M. B.; Nagaswami, N.; Pregger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was determined. The following major elements were studied: (1) identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements; (2) development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients; (3) development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase change materials; and (4) identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. Several eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase change media.

  13. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  14. Wedlable nickel aluminide alloy

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-11-19

    A Ni.sub.3 Al alloy with improved weldability is described. It contains about 6-12 wt % Al, about 6-12 wt % Cr, about 0-3 wt % Mo, about 1.5-6 wt % Zr, about 0-0.02 wt % B and at least one of about 0-0.15 wt % C, about 0-0.20 wt % Si, about 0-0.01 wt % S and about 0-0.30 wt % Fe with the balance being Ni.

  15. ``Ideal'' Engineering Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianshu; Morris, J. W., Jr.; Nagasako, N.; Kuramoto, S.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2007-03-01

    A newly discovered group of alloys, called Gum Metals, approaches ideal strength in bulk form, exhibits significant plastic deformation prior to failure, and shows no indications of conventional-dislocation activity. Two conditions must be met for a material to exhibit this “ideal” behavior: (1) the stress required to trigger conventional-dislocation plasticity in the material must exceed its ideal strength, and (2) the material must be intrinsically ductile when stressed to ideal strength. Gum Metals satisfy both criteria, explaining their remarkable mechanical properties.

  16. New magnetic alloys.

    PubMed

    Chin, G Y

    1980-05-23

    Three notable new developments in magnetic alloys are highlighted. These include rare earth-cobalt permanent magnets with maximum energy products up to 240 kilojoules per cubic meter; chromium-cobalt-iron permanent magnets that have magnetic properties similar to those of the Alnicos, but contain only about half as much cobalt and are sufficiently ductile to be cold-formable; and high-induction grain-oriented silicon steels that exhibit 20 percent less core loss as transformer core materials than conventional oriented grades. PMID:17772813

  17. Thermomechanical treatment of alloys

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John F. (Ogden, UT); Brager, Howard R. (Richland, WA); Paxton, Michael M. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1983-01-01

    An article of an alloy of AISI 316 stainless steel is reduced in size to predetermined dimensions by cold working in repeated steps. Before the last reduction step the article is annealed by heating within a temperature range, specifically between 1010.degree. C. and 1038.degree. C. for a time interval between 90 and 60 seconds depending on the actual temperature. By this treatment the swelling under neutron bombardment by epithermal neutrons is reduced while substantial recrystallization does not occur in actual use for a time interval of at least of the order of 5000 hours.

  18. Aluminum alloy and associated anode and battery

    SciTech Connect

    Tarcy, G.P.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes an aluminum alloy. It comprises: eutectic amounts of at least two alloying elements selected from the group consisting of bismuth, cadmium, scandium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium, tin, and zinc with the balance being aluminum and the alloying elements being about 0.01 to 3.0 percent by weight of the alloy.

  19. Stable palladium alloys for diffusion of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patapoff, M.

    1973-01-01

    Literature search on hydrogen absorption effect on palladium alloys revealed existence of alloy compositions in which alpha--beta transition does not take place. Survey conclusions: 40 percent gold alloy of palladium should be used in place of palladium; alloy must be free of interstitial impurities; and metallic surfaces of tube must be clean.

  20. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Certain Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasse, K. R.; Dorward, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    SC resistance of new high-strength alloys tested. Research report describes progress in continuing investigation of stress corrosion (SC) cracking of some aluminum alloys. Objective of program is comparing SC behavior of newer high-strength alloys with established SC-resistant alloy.

  1. Interaction Of Hydrogen With Metal Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Montano, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on interaction of hydrogen with number of metal alloys. Discusses relationship between metallurgical and crystallographic aspects of structures of alloys and observed distributions of hydrogen on charging. Also discusses effect of formation of hydrides on resistances of alloys to hydrogen. Describes attempt to correlate structures and compositions of alloys with their abilities to resist embrittlement by hydrogen.

  2. Binary Colloidal Alloy Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Close-up view of the Binary Colloidal Alloy Test during an experiment run aboard the Russian Mir space station. BCAT is part of an extensive series of experiments plarned to investigate the fundamental properties of colloids so that scientists can make colloids more useful for technological applications. Some of the colloids studied in BCAT are made of two different sized particles (binary colloidal alloys) that are very tiny, uniform plastic spheres. Under the proper conditions, these colloids can arrange themselves in a pattern to form crystals, which may have many unique properties that may form the basis of new classes of light switches, displays, and optical devices that can fuel the evolution of the next generation of computer and communication technologies. This Slow Growth hardware consisted of a 35-mm camera aimed toward a module which contained 10 separate colloid samples. To begin the experiment, one of the astronauts would mix the samples to disperse the colloidal particles. Then the hardware operated autonomously, taking photos of the colloidal samples over a 90-day period. The investigation proved that gravity plays a central role in the formation and stability of these types of colloidal crystal structures. The investigation also helped identify the optimum conditions for the formation of colloidal crystals, which will be used for optimizing future microgravity experiments in the study of colloidal physics. Dr. David Weitz of the University of Pennsylvania and Dr. Peter Pusey of the University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom, are the principal investigators.

  3. B Alloy Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Xu, Junfeng; Zhang, Di; Jian, Zengyun

    2014-10-01

    The solidification of undercooled Ni-4.5 wt pct B alloy melt was investigated by using the glass fluxing technique. The alloy melt was undercooled up to ? T p ~ 245 K (245 °C), where a mixture of ?-Ni dendrite, Ni3B dendrite, rod eutectic, and precipitates was obtained. If ? T p < 175 K ± 10 K (175 °C ± 10 °C), the solidification pathway was found as primary transformation and eutectic transformation (L ? Ni3B and L ? Ni/Ni3B); if ? T p ? 175 K ± 10 K (175 °C ± 10 °C), the pathway was found as metastable eutectic transformation, metastable phase decomposition, and residual liquid solidification (L ? Ni/Ni23B6, Ni23B6 ? Ni/Ni3B, and Lr ? Ni/Ni3B). A high-speed video system was adopted to observe the solidification front of each transformation. It showed that for residual liquid solidification, the solidification front velocity is the same magnitude as that for eutectic transformation, but is an order of magnitude larger than for metastable eutectic transformation, which confirms the reaction as Lr ? Ni/Ni3B; it also showed that this velocity decreases with increasing ? T r, which can be explained by reduction of the residual liquid fraction and decrease of Ni23B6 decomposition rate.

  4. The entropy of alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Stan, M.

    2004-01-01

    A major problem in simulating thermodynamic properties of alloys is modeling the entropy. While configurational entropy is incorporated in most stability calculations, the other components, such as the vibrational and electronic entropy are often neglected or roughly estimated. In this work we propose a method of accounting for both configurational and vibrational entropy and discuss the electronic contribution for several actinide based alloys. The meaning of entropy in non-equilibrium thermodynamic processes is also discussed and illustrated for the case of phase transformations and diffusion. The influence of temperature on the enthalpy and free energy of delta-Pu-Ga phase, as resulted from Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM), and the influence of Ga content on the enthalpy and free energy of delta-Pu-Ga phase are discussed. The analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the fcc Pu-Ga phase, as calculated with MEAM shows that the vibrational entropy contribution to the free energy is ve ry important and non-linear with temperature. The free energy also changes with the Ga content.

  5. High performance alloy electroforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Winkelman, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Electroformed copper and nickel are used in structural applications for advanced propellant combustion chambers. An improved process has been developed by Bell Aerospace Textron, Inc. wherein electroformed nickel-manganese alloy has demonstrated superior mechanical and thermal stability when compared to previously reported deposits from known nickel plating processes. Solution chemistry and parametric operating procedures are now established and material property data is established for deposition of thick, large complex shapes such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The critical operating variables are those governing the ratio of codeposited nickel and manganese. The deposition uniformity which in turn affects the manganese concentration distribution is affected by solution resistance and geometric effects as well as solution agitation. The manganese concentration in the deposit must be between 2000 and 3000 ppm for optimum physical properties to be realized. The study also includes data regarding deposition procedures for achieving excellent bond strength at an interface with copper, nickel-manganese or INCONEL 718. Applications for this electroformed material include fabrication of complex or re-entry shapes which would be difficult or impossible to form from high strength alloys such as INCONEL 718.

  6. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

  7. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John S. (Corvallis, OR); Alman, David E. (Salem, OR)

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

  8. Fatigue of die cast zinc alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, O.N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2006-04-01

    The rotating bending fatigue limit of die cast zinc alloy 2, alloy 3, alloy 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined as a part of an on-going program by ILZRO into the mechanical properties of die cast zinc. The stress-life (S-N) curves of alloys 3, 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined previously. This presentation reports the results of the S-N curve for Alloy 2 and the calculated fatigue limits for all five alloys. During the previous stress-life testing, the samples were stopped at 10 million cycles and the fatigue limit for alloy 3, alloy 5, and AcuZinc 5 appeared to be higher and the fatigue limit for ZA-8 appeared to be lower than the values reported in the literature. This was further investigated in alloy 5 and ZA-8 by testing continuous cast bulk alloy 5 and ZA-8.

  9. The fractography of casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, G.W. )

    1994-10-01

    Several types of casting alloys were fractured using various loading modes (uniaxial tension, bending, impact, and torsion, and cyclic stressing), and the corresponding mechanical properties were determined. The unetched and etched fracture surfaces and the microstructures were examined using conventional techniques. The types of casting alloys that were the subjects f these investigations include gray iron, ductile iron, cast steel, and aluminum-base alloys (A380, A356, and 319). The fractographic studies have yielded these generalizations regarding the topography of the fracture surfaces. In the case of low-ductility alloys such as gray iron and the aluminum-base alloys, the tensile edge of a fracture surface produced by a stress system with a strong bending-moment component has a highly irregular contour, whereas the compressive edge of the fracture surface is quite straight and parallel to the bend axis. On the other hand, the periphery of a fracture surface produced by uniaxial tension has a completely irregular contour. The fracture surface produced by cyclic loading of a gray iron does not display any macroscopic evidence (such as a thumb nail) of the loading mode. However, the fracture surface of each of the other casting alloys displays clear, macroscopic evidence of failure induced by fatigue. The aluminum-base alloys fracture completely within the interdendritic region of the microstructure when subjected to monotonic loading by uniaxial tension or bending, whereas a fatigue crack propagates predominantly through the primary crystals of the microstructure.

  10. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was investigated. The elements selected as candidate media were limited to aluminum, copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus on the basis of low cost and latent heat of transformation. Several new eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A new method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented for aluminum and two aluminum-eutectic alloys. Candidate materials were evaluated to determine suitable materials for containment of the metal alloys. Graphite was used to contain the alloys during the volume change measurements. Silicon carbide was identified as a promising containment material and surface-coated iron alloys were also evaluated. System considerations that are pertinent if alloy eutectics are used as thermal energy storage media are discussed. Potential applications to solar receivers and industrial furnaces are illustrated schematically.

  11. Joint properties of cast Fe-Pt magnetic alloy laser welded to gold alloys.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ikuya; Nguyen, Khoi; Benson, P Andrew; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the joint properties of a cast Fe-Pt magnetic alloy (Fe-36 at % Pt) laser welded to three gold alloys. The gold alloys used were ADA Type II and Type IV gold alloys, and an Ag-based (Ag-Au) gold alloy. Cast plates (0.5 x 3.0 x 10 mm) were prepared for each alloy. After the cast Fe-Pt plates were heat treated, they were butted against each of the three alloys and then laser welded with Nd:YAG laser at 200 V. Homogeneously welded specimens were also prepared for each alloy. Tensile testing was conducted at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Failure load (N) and elongation (%) were recorded. After tensile testing, the fractured surfaces were examined with the use of SEM. The failure-load values of the group of alloys welded homogeneously were ranked in the order of: Ag-Au alloy > Type IV alloy > Type II alloy > Fe-Pt alloy. The Type IV alloy welded to Fe-Pt alloy had the highest failure-load value among the three alloys tested. The elongation results tended to follow a similar pattern. The results of this study indicated that Type IV gold alloy is a suitable alloy for metal frameworks to which cast Fe-Pt magnetic alloy is laser welded. PMID:16044421

  12. Modeling dissolution in aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Tracie Lee

    2005-07-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are used in many aspects of modern life, from soda cans and household foil to the automobiles and aircraft in which we travel. Aluminum alloy systems are characterized by good workability that enables these alloys to be economically rolled, extruded, or forged into useful shapes. Mechanical properties such as strength are altered significantly with cold working, annealing, precipitation-hardening, and/or heat-treatments. Heat-treatable aluminum alloys contain one or more soluble constituents such as copper, lithium, magnesium, silicon and zinc that individually, or with other elements, can form phases that strengthen the alloy. Microstructure development is highly dependent on all of the processing steps the alloy experiences. Ultimately, the macroscopic properties of the alloy depend strongly on the microstructure. Therefore, a quantitative understanding of the microstructural changes that occur during thermal and mechanical processing is fundamental to predicting alloy properties. In particular, the microstructure becomes more homogeneous and secondary phases are dissolved during thermal treatments. Robust physical models for the kinetics of particle dissolution are necessary to predict the most efficient thermal treatment. A general dissolution model for multi-component alloys has been developed using the front-tracking method to study the dissolution of precipitates in an aluminum alloy matrix. This technique is applicable to any alloy system, provided thermodynamic and diffusion data are available. Treatment of the precipitate interface is explored using two techniques: the immersed-boundary method and a new technique, termed here the "sharp-interface" method. The sharp-interface technique is based on a variation of the ghost fluid method and eliminates the need for corrective source terms in the characteristic equations. In addition, the sharp-interface method is shown to predict the dissolution behavior of precipitates in aluminum alloys when compared with published experimental results. The influence of inter-particle spacing is examined and shown to have a significant effect on dissolution kinetics. Finally, the impact of multiple particles of various sizes interacting in an aluminum matrix is investigated. It is shown that smaller particles dissolve faster, as expected, but influence the dissolution of larger particles through soft-impingement, even after the smaller particles have disappeared.

  13. Dissimilar friction welding of titanium alloys to alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, M.; Albright, C.E.; Baeslack, W.A. III

    1994-12-31

    The design of advanced, high-performance gas-turbine engines will require the utilization of elevated-temperature titanium-based materials, including conventional alloys, titanium aluminides, and titanium metal-matrix composites. The most efficient utilization of these materials in the engine compressor section would be achieved by directly joining these materials to existing nickel-base superalloys, such as Alloy 718. To date, the dissimilar welding of titanium alloys to nickel-based alloys has not been common practice because intermetallic compounds form in the weld and cause embrittlement. Special welding techniques must be developed to inhibit this compound formation and to provide high strength welds. In this investigation, a friction welding process was developed for joining titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo and Ti-6Al-4V) to nickel-based superalloy Alloy 718. An interlayer system comprised of copper and niobium sheet layers was employed as a diffusion barrier and weld deformation enhancer. A postweld heat treatment (PWHT, 700{degrees}C for 20 min in vacuum) under axial pressure (Ksi) was used to improve the joint strength consistency. The following conclusions can be drawn from this investigation: (1) A friction welding technique has been developed for joining titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo and Ti-6Al-4V) to Alloy 718 using an interlayer system of niobium and copper. Joint strengths averaging approximately 50 Ksi were achieved. (2) Deformation was concentrated in the interlayers, especially the copper interlayer, during friction welding. Increased reduction in length (RIL) during friction welding resulted in a decrease in the interlayer thicknesses. (3) The EDS results showed that the niobium and copper interlayers prevent interdiffusion between the two parent metals, producing formation of detrimental phases.

  14. Mechanical alloying of biocompatible Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-De Jesús, F; Bolarín-Miró, A M; Torres-Villaseñor, G; Cortés-Escobedo, C A; Betancourt-Cantera, J A

    2010-07-01

    We report on an alternative route for the synthesis of crystalline Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, which could be used for surgical implants. Co, Cr and Mo elemental powders, mixed in an adequate weight relation according to ISO Standard 58342-4 (ISO, 1996), were used for the mechanical alloying (MA) of nano-structured Co-alloy. The process was carried out at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using hardened steel balls and vials as milling media, with a 1:8 ball:powder weight ratio. Crystalline structure characterization of milled powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction in order to analyze the phase transformations as a function of milling time. The aim of this work was to evaluate the alloying mechanism involved in the mechanical alloying of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The evolution of the phase transformations with milling time is reported for each mixture. Results showed that the resultant alloy is a Co-alpha solid solution, successfully obtained by mechanical alloying after a total of 10 h of milling time: first Cr and Mo are mechanically prealloyed for 7 h, and then Co is mixed in for 3 h. In addition, different methods of premixing were studied. The particle size of the powders is reduced with increasing milling time, reaching about 5 mum at 10 h; a longer time promotes the formation of aggregates. The morphology and crystal structure of milled powders as a function of milling time were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and XR diffraction. PMID:20364362

  15. Alloyed steel wastes utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, I.V.

    1995-12-31

    Alloyed steel chips and swarf formed during metal processing are looked upon as additional raw materials in metallurgical production. This paper presents some new methods for steel waste chips and swarf cleaning. One of them is swarf and steel chips cleaning in tetrachloroethylene with ultrasonic assistance and solvent regeneration. Thermal cleaning of waste chips and swarf provides off gas products utilization. The catalyst influence of the metal surface on the thermal decomposition of liquid hydrocarbons during the cleaning process has been studied. It has been determined that the efficiency of this metal waste cleaning technique depends on the storage time of the swarf. The waste chips and swarf cleaning procedures have been proven to be economically advantageous and environmentally appropriate.

  16. Metallic alloy stability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firth, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    The dimensional stability of candidate cryogenic wind tunnel model materials was investigated. Flat specimens of candidate materials were fabricated and cryo-cycled to assess relative dimensional stability. Existing 2-dimensional airfoil models as well as models in various stages of manufacture were also cryo-cycled. The tests indicate that 18 Ni maraging steel offers the greatest dimensional stability and that PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel is the most stable of the stainless steels. Dimensional stability is influenced primarily by metallurgical transformations (austenitic to martensitic) and manufacturing-induced stresses. These factors can be minimized by utilization of stable alloys, refinement of existing manufacturing techniques, and incorporation of new manufacturing technologies.

  17. Smart interfacial bonding alloys

    SciTech Connect

    R. Q. Hwang; J. C. Hamilton; J. E. Houston

    1999-04-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to explore the use of the newly discovered strain-stabilized 2-D interfacial alloys as smart interface bonding alloys (SIBA). These materials will be used as templates for the heteroepitaxial growth of metallic thin films. SIBA are formed by two metallic components which mix at an interface to relieve strain and prevent dislocations from forming in subsequent thin film growth. The composition of the SIBA is determined locally by the amount of strain, and therefore can react smartly to areas of the highest strain to relieve dislocations. In this way, SIBA can be used to tailor the dislocation structure of thin films. This project included growth, characterization and modeling of films grown using SIBA templates. Characterization will include atomic imaging of the dislocations structure, measurement of the mechanical properties of the film using interface force microscopy (IFM) and the nanoindenter, and measurement of the electronic structure of the SIBA with synchrotron photoemission. Resistance of films to sulfidation and oxidation will also be examined. The Paragon parallel processing computer will be used to calculate the structure of the SIBA and thin films in order to develop ability to predict and tailor SIBA and thin film behavior. This work will lead to the possible development of a new class of thin film materials with properties tailored by varying the composition of the SIBA, serving as a buffer layer to relieve the strain between the substrate and the thin film. Such films will have improved mechanical and corrosion resistance allowing application as protective barriers for weapons applications. They will also exhibit enhanced electrical conductivity and reduced electromigration making them particularly suitable for application as interconnects and other electronic needs.

  18. Manufacturing of High Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-07-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion they have high configurational entropy, and thus they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and phase stability. The present study investigates the microstructure of two single-phase face-centered cubic (FCC) HEAs, CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn, with special attention given to melting, homogenization and thermo-mechanical processing. Large-scale ingots were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent in small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was applied to both alloys in order to eliminate segregation due to normal ingot solidification. The alloys fabricated well, with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters being employed.

  19. Tritium Production from Palladium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Schwab, M.J.; Thoma, D.J.; Teter, D.F.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1998-04-19

    A number of palladium alloys have been loaded with deuterium or hydrogen under low energy bombardment in a system that allows the continuous measurement of tritium. Long run times (up to 200 h) result in an integration of the tritium and this, coupled with the high intrinsic sensitivity of the system ({approximately}0.1 nCi/l), enables the significance of the tritium measurement to be many sigma (>10). We will show the difference in tritium generation rates between batches of palladium alloys (Rh, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Be, B, Li, Hf, Hg and Fe) of various concentrations to illustrate that tritium generation rate is dependent on alloy type as well as within a specific alloy, dependent on concentration.

  20. Magnesium Alloys and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kainer, Karl U.

    1999-04-01

    In the recent years there has been a dramatic increase in research activity and also applications of magnesium alloys. The driving force is the growing demand by the automobile industry resulting from the pressure to reduce weight and hence to reduce the fuel consumption. The U.S. car industry incorporates the largest amount of magnesium at the present time. In Europe, Volkswagen had a history of using magnesium in the VW Beetle. Volkswagen, in common with other major car producers has initiated a major research and development programme for advanced magnesium materials. The main emphasis of this book is in the field of general physical metallurgy and alloy development refelcting the need to provide a wider range of alloys both casting and wrought alloys to meet the increasing demands of industry. Other topics are nevertheless well represented such as casting, recycling, joining, corrosion, and surface treatment.