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1

Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

Not Available

1989-09-01

2

Viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of gaseous and liquid oxygen

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations and tables are presented for the viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of gaseous and liquid oxygen at temperatures between 80 K and 400 K for pressures up to 200 atm. and at temperatures between 80 K and 2000 K for the dilute gas. A description of the anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity in the critical region is included. The tabulated coefficients are reliable to within about 15% except for a region in the immediate vicinity of the critical point. Some possibilities for future improvements of this reliability are discussed.

Hanley, H. J. M.; Mccarty, R. D.; Sengers, J. V.

1974-01-01

3

Favorite Demonstrations: Gaseous Diffusion: A Demonstration of Graham's Law.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration in which gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid are used to illustrate rates of diffusion (Graham's Law). Simple equipment needed for the demonstration include a long tube, rubber stoppes, and cotton. Two related demonstrations are also explained. (DH)

Kauffman, George B.; Ebner, Ronald D.

1985-01-01

4

Numerical investigations of gaseous spherical diffusion flames

Spherical diffusion flames have several unique characteristics that make them attractive from experimental and theoretical perspectives. They can be modeled with one spatial dimension, which frees computational resources for detailed chemistry, transport, and radiative loss models. This dissertation is a numerical study of two classes of spherical diffusion flames: hydrogen micro-diffusion flames, emphasizing kinetic extinction, and ethylene diffusion flames, emphasizing

Vivien R. Lecoustre

2009-01-01

5

Diffusion coefficients of several aqueous alkanolamine solutions

In absorption processes of acid gases (H[sub 2]S, CO[sub 2], COS) in alkanolamine solutions, diffusion coefficients are used for the calculation of the mass transfer rate. The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and di-2-propanolamine (DIPA), correlations for the diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature at different concentrations are given. A single relation for every amine has been derived which correlates the diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature and concentration. The temperature was varied between 298 and 348 K, and the concentration between 0 and 4000-5000 mol/m[sup 3]. Furthermore, a modified Stokes-Einstein relation is presented for the prediction of the diffusion coefficients in the alkanolamines in relation to the viscosity of the solvent and the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution. The diffusion coefficients at low concentrations are compared with some available relations for the estimation of diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution, and it appears that the agreement is fairly good.

Snijder, E.D.; Riele, M.J.M. te; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van (Twente Univ. of Technology, Enschede (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-07-01

6

The transport of gaseous compounds in soil occurs by gas diffusion, advection, and dispersion. These gas transport processes are controlled by the soil-gas diffusion coefficient (Dp), air permeability (ka) and soil-gas dispersion coefficient (DH), respectively. Among the three main gas transport parameters, the DH and how it is linked to soil types, moisture conditions and other gas transport parameters, are

S. Hamamoto; P. Moldrup; K. Kawamoto; T. Komatsu; D. E. Rolston

2009-01-01

7

Numerical investigations of gaseous spherical diffusion flames

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spherical diffusion flames have several unique characteristics that make them attractive from experimental and theoretical perspectives. They can be modeled with one spatial dimension, which frees computational resources for detailed chemistry, transport, and radiative loss models. This dissertation is a numerical study of two classes of spherical diffusion flames: hydrogen micro-diffusion flames, emphasizing kinetic extinction, and ethylene diffusion flames, emphasizing sooting limits. The flames were modeled using a one-dimensional, time-accurate diffusion flame code with detailed chemistry and transport. Radiative losses from products were modeled using a detailed absorption/emission statistical narrow band model and the discrete ordinates method. During this work the code has been enhanced by the implementation of a soot formation/oxidation model using the method of moments. Hydrogen micro-diffusion flames were studied experimentally and numerically. The experiments involved gas jets of hydrogen. At their quenching limits, these flames had heat release rates of 0.46 and 0.25 W in air and in oxygen, respectively. These are the weakest flames ever observed. The modeling results confirmed the quenching limits and revealed high rates of reactant leakage near the limits. The effects of the burner size and mass flow rate were predicted to have a significant impact on the flame chemistry and species distribution profiles, favoring kinetic extinction. Spherical ethylene diffusion flames at their sooting limits were also examined. Seventeen normal and inverse spherical flames were considered. Initially sooty, these flames were experimentally observed to reach their sooting limits 2 s after ignition. Structure of the flames at 2 s was considered, with an emphasis on the relationships among local temperature, carbon to oxygen atom ratio (C/O), and scalar dissipation rate. A critical C/O ratio was identified, along with two different sooting limit regimes. Diffusion flames with local scalar dissipation rates below 2 s-1 were found to have temperatures near 1410 K at the location of the critical C/O ratio, whereas flames with greater local scalar dissipation rate exhibited increased temperatures. The present work sheds light on important combustion phenomenon related to flame extinction and soot formation. Applications to energy efficiency, pollutant reduction, and fire safety are expected.

Lecoustre, Vivien R.

8

Radiant extinction of gaseous diffusion flames

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal-gravity and microgravity flames have been reported during droplet combustion, flame spread over solids, candle flames, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence time and higher concentration of combustion products create a thermochemical environment which changes the flame chemistry. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored under normal gravity, become very important and sometimes even controlling. This is particularly true for conditions at extinction of a microgravity diffusion flame. Under normal-gravity, the buoyant flow, which may be characterized by the strain rate, assists the diffusion process to transport the fuel and oxidizer to the combustion zone and remove the hot combustion products from it. These are essential functions for the survival of the flame which needs fuel and oxidizer. Thus, as the strain rate is increased, the diffusion flame which is 'weak' (reduced burning rate per unit flame area) at low strain rates is initially 'strengthened' and eventually it may be 'blown-out'. Most of the previous research on diffusion flame extinction has been conducted at the high strain rate 'blow-off' limit. The literature substantially lacks information on low strain rate, radiation-induced, extinction of diffusion flames. At the low strain rates encountered in microgravity, flame radiation is enhanced due to: (1) build-up of combustion products in the flame zone which increases the gas radiation, and (2) low strain rates provide sufficient residence time for substantial amounts of soot to form which further increases the flame radiation. It is expected that this radiative heat loss will extinguish the already 'weak' diffusion flame under certain conditions. Identifying these conditions (ambient atmosphere, fuel flow rate, fuel type, etc.) is important for spacecraft fire safety. Thus, the objective is to experimentally and theoretically investigate the radiation-induced extinction of diffusion flames in microgravity and determine the effect of flame radiation on the 'weak' microgravity diffusion flame.

Atreya, Arvind; Agrawal, Sanjay; Shamim, Tariq; Pickett, Kent; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Baum, Howard R.

1995-01-01

9

Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Sofo, J. O. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (8400) Bariloche RN, (Argentina)] [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (8400) Bariloche RN, (Argentina); Mahan, G. D. [Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6030 (United States) [Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6030 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200 (United States)

2000-07-15

10

Diffusion coefficients in leaflets of bilayer membranes

We study diffusion coefficients of liquid domains by explicitly taking into account the two-layered structure called leaflets of the bilayer membrane. In general, the velocity fields associated with each leaflet are different and the layers sliding past each other cause frictional coupling. We obtain analytical results of diffusion coefficients for a circular liquid domain in a leaflet, and quantitatively study their dependence on the inter-leaflet friction. We also show that the diffusion coefficients diverge in the absence of coupling between the bilayer and solvents, even when the inter-leaflet friction is taken into account. In order to corroborate our theory, the effect of the inter-leaflet friction on the correlated diffusion is examined.

Kazuhiko Seki; Saurabh Mogre; Shigeyuki Komura

2014-02-05

11

Volume 2 is comprised of appendices: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Existing Facilities; Ecology; Civic Involvement; Social Analysis; Population Projections; Toxicity of Air Pollutants to Biota at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and Assessment of Noise Effects of an Add-On to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. (LK)

Not Available

1977-09-01

12

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1992

This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Report for 1992, is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population. The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP`s neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, reduce the generation of waste, and minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

Horak, C.M. [ed.] [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1993-09-01

13

Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI\\/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than

R. W. Jr. Tayloe; B. McGinnis

1990-01-01

14

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes.

Not Available

1994-10-01

15

Calculation of combined diffusion coefficients in SF6-Cu mixtures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion coefficients play an important role in the description of the transport of metal vapours in gas mixtures. This paper is devoted to the calculation of four combined diffusion coefficients, namely, the combined ordinary diffusion coefficient, combined electric field diffusion coefficient, combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and combined pressure diffusion coefficient in SF6-Cu mixtures at temperatures up to 30 000 K. These four coefficients describe diffusion due to composition gradients, applied electric fields, temperature gradients, and pressure gradients, respectively. The influence of copper fluoride and sulfide species on the diffusion coefficients is shown to be negligible. The effect of copper proportion and gas pressures on these diffusion coefficients is investigated. It is shown that increasing the proportion of copper generally increases the magnitude of the four diffusion coefficients, except for copper mole fractions of 90% or more. It is further found that increasing the pressure reduces the magnitude of the coefficients, except for the combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and shifts the maximum of all four coefficients towards higher temperatures. The results presented in this paper can be applied to the simulation of high-voltage circuit breaker arcs.

Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua; Rong, Mingzhe; Wu, Yi; Murphy, Anthony B.

2014-10-01

16

Tiger Team Assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

This document contains findings and concerns identified during the Tiger Team Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The assessment was directed by the Department's Office of Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) and was conducted from June 18 to July 20, 1990. The PGDP Tiger Team Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environmental, Safety and Health (including OSHA Compliance), and Management areas and determines the site's compliance with applicable federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. The objective of the assessment program is to provide the Secretary with information on the current ES H compliance status of DOE facilities, root causation for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and site contractor ES H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES H compliance trends and root causes.

Not Available

1990-07-01

17

Tiger Team Assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

This document contains findings and concerns identified during the Tiger Team Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The assessment was directed by the Department's Office of Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) and was conducted from June 18 to July 20, 1990. The PGDP Tiger Team Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environmental, Safety and Health (including OSHA Compliance), and Management areas and determines the site's compliance with applicable federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. The objective of the assessment program is to provide the Secretary with information on the current ES H compliance status of DOE facilities, root causation for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and site contractor ES H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES H compliance trends and root causes. This volume contains appendices.

Not Available

1990-07-01

18

Seismic issues at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

A seismic expert workshop was held at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on March 13--15, 1989. the PGDP is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). During the last twenty years the design criteria for natural phenomenon hazards has steadily become more demanding at all of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) sites. The purpose of the two-day workshop was to review the seismic vulnerability issues of the PGDP facilities. Participants to the workshop included recognized experts in the fields of seismic engineering, seismology and geosciences, and probabilistic analysis, along with engineers and other personnel from Energy Systems. A complete list of the workshop participants is included in the front of this report. 29 refs.

Fricke, K.E. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1989-11-01

19

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

This two-part environmental report is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials. 36 refs.

Turner, J.W. (ed.) (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1990-10-01

20

The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. As shown in Fig. 1, the plant is located in sparsely populated, rural Pike County, Ohio. PORTS began in 1952 as part of the Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) proposed expansion of the gaseous diffusion program in order

L. M. Rodriguez; L. M. Floyd; R. F. Carrier

1992-01-01

21

The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. As shown in Fig. 1, the plant is located in sparsely populated, rural Pike County, Ohio. PORTS began in 1952 as part of the Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC) proposed expansion of the gaseous diffusion program in order

L. M. Rodriguez; L. M. Floyd; R. F. Carrier

1992-01-01

22

Diffusion of gaseous and supercritical CO2 through polycarbonate

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of polymeric materials for applications such as separation membranes and nanostructured foams requires prediction of gas transport properties under a wide range of pressures. In the current study, transport of CO2 both in gaseous and supercritical state through samples of polycarbonate at 51 ^oC and pressures from 15 to 2000 psi was measured using an asymptotic time lag apparatus. Through volumetric calibration, the traditional analysis was extended to yield permeability (P) and solubility (S), in addition to the usual asymptotic diffusivity (Da). Nonlinear least squares fitting to a truncated series solution then provided an alternative measurement of the (transient) diffusivity (Dt), as well as the surface concentration (Co) of adsorbed gas. At 1 atm, Da and Dt were within a factor of 2 from selected handbook values; and with increasing pressure, both exhibited an overall downward trend, consistent with other studies, but an unexpected dropoff occurred between 1350 and 1500 psi. As expected, Co showed an overall increase with pressure, but as with P and S, displayed a peculiar drop between 1350 and 1500 psi. Measurement of Co in polycarbonate has never been done before and constitutes a novel feature of this study.

Goodman, Michael; Ozisik, Rahmi

2013-03-01

23

Decommissioning of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant at BNFL Capenhurst

The Capenhurst Gaseous Diffusion Plant was built in the early 1950s. It was originally built to produce highly enriched uranium for defense purposes but in the early 1960s the section of the plant which had been used for dealing with high U235 enrichments, the HSD section, was isolated, emptied of its process gas and put into a care and surveillance state. The rest of the plant, the LSD section, then underwent a modification program for low enrichment uranium production for civil use. The plant was shut down in 1982, by which time Urenco Centrifuge Enrichment Plants were built and operating successfully at Capenhurst and the Diffusion Plant was no longer economic. Since that time a program of decommissioning and dismantling has been in progress dealing with over 160,000 tons of surface contaminated metal, concrete and other, potentially hazardous, material. By the middle of 1994 less than 2% of the total volume of the whole project will have been consigned for burial as LLW. Over 98% will have been successfully treated and recycled as clean materials. This paper describes progress on the project, with specific examples of volume reduction and decontamination techniques. The paper demonstrates how BNFL is able to tackle dismantling, volume reduction and decontamination of a large scale nuclear processing plant safely and cost effectively.

Baxter, S.G. [BNFL, Chester (United Kingdom). Capenhurst Works; Bradbury, P. [BNFL Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1993-12-31

24

Analytic Forms of the Perpendicular Diffusion Coefficient in NRMHD Turbulence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past different analytic limits for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence were discussed. These different limits or cases correspond to different transport modes describing how the particles are diffusing across the large-scale magnetic field. In the current paper we describe a new transport regime by considering the model of noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We derive different analytic forms of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, and while we do this, we focus on the aforementioned new transport mode. We show that for this turbulence model a small perpendicular diffusion coefficient can be obtained so that the latter diffusion coefficient is more than hundred times smaller than the parallel diffusion coefficient. This result is relevant to explain observations in the solar system where such small perpendicular diffusion coefficients have been reported.

Shalchi, A.

2015-02-01

25

Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given.

Murphy, Anthony B.

2014-03-01

26

Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas.

The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457

Murphy, Anthony B

2014-01-01

27

Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas

The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457

Murphy, Anthony B.

2014-01-01

28

IAEA verification experiment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

In April 1996, the United States (US) added the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to the list of facilities eligible for the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. At that time, the US proposed that the IAEA carry out a Verification Experiment at the plant with respect to the downblending of about 13 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the form of UF{sub 6}. This material is part of the 226 metric tons of fissile material that President Clinton has declared to be excess to US national-security needs and which will be permanently withdrawn from the US nuclear stockpile. In September 1997, the IAEA agreed to carry out this experiment, and during the first three weeks of December 1997, the IAEA verified the design information concerning the downblending process. The plant has been subject to short-notice random inspections since December 17, 1997. This paper provides an overview of the Verification Experiment, the monitoring technologies used in the verification approach, and some of the experience gained to date.

Gordon, D.M.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Calvert, O.L.; Bonner, T.N. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Portsmouth, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Adams, J.G. [United States Enrichment Corp. (United States); Cherry, R.C. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Whiting, N.E. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

1998-08-01

29

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

This calendar year 1989 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions (Part 1) and the Data Presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are the following: report 1989 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE site are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, to identify trends, to provide information for the public, and to contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental-monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 26 refs.

Turner, J.W. (ed.) (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1990-10-01

30

Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.

Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, al Farabi ave., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)] [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, al Farabi ave., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)

2013-11-15

31

Development of the safeguards program for a shutdown gaseous diffusion plant

The K-25 building at the K-25 site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was the first gaseous diffusion plant to perform large-scale separation of uranium isotopes beginning in June 1945. Additional gaseous diffusion buildings were added at the K-25 site to provide enriched feed (20% Â²Â³âµU) to the K-25 building, which further enriched the uranium to â¼90% Â²Â³âµU. The K-25 building operated

M. A. Barham; J. M. Whitaker

1995-01-01

32

Temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of nanoparticles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of nanoparticles in gases has been experimentally studied. It is established that this dependence significantly differs from that predicted by various correlations, in particular, by the Cunningham-Millikan-Davies correlation that is used as an instrumental basis for virtually all methods of measurement of the diffusion coefficient in aerosols.

Rudyak, V. Ya.; Dubtsov, S. N.; Baklanov, A. M.

2008-06-01

33

Diffusion coefficient in hydrogel under high-frequency ultrasound

Modulating hydrogel properties by external stimuli can be applied for drug delivery system. For example, ultrasound can enhance drug release from hydrogel by the mechanism which is not fully understood. We measured diffusion coefficient in hydrogel under high-frequency ultrasound to understand mass transport property. To estimate diffusion coefficient, FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) technique was applied with time-lapse fluorescence microscopy

Akira Tsukamoto; Kei Tanaka; Tatsuya Kumata; Yoshiaki Watanabe; Shogo Miyata; Katsuko Furukawa; Takashi Ushida

2007-01-01

34

Depicting fire and other gaseous phenomena using diffusion processes

Developing a visually convincing model of fire, smoke, and othergaseousphenomenaisamongthemostdifficult andattractive problems in computer graphics. We have created new methods of animating a wide range of gaseous phenomena, including the particularlysubtleproblemofmodelling\\

Jos Stam; Eugene Fiume

1995-01-01

35

Improved diffusion coefficients generated from Monte Carlo codes

Monte Carlo codes are becoming more widely used for reactor analysis. Some of these applications involve the generation of diffusion theory parameters including macroscopic cross sections and diffusion coefficients. Two approximations used to generate diffusion coefficients are assessed using the Monte Carlo code MC21. The first is the method of homogenization; whether to weight either fine-group transport cross sections or fine-group diffusion coefficients when collapsing to few-group diffusion coefficients. The second is a fundamental approximation made to the energy-dependent P1 equations to derive the energy-dependent diffusion equations. Standard Monte Carlo codes usually generate a flux-weighted transport cross section with no correction to the diffusion approximation. Results indicate that this causes noticeable tilting in reconstructed pin powers in simple test lattices with L2 norm error of 3.6%. This error is reduced significantly to 0.27% when weighting fine-group diffusion coefficients by the flux and applying a correction to the diffusion approximation. Noticeable tilting in reconstructed fluxes and pin powers was reduced when applying these corrections. (authors)

Herman, B. R.; Forget, B.; Smith, K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Aviles, B. N. [Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corporation, P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, NY 12301-1072 (United States)

2013-07-01

36

SOPHIST I, a Fortran IBM 709\\/7090 code compatible with MONITOR, ; calculates temperature-dependent scattering transfer coefficients for use in ; multigroup diffusion codes. The moderator model is a Maxwell gas with elastic, ; isotropic scattering in the center of mass. SOPHIST I supersedes older versions ; with its greater speed, accuracy, and flexibility. The equations have been ; analytically reduced

E. H. Canfield; R. N. Stuart; R. P. Freis; W. H. Collins

1961-01-01

37

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diseased tissue has different optical properties and dynamic behaviors from normal tissue, and this can be exploited for diagnostics and therapeutics. We present a model for simultaneously estimating the optical scattering coefficient and Brownian diffusion coefficient of superficial biological tissue. This theoretical model predicts that the U-quadratic distribution approximates the Lorentzian power spectrum due to the Brownian motion, when the frequency width of integration is much less than the power spectrum linewidth. Furthermore, it shows that the logarithmic intensity of all calculated wavelet frequencies is linearly dependent on the scattering coefficient and the standard deviation of the Doppler frequency shift is linearly dependent on the Brownian diffusion coefficient in the region of the single scattering length. An optical coherence tomography system was used to measure the optical scattering coefficient and the Brownian diffusion coefficient of phantoms. The results of our theoretical model are consistent with the experimental results. Thus, the method has the potential for diagnosis of diseases.

Li, Zhifang; Lin, Xiaona; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R.

2013-06-01

38

This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in plant operations..

Huffer, J.E. [Parallax, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1997-04-01

39

Cyclic AMP Diffusion Coefficient in Frog Olfactory Cilia

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the intracellular messengers that mediate odorant signal transduction in vertebrate olfactory cilia. Therefore, the diffusion coefficient of cAMP in olfactory cilia is an important factor in the transduction of the odorous signal. We have employed the excised cilium preparation from the grass frog (Rana pipiens) to measure the cAMP diffusion coefficient. In this preparation

Chunhe Chen; Tadashi Nakamura; Yiannis Koutalos

1999-01-01

40

An investigation of the eddy heat-diffusion coefficient

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE -DDY HEAT-DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT A Thesi s by LARRY KENNETH GILCHRIST Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973... Major Subjects Meteorology AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EDDY HEAT-DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT A Thesis by LARRY KENNETH GILCHRIST Approved as to style and content by& / Chairman of Cossaittee) Head of Doper 't Ilmsber Member 2" August 1973 ABSTRACT...

Gilchrist, Larry Kenneth

1973-01-01

41

A magnetic resonance imaging method for simultaneous and accurate determination of gaseous diffusion constant and longitudinal relaxation time is presented. The method is based on direct observation of diffusive motion. Initially, a slice-selective saturation of helium-3 (3He) spins was performed on a 3He\\/O2 phantom (9 atm\\/ 2 atm). A time-delay interval was introduced after saturation, allowing spins to diffuse in

Ivan E. Dimitrov; Sridhar R. Charagundla; Rahim Rizi; Ravinder Reddy; John S. Leigh

1999-01-01

42

Simple deterministic dynamical systems with fractal diffusion coefficients

We analyze a simple model of deterministic diffusion. The model consists of a one-dimensional periodic array of scatterers in which point particles move from cell to cell as defined by a piecewise linear map. The microscopic chaotic scattering process of the map can be changed by a control parameter. This induces a parameter dependence for the macroscopic diffusion coefficient. We

R. Klages; J. R. Dorfman

1998-01-01

43

Simple deterministic dynamical systems with fractal diffusion coefficients

We analyze a simple model of deterministic diffusion. The model consists of a one-dimensional array of scatterers with moving point particles. The particles move from one scatterer to the next according to a piecewise linear, expanding, deterministic map on unit intervals. The microscopic chaotic scattering process of the map can be changed by a control parameter. The macroscopic diffusion coefficient

R. Klages; J. R. Dorfman

1999-01-01

44

Transient model of an intermediate surge system for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Engineering design work (Reference 1) is underway for intermediate surge systems to be added to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) cascade as part of the Process Inventory Control System (PICS) project. These systems would be located between 000 buildings and lower half 00 buildings and would remove or add inventory during cascade transients in order to protect cascade compressors from overload and surge. Similar systems were operated in the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant cascade and are operated in the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant cascade. A steady state flow analysis of the system to be installed at the PGDP has been made. The flow analysis did not address response of the surge system to the cascade transients, nor did it address automatic control of the system. The need to address these issues prompted development of the transient model described in this report. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Beard, B.; Blankenship, J.G.; McGrady, P.W.

1989-09-01

45

Diffusion coefficient and interatomic potential of He-Ar at high temperatures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the mutual diffusion coefficient D12 for the He/Ar gaseous system have been extended to 2050 K, approximately 600 deg beyond any previous work. The results, obtained in a tungsten-tantalum-hafnium alloy (``T-111'') two-bulb cell, are in excellent agreement with previous studies in the 200-1400 K range. An equation is presented which has been fitted to all available published D12 results. An HFD-B interatomic potential is proposed which accurately predicts D12 within accepted experimental uncertainties.

Taylor, W. L.; Wyrick, S. B.; Hurly, J. J.; Meeks, F. R.

1990-06-01

46

Calculation of self-diffusion coefficients in iron

On the basis of available P-V-T equation of state of iron, the temperature and pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in iron polymorphs (?, ?, ? and ? phases) have been successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk properties. The calculated diffusion parameters, such as self-diffusion coefficient, activation energy and activation volume over a broad temperature range (500-2500 K) and pressure range (0-100 GPa), compare favorably well with experimental or theoretical ones when the uncertainties are considered.

Zhang, Baohua, E-mail: zhangbh148@qq.com [Laboratory for High Temperature and High Pressure Study of the Earth's Interior, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002, China and Institute for Study of the Earth's Interior, Okayama University, Misasa, Tottori-ken 682-0193 (Japan)] [Laboratory for High Temperature and High Pressure Study of the Earth's Interior, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002, China and Institute for Study of the Earth's Interior, Okayama University, Misasa, Tottori-ken 682-0193 (Japan)

2014-01-15

47

Radiative extinction of gaseous spherical diffusion flames in microgravity

Radiative extinction of spherical diffusion flames was investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments involved microgravity spherical diffusion flames burning ethylene and propane at 0.98 bar. Both normal (fuel flowing into oxidizer) and inverse (oxidizer flowing into fuel) flames were studied, with nitrogen supplied to either the fuel or the oxygen. Flame conditions were chosen to ensure that the flames extinguished

K. J. Santa; B. H. Chao; P. B. Sunderland; D. L. Urban; D. P. Stocker; R. L. Axelbaum

2007-01-01

48

Simple deterministic dynamical systems with fractal diffusion coefficients

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze a simple model of deterministic diffusion. The model consists of a one-dimensional array of scatterers with moving point particles. The particles move from one scatterer to the next according to a piecewise linear, expanding, deterministic map on unit intervals. The microscopic chaotic scattering process of the map can be changed by a control parameter. The macroscopic diffusion coefficient for the moving particles is well defined and depends upon the control parameter. We calculate the diffusion coefficent and the largest eigenmodes of the system by using Markov partitions and by solving the eigenvalue problems of respective topological transition matrices. For different boundary conditions we find that the largest eigenmodes of the map match the ones of the simple phenomenological diffusion equation. Our main result is that the diffusion coefficient exhibits a fractal structure as a function of the control parameter. We provide qualitative and quantitative arguments to explain features of this fractal structure.

Klages, R.; Dorfman, J. R.

1999-05-01

49

Simple deterministic dynamical systems with fractal diffusion coefficients.

We analyze a simple model of deterministic diffusion. The model consists of a one-dimensional array of scatterers with moving point particles. The particles move from one scatterer to the next according to a piecewise linear, expanding, deterministic map on unit intervals. The microscopic chaotic scattering process of the map can be changed by a control parameter. The macroscopic diffusion coefficient for the moving particles is well defined and depends upon the control parameter. We calculate the diffusion coefficent and the largest eigenmodes of the system by using Markov partitions and by solving the eigenvalue problems of respective topological transition matrices. For different boundary conditions we find that the largest eigenmodes of the map match the ones of the simple phenomenological diffusion equation. Our main result is that the diffusion coefficient exhibits a fractal structure as a function of the control parameter. We provide qualitative and quantitative arguments to explain features of this fractal structure. PMID:11969496

Klages, R; Dorfman, J R

1999-05-01

50

Determination of carbon dioxide in gaseous samples by gas diffusion-flow injection.

A gas diffusion-flow injection system was developed for the determination of carbon dioxide in gaseous samples. The calibration was based on the use of either gaseous carbon dioxide or aqueous sodium carbonate standards. Gaseous carbon dioxide samples and gaseous or aqueous standards were injected directly into a donor stream of 1.0x10(-4)M H(2)SO(4). In the gas diffusion unit, carbon dioxide diffused through a PTFE membrane into an acceptor stream containing a mixed acid/base indicator. The absorbance of the acceptor stream was monitored spectrophotometrically at 554nm. The calibration plot was linear over the range of 5.00x10(2) to 1.27x10(4)mull(-1) with a sample throughput of 28h(-1) and 3.2% R.S.D. ([CO(2)]=2.37x10(3)mull(-1), n=12). The detection limit was determined as 2.50x10(2)mull(-1). The flow system was successfully applied to the analysis of several natural gaseous samples and the headspace of milk containers during storage. The flow injection results were found to be statistically indistinguishable at the 95% confidence level from those obtained by gas chromatography using thermal conductivity detection. PMID:18969340

Satienperakul, Sakchai; Cardwell, Terence J; Cattrall, Robert W; McKelvie, Ian D; Taylor, Douglas M; Kolev, Spas D

2004-02-27

51

On-line vibration and analysis system at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

The enrichment facility in Paducah, KY uses a unique hard-wired vibration monitoring and analysis system for gaseous diffusion equipment. The axial flow and centrifugal flow compressors used in uranium enrichment range in size from 6 feet in diameter to less than one foot in diameter. These compressors must operate smoothly and safely, without breech of containment, since the working fluid of gaseous diffusion is gaseous UF/sub 6/. The condition of 1925 compressors is monitored by use of the 2500 point vibration analysis system. Since the failure mechanisms of the compressors are well known and documented, only one accelerometer per machine is needed for most machines. The system is completely automated and can generate spectra or broadband levels in either acceleration or velocity units. Levels are stored for historical review. The analyst can, via a custom telecommunications link, view and analyze data from all monitored points with an office PC. 4 figs.

Herricks, D.M.; Strunk, W.D.

1988-02-01

52

D&D of the French High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant

This paper describes the D&D program that is being implemented at France's High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant, which was designed to supply France's Military with Highly Enriched Uranium. This plant was definitively shut down in June 1996, following French President Jacques Chirac's decision to end production of Highly Enriched Uranium and dismantle the corresponding facilities.

BEHAR, Christophe; GUIBERTEAU, Philippe; DUPERRET, Bernard; TAUZIN, Claude

2003-02-27

53

Diffusion coefficient in hydrogel under high-frequency ultrasound

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modulating hydrogel properties by external stimuli can be applied for drug delivery system. For example, ultrasound can enhance drug release from hydrogel by the mechanism which is not fully understood. We measured diffusion coefficient in hydrogel under high-frequency ultrasound to understand mass transport property. To estimate diffusion coefficient, FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) technique was applied with time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and we analyzed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of FITC-dextran (4˜40 kDa) which was fully fused in agarose gel (1˜3 %). As a result, diffusion coefficient was altered when agarose gel was sonicated by 1MHz ultrasound with 400kPa (peak-peak). We discussed several possible underlying mechanisms such as cavitation, heat and phase transition with extended experimental data.

Tsukamoto, Akira; Tanaka, Kei; Kumata, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Miyata, Shogo; Furukawa, Katsuko; Ushida, Takashi

2007-03-01

54

Diffusion coefficients and particle transport in synthetic membrane channels

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion in constrained geometries is paramount to transport across biological membranes and in mesoporous materials. Although the transported species vary from system to system, the underlying physical mechanisms are universal. However, there is an imbalance between theory and quantitative experimental model systems. We have recently introduced a new synthetic approach to mimic molecular diffusion based on colloidal particles, digital video microscopy, particle tracking, microfluidics and holographic optical tweezers. In this paper we report useful guidelines for the fabrication, handling and characterisation of the microfluidic chips and a study of diffusion coefficients, particle attempt and translocation rates through microfluidic channels with cross sections of different dimensions.

Pagliara, S.; Dettmer, S. L.; Misiunas, K.; Lea, L.; Tan, Y.; Keyser, U. F.

2014-12-01

55

The electron diffusion coefficient along the energy in bounded

The electron diffusion coefficient along the energy in bounded collisionless and weakly collisional discharge 5. Cathode region of a DC discharge 6. Conclusions #12;Introduction The characteristic electron energies in stationary gas discharges are fixed by the plasma maintenance condition on the level of several

Kaganovich, Igor

56

Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?

Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption? T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh Department independent of absorption, i.e., D0 v/3 s . After presentation of the general theoretical arguments underlying this assertion, Monte Carlo simulations are performed and explicitly reveal that the absorption- independent

Boas, David

57

Simple deterministic dynamical systems with fractal diffusion coefficients

We analyze a simple model of deterministic diffusion. The model consists of a one-dimensional periodic array of scatterers in which point particles move from cell to cell as defined by a piecewise linear map. The microscopic chaotic scattering process of the map can be changed by a control parameter. This induces a parameter dependence for the macroscopic diffusion coefficient. We calculate the diffusion coefficent and the largest eigenmodes of the system by using Markov partitions and by solving the eigenvalue problems of respective topological transition matrices. For different boundary conditions we find that the largest eigenmodes of the map match to the ones of the simple phenomenological diffusion equation. Our main result is that the difffusion coefficient exhibits a fractal structure by varying the system parameter. To understand the origin of this fractal structure, we give qualitative and quantitative arguments. These arguments relate the sequence of oscillations in the strength of the parameter-dependent diffusion coefficient to the microscopic coupling of the single scatterers which changes by varying the control parameter.

R. Klages; J. R. Dorfman

1998-07-10

58

Comparison of field-measured radon diffusion coefficients with laboratory-measured coefficients

Experiments were conducted to compare radon diffusion coefficients determined for 0.1-m depths of soils by a steady-state method in the laboratory and diffusion coefficients evaluated from radon fluxes through several-fold greater depths of the same soils covering uranium-mill tailings. The coefficients referred to diffusion in the total pore volume of the soils and are equivalent to values for the quantity, D/P, in the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Uranium Milling prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two soils were tested: a well-graded sand and an inorganic clay of low plasticity. For the flux evaluations, radon was collected by adsorption on charcoal following passive diffusion from the soil surface and also from air recirculating through an aluminum tent over the soil surface. An analysis of variance in the flux evaluations showed no significant difference between these two collection methods. Radon diffusion coefficients evaluated from field data were statistically indistinguishable, at the 95% confidence level, from those measured in the laboratory; however, the low precision of the field data prevented a sensitive validation of the laboratory measurements. From the field data, the coefficients were calculated to be 0.03 +- 0.03 cm/sup 2//s for the sand cover and 0.0036 +- 0.0004 cm/sup 2//s for the clay cover. The low precision in the coefficients evaluated from field data was attributed to high variation in radon flux with time and surface location at the field site.

Lepel, E.A.; Silker, W.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

1983-04-01

59

Radiative Extinction of Gaseous Spherical Diffusion Flames in Microgravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiative extinction of spherical diffusion flames was investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments involved microgravity spherical diffusion flames burning ethylene and propane at 0.98 bar. Both normal (fuel flowing into oxidizer) and inverse (oxidizer flowing into fuel) flames were studied, with nitrogen supplied to either the fuel or the oxygen. Flame conditions were chosen to ensure that the flames extinguished within the 2.2 s of available test time; thus extinction occurred during unsteady flame conditions. Diagnostics included color video and thin-filament pyrometry. The computations, which simulated flow from a porous sphere into a quiescent environment, included detailed chemistry, transport and radiation, and yielded transient results. Radiative extinction was observed experimentally and simulated numerically. Extinction time, peak temperature, and radiative loss fraction were found to be independent of flow rate except at very low flow rates. Radiative heat loss was dominated by the combustion products downstream of the flame and was found to scale with flame surface area, not volume. For large transient flames the heat release rate also scaled with surface area and thus the radiative loss fraction was largely independent of flow rate. Peak temperatures at extinction onset were about 1100 K, which is significantly lower than for kinetic extinction. One observation of this work is that while radiative heat losses can drive transient extinction, this is not because radiative losses are increasing with time (flame size) but rather because the heat release rate is falling off as the temperature drops.

Santa, K. J.; Chao, B. H.; Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Axelbaum, R. L.

2007-01-01

60

Optimal estimation of diffusion coefficients from single-particle trajectories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How does one optimally determine the diffusion coefficient of a diffusing particle from a single-time-lapse recorded trajectory of the particle? We answer this question with an explicit, unbiased, and practically optimal covariance-based estimator (CVE). This estimator is regression-free and is far superior to commonly used methods based on measured mean squared displacements. In experimentally relevant parameter ranges, it also outperforms the analytically intractable and computationally more demanding maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). For the case of diffusion on a flexible and fluctuating substrate, the CVE is biased by substrate motion. However, given some long time series and a substrate under some tension, an extended MLE can separate particle diffusion on the substrate from substrate motion in the laboratory frame. This provides benchmarks that allow removal of bias caused by substrate fluctuations in CVE. The resulting unbiased CVE is optimal also for short time series on a fluctuating substrate. We have applied our estimators to human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycolase proteins diffusing on flow-stretched DNA, a fluctuating substrate, and found that diffusion coefficients are severely overestimated if substrate fluctuations are not accounted for.

Vestergaard, Christian L.; Blainey, Paul C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

2014-02-01

61

Diffusion coefficients of two metastable states of the nitrogen molecule

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiments of Ernest et al. (1986) showed the existence of a metastable state of the nitrogen molecule with a coefficient for diffusion through ground-state nitrogen of about one quarter of that of the well-known A 3? u+ state. Both states were populated by pre-breakdown discharges through pure nitrogen. This paper presents further results on the diffusion of metastable excited molecules through nitrogen. The effects of varying background gas number density N and the reduced electric field E/N were explored, and data were taken in two ionization chambers with two different cathode materials. Consistent results are obtained with the different chambers and cathodes. The characteristic times for the decay of metastable population density are independent of E/N but scale with 1/ N, consistent with the existence of two slowly diffusing metastable states of nitrogen. The values at 295 ± 4 K of the product DmN, where Dm is the metastable diffusion coefficient, are 551 ± 25 am -1s -1 ((5.51 ± 0.25) × 10 16cm -1s -1) for the first slowly diffusing state and 158 ± 17 am -1s -1 for the second. Both states show very small quenching in collisions with ground-state nitrogen molecules. The first state is identified as the A 3?u+ state. Far from having a small effect, the action of molecules in the second slowly diffusing state can dominate the ionization growth near breakdown.

Haydon, S. C.; Fewell, M. P.; Ernest, A. D.; Baldwin, M. J.

1996-05-01

62

In support of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade program (GDP SARUP), a natural phenomena hazards evaluation was performed for the main process equipment and piping in the uranium enrichment buildings at Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. In order to reduce the cost of rigorous analyses, the evaluation methodology utilized a graded approach based on an experience data base collected by SQUG/EPRI that contains information on the performance of industrial equipment and piping during past earthquakes. This method consisted of a screening walkthrough of the facility in combination with the use of engineering judgment and simple calculations. By using these screenings combined with evaluations that contain decreasing conservatism, reductions in the time and cost of the analyses were significant. A team of experienced seismic engineers who were trained in the use of the DOE SQUG/EPRI Walkdown Screening Material was essential to the success of this natural phenomena hazards evaluation.

Singhal, M.K.; Kincaid, J.H.; Hammond, C.R.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Technical Programs and Services; Brock, W.R.; Denton, D.R. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

63

Measurements of uranium holdup in an operating gaseous diffusion enrichment plant

Holdup of nuclear material in process equipment is one of the major sources of uncertainty in materials balances, particularly for high-throughput facilities with large equipment and extensive piping, such as gaseous diffusion uranium-enrichment plants. Locating and measuring the holdup while the plant is operating is a challenging problem because of background from the process material and the neighboring equipment. This paper reports NDA measurements performed at the Goodyear Atomic Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio, on enrichment equipment at the higher enrichment and (>10% /sup 235/U isotopic abundance) of the cascade. Both neutron and gamma-ray measurements were made to locate anomalously large deposits in converters and compressors and, within the limitations of the techniques, to quantify the amount of the deposit.

Augustson, R.H.; Walton, R.B.; Harris, R.; Harbarger, W.; Hicks, J.; Timmons, G.; Shissler, D.; Tayloe, R.; Jones, S.; Fields, L.

1983-01-01

64

Vertical eddy diffusion coefficient from the LANDSAT imagery

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of five stable cases of the smoke plumes that originated in eastern Cabo Frio (22 deg 59'S; 42 deg 02'W), Brazil using LANDSAT imagery is presented for different months and years. From these images the lateral standard deviation (sigma sub y) and the lateral eddy diffusion coefficient (K sub y) are obtained from the formula based on Taylor's theory of diffusion by continuous moment. The rate of kinetic energy dissipation (e) is evaluated from the diffusion parameters sigma sub y and K sub y. Then, the vertical diffusion coefficient (K sub z) is estimated using Weinstock's formulation. These results agree well with the previous experimental values obtained over water surfaces by various workers. Values of e and K sub z show the weaker mixing processes in the marine stable boundary layer. The data sample is apparently to small to include representative active turbulent regions because such regions are so intermittent in time and in space. These results form a data base for use in the development and validation of mesoscale atmospheric diffusion models.

Viswanadham, Y. (principal investigator); Torsani, J. A.

1982-01-01

65

rock Yingqi Zhang,1 Hui-hai Liu,1 Quanlin Zhou,1 and Stefan Finsterle1 Received 16 August 2005; revised diffusion coefficient for fractured rock, Water Resour. Res., 42, W04405, doi:10.1029/2005WR004513. 1 in fractured rock. Understand- ing the diffusion of contaminants from fractures into the matrix is essential

Zhou, Quanlin

66

Generalized method calculating the effective diffusion coefficient in periodic channels.

The method calculating the effective diffusion coefficient in an arbitrary periodic two-dimensional channel, presented in our previous paper [P. Kalinay, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 144101 (2014)], is generalized to 3D channels of cylindrical symmetry, as well as to 2D or 3D channels with particles driven by a constant longitudinal external driving force. The next possible extensions are also indicated. The former calculation was based on calculus in the complex plane, suitable for the stationary diffusion in 2D domains. The method is reformulated here using standard tools of functional analysis, enabling the generalization. PMID:25573552

Kalinay, Pavol

2015-01-01

67

The rotationally invariant trace\\/3 apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine and phosphocre- atine (tCr), and choline (Cho) were determined using a diffusion- weighted stimulated echo acquisition mode sequence a t3Ti n three separate human brain regions, namely the subcortical white matter, occipital gray matter, and frontal gray matter. The measurement of the mean diffusivity eliminates the depen-

Jacob Ellegood; Chris C. Hanstock; Christian Beaulieu

2005-01-01

68

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from the Furry, Jones and Onsager basic equations and following a method of successive approximation, a formulation suitable to determine thermal diffusion factors from column steady measurements both in gaseous and liquid mixtures is derived. In the gas case, a proportionality relation, valid for any column type, between the logarithm of the maximum separation factor and the thermal diffusion factor evaluated at an adequate average temperature is obtained. It is shown that this temperature and the proportionality constant are independent of the nature of the gas mixture. For liquid mixtures, the so-called forgotten effect is carefully analysed.

Navarro, J. L.; Madariaga, J. A.; Saviron, J. M.

1983-02-01

69

Water sorption and diffusion coefficient through an experimental dental resin.

Polymeric composites have been widely used as dental restorative materials. A fundamental knowledge and understanding of the behavior of these materials in the oral cavity is essential to improve their properties and performance. In this paper we computed the data set of water absorption through an experimental dental resin blend using specimen discs of different thicknesses to estimate the diffusion coefficient. The resins were produced using Bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate, Bisphenol A ethoxylated dimethacrylate and Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate monomers. The water sorption test method was based on International Standard ISO 4049 "Dentistry-Polymer-based filling materials". Results show a diffusion coefficient around 6.38 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s, within a variance of 0.01%, which is in good agreement with the values reported in the literature and represents a very suitable value. PMID:19693655

Costella, A M; Trochmann, J L; Oliveira, W S

2010-01-01

70

Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of sulfur hexafluoride in water

Sulfur hexafluoride has been widely used in field studies and laboratory experiments to develop a relationship between gas transfer and wind speed. The interpretation of the data from such studies requires the diffusion coefficient of SFâ (D{sub SF6}), which has not previously been measured. In this study, D{sub SF6} has been determined in pure water and in 35%NaCl over a

King. D. B; E. S. Saltzman

1995-01-01

71

This paper describes the challenges and lessons learned from the demobilization of the world' largest, and first, successfully decontaminated and decommissioned project. These gaseous diffusion plants are the first plants to be successfully decommissioned in the United States. (authors)

Stevens, J.L.; Miller, JA. [BNG America, ETTP Project, 705-3C, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); 804 South Illinois Avenue, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

2006-07-01

72

Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks. PMID:21288593

Takeda, M; Hiratsuka, T; Ito, K; Finsterle, S

2011-04-25

73

Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks.

Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

2011-02-01

74

Continuum estimate of the heavy quark momentum diffusion coefficient ?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among quantities playing a central role in the theoretical interpretation of heavy ion collision experiments at RHIC and LHC are so-called transport coefficients. Out of those heavy quark diffusion coefficients play an important role e.g. for the analysis of the quenching of jets containing c or b quarks (D or B mesons) as observed at RHIC and LHC [1]. We report on a lattice investigation of heavy quark momentum diffusion within pure SU(3) plasma above the deconfinement transition with the quarks treated to leading order in the heavy mass expansion. We measure the relevant 'colour-electric' Euclidean correlator and based on several lattice spacings perform the continuum extrapolation. This extends our previous studies [2,3] progressing towards a removal of lattice artifacts and a physical interpretation of the results. We find that the correlation function clearly exceeds its perturbative counterpart which suggests that at temperatures just above the critical one, non-perturbative interactions felt by the heavy quarks are stronger than within the weak-coupling expansion. Using an Ansatz for the spectral function which includes NNLO perturbative contributions we were able to determine, for the first time, a continuum estimate for the heavy quark momentum diffusion coefficient.

Kaczmarek, O.

2014-11-01

75

Concentration dependence of translational diffusion coefficients for globular proteins.

This investigation examines published results of traditional diffusion experiments on ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin to determine the extent to which assumed concentration independence of the translational diffusion coefficient is a reasonable approximation in the analysis of boundary spreading in sedimentation velocity experiments on proteins. Although significant positive concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient (D) for both proteins is predicted by current theories, none has been detected in these experimental diffusion studies performed under the constraints of constant temperature and solvent chemical potential (those also pertinent to sedimentation velocity). Instead, the results are better described by the relatively minor concentration dependence predicted by considering solution viscosity to be an additional source of D-c dependence. Inasmuch as the predicted variation in D for solutions with concentrations below 10 mg mL(-1) is within the uncertainty of experimental estimates, these findings support use of the approximate solution of the Lamm equation developed by Fujita for the quantitative analysis of boundary spreading in sedimentation velocity experiments on proteins. PMID:25306977

Scott, David J; Harding, Stephen E; Winzor, Donald J

2014-12-01

76

Diffusion coefficients of fluorescent organic molecules in inert gases

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use arrested-flow pulse broadening to measure the diffusion coefficients of four archetype organic semiconductors in two carrier gases, N2 and Ar, with a precision of 5%. The measurements are realized by the injection and transport of pulses of organic molecules in an organic vapor phase deposition chamber, followed by their detection using laser induced fluorescence that dynamically measures the organic concentration in the gas phase. Measurements show that the diffusivity of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) in N2 and Ar varies as the square of the temperature and inversely with pressure over a large range of gas conditions. We show that classical Chapman-Enskog theory can be used to approximate the diffusivity with an accuracy that depends on the physical dimensions of the organic molecular species, with the most accurate predictions for spherical and rigid molecules such as Alq3.

Rolin, Cedric; Forrest, Stephen R.

2013-07-01

77

Chloride diffusion coefficient and gas permeability of concrete were experimentally determined. The relationship between them is discussed. Chloride diffusion coefficient was determined using saturated concrete by an accelerated electrical testing method. The chloride diffusion coefficient was found to be controlled by the water-to-cement ratio with about 2.2 times higher chloride diffusion coefficient for concrete with the water-to-cement ratio of 0.6

T. Sugiyama; T. W. Bremner; Y. Tsuji

1996-01-01

78

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical investigations of fluid dynamics problems of relevance to the gaseous core nuclear reactor program are presented. The vortex type flow which appears in the nuclear light bulb concept is analyzed along with the fluid flow in the fuel inlet region for the coaxial flow gaseous core nuclear reactor concept. The development of numerical methods for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for appropriate geometries is extended to the case of rotating flows and almost completes the gas core program requirements in this area. The investigations demonstrate that the conceptual design of the coaxial flow reactor needs further development.

Weinstein, H.; Lavan, Z.

1975-01-01

79

Radon diffusion coefficients in soils of varying moisture content

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is generated in the Earth's crust and is free to migrate through soil and be released to the atmosphere. Due to its unique properties, soil gas radon has been established as a powerful tracer used for a variety of purposes, such as exploring uranium ores, locating geothermal resources and hydrocarbon deposits, mapping geological faults, predicting seismic activity or volcanic eruptions and testing atmospheric transport models. Much attention has also been given to the radiological health hazard posed by increased radon concentrations in the living and working environment. In order to exploit radon profiles for geophysical purposes and also to predict its entry indoors, it is necessary to study its transport through soils. Among other factors, the importance of soil moisture in such studies has been largely highlighted and it is widely accepted that any measurement of radon transport parameters should be accompanied by a measurement of the soil moisture content. In principle, validation of transport models in the field is encountered by a large number of uncontrollable and varying parameters; laboratory methods are therefore preferred, allowing for experiments to be conducted under well-specified and uniform conditions. In this work, a laboratory technique has been applied for studying the effect of soil moisture content on radon diffusion. A vertical diffusion chamber was employed, in which radon was produced from a 226Ra source, was allowed to diffuse through a soil column and was finally monitored using a silicon surface barrier detector. By solving the steady-state radon diffusion equation, diffusion coefficients (D) were determined for soil samples of varying moisture content (m), from null (m=0) to saturation (m=1). For dry soil, a D value of 4.1×10-7 m2s-1 was determined, which increased moderately by a factor of ~3 for soil with low moisture content, i.e. up to m ~0.2. At higher water fractions, a decrease in D was initiated and became particularly pronounced approaching complete saturation; at m =0.9, D was as low as 2×10-9 m2s-1. A series of field experiments has also been conducted using alpha-track CR-39 detectors to follow the moisture-dependence of radon diffusion through soil under natural conditions. Diffusion coefficients were determined as a function of surface soil moisture assuming a one-dimensional diffusive radon transport model. Comparison between results obtained by the two methods showed that laboratory studies may provide a good indication of radon diffusion coefficients to be expected in the field. However, values determined in the field were systematically lower than those assessed in the laboratory. This finding could be attributed to soil-dependent parameters, such as differences in pore space geometry between the soil used in laboratory experiments and the undisturbed soil. In the latter case, the higher degree of compaction imposes a more tortuous pathway to soil gas, while at the same time the diffusive gas flux is hindered by local-scale zones of higher bulk density or water content.

Papachristodoulou, C.; Ioannides, K.; Pavlides, S.

2009-04-01

80

Diffusion coefficients of sulfate and methane in marine sediments: Influence of porosity

Tracer diffusion coefficients of sulfate and methane were determined in seawater ( D o ) and in sediments ( D s ). The diffusion coefficients in seawater (20 S) at 4°C were 0.56 ± 0.04 * 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 for sulfate and 0.87 ±0.10 * 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 for methane. The sediment diffusion coefficients

Niels Iversen; Bo Barker Jørgensen

1993-01-01

81

Calculation of combined diffusion coefficients in SF{sub 6}-Cu mixtures

Diffusion coefficients play an important role in the description of the transport of metal vapours in gas mixtures. This paper is devoted to the calculation of four combined diffusion coefficients, namely, the combined ordinary diffusion coefficient, combined electric field diffusion coefficient, combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and combined pressure diffusion coefficient in SF{sub 6}-Cu mixtures at temperatures up to 30?000?K. These four coefficients describe diffusion due to composition gradients, applied electric fields, temperature gradients, and pressure gradients, respectively. The influence of copper fluoride and sulfide species on the diffusion coefficients is shown to be negligible. The effect of copper proportion and gas pressures on these diffusion coefficients is investigated. It is shown that increasing the proportion of copper generally increases the magnitude of the four diffusion coefficients, except for copper mole fractions of 90% or more. It is further found that increasing the pressure reduces the magnitude of the coefficients, except for the combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and shifts the maximum of all four coefficients towards higher temperatures. The results presented in this paper can be applied to the simulation of high-voltage circuit breaker arcs.

Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Rong, Mingzhe, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wu, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Murphy, Anthony B. [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

2014-10-15

82

Effective diffusion coefficient in 2D periodic channels

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient D(x), depending on the longitudinal coordinate x in 2D channels with periodically corrugated walls, is revisited. Instead of scaling the transverse lengths and applying the standard homogenization techniques, we propose an algorithm based on formulation of the problem in the complex plane. A simple model is solved to explain the behavior of D(x) in the channels with short periods L, observed by Brownian simulations of Dagdug et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 034707 (2010)].

Kalinay, Pavol

2014-10-01

83

The US Department of Energy (DOE) formerly operated two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium and maintained a third shutdown GDP. These plants maintain a large inventory of dichlorotetrafluorethane (CFC-114), a cholorofluorocarbon (CFC), as a coolant. The paper evaluates the global impacts of four alternatives to modify GDP coolant system operations for a three-year period beginning in 1996. Interim modification of GDP coolant system operations has the potential to reduce stratospheric ozone depletion from GDP coolant releases while a permanent solution is studied.

Socolof, M.L.; Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N.

1994-06-01

84

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

NONE

1995-10-01

85

Chemical oxygen diffusion coefficient measurement by conductivity relaxation--correlation between J. P., Grenier J. C., Loup J. P. ABSTRACT Chemical oxygen diusion coecient Â¯(D)was measured the oxygen partial pressure in the surrounding atmosphere of the sample. The consequent evolution

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

86

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we study the transport properties of non-interacting overdamped particles, moving on tilted disordered potentials, subjected to Gaussian white noise. We give exact formulas for the drift and diffusion coefficients for the case of random potentials resulting from the interaction of a particle with a "random polymer". In our model the polymer is made up, by means of some stochastic process, of monomers that can be taken from a finite or countable infinite set of possible monomer types. For the case of uncorrelated random polymers we found that the diffusion coefficient exhibits a non-monotonous behavior as a function of the noise intensity. Particularly interesting is the fact that the relative diffusivity becomes optimal at a finite temperature, a behavior which is reminiscent of stochastic resonance. We explain this effect as an interplay between the deterministic and noisy dynamics of the system. We also show that this behavior of the diffusion coefficient at a finite temperature is more pronounced for the case of weakly disordered potentials. We test our findings by means of numerical simulations of the corresponding Langevin dynamics of an ensemble of noninteracting overdamped particles diffusing on uncorrelated random potentials.

Salgado-García, R.

2014-09-01

87

The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

NONE

1995-09-01

88

The Blend Down Monitoring System Demonstration at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Agreements between the governments of the US and the Russian Federation for the US purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons calls for the establishment of transparency measures to provide confidence that nuclear nonproliferation goals are being met. To meet these transparency goals, the agreements call for the installation of nonintrusive US instruments to monitor the down blending of HEU to LEU. The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) has been jointly developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continuously monitor {sup 235}U enrichments and mass flow rates at Russian blending facilities. Prior to its installation in Russian facilities, the BDMS was installed and operated in a UF{sub 6} flow loop in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant simulating flow and enrichment conditions expected in a typical down-blending facility. A Russian delegation to the US witnessed the equipment demonstration in June, 1998. To conduct the demonstration in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the BDMS was required to meet stringent Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing, safety and operational requirements. The Paducah demonstration was an important milestone in achieving the operational certification for the BDMS use in Russian facilities.

Benton, J.; Close, D.; Johnson, W., Jr.; Kerr, P.; March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Moss, C.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T.; Vines, R.; Wright, P.D.

1999-07-25

89

The gradient of Bicoid (Bcd) is key for the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila embryos. The gradient properties are compatible with the SDD model in which Bcd is synthesized at the anterior pole and then diffuses into the embryo and is degraded with a characteristic time. Within this model, the Bcd diffusion coefficient is critical to set the timescale of gradient formation. This coefficient has been measured using two optical techniques, Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), obtaining estimates in which the FCS value is an order of magnitude larger than the FRAP one. This discrepancy raises the following questions: which estimate is "correct''; what is the reason for the disparity; and can the SDD model explain Bcd gradient formation within the experimentally observed times? In this paper, we use a simple biophysical model in which Bcd diffuses and interacts with binding sites to show that both the FRAP and the FCS estimates may be correct and compatible with the observed timescale of gradient formation. The discrepancy arises from the fact that FCS and FRAP report on different effective (concentration dependent) diffusion coefficients, one of which describes the spreading rate of the individual Bcd molecules (the messengers) and the other one that of their concentration (the message). The latter is the one that is more relevant for the gradient establishment and is compatible with its formation within the experimentally observed times. PMID:24901638

Sigaut, Lorena; Pearson, John E.; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

2014-01-01

90

The gradient of Bicoid (Bcd) is key for the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila embryos. The gradient properties are compatible with the SDD model in which Bcd is synthesized at the anterior pole and then diffuses into the embryo and is degraded with a characteristic time. Within this model, the Bcd diffusion coefficient is critical to set the timescale of gradient formation. This coefficient has been measured using two optical techniques, Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), obtaining estimates in which the FCS value is an order of magnitude larger than the FRAP one. This discrepancy raises the following questions: which estimate is "correct''; what is the reason for the disparity; and can the SDD model explain Bcd gradient formation within the experimentally observed times? In this paper, we use a simple biophysical model in which Bcd diffuses and interacts with binding sites to show that both the FRAP and the FCS estimates may be correct and compatible with the observed timescale of gradient formation. The discrepancy arises from the fact that FCS and FRAP report on different effective (concentration dependent) diffusion coefficients, one of which describes the spreading rate of the individual Bcd molecules (the messengers) and the other one that of their concentration (the message). The latter is the one that is more relevant for the gradient establishment and is compatible with its formation within the experimentally observed times. PMID:24901638

Sigaut, Lorena; Pearson, John E; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

2014-06-01

91

Experimental study on flow and gaseous diffusion behind an isolated building.

To assist validation of numerical models of urban pollution dispersion, the effect of obstacles building on the gaseous diffusion in the wake region have been investigated experimentally in the boundary layer wind tunnel under neutral atmospheric conditions using a tracer gas technique from a point source without buoyancy. The flow and diffusion fields in the boundary layer in an urban environment were investigated in the downwind distance of the obstacle building using an isolated high-rise building model. The scale of the model experiment was assumed to be at 1:500. In the experiment, gaseous pollutant was discharged in the simulated boundary layer over the flat terrain. The effluent velocity of the pollutant was set to be negligible. The velocity field and the turbulence characteristics were analyzed and measured using a hot wire anemometer with a split-fibre probe. The experimental technique was involved the continuous release of tracer gas from a ground level source which was located in the downwind distance of the obstacle model and measured using a fast flame ionization detector (FID). Diffusion characteristics were studied and included both the vertical and lateral mean concentrations and concentration fluctuation intensity at various downwind distances. The results of study were demonstrated that the vertical profiles of the longitudinal mean velocity are very thick around the obstacle wake region due to the turbulence mixing and the smoothing of concentration differences was increased with downwind distance from the obstacle model. Furthermore, the experimental results can help to improve the understanding of mechanisms of pollutant dispersion in an urban environment and also use to validate the corresponding computational fluid dynamics (CFD) prediction. PMID:18193336

Yassin, Mohamed F; Ohba, Masaake; Tanaka, Hideyuki

2008-12-01

92

Diffusion coefficients of substituted benzenes at high dilution in water

Among the three basic environmental compartments of soil, water, and air, the latter two form the major abiotic dispersion pathways of chemicals, and in unsaturated soil zones it is the pore water that governs vertical leaching of contaminants to the groundwater by advection and diffusion phenomena. The interdiffusion coefficient D{sub aw} of 6 hydrophobic benzene derivatives (a = chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, bromobenzene, 1,2-dibromobenzene, 1,4-dibromobenzene) in aqueous solution (w) at 250 C is measured at different concentrations below 10{sup {minus}5} solute mole fractions using the Taylor dispersion technique. On the basis of the experimental uncertainty around 4%, a distinct concentration dependence is not recognizable. Analysis of the interdiffusion coefficients with the Stokes-Einstein equation shows greater D{sub aw}{sup {infinity}} values than expected from the limit of a complete solute-solvent contact stick limit, and in addition substance-specific deviations. Chemical engineering correlations for D{sub aq}{sup {infinity}} presently available from the literature yield unsatisfactory results for this class of predominantly hydrophobic compounds.

Gabler, T.; Paschke, A.; Schueuermann, G. [Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Ecotoxicology] [Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Ecotoxicology

1996-01-01

93

Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of sulfur hexafluoride in water

Sulfur hexafluoride has been widely used in field studies and laboratory experiments to develop a relationship between gas transfer and wind speed. The interpretation of the data from such studies requires the diffusion coefficient of SF{sub 6} (D{sub SF6}), which has not previously been measured. In this study, D{sub SF6} has been determined in pure water and in 35%NaCl over a temperature range of 5-25{degrees}C. The measurements were made using a continuous-flow diffusion cell where SF{sub 6} flows beneath an agar gel membrane while helium flows above the gel. The experimental data for pure water yielded the following equation: D{sub SF6}=0.029 exp ({minus}19.3/RT, where R is the gas constant and T is temperature in kelvins). Measurements of D{sub SF6} in 35% NaCl were not significantly different from the pure water values. On the basis of this data, the authors estimate the Schmidt numbers for seawater over the temperature range 5-25{degrees}C to be Sc=3016.1{minus}172.00t+4.4996t{sup 2}{minus}0.047965t{sup 3}, where t is temperature in degrees Celsius. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

King. D.B.; Saltzman, E.S. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

1995-04-15

94

Diffusion coefficient and radial gradient of galactic cosmic rays

We present the temporal changes of the diffusion coefficient K of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) at the Earth orbit calculated based on the experimental data using two different methods. The first approach is based on the Parker convection-diffusion approximation of GCR modulation [1]: i.e. K~Vr=dI where dI is the variation of the GCR intensity measured by neutron monitors (NM),V is the solar wind velocity and r is the radial distance. The second approach is based on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data. It was suggested that parallel mean free path can be expressed in terms of B as in [2]-[4]. Using data of the product of the parallel mean free path and radial gradient of GCR calculated based on the GCR anisotropy data (Ahluwalia et al., this conference ICRC 2013, poster ID: 487 [5]), we estimate the temporal changes of the radial gradient of GCR at the Earth orbit. We show that the radial gradient exhibits a strong solar cycle dependence (11-year variation) and a weak solar magnetic cycle dependence (2...

Modzelewska, Renata

2015-01-01

95

Deep impurity levels and diffusion coefficient of manganese in silicon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese-related deep levels in n- and p-type silicon have been investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy and Hall effect. Two electron traps of Ec-(0.12±0.01) eV and Ec-(0.41±0.01) eV, and a hole trap of Ev+(0.32±0.01) eV are found in manganese-doped silicon. The energy levels of these traps correspond to the transitions between four charge states (Mn-, Mn0, Mn+, Mn++ ) of interstitial manganese. An additional donor-type electron trap of Ec-(0.51±0.02) eV is observed in the n-type samples, and the trap can be tentatively assigned to substitutional manganese. Furthermore, an electron trap of Ec-(0.50±0.02) eV is observed for n+p junction samples diffused with manganese in boron-doped p-type silicon. The trap is attributed to the manganese-boron complex, which is formed owing to the pairing reaction of interstitial manganese and substitutional boron. From the investigation of the pairing reaction, the diffusion coefficient DMn of interstitial manganese is determined in the temperature range 14-90 °C. It can be represented by the expression DMn=2.4×10-3 exp(-0.72/kT)cm2 s-1.

Nakashima, H.; Hashimoto, K.

1991-02-01

96

The phonon diffusiveness coefficient D related to scattering of phonons by point mass defects embedded in cubic crystalline media can be written as product of diffusiveness coefficient for a corresponding reference isotropic medium Dis, and the dimensionless coefficient\\u000a

T. Paszkiewicz; M. Pruchnik

1998-01-01

97

Development of NF3 Deposit Removal Technology for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

This paper summarizes the Battelle, Stoller, and WASTREN (BSW) team's efforts, to date, in support of the United States Department of Energy's plans to remove uranium and technetium deposits before decommissioning the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The BSW team investigated nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}) as a safer yet effective alternative gaseous treatment to the chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3})-elemental fluorine (F{sub 2}) treatment currently used to remove uranium and technetium deposits from the uranium enrichment cascade. Both ClF{sub 3} and F{sub 2} are highly reactive, toxic, and hazardous gases, while NF{sub 3}, although toxic [1], is no more harmful than moth balls [2]. BSW's laboratory thermo-analytical and laboratory-scale prototype studies with NF{sub 3} established that thermal NF{sub 3} can effectively remove likely and potential uranium (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and UF{sub 4}) and technetium deposits (a surrogate deposit material, TcO{sub 2}, and pertechnetates) by conversion to volatile compounds. Our engineering evaluations suggest that NF{sub 3}'s effectiveness could be enhanced by combining with a lesser concentration of ClF{sub 3}. BSW's and other's studies indicate compatibility with Portsmouth materials of construction (aluminum, copper, and nickel). (authors)

Scheele, R.D.; McNamara, B.K.; Rapko, B.M.; Edwards, M.K.; Kozelisky, A.E.; Daniel, R.C. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Division, PO Box 999, Battelle Blvd, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); McSweeney, T.I.; Maharas, S.J.; Weaver, P.J.; Iwamasa, K.J. [Battelle Columbus Operations, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43201 (United States); Kefgen, R.B. [WASTREN, Inc., 1864 Shyville Road, Piketon, Ohio 45661 (United States)

2006-07-01

98

Coordinate-dependent diffusion coefficients: Decay rate in open quantum systems

Based on a master equation for the reduced density matrix of an open quantum collective system, the influence of coordinate-dependent microscopical diffusion coefficients on the decay rate from a metastable state is treated. For various frictions and temperatures larger than a crossover temperature, the quasistationary decay rates obtained with the coordinate-dependent microscopical set of diffusion coefficients are compared with those obtained with the coordinate-independent microscopical set of diffusion coefficients and coordinate-independent and -dependent phenomenological sets of diffusion coefficients. Neglecting the coordinate dependence of diffusion coefficients, one can strongly overestimate or underestimate the decay rate at low temperature. The coordinate-dependent phenomenological diffusion coefficient in momentum are shown to be suitable for applications.

Sargsyan, V. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Palchikov, Yu. V.; Antonenko, N. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kanokov, Z. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); National University, 700174 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Adamian, G. G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, 702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

2007-06-15

99

Local drainage analyses have been performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm having an approximate 10,000-yr recurrence interval. This review discusses the methods utilized to accomplish the analyses in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) design and evaluation guidelines, and summarizes trends, results, generalizations, and uncertainties applicable to other DOE facilities. Results indicate that some culverts may be undersized, and that the storm sewer system cannot drain the influx of precipitation from the base of buildings. Roofs have not been designed to sustain ponding when the primary drainage system is clogged. Some underground tunnels, building entrances, and ground level air intakes may require waterproofing.

Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

1993-11-01

100

A three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed using CFDS-FLOW3D Version 3.3 to model the transport of aerosol products formed during a release of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process building. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, a one-dimensional (1-D) analysis of aerosol/vapor transport following such an hypothesized severe accident is being performed. The objective of this study is to supplement the 1-D analysis with more detailed 3-D results. Specifically, the goal is to quantify the distribution of aerosol passing out of the process building during the hypothetical accident. This work demonstrates a useful role for CFD in large 3-D problems, where some experimental data are available for calibrating key parameters and the desired results are global (total time-integrated aerosol flow rates across a few boundary surfaces) as opposed to local velocities, temperatures, or heat transfer coefficients.

Wendel, M.W.; Chen, N.C.J.; Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W.

1996-06-01

101

Apparent diffusion coefficient of intracranial germ cell tumors.

The role of diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient in intracranial germ cell tumors has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ADC correlates with the histologic subtypes of germ cell tumors. We also aimed to investigate whether the ADC values can predict treatment response. The authors retrospectively analyzed the ADC values of the enhancing and solid regions of germ cell tumors. The absolute ADC values and the normalized ADC values were compared among different histologic diagnoses. The ADC values before and after the first course of chemotherapy were also compared between the different prognostic groups. Ten patients were included in the study. The median age at diagnosis was 9.3 years (range 5.3-13.8 years). There were four patients with germinoma and six patients with nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT) including five mixed germ cell tumors and one immature teratoma. The mean absolute and normalized ADC values (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) were significantly lower in germinomas [0.835 ± 0.065 (standard deviation) and 1.11 ± 0.096, respectively] than in NGGCTs (1.271 ± 0.145 and 1.703 ± 0.223, respectively) (p = 0.01). The ADC values before and after the first course of chemotherapy were available in four patients. The ADC value after the first chemotherapy had a tendency to increase more in patients who eventually demonstrated complete response with chemotherapy than in patients who required second-look surgery. Assessment of the ADC values of germ cell tumors is considered to facilitate differentiation of histological subtypes of germ cell tumors. Evaluation of the ADC may also be useful for predicting treatment response. PMID:25413617

Ogiwara, Hideki; Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki; Matsuoka, Kentarou; Kiyotani, Chikako; Terashima, Keita; Morota, Nobuhito

2014-11-21

102

Apparent diffusion coefficient threshold for delineation of ischemic core

Background MRI-based selection of patients for acute stroke interventions requires rapid accurate estimation of the infarct core on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). Typically used manual methods to delineate DWI lesions are subjective and time-consuming. These limitations would be overcome by a fully automated method that can rapidly and objectively delineate the ischemic core. An automated method would require pre-defined criteria to identify the ischemic core. Aim To determine Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) based criteria that can be implemented in a fully automated software solution for identification of the ischemic core. Methods Imaging data from patients enrolled in the DEFUSE study who had early revascularization following tPA treatment, was included. The patients’ baseline DWI and 30-day FLAIR lesions were manually delineated after co-registration. Parts of the DWI lesion that corresponded with 30-day infarct were considered ischemic core, whereas parts that corresponded with normal brain parenchyma at 30 days were considered non-core. The optimal ADC threshold to discriminate core from non-core voxels was determined by voxel-based ROC analysis using the Youden index. Results 51045 DWI positive voxels from 14 patients who met eligibility criteria were analyzed. The mean DWI lesion volume was 24(±23) mL. Of this, 18(±22) mL was ischemic core and 3(±5) mL was non-core. The remainder corresponded to pre-existing gliosis, CSF, or was lost to post-infarct atrophy. The ADC of core was lower than that of non-core voxels (p<0.0001). The optimal threshold for identification of ischemic core was an ADC ?620 ×10?6 mm2/s (sensitivity 69% and specificity 78%). Conclusions Our data suggests the ischemic core can be identified with an absolute ADC threshold. This threshold can be implemented in image analysis software for fully automated segmentation of the ischemic core. PMID:23802548

Purushotham, Archana; Campbell, Bruce C. V.; Straka, Matus; Mlynash, Michael; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Bammer, Roland; Kemp, Stephanie M.; Albers, Gregory W.; Lansberg, Maarten G.

2013-01-01

103

MELCOR source term evaluation for UF{sub 6} release event in a gaseous diffusion plant feed facility

An assessment of UF{sub 6} release accidents was conducted for the feed facility of a gaseous diffusion plant. The MELCOR code was utilized for simulating the reactions of UF{sub 6} with moisture and the consequent transport of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and HF vapor through the building and to the environment.

Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Lombardi, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schmidt, R.; Keith, K. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1998-09-01

104

We explore perpendicular diffusion based on the unified nonlinear transport theory. We derive simple analytical forms for the perpendicular mean free path and investigate the influence of different model spectra. We show that for cases where the field line random walk is normal diffusive, the perpendicular diffusion coefficient consists of only two transport regimes. Details of the spectral shape are less important, especially those of the inertial range. Only the macroscopic properties of the turbulence spectrum control the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. Simple formulae for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient are derived which can easily be implemented in solar modulation or shock acceleration codes.

Shalchi, A., E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2013-09-01

105

NITRIC ACID-AIR DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT: EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION

Trace gaseous HNO3 in air is removed in a laminar flow nylon tube. The HNO3 deposition pattern was obtained by sectioning the tube, extracting with an aqueous solution, and measuring the concentration by ion chromatography. Mass transport analysis of the deposition pattern demons...

106

Unsteady mass transfer in the continuous phase around axisymmetric drops of revolution at high Peclet numbers has been theoretically studied. The liquid is a binary system, having a variable diffusion coefficient, which depends on the solute concentration. The solution to the problem was obtained by extending the theory of Favelukis and Mudunuri, developed for a constant diffusion coefficient liquid. The

Moshe Favelukis

2008-01-01

107

Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water

solute polarizability is close to that of CO2, such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8, and H2S. Moreover, we presentModeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water J. Wambui infinite dilution diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide and water mixtures. The model takes

Firoozabadi, Abbas

108

Abstract In this study, we measure effective diffusion coefficients for trichloroethene in undisturbed soil samples taken from Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. The measured effective diffusion coefficients ranged from 0.0053 to 0.0609 cm2/s over a range of air...

109

We establish a stochastic maximum principle in optimal control of a general class of degenerate diffusion processes with global Lipschitz coefficients, generalizing the existing results on stochastic control of diffusion processes. We use distributional derivatives of the coefficients and the Bouleau Hirsh flow property, in order to define the adjoint process on an extension of the initial probability space.

Bahlali, Khaled [UTV, UFR Sciences (France)], E-mail: bahlali@univ-tln.fr; Djehiche, Boualem [Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Mathematical Statistics, Department of Mathematics (Sweden)], E-mail: boualem@math.kth.se; Mezerdi, Brahim [University of Biskra, Laboratory of Applied Mathematics (Algeria)], E-mail: bmezerdi@yahoo.fr

2007-12-15

110

Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR

Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR of Science and Technology, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway Self-diffusion coefficients have been measured of the NMR-PGSE technique. The estimated accuracy of the measurements is (5%. Experimental self

Dysthe, Dag Kristian

111

Fricke gel diffusion coefficient measurements for applications in radiotherapy level dosimetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In gel dosimetry applied to radiotherapy, the space-time corrections are necessary due to the diffusion of ions in the oxidized solution dosimetry. Consequently, methodologies are applied in order to determine diffusion coefficients corrected in space and time. Therefore, in this study the dosimetric solution Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) was modified and applied to two Gaussian and ISQR methodologies for comparison of the diffusion coefficients obtained. The results show that the FXG system can be modified for new applications in radiotherapy, and it may be corrected in space-time to the appropriate methodologies in the determination of diffusion coefficients.

de Oliveira, Lucas Nonato; de Almeida, Adelaide; Caldas, Linda V. E.

2014-05-01

112

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

6-gingerol and 6-shogaol are the main constituents as anti-inflammatory or bioactive compounds from zingiber officinale Roscoe. These bioactive compounds have been proven for inflammatory disease, antioxidatives and anticancer. The effect of temperature on diffusion coefficient for 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were studied in subcritical water extraction. The diffusion coefficient was determined by Fick's second law. By neglecting external mass transfer and solid particle in spherical form, a linear portion of Ln (1-(Ct/Co)) versus time was plotted in determining the diffusion coefficient. 6-gingerol obtained the higher yield at 130°C with diffusion coefficient of 8.582x10-11 m2/s whilst for 6-shogaol, the higher yield and diffusion coefficient at 170°C and 19.417 × 10-11 m2/s.

Ilia Anisa, Nor; Azian, Noor; Sharizan, Mohd; Iwai, Yoshio

2014-04-01

113

Diffusion coefficients of vacancies and interstitials along tilt grain boundaries in molybdenum

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion coefficients of vacancies and interstitials along symmetrical tilt grain boundaries in molybdenum have been calculated using the molecular dynamics method. The migration energies of defects have been obtained. The activation energy and coefficients of grain boundary self-diffusion have been deter-mined. A comparison of the obtained results with the studies of other authors indicates that boundaries formed between particles in the powder in sintering experiments have a higher diffusion activity as compared to stable grain boundaries in polycrystals.

Novoselov, I. I.; Kuksin, A. Yu.; Yanilkin, A. V.

2014-05-01

114

A comparison of ambipolar diffusion coefficients in meteor trains using VHF radar and UV lidar

In this paper we present the first comparative estimations of ionic diffusion rates for sporadic meteor trains near the mesopause made using VHF radar and UV Rayleigh lidar observations. In both cases we initially assumed that the meteor trains dissipate primarily through ambipolar diffusion. For the radar data, the diffusion coefficient within the meteor train was determined from the decay

Phillip B. Chilson; Peter Czechowsky; Gerhard Schmidt

1996-01-01

115

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diffusion coefficient of water in biobased hydrogels were measured utilizing a simple NMR method. This method tracks the migration of deuterium oxide through imaging data that is fit to a diffusion equation. The results show that a 5 wt% soybean oil based hydrogel gives aqueous diffusion of 1.37...

116

Directional diffusion coefficients of solar protons inside and outside the bow shock.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The directional diffusion coefficients of low-energy (greater than or equal to 0.3 MeV) solar protons inside and outside the bow shock are examined during the solar flare event of Jan. 24, 1969. The data are derived from simultaneous observations obtained by Explorer 33 inside the magnetosheath and by Explorer 35 in the interplanetary medium. Although the gross properties of the spin-averaged intensities on a diffusion-type plot appear to be the same in both media, the directional intensities show significant variations. It is shown that directional intensities of low-energy protons can be described reasonably well by anisotropic diffusion with an associated diffusion coefficient. Directional diffusion coefficients are found to differ by a factor of as much as three among different directions in space, and from the spin-averaged diffusion coefficient. This suggests that anisotropic diffusion does indeed take place and that so called 'isotropic' diffusion coefficients derived in the past from spin-averaged intensities may actually be directional diffusion coefficients in cases where substantial anisotropies (greater than 50%) exist.

Verzariu, P.; Krimigis, S. M.

1973-01-01

117

Study of diffusion coefficients of glasses under Zero-G

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A diffusion experiment for glasses was formulated, such theoretical and earth bound results as were available were outlined, and the preliminary earth based experimental work in preparation for a weightless experiment was done. The fundamental premise of the work was that diffusion studies of the glass forming ion can be conducted in zero-g environments, and diffusion data obtained from these experiments are unique and valuable because of earth based experimental difficulties.

Kinser, D. L.

1977-01-01

118

Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) conducted March 14 through 25, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental risk associated with ORGDP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORGDP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during is on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the ORGDP Survey findings for in inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 120 refs., 41 figs., 74 tabs.

Not Available

1989-02-01

119

LANMAS alpha configured for Sandia National Laboratories and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Westinghouse Hanford Company have been working jointly for the past 2 years to develop LANMAS (Local Area Network Material Accountability System), the next generation of a US Department of Energy nuclear material accountability system. LANMAS is being designed to reflect the broad-based needs of the US Department of Energy`s Material Control & Accountability and Nuclear Materials Management communities, and its developers believe that significant cost savings can be achieved by implementing LANMAS complex-wide, where feasible. LANMAS is being designed so that it is transportable to appropriate US Department of Energy sites. To accomplish this, LANMAS will be configurable to local site work culture. Many US Department of Energy sites are interested in the LANMAS project, and several have participated in its development; some have committed resources. The original LANMAS project team included representatives from the Hanford Site and Los Alamos. As of June 1993, the following sites have also supported the project: Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque; Sandia National Laboratory Livermore; Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory; and Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory. In addition, LANMAS is being targeted as a candidate for the US Department of Energy Complex 21, a project designed to restructure the nation`s nuclear weapons complex.

Woychick, M.R. [ed.; McRae, L.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Bracey, J.T. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kern, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Alvarado, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-07-01

120

LANMAS alpha configured for Sandia National Laboratories and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Westinghouse Hanford Company have been working jointly for the past 2 years to develop LANMAS, the next generation of a US Department of Energy nuclear material accountability system. LANMAS is being designed to reflect the broad-based needs of the US Department of Energy`s Material Control and Accountability and Nuclear Materials Management communities, and its developers believe that significant cost savings can be achieved by implementing LANMAS complex-wide, where feasible. LANMAS is being designed so that it is transportable to appropriate US Department of Energy sites. To accomplish this, LANMAS will be configurable to local site work culture. Many US Department of Energy sites are interested in the LANMAS project, and several have participated in its development; some have committed resources. The original LANMAS project team included representatives from the Hanford Site and Los Alamos. As of June 1993, the following sites have also supported the project: Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque; Sandia National Laboratory-Livermore; Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory; and Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory. In addition, LANMAS is being targeted as a candidate for the US Department of Energy Complex 21, a project designed to restructure the nation`s nuclear weapons complex.

McRae, L.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kern, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Alvarado, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bracey, J.T. [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY (United States)

1993-12-31

121

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (~41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source.

Namdoo Moon

2007-12-01

122

The authors describe the Cascade Header Enrichment Monitor (CHEM) for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant at Piketon, Ohio, and present the calibration and measurement results. The US government has offered excess fissile material that is no longer needed for defense purposes for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspection. Measurement results provided by the CHEM were used by the IAEA in a verification experiment to provide confidence that the US successfully blended excess highly enriched uranium (HEU) down to low enriched uranium (LEU). The CHEM measured the uranium enrichment in two cascade header pipes, a 20.32-cm HEU pipe and a 7.62-cm product LEU pipe. The CHEM determines the amount of {sup 235}U from the 185.7-keV gamma-ray photopeak and the amount of total uranium by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of the 98.4-keV x-ray from uranium with a {sup 57}Co XRF source. The ratio yields the enrichment. The CHEM consists of a collimator assembly, an electromechanically cooled germanium detector, and a rack-mounted personal computer running commercial and custom software. The CHEM was installed in December 1997 and was used by the IAEA inspectors for announced and unannounced inspections on the HEU and LEU header pipes through October 1998. The equipment was sealed with tamper-indicating enclosures when the inspectors were not present.

P. L. Kerr; D. A. Close; W. S. Johnson; R. M. Kandarian; C. E. Moss; C. D. Romero

1999-03-01

123

Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

1992-01-01

124

Characterization of internal exposure to enriched uranium at a former gaseous diffusion plant.

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is conducting a nested case-control study of mortality from multiple myeloma involving 581 subjects who worked at the Oak Ridge K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Internally-deposited uranium is the primary agent being considered in the exposure assessment. Routine operation and maintenance of the plant presented the potential for inhaling uranium of various enrichments. As part of the exposure assessment, records describing the various plant processes and procedures, documentation on the medical monitoring program, uranium urinalysis data, and procedures and analytical methods for monitoring uranium exposure were retrieved and reviewed. Uranium urinalysis data consisted of 161,055 uranium urinalysis results obtained by fluorometry and 171,914 results obtained by alpha particle counting. Approximately 20% of the workers were monitored for internal exposure using urine sampling. Mean and median uranium concentrations in urine for the monitored study subjects were slightly lower than for the entire population of monitored K-25 workers. The specific activity of uranium excreted in urine was determined by comparing results obtained using fluorometric and alpha activity measurements and indicate that the majority of internal exposure involved uranium that was depleted or enriched to no more than 4% U. PMID:17993844

Anderson, J L; Spitz, H B; Yiin, J H

2007-12-01

125

Impurity Diffusion Coefficients of Al and Zn in Mg Determined from Solid-to-Solid Diffusion Couples

Increasing use and development of lightweight Mgalloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As property enhancing components, Al and Zn are two of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. We have investigated the concentration dependent interdiffusion of Al and Zn in Mg using diffusion couples of pure polycrystalline Mg mated to Mg solid solutions containing either <9 at.% Al or <3 at.% Zn. Concentration profiles were determined by electron micro-probe microanalysis of the diffusion zone. The interdiffusion coefficients were determined by the classical Boltzmann-Matano method within the Mg solid solution. As the concentration of Al or Zn approaches the dilute ends, we employ an analytical approach based on the Hall method to estimate the impurity diffusion coefficients. Results of Al and Zn impurity diffusion in Mg are reported and compared to published impurity diffusion coefficients typically determined by thin film techniques.

Kammerer, Catherine [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Warmack, Robert J Bruce [ORNL; Perry, Kelly A [ORNL; Belova, Irina [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Murch, Prof. Graeme [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Sohn, Yong Ho [University of Central Florida

2013-08-01

126

On measurement of thermal diffusion coefficients in multicomponent mixtures

mixtures. Such measurements have not yet been reported in the literature. Â© 2005 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1829033 I. INTRODUCTION Thermal diffusion has been studied extensively to pro are the thermogravita- tional column2,3 and the optical methods.4 Simple diffusion cells have also been used in the past

Firoozabadi, Abbas

127

While pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) remain fatal, recent data have shown subgroups with distinct molecular biology and clinical behavior. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted MRI can be used as a prognostic marker to stratify DIPG subsets with distinct clinical behavior. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values derived from diffusion-weighted MRI were computed in 20 consecutive children with treatment-naïve DIPG tumors. The median ADC for the cohort was used to stratify the tumors into low and high ADC groups. Survival, gender, therapy, and potential steroid effects were compared between the ADC groups. Median age at diagnosis was 6.6 (range 2.3-13.2) years, with median follow-up seven (range 1-36) months. There were 14 boys and six girls. Seventeen patients received radiotherapy, five received chemotherapy, and six underwent cerebrospinal fluid diversion. The median ADC of 1,295 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s for the cohort partitioned tumors into low or high diffusion groups, which had distinct median survivals of 3 and 13 months, respectively (log-rank p < 0.001). Low ADC tumors were found only in boys, whereas high ADC tumors were found in both boys and girls. Available tissue specimens in three low ADC tumors demonstrated high-grade histology, whereas one high ADC tumor demonstrated low-grade histology with a histone H3.1 K27M mutation and high-grade metastatic lesion at autopsy. ADC derived from diffusion-weighted MRI may identify prognostically distinct subgroups of pediatric DIPG. PMID:24522717

Lober, Robert M; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tang, Yujie; Barnes, Patrick D; Edwards, Michael S; Vogel, Hannes; Fisher, Paul G; Monje, Michelle; Yeom, Kristen W

2014-03-01

128

Neutron-sensitive radiation detectors are used in the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant`s (PORTS) criticality accident alarm system (CAAS). The CAAS is composed of numerous detectors, electronics, and logic units. It uses a telemetry system to sound building evacuation horns and to provide remote alarm status in a central control facility. The ANSI Standard for a CAAS uses a free-in-air dose rate

R. W. Jr. Tayloe; A. S. Brown; M. C. Dobelbower; J. E. Woollard

1997-01-01

129

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple technique for determining the diffusion coefficient between two miscible liquids is presented based on observing concentration-dependent ultraviolet-excited fluorescence using a digital camera. The ultraviolet-excited visible fluorescence of corn syrup is proportional to the concentration of the syrup. The variation of fluorescence with distance from the transition zone between the fluids is fit by the Fick's law solution to the diffusion equation. By monitoring the concentration at successive times, the diffusion coefficient can be determined in otherwise transparent materials. The technique is quantitative and makes measurement of diffusion accessible in the advanced undergraduate physics laboratory.

Ray, E.; Bunton, P.; Pojman, J. A.

2007-10-01

130

Assessment of diffusion coefficient of glycerol into the skin ex vivo

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present study we have considered diffusion of immersion agent into the skin through thermally pretreated stratum corneum solving the corresponding diffusion problem. Algorithm of refractive index of interstitial liquid and diffusion coefficient of immersion agent into biotissue estimations at a creation of lattice-like pattern of localized thermal damage islets in the stratum corneum, was develop. Theoretical model which sufficiently describes the influence of immersion agents on skin optical properties was presented. The diffusion coefficient of glycerol into pig skin ex vivo at creating a lattice of islets of damage in the stratum corneum is 0.84+/-0.08 ?m2/s.

Gavrilova, Anna A.; Pravdin, Alexander B.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

2007-05-01

131

Mass diffusion coefficients of CO(2)/brine mixtures under thermodynamic conditions of deep saline aquifers have been investigated by molecular simulation. The objective of this work is to provide estimates of the diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in salty water to compensate the lack of experimental data on this property. We analyzed the influence of temperature, CO(2) concentration,and salinity on the diffusion coefficient, the rotational diffusion, as well as the electrical conductivity. We observe an increase of the mass diffusion coefficient with the temperature, but no clear dependence is identified with the salinity or with the CO(2) mole fraction, if the system is overall dilute. In this case, we notice an important dispersion on the values of the diffusion coefficient which impairs any conclusive statement about the effect of the gas concentration on the mobility of CO(2) molecules. Rotational relaxation times for water and CO(2) increase by decreasing temperature or increasing the salt concentration. We propose a correlation for the self-diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in terms of the rotational relaxation time which can ultimately be used to estimate the mutual diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in brine. The electrical conductivity of the CO(2)-brine mixtures was also calculated under different thermodynamic conditions. Electrical conductivity tends to increase with the temperature and salt concentration. However, we do not observe any influence of this property with the CO(2) concentration at the studied regimes. Our results give a first evaluation of the variation of the CO(2)-brine mass diffusion coefficient, rotational relaxation times, and electrical conductivity under the thermodynamic conditions typically encountered in deep saline aquifers. PMID:22292779

Garcia-Ratés, Miquel; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles; Bonet Avalos, Josep; Nieto-Draghi, Carlos

2012-03-01

132

From free to effective diffusion coefficients in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion is one of the main transport processes that occur inside cells determining the spatial and time distribution of relevant action molecules. In most cases these molecules not only diffuse but also interact with others as they get transported. When these interactions occur faster than diffusion the resulting transport can be characterized by “effective diffusion coefficients” that depend on both the reaction rates and the “free” diffusion coefficients. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) gives information on effective rather than free diffusion coefficients under this condition. In the present paper we investigate what coefficients can be drawn from FCS experiments for a wide range of values of the ratio of reaction to diffusion time scales, using different fitting functions. We find that the effective coefficients can be inferred with relatively small errors even when the condition of fast reactions does not exactly hold. Since the diffusion time scale depends on the size of the observation volume and the reaction time scale depends on concentrations, we also discuss how by changing either one or the other property one can switch between the two limits and extract more information on the system under study.

Ipiña, Emiliano Pérez; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

2013-02-01

133

The diffusion of water into dentin adhesive polymers and leaching of unpolymerized monomer from the adhesive are linked to their mechanical softening and hydrolytic degradation. Therefore, diffusion coefficient data are critical for the mechanical design of these polymeric adhesives. In this study, diffusion coefficients of water and leachables were obtained for sixteen methacrylate-based crosslinked polymers using absorption experiments. The experimental mass change data was interpreted using numerical solution of the two-dimensional diffusion equations. The calculated diffusion coefficients varied from 1.05 × 10?8 cm2/sec (co-monomer TMTMA) to 3.15 × 10?8 cm2/sec (co-monomer T4EGDMA). Correlation of the diffusion coefficients with crosslink density and hydrophilicity showed an inverse trend (R2 = 0.41). The correlation of diffusion coefficient with crosslink density and hydrophilicity are closer for molecules differing by simple repeat units (R2 = 0.95). These differences in the trends reveal mechanisms of interaction of the diffusing water with the polymer structure. PMID:22430592

Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Misra, Anil; Park, Jonggu; Ye, Qiang; Spencer, Paulette

2012-01-01

134

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to map shallow sands and gravels which are DNAPL migration pathways at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. The sands and gravels occur as paleochannel deposits, at depths of 17-25 ft, embedded in Pleistocene lacustrine clays. More than 30 GPR profiles were completed over the Drop Test Area (DTA) to map the top and base of the paleochannel deposits, and to assess their lateral continuity. A bistatic radar system was used with antenna frequencies of 25 and 50 MHz. An average velocity of 0.25 ft/ns for silty and clayey materials above the paleochannel deposits was established from radar walkaway tests, profiles over culverts of known depth, and comparison of radar sections with borings. In the south portion of the DTA, strong reflections corresponded to the water table at approximately 9-10 ft, the top of the paleochannel deposits at approximately 18 ft, and to gravel horizons within these deposits. The base of these deposits was not visible on the radar sections. Depth estimates for the top of the paleochannel deposits (from 50 records) were accurate to within 2 ft across the southern portion of the DTA. Continuity of these sands and gravels could not be assessed due to interference from air-wave reflections and lateral changes in signal penetration depth. However, the sands and gravels appear to extend across the entire southern portion of the DTA, at depths as shallow as 17 ft. Ringing, air-wave reflections and diffractions from powerlines, vehicles, well casings, and metal equipment severly degraded GPR profiles in the northern portion of the DTA; depths computed from reflection times (where visible) were accurate to within 4 ft in this area. The paleochannel deposits are deeper to the north and northeast where DNAPL has apparently pooled (DNAPL was not directly imaged by the GPR, however). Existing hydrogeological models of the DTA will be revised.

Carpenter, P.J. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Doll, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phillips, B.E. [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY (United States)

1994-09-01

135

Modeling and analyses of postulated UF{sub 6} release accidents in gaseous diffusion plant

Computer models have been developed to simulate the transient behavior of aerosols and vapors as a result of a postulated accident involving the release of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant. UF{sub 6} undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form hydrogen fluoride (HF) and radioactive uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}). As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, this study evaluated source terms consisting of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} as well as HF during a postulated UF{sub 6} release accident in a process building. In the postulated accident scenario, {approximately}7900 kg (17,500 lb) of hot UF{sub 6} vapor is released over a 5 min period from the process piping into the atmosphere of a large process building. UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} mainly remains as airborne-solid particles (aerosols), and HF is in a vapor form. Some UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols are removed from the air flow due to gravitational settling. The HF and the remaining UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} are mixed with air and exhausted through the building ventilation system. The MELCOR computer code was selected for simulating aerosols and vapor transport in the process building. MELCOR model was first used to develop a single volume representation of a process building and its results were compared with those from past lumped parameter models specifically developed for studying UF{sub 6} release accidents. Preliminary results indicate that MELCOR predicted results (using a lumped formulation) are comparable with those from previously developed models.

Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, J.C. [J.C. Carter Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, R.H. [Dyer Enterprises, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1995-10-01

136

Construction workers were and are considered temporary workers at many construction sites. Since World War II, large numbers of construction workers were employed at U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons sites for periods ranging from a few days to over 30 years. These workers performed tasks during new construction and maintenance, repair, renovation, and demolition of existing facilities. Such tasks may involve emergency situations, and may entail opportunities for significant radiation exposures. This paper provides data from interviews with more than 750 construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio regarding radiation monitoring practices. The aim was to determine the extent to which workers believed they were monitored during tasks involving potential radiation exposures. The adequacy of monitoring practices is important for two reasons: (a) Protecting workers from exposures: Construction workers were employed by sub-contractors, and may frequently been excluded from safety and health programs provided to permanent employees; and (b) Supporting claims for compensation: The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA) requires dose reconstruction of radiation exposures for most workers who file a claim regarding cancer. The use of monitoring data for radiation to qualify a worker means that there should be valid and complete monitoring during the work time at the various nuclear plants or workers may be unfairly denied compensation. The worker interviews from Paducah and Portsmouth were considered especially useful because these sites were designated as Special Exposure Cohorts (SECs) and the workers did not have to have a dose reconstruction to qualify for compensation for most cancers. Therefore, their responses were less likely to be affected by compensation concerns. Interview questions included asking for information regarding whether monitoring was performed, how often, and the maintenance (calibration) of monitoring equipment (devices). PMID:17119219

Bingham, Eula; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Cameron, Wilfrid; McGowan, William; Welch, Laura; Quinn, Patricia

2006-09-01

137

The intrinsic diffusion coefficients in a liquid GaGe alloy were determined using a novel method based on Fick’s first law. The mutual and self diffusion coefficients also were derived. The intrinsic diffusion coefficients of both components are similar to each other and so both components equally contribute to the mutual diffusion coefficient. Also, the values of the self diffusion coefficient

Toru Ujihara; Kozo Fujiwara; Gen Sazaki; Noritaka Usami; Kazuo Nakajima

2002-01-01

138

Molecular diffusion coefficients of ethyl acetate, toluene, phenol, and caffeine in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured by a chromatographic peak broadening technique in a coated capillary column at temperatures of 308, 318, and 328 K and pressures up to 145 bar. A linear adsorption in the polymer layer coated on the inner wall of the capillary column was observed. The experimentally determined diffusion coefficients showed substantial agreement with those reported in the literature. The diffusion coefficients were in the order of 10[sup [minus]4] cm[sup 2]/s and decreased with increasing carbon dioxide density. Based on the molecular diffusion coefficient data reported here and those published elsewhere, an empirically modified Wilke-Chang equation was proposed which was found to be more quantitative than some existing equations such as the Stokes-Einstein and Wilke-Chang equations.

Lai, C.C.; Tan, C.S. (National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1995-02-01

139

Purpose To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient ( ADC apparent diffusion coefficient ) values and the Ki-67 labeling index for luminal-type (estrogen receptor-positive) breast cancer not otherwise specified ( NOS not otherwise specified ) diagnosed by means of biopsy. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Between December 2009 and December 2012, 86 patients with 86 lesions with luminal-type invasive breast cancer NOS not otherwise specified underwent magnetic resonance imaging, including dynamic contrast material-enhanced imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging with b values of 0 and 1000 sec/mm(2). Conventional measurement of the minimum and mean ADC apparent diffusion coefficient s by placing regions of interest and histogram analysis of pixel-based ADC apparent diffusion coefficient data of the entire tumor were performed by two observers independently and correlated with the Ki-67 labeling index of surgical specimens. Results For the interobserver reliability, interclass correlation coefficients for all parameters with the exception of the minimum ADC apparent diffusion coefficient exceeded 0.8, indicating almost perfect agreement. The minimum ADC apparent diffusion coefficient and mean ADC apparent diffusion coefficient and the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the histograms showed negative correlations with the Ki-67 labeling index (r = -0.49, -0.55, -0.54, -0.53, and -0.48, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the differential diagnosis between the high-proliferation (Ki-67 ? 14; n = 44) and low-proliferation (Ki-67 < 14; n = 42) groups revealed that the most effective threshold for the mean ADC apparent diffusion coefficient was lower than 1097 × 10(-6) mm(2)/sec, with sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 71%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.81 for the mean ADC apparent diffusion coefficient . There were no significant differences in the AUC among the parameters. Conclusion Considering convenience for routine practice, the authors suggest that the mean ADC apparent diffusion coefficient of the conventional method would be practical to use for estimating the Ki-67 labeling index. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25203132

Mori, Naoko; Ota, Hideki; Mugikura, Shunji; Takasawa, Chiaki; Ishida, Takanori; Watanabe, Gou; Tada, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mika; Takase, Kei; Takahashi, Shoki

2015-01-01

140

Determination of the zincate diffusion coefficient and its application to alkaline battery problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffusion coefficient for the zincate ion at 24 C was found to be 9.9 x 10 to the -7th power sq cm/sec + or - 30% in 45% potassium hydroxide and 1.4 x 10 to the -7th power sq cm/sec + or - 25% in 40% sodium hydroxide. Comparison of these values with literature values at different potassium hydroxide concentrations show that the Stokes-Einstein equation is obeyed. The diffusion coefficient is characteristic of the zincate ion (not the cation) and independent of its concentration. Calculations with the measured value of the diffusion coefficient show that the zinc concentration in an alkaline zincate half-cell becomes uniform throughout in tens of hours by diffusion alone. Diffusion equations are derived which are applicable to finite-size chambers. Details and discussion of the experimental method are also given.

May, C. E.; Kautz, H. E.

1978-01-01

141

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate a model of restricted water diffusion between equidistant permeable membranes for cell-size and permeability measurements in biological tissue. Based on the known probability distribution of diffusion distances after the diffusion time ? in a system of permeable membranes characterized by three parameters (membrane permeability P, membrane distance L, and free diffusivity D0), an equivalent dimensionless model was derived with a probability distribution characterized by only a single (dimensionless) tissue parameter \\tilde{P}. Evaluating this proposed model function, the dimensionless diffusion coefficient \\tilde{D}_{eff}(\\tilde{\\tau };\\,\\tilde{P}) was numerically calculated for 60 values of the dimensionless diffusion time \\tilde{\\tau } and 35 values of \\tilde{P}. Diffusion coefficients were measured in a carrot by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 18 diffusion times between 9.9 and 1022.7 ms and fitted to the simulation results \\tilde{D}_{eff}(\\tilde{\\tau };\\,\\tilde{P}) to determine L, P, and D0. The measured diffusivities followed the simulated dependence of \\tilde{D}_{eff}(\\tilde{\\tau };\\tilde{P}). Determined cell sizes varied from 21 to 76 ?m, permeabilities from 0.007 to 0.039 ?m-1, and the free diffusivities from 1354 to 1713 ?m2?s-1. In conclusion, the proposed dimensionless tissue model can be used to determine tissue parameters (D0, L, P) based on diffusion MRI with multiple diffusion times. Measurements in a carrot showed a good agreement of the cell diameter, L, determined by diffusion MRI and by light microscopy.

Dietrich, Olaf; Hubert, Alexander; Heiland, Sabine

2014-06-01

142

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study, the averaging technique of diffusion coefficients in the two-dimensional nonlinear diffusive wave equation applied to the floodplain inundation is presented. As a method of solution, the splitting technique and the modified finite element method with linear shape functions are used. On the stage of spatial integration, it is often assumed that diffusion coefficient is constant over element and equal to its average value. However, the numerical experiments indicate that in the case of the flow over the dry floodplain with sudden changes in depths an inadequate averaging of these coefficients can lead to a non-physical solution or even to its instability. In the paper, the averaging techniques for estimation of diffusion coefficients were examined using the arithmetic, geometric, harmonic and the direction dependent means. The numerical tests were carried out for the flows over initially dry floodplain with varied elevation of bottom. It was shown that the averaging method based on the arithmetic mean with respect to the diffusion coefficients provides the satisfactory results in comparison to other techniques.

G?siorowski, Dariusz

2014-09-01

143

Intrinsic diffusion coefficients and the vacancy flow factor in Dilute Cu-Zn Alloys

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interdiffusion coefficients in copper-rich copper-zinc solid solutions containing up to 8 at. pct of Zn at 1168 K have been determined by Matano's analysis using semi-infinite diffusion couples consisting of pure copper and Cu-Zn alloys with Kirkendall markers. From the marker shift and Darken's relation, intrinsic diffusion coefficients, DZn and DCu, in the alloys containing 3.2 and 4.7 at. pct of Zn have been determined. Further, using thin plate couples, DZn and DCu in Cu alloys containing 0.9, 2.3, 3.5, and 4.6 at. pct of Zn at 1168 K have been determined by Heumann's method. The ratio of the intrinsic diffusion coefficients, DZn/DCu, has been found to be about two for all the compositions examined. Using the values of the intrinsic diffusion coefficient of copper at infinite dilution of zinc obtained by extrapolating the concentration dependence of DCu, and the self- and impurity diffusion coefficients in pure copper, the vacancy flow factor has been estimated to be - 0.22-0.15 +0.06 at 1168 K. By combining this value of the vacancy flow factor with the solute enhancement factor of solvent diffusion determined by Peterson and Rothman, the correlation factor for impurity diffusion of Zn in Cu at 1168 K has been evaluated to be 0.5, which is in good agreement with the value of 0.47 determined by Peterson and Rothman based on the isotope effect measurement.

Hoshino, Kazutomo; Iijima, Yoshiaki; Hirano, Ken-Ichi

1982-07-01

144

Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Methanol in Sulfuric Acid Solutions Measured by Raman % sulfuric acid solutions was followed using Raman spectroscopy. Because methanol reacts to form protonated that the speciation of both methanol and sulfuric acid may be important in determining these transport coefficients

145

An alternative model for estimating liquid diffusion coefficients requiring no viscosity data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An equation, based on the free volume of a liquid solvent, was derived via dimensional analysis, to predict binary diffusion coefficients. The equation assumed that interaction between the solute and liquid solvent molecules followed a Lennard-Jones potential. The equation was compared to other diffusivity equations and was found to give good results over the temperature range examined.

Morales, Wilfredo

1993-01-01

146

LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND PREDICTIVE EQUATIONS FOR GAS DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF UNSATURATED SOILS

Molecular diffusion is an important mechanism for gas transport through soil covers placed over municipal dumps (from which bio-gas must not escape) and above acid generating mine tailings (where oxygen availability must be controlled). Gas flux through cover systems depends on the effective diffusion coefficient De of the cover materials. In this paper, the authors describe a laboratory procedure for

Mostafa Aachib

2002-01-01

147

Equations for determining Diffusion Coefficients in Liquid Systems by the Diaphragm Cell Technique

THE diaphragm-cell technique, first introduced by Northrop and Anson1, has been widely used as an experimental method of utilizing Fick's first law to obtain diffusion coefficients in liquids. The procedure is a simple one whereby diffusion takes place through a porous diaphragm separating two cells in which the respective liquid concentrations, initially different to provide a driving force or potential

F. A. L. Dullien

1960-01-01

148

Temperature-Dependent Diffusion Coefficients from ab initio Computations: Hydrogen in Nickel

The temperature-dependent mass diffusion coefficient is computed using transition state theory. Ab initio supercell phonon calculations of the entire system provide the attempt frequency, the activation enthalpy, and the activation entropy as a function of temperature. Effects due to thermal lattice expansion are included and found to be significant. Numerical results for the case of hydrogen in nickel demonstrate a strong temperature dependence of the migration enthalpy and entropy. Trapping in local minima along the diffusion path has a pronounced effect especially at low temperatures. The computed diffusion coefficients with and without trapping bracket the available experimental values over the entire temperature range between 0 and 1400 K.

E Wimmer; W Wolf; J Sticht; P Saxe; C Geller; R Najafabadi; G Young

2006-03-16

149

Health risk from earthquake caused releases of UF{sub 6} at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

The health risk to the public and workers from potential exposure to the toxic materials from earthquake caused releases of uranium hexafluoride from the Paducah gaseous Diffusion Plant are evaluated. The results of the study show that the health risk from earthquake caused releases is small, and probably less than risks associated with the transportation of hydrogen fluoride and other similar chemicals used by industry. The probability of more than 30 people experiencing health consequences (injuries) from earthquake damage is less than 4xlO{sup 4}/yr.

Brown, N.W; Lu, S.; Chen, J.C.; Roehnelt, R.; Lombardi, D.

1998-05-01

150

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping are functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques for detecting water diffusion. DWI and the ADC map were performed for intracranial lesions in two dogs. In necrotizing leukoencephalitis, cavitated lesions contained a hypointense center with a hyperintense periphery on DWI, and hyperintense signals on the ADC maps. In metastatic sarcoma, masses including a necrotic region were hypointense with DWI, and hyperintense on the ADC map with hyperintense perilesional edema on DWI and ADC map. Since DWI and ADC data reflect the altered water diffusion, they can provide additional information at the molecular level. PMID:24675836

Kim, Boeun; Yi, Kangjae; Jung, Sunyoung; Ji, Seoyeon; Choi, Mincheol

2014-01-01

151

Sublimation kinetics and diffusion coefficients of TNT, PETN, and RDX in air by thermogravimetry.

The diffusion coefficients of explosives are crucial in their trace detection and lifetime estimation. We report on the experimental values of diffusion coefficients of three of the most important explosives in both military and industry: TNT, PETN, and RDX. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the sublimation rates of TNT, PETN, and RDX powders in the form of cylindrical billets. The TGA was calibrated using ferrocene as a standard material of well-characterized sublimation rates and vapor pressures to determine the vapor pressures of TNT, PETN, and RDX. The determined sublimation rates and vapor pressures were used to indirectly determine the diffusion coefficients of TNT, PETN, and RDX for the first time. A linear log-log dependence of the diffusion coefficients on temperature is observed for the three materials. The diffusion coefficients of TNT, PETN, and RDX at 273 K were determined to be 5.76×10(-6)m(2)/sec, 4.94×10(-6)m(2)/s, and 5.89×10(-6)m(2)/s, respectively. Values are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values in literature. PMID:24840410

Hikal, Walid M; Weeks, Brandon L

2014-07-01

152

Theoretical evaluation of diffusion coefficients of (Al2O3)n clusters in different bath gases

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The binary diffusion coefficients of two low lying isomers of (Al2O3) n , n = 1...4, clusters in different bath gases, that most frequently met in the nature and in the technical applications: H2, N2, O2, CO, H2O as well as their self-diffusion coefficients have been calculated on the basis of kinetic theory and dipole reduced formalism. The parameters of interaction potential have been determined taking into account the contributions of a dispersion, dipole-dipole and dipole-induced dipole interactions between alumina clusters and bath molecules. The dipole moments, polarizabilities and collision diameters of clusters have been obtained by using quantum chemical calculations of cluster structure. The approximations for temperature dependencies of diffusion coefficients for two low-lying isomers of each considered alumina clusters are reported. It is demonstrated that an account for the contributions of the second for each type of clusters does not affect substantially the value of net diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficients of the isomers of small (Al2O3) n clusters can differ notably in the case when their dipole moments are distinct and they interact with strongly dipole molecules.

Sharipov, Alexander S.; Loukhovitski, Boris I.; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Starik, Alexander M.

2014-04-01

153

Background Support vector regression (SVR) and Gaussian process regression (GPR) were used for the analysis of electroanalytical experimental data to estimate diffusion coefficients. Results For simulated cyclic voltammograms based on the EC, Eqr, and EqrC mechanisms these regression algorithms in combination with nonlinear kernel/covariance functions yielded diffusion coefficients with higher accuracy as compared to the standard approach of calculating diffusion coefficients relying on the Nicholson-Shain equation. The level of accuracy achieved by SVR and GPR is virtually independent of the rate constants governing the respective reaction steps. Further, the reduction of high-dimensional voltammetric signals by manual selection of typical voltammetric peak features decreased the performance of both regression algorithms compared to a reduction by downsampling or principal component analysis. After training on simulated data sets, diffusion coefficients were estimated by the regression algorithms for experimental data comprising voltammetric signals for three organometallic complexes. Conclusions Estimated diffusion coefficients closely matched the values determined by the parameter fitting method, but reduced the required computational time considerably for one of the reaction mechanisms. The automated processing of voltammograms according to the regression algorithms yields better results than the conventional analysis of peak-related data. PMID:24987463

2014-01-01

154

A first-principles methodology for diffusion coefficients in metals and dilute alloys

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is a study exploring the extent of suitability of static first-principles calculations for studying diffusion in metallic systems. Specifically, vacancy-mediated volume diffusion in pure elements and alloys with dilute concentration of impurities is studied. A novel procedure is discovered for predicting diffusion coefficients that overcomes the shortcomings of the well-known transition state theory, by Vineyard. The procedure that evolves from Eyring's reaction rate theory yields accurate diffusivity results that include anharmonic effects within the quasi-harmonic approximation. Alongside, the procedure is straightforward in its application within the conventional harmonic approximation, from the results of static first-principles calculations. To prove the extensibility of the procedure, diffusivities have been computed for a variety of systems. Over a wide temperature range, the calculated self-diffusion and impurity diffusion coefficients using local density approximation (LDA) of density functional theory (DFT) are seen to be in excellent match with experimental data. Self-diffusion coefficients have been calculated for: (i) fcc Al, Cu, Ni and Ag (ii) bcc W and Mo (v) hcp Mg, Ti and Zn. Impurity diffusion coefficients have been computed for: (i) Mg, Si, Cu, Li, Ag, Mo and 3d transition elements in fcc Al (ii) Mo, Ta in bcc W and Nb, Ta and W in bcc Mo (iii) Sn and Cd in hcp Mg and Al in hcp Ti. It is also an observation from this work, that LDA does not require surface correction for yielding energetics of vacancy-containing system in good comparison with experiments, unlike generalized gradient approximation (GGA). It is known that first-principles' energy minimization procedures based on electronic interactions are suited for metallic systems wherein the valence electrons are freely moving. In this thesis, research has been extended to study suitability of first-principles calculations within LDA/GGA including the localization parameter U, for Al system with transition metal solutes, in which charges are known to localize around the transition metal element. U parameter is determined from matching the diffusivities of 3d transition metal impurity in aluminum with reliable experimental data. The effort yielded activation energies in systematic agreement with experiments and has proved useful in obtaining insights into the complex interactions in these systems. Besides the prediction of diffusion coefficients, this research has been helpful in understanding the physics underlying diffusion. Within the scope of observations from the systems studied, certain diffusion related aspects that have been clarified are: (i) cause for non-Arrnenius' nature of diffusion plots (ii) definitions of atom migration properties (iii) magnitude and sign of diffusion parameters enthalpy and entropy of formation and migration and characteristic vibrational frequency (iv) trends in diffusivities based on activation energy and diffusion prefactor (vi) cause for anomalous diffusion behavior of 3d transition metals in Al, and their magnetic nature (vii) contributions from electronic contributions to curvature at very high temperatures of bcc refractory elements (viii) temperature dependence of impurity diffusion correlation factors. Finally, the double-well potential of diffusion by vacancy mechanism has been calculated from first-principles. This aided calculation of entropy of migration and thus free energy of migration along with characteristic vibrational frequency. Also for the first time, temperature dependence of enthalpy of migration and thus atom jump frequency has been accurately predicted. From the broad perspective of predicting diffusion coefficients from computational methodologies, it can be stated as a result of this work that: static first-principles extend an irreplaceable contribution to the future of diffusion modeling. The procedure obviated the use of (i) redundant approximations that limit its accuracy and (ii) support from other computational techniques that restrict its extensibility due to insufficient i

Mantina, Manjeera

155

Ionic transport in conventional ionic solids is generally considered to proceed via independent diffusion events or "hops." This assumption leads to well-known Arrhenius expressions for transport coefficients, and is equivalent to assuming diffusion is a Poisson process. Using molecular dynamics simulations of the low-temperature B1, B3, and B4 AgI polymorphs, we have compared rates of ion hopping with corresponding Poisson distributions to test the assumption of independent hopping in these common structure types. In all cases diffusion is a non-Poisson process, and hopping is strongly correlated in time. In B1 the diffusion coefficient can be approximated by an Arrhenius expression, though the physical significance of the parameters differs from that commonly assumed. In low temperature B3 and B4, diffusion is characterized by concerted motion of multiple ions in short closed loops. Diffusion coefficients cannot be expressed in a simple Arrhenius form dependent on single-ion free energies, and intrinsic diffusion must be considered a many-body process. PMID:24765989

Morgan, Benjamin J; Madden, Paul A

2014-04-11

156

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic transport in conventional ionic solids is generally considered to proceed via independent diffusion events or "hops." This assumption leads to well-known Arrhenius expressions for transport coefficients, and is equivalent to assuming diffusion is a Poisson process. Using molecular dynamics simulations of the low-temperature B1, B3, and B4 AgI polymorphs, we have compared rates of ion hopping with corresponding Poisson distributions to test the assumption of independent hopping in these common structure types. In all cases diffusion is a non-Poisson process, and hopping is strongly correlated in time. In B1 the diffusion coefficient can be approximated by an Arrhenius expression, though the physical significance of the parameters differs from that commonly assumed. In low temperature B3 and B4, diffusion is characterized by concerted motion of multiple ions in short closed loops. Diffusion coefficients cannot be expressed in a simple Arrhenius form dependent on single-ion free energies, and intrinsic diffusion must be considered a many-body process.

Morgan, Benjamin J.; Madden, Paul A.

2014-04-01

157

Simultaneous estimation of effective and apparent diffusion coefficients in compacted bentonite.

Effective diffusion coefficients (D(e)) are usually measured by means of "through-diffusion" experiments in which steady state is reached, and the "time-lag" methods are used to estimate the apparent diffusion coefficient (D(a)). For sorbing radionuclides (as caesium), the time needed to reach steady-state conditions is very large, and the precision in D(a) determinations is not satisfactory. In this paper, a method that allows determining simultaneously effective and apparent diffusion coefficients in compacted bentonite without reaching steady-state conditions is described. Basically, this method consists of an "in-diffusion" experiment in which the concentration profile in the bentonite sample is used to estimate D(a), and the temporal evolution of the solute concentration in the reservoir is used to estimate D(e). This method has several advantages over the typical "through-diffusion" experiments, in particular: (a) experiment duration is significantly shorter, (b) D(a) values are measured with greater precision and (c) it is not necessary to maintain a constant solute concentration in the reservoir. This new method has been used to estimate the effective and apparent diffusion coefficients for caesium in FEBEX bentonite and in order to validate it, the results have been compared with results previously obtained with standard methods. Experimental results have been satisfactorily modelled using a simple model of diffusion in porewater and the measured value of D(e)(Cs) is very similar to D(e)(HTO) in the same bentonite. There is no evidence of "surface diffusion" in FEBEX bentonite for caesium. PMID:12598094

Cormenzana, José Luis; García-Gutiérrez, Miguel; Missana, Tiziana; Junghanns, Alvaro

2003-03-01

158

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion along interface and grain boundaries provides an efficient pathway and may control chemical transport in rocks as well as their mechanical strength. Besides the significant relevance of these diffusion processes for various geologic processes, experimental data are still very limited (e.g., Dohmen & Milke, 2010). Most of these data were measured using polycrystalline materials and the formalism of LeClaire (1951) to fit integrated concentration depth profiles. To correctly apply this formalism, certain boundary conditions of the diffusion problem need to be fulfilled, e.g., surface diffusion is ignored, and furthermore the lattice diffusion coefficient has to be known from other studies or is an additional fitting parameter, which produces some ambiguity in the derived grain boundary diffusion coefficients. We developed an experimental setup where we can measure the lattice and grain boundary diffusion coefficients simultaneously but independent and demonstrate the relevance of surface diffusion for typical grain boundary diffusion experiments. We performed Mg2SiO4 bicrystal diffusion experiments, where a single grain boundary is covered by a thin-film of pure Ni2SiO4 acting as diffusant source, produced by pulsed laser deposition. The investigated grain boundary is a 60° (011)/[100]. This specific grain boundary configuration was modeled using molecular dynamics for comparison with the experimental observations in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both, experiment and model are in good agreement regarding the misorientation, whereas there are still some disagreements regarding the strain fields along the grain boundary that are of outmost importance for the strengths of the material. The subsequent diffusion experiments were carried out in the temperature range between 800° and 1450° C. The inter diffusion profiles were measured using the TEMs energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer standardized using the Cliff-Lorimer equation and EMPA measurements. To evaluate the obtained diffusion profiles we adapted the isolated grain boundary model, first proposed by Fisher (1951) to match several observations: (i) Anisotropic diffusion in forsterite, (ii) fast diffusion along the grain boundary, (iii) fast diffusion on the surface of the sample. The latter process is needed to explain an additional flux of material from the surface into the grain boundary. Surface and grain boundary diffusion coefficients are on the order of 10000 times faster than diffusion in the lattice. Another observation was that in some regions the diffusion profiles in the lattice were greatly extended. TEM observations suggest here that surface defects (nano-cracks, ect.) have been present, which apparently enhanced the diffusion through the bulk lattice. Dohmen, R., & Milke, R. (2010). Diffusion in Polycrystalline Materials: Grain Boundaries, Mathematical Models, and Experimental Data. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 72(1), 921-970. Fisher, J. C. (1951). Calculations of Diffusion Penetration Curves for Surface and Grain Boundary Diffusion. Journal of Applied Physics, 22(1), 74-77. Le Claire, A. D. (1951). Grain boundary diffusion in metals. Philosophical Magazine A, 42(328), 468-474.

Marquardt, Katharina; Dohmen, Ralf; Wagner, Johannes

2014-05-01

159

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), has been enriching uranium since the early 1950s. The enrichment process involves electrical and mechanical components that require periodic cleaning. The primary cleaning agent was trichloroethene (TCE) until the late 1980s. Historical documentation indicates that a mixture of TCE and dry ice were used at PGDP for testing the integrity of steel cylinders, which stored depleted uranium. TCE and dry ice were contained in a below-ground pit and used during the integrity testing. TCE seeped from the pit and contaminated the surrounding soil. The Lasagna{trademark} technology was identified in the Record of Decision (ROD) as the selected alternative for remediation of the cylinder testing site. A public-private consortium formed in 1992 (including DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Monsanto, DuPont, and General Electric) developed the Lasagna{trademark} technology. This innovative technology employs electrokinetics to remediate soil contaminated with organics and is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils. This technology uses direct current to move water through the soil faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods. Electrokinetics moves contaminants in soil pore water through treatment zones comprised of iron filings, where the contaminants are decomposed to basic chemical compounds such as ethane. After three years of development in the laboratory, the consortium field tested the Lasagna{trademark} process in several phases. CDM installed and operated Phase I, the trial installation and field test of a 150-square-foot area selected for a 120-day run in 1995. Approximately 98 percent of the TCE was removed. CDM then installed and operated the next phase (IIa), a year-long test on a 600-square-foot site. Completed in July 1997, this test removed 75 percent of the total volume of TCE down to a depth of 45 feet. TCE in the test sites. Based on the successful field tests (Phases I and IIa), the ROD was prepared and the Lasagna{trademark} alternative was selected for remediation of TCE contaminated soils at the cylinder testing site Solid Waste Management Unit 91(SWMU 91). Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC contracted CDM to construct and operate a full-scale Lasagna{trademark} remediation system at the site (Phase IIb). Construction began in August 1999 and the operational phase was initiated in December 1999. The Lasagna{trademark} system was operated for two years and reduced the average concentration of TCE in SWMU 91 soil from 84 ppm to less than 5.6 ppm. Verification sampling was conducted during May, 2002. Results of the verification sampling indicated the average concentration of TCE in SWMU 91 soil was 0.38 ppm with a high concentration of 4.5 ppm.

Swift, Barry D.; Tarantino, Joseph J., P. E.

2003-02-27

160

The Diffusion Coefficient of Scandium in Dilute Aluminum-Scandium Alloys

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion coefficient of Sc in dilute Al-Sc alloys has been determined at 748 K, 823 K, and 898 K (475 °C, 550 °C, and 625 °C, respectively) using semi-infinite diffusion couples. Good agreement was found between the results of the present study and both the higher temperature, direct measurements and lower temperature, indirect measurements of these coefficients reported previously in the literature. The temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient equation derived from the data obtained in the present investigation was found to be Combining these results with data from the literature and fitting all data simultaneously to an Arrhenius relationship yielded the expression In each equation given above, R is 0.0083144 kJ/mol K, T is in Kelvin, and the uncertainties are ±1 standard error.

Kerkove, Marcel A.; Wood, Thomas D.; Sanders, Paul G.; Kampe, Stephen L.; Swenson, Douglas

2014-08-01

161

Diffusion coefficient of CO(2) molecules as determined by (13)C NMR in various carbonated beverages.

In this paper, the NMR technique was used, for the first time, to accurately determine the diffusion coefficient D of CO(2)-dissolved molecules in various carbonated beverages, including champagne and sparkling wines. This parameter plays an important role concerning the bubble growth during its rise through the liquid (see ref 3). The diffusion coefficient of CO(2)-dissolved molecules D was compared with that deduced from the well-known Stokes-Einstein equation and found to significantly deviate from the general trend expected from Stokes-Einstein theory, i.e, D(SE) proportional, variant 1/eta, where D(SE) is the Stokes-Einstein diffusion coefficient and eta the viscosity of the liquid medium. PMID:14664507

Liger-Belair, Gerard; Prost, Elise; Parmentier, Maryline; Jeandet, Philippe; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc

2003-12-17

162

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to analyze the ability of modulated photothermal radiometry to retrieve the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of layered materials simultaneously. First, we extend the thermal quadrupole method to calculate the surface temperature of semitransparent multilayered materials. Then, this matrix method is used to evaluate the influence of heat losses by convection and radiation, the influence of the use of thin paint layers on the accuracy of thermal diffusivity measurements, and the effect of lateral heat diffusion due to the use of Gaussian laser beams. Finally, we apply the quadrupole method to retrieve (a) the thermal contact resistance in glass stacks and (b) the thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient depth profiles in heterogeneous materials with continuously varying physical properties, as is the case of functionally graded materials and partially cured dental resins.

Salazar, Agustín; Fuente, Raquel; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza; Celorrio, R.

2011-08-01

163

A New Method for the Calculation of Diffusion Coefficients with Monte Carlo

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new Monte Carlo-based method for the calculation of diffusion coefficients. One distinctive feature of this method is that it does not resort to the computation of transport cross sections directly, although their functional form is retained. Instead, a special type of tally derived from a deterministic estimate of Fick's Law is used for tallying the total cross section, which is then combined with a set of other standard Monte Carlo tallies. Some properties of this method are presented by means of numerical examples for a multi-group 1-D implementation. Calculated diffusion coefficients are in general good agreement with values obtained by other methods.

Dorval, Eric

2014-06-01

164

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field Cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FC NMR) relaxation studies are reported for three ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMIM-SCN, 220-258 K), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF4, 243-318 K), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6, 258-323 K). The dispersion of 1H spin-lattice relaxation rate R1(?) is measured in the frequency range of 10 kHz-20 MHz, and the studies are complemented by 19F spin-lattice relaxation measurements on BMIM-PF6 in the corresponding frequency range. From the 1H relaxation results self-diffusion coefficients for the cation in EMIM-SCN, BMIM-BF4, and BMIM-PF6 are determined. This is done by performing an analysis considering all relevant intra- and intermolecular relaxation contributions to the 1H spin-lattice relaxation as well as by benefiting from the universal low-frequency dispersion law characteristic of Fickian diffusion which yields, at low frequencies, a linear dependence of R1 on square root of frequency. From the 19F relaxation both anion and cation diffusion coefficients are determined for BMIM-PF6. The diffusion coefficients obtained from FC NMR relaxometry are in good agreement with results reported from pulsed- field-gradient NMR. This shows that NMR relaxometry can be considered as an alternative route of determining diffusion coefficients of both cations and anions in ionic liquids.

Kruk, D.; Meier, R.; Rachocki, A.; Korpa?a, A.; Singh, R. K.; Rössler, E. A.

2014-06-01

165

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simultaneously measured the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity of a rectangular parallelepiped bulk thermoelectric material. We used one-dimensional heat conduction equation to show that a periodic heat cycle produces not only the thermoelectromotive force but also a certain phase shift angle between the edge and intermediate points of a sample along the length of the material. Based on the equation of the modified Angström method, an experiment at 300 K was performed using NIST standard material (SRM 3451, Bi2Te3 material) to measure the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity. The measured Seebeck coefficient was ?231 ± 3 µV/K, which corresponds to the published value. Using the same experimental setup as that for the thermal diffusivity measurement, the dependence of the phase shift angle on frequency was measured from 5 mHz to 10 Hz for the phase shift angle from ?8.2 to ?450°. The estimated thermal diffusivity was (1.53 ± 0.05) × 10?6 m2/s. We conclude that the modified Angström method can be used to measure the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity simultaneously.

Homma, Ryoei; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Terakado, Hiroki; Morita, Hiroyuki; Komine, Takashi

2015-02-01

166

Diffusion and virial coefficient in a mercury-argon gas mixture

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and experimental data on molecular beams and the mutual diffusion coefficient (MDC) and second virial coefficient (SVC) for an Hg-Ar gas mixture as a representative of the mercuryinert gas family are matched on basis of the Morse potential and the relations of the molecular kinetic theory of rarefied gases. Tables of the MDC and SVC values in the temperature range of 200-2000 K are calculated, and estimates of their accuracy are presented.

Popov, V. N.; Fokin, L. R.

2013-04-01

167

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the diffusivity in suspended monolayer graphene at low and high electric fields is investigated. The knowledge of this quantity and its dependence on the electric field is of primary importance not only for the investigation of the electronic transport properties of this material but also for the development of accurate drift-diffusion models. The results have been obtained by means of an ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. For the calculation of the diffusion coefficient, two different methods are considered, one based on the second central moment and the other one based on the Fourier analysis of velocity fluctuations, which are directly related to the noise behaviour at high frequencies. The diffusion coefficient is analyzed considering both parallel and transversal directions with regard to the applied field. Taking into account the importance of degeneracy in this material, the calculations are properly performed by considering an excess electron population obeying a linearized Boltzmann transport equation, which allows studying in an adequate fashion the diffusivity phenomena. The results show the importance of degeneracy effects at very low fields in which transport is mainly dominated by acoustic phonon scattering. Values of the diffusion coefficient larger than 40 000 cm2/Vs are obtained for a carrier concentration equal to 1012 cm-2. The correlation function of instantaneous velocity fluctuation is explained in terms of the wavevector distribution, and their power spectral density is evaluated in the THz range, showing an important dependence on the applied field and being strongly related to microscopic transport processes.

Rengel, R.; Martín, M. J.

2013-10-01

168

The diffusion of all stable lanthanides was measured both in calcia stabilized zirconia (CSZ) and in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in the temperature range between 1,286 and 1,600 degrees C. The lanthanide diffusion coefficients obtained increase with increasing ionic radius. The experimental activation enthalpy of diffusion is near 6 eV for CSZ and between 4 and 5 eV for YSZ and is not strongly affected by the type of lanthanide. The results were correlated with defect energy calculations of the lanthanide diffusion enthalpy using the Mott-Littleton approach. An association enthalpy of cation vacancies with oxygen vacancies of about 1 eV (96 kJ/mol) was deduced in the case of CSZ, while there is no association in the case of YSZ. Furthermore, the change in diffusion coefficients can be correlated to the interaction parameter for the interaction between the lanthanide oxide with zirconia: The higher the interaction parameter, the higher the lanthanide diffusion coefficient. PMID:15352843

Kilo, Martin; Taylor, Marcela A; Argirusis, Christos; Borchardt, Günter; Weber, Sylvain; Scherrer, Hubert; Jackson, Robert A

2004-09-15

169

We analyzed a diffusion model based on the assumption that the sufficient condition for the mass flux at point x+L to be different from zero is a nonzero value of the impurity gradient and of impurity concentration at point x. In our model, the length of the jump of diffusing particles from one equilibrium position to another has a defined

A. J. Janavicius; A. Poskus

2005-01-01

170

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports results from the first biological crystal growth experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Crystals of thaumatin were grown using liquid-liquid diffusion in Tygon tubing transported in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN). Different Volume ratios and concentrations of protein and precipitant were used to test different adaptations of the vapor diffusion crystallization recipe to the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The EGN warmed up from -196 C to 0 C in about four days, about the same time it took to warm from 0 C to 20 C. The temperature within the EGN was 20 - 24 C for the majority of the experiment. Air gaps that blocked liquid-liquid diffusion formed in the tubes. Nonetheless, crystals were grown. Synchrotron diffraction data collected from the best space grown crystal extended to 1.28 Angstroms, comparable to previous studies of space-grown thaumatin crystals. The resolution of the best ground control crystal was only 1.47 Angstroms. It is not clear if the difference in diffraction limit is due to factors other than crystal size. Improvements in temperature control and the elimination of air gaps are needed, but the results show that EGN on the ISS can be used to produce space grown crystals that diffract to high resolution.

Kundrot, Craig; Barnes, Cindy L.; Snell, Edward H.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

171

Drag and diffusion co-efficients of heavy quarks in hard thermal loop approximations

The drag and diffusion coefficients of heavy quarks propagating through quark gluon plasma (QGP) have been evaluated using Hard Thermal Loop (HTL) approximations. The HTL corrections to the relevant propagators and vertices have been considered. It is observed that the magnitudes of both the transport coefficients are changed significantly from values obtained by earlier approaches where either (i) the $t$ channel divergence in T=0 pQCD matrix element is shielded simply by Debye mass. or (ii) only HTL resummed propagator is used ignoring the HTL corrections at the interaction vertices. The implications of these changes in the transport coefficients on the heavy ion phenomenology have been discussed.

Surasree Mazumder; Trambak Bhattacharyya; Jan-e Alam

2013-01-24

172

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is a review of empirical and calculated data on density, viscosity, and diffusion coefficients in hypereutectic Al-Si liquid alloys. Many regressions of the data were effected in order to consolidate the data as functions, which can be used to calculate each property as a function of temperature and concentration of Si. The chemical diffusion coefficient in the alloys was derived based on the Sutherland model, which relates the diffusion coefficient to viscosity.

Poirier, David R.

2014-08-01

173

Reorientational angle distribution and diffusion coefficient for nodal and cylindrical surfaces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a catalogue of diffusion coefficients and reorientational angle distribution (RAD) for various periodic surfaces, such as I-WP, F-RD, S, and S1 nodal surfaces; cylindrical structures like simple, undulated, and spiral cylinders, and a three-dimensional interconnected-rod structures. The results are obtained on the basis of a simulation algorithm for a diffusion on a surface given by the general equation ?(r)=0 [Ho?yst et al., Phys Rev. E 60, 302 (1999)]. I-WP, S, and S1 surfaces have a spherelike RAD, while F-RD has a cubelike RAD. The average of the second Legendre polynomial with RAD function for all nodal surfaces, except the F-RD nodal surface, decays exponentially with time for short times. The decay time is related to the Euler characteristic and the area per unit cell of a surface. This analytical formula, first proposed by B. Halle, S. Ljunggren, and S. Lidin in J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1401 (1992), is checked here on nodal surfaces, and its range of validity is determined. RAD function approaches its stationary limit exponentially with time. We determine the time to reach stationary state for all surfaces. In the case of the value of the effective diffusion coefficient the mean curvature and a connectivity between parts of surfaces have the main influence on it. The surfaces with low mean curvature at every point of the surface are characterized by high-diffusion coefficient. However if a surface has globally low mean curvature with large regions of nonzero mean curvature (negative and positive) the effective diffusion coefficient is low, as for example, in the case of undulated cylinders. Increasing the connectivity, at fixed curvatures, increases the diffusion coefficient.

Plewczy?ski, D.; Ho?yst, R.

2000-12-01

174

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the dynamics and transport properties of 12 room-temperature ionic liquids of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium [amim]+ (alkyl=methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl) family with PF6-, NO3-, and Cl- counterions. The explicit atom transferable force field of Canongia Lopes et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2038 (2004)] is used in the simulations. In this first part, the dynamics of the ionic liquids are characterized by studying the mean-square displacement (MSD) and the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) for the centers of mass of the ions at 400 K. Trajectory averaging was employed to evaluate the diffusion coefficients at two temperatures from the linear slope of MSD(t) functions in the range of 150-300 ps and from the integration of the VACF(t) functions at 400 K. Detailed comparisons are made between the diffusion results from the MSD and VACF methods. The diffusion coefficients from the integration of the VACFs are closer to experimental values than the diffusion coefficients calculated from the slope of MSDs. Both methods can show good agreement with experiment in predicting relative trends in the diffusion coefficients and determining the role of the cation and anion structures on the dynamical behavior of this family of ionic liquids. The MSD and self-diffusion of relatively heavier imidazolium cations are larger than those of the lighter anions from the Einstein results, except for the case of [bmim][Cl]. The cationic transference number generally decreases with temperature, in good agreement with experiments. For the same anion, the cationic transference numbers decrease with increasing length of the alkyl chain, and for the same cation, the trends in the cationic transference numbers are [NO3]-<[Cl]-<[PF6]-. The trends in the diffusion coefficient in the series of cations with identical anions are [emim]+>[pmim]+>[bmim]+ and those for anions with identical cations are [NO3]->[PF6]->[Cl]-. The [dmim]+ has a relatively low diffusion coefficient due to its symmetric structure and good packing in the liquid phase. The major factor for determining the magnitude of the self-diffusion is the geometric shape of the anion of the ionic liquid. Other important factors are the ion size and the charge delocalization in the anion.

Kowsari, M. H.; Alavi, Saman; Ashrafizaadeh, Mahmud; Najafi, Bijan

2008-12-01

175

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an approach that extends the flexibility of the standard lattice Boltzmann single relaxation time scheme in terms of spatial variation of dissipative terms (e.g., diffusion coefficient) and stability for high Péclet mass transfer problems. Spatial variability of diffusion coefficient in SRT is typically accommodated through the variation of relaxation time during the collision step. This method is effective but cannot deal with large diffusion coefficient variations, which can span over several orders of magnitude in some natural systems. The approach explores an alternative way of dealing with large diffusion coefficient variations in advection-diffusion transport systems by introducing so-called diffusion velocity. The diffusion velocity is essentially an additional convective term that replaces variations in diffusion coefficients vis-à-vis a chosen reference diffusion coefficient which defines the simulation time step. Special attention is paid to the main idea behind the diffusion velocity formulation and its implementation into the lattice Boltzmann framework. Finally, the performance, stability, and accuracy of the diffusion velocity formulation are discussed via several advection-diffusion transport benchmark examples. These examples demonstrate improved stability and flexibility of the proposed scheme with marginal consequences on the numerical performance.

Perko, Janez; Patel, Ravi A.

2014-05-01

176

The paper presents an approach that extends the flexibility of the standard lattice Boltzmann single relaxation time scheme in terms of spatial variation of dissipative terms (e.g., diffusion coefficient) and stability for high Péclet mass transfer problems. Spatial variability of diffusion coefficient in SRT is typically accommodated through the variation of relaxation time during the collision step. This method is effective but cannot deal with large diffusion coefficient variations, which can span over several orders of magnitude in some natural systems. The approach explores an alternative way of dealing with large diffusion coefficient variations in advection-diffusion transport systems by introducing so-called diffusion velocity. The diffusion velocity is essentially an additional convective term that replaces variations in diffusion coefficients vis-à-vis a chosen reference diffusion coefficient which defines the simulation time step. Special attention is paid to the main idea behind the diffusion velocity formulation and its implementation into the lattice Boltzmann framework. Finally, the performance, stability, and accuracy of the diffusion velocity formulation are discussed via several advection-diffusion transport benchmark examples. These examples demonstrate improved stability and flexibility of the proposed scheme with marginal consequences on the numerical performance. PMID:25353916

Perko, Janez; Patel, Ravi A

2014-05-01

177

Scaling of the diffusion coefficient on the normal form remainder in doubly resonant domains

An outline of theoretical estimates is given regarding the dependence of the value of the diffusion coefficient $D$ on the size $R$ of the remainder of the normal form in doubly or simply resonant domains of the action space of 3dof Hamiltonian systems.

C. Efthymiopoulos

2008-12-04

178

An accurate computer-assisted method to perform segmentation of brain tumor on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images and evaluate its grade (malignancy state) has been designed using a mixture of unsupervised artificial neural networks (ANN) and hierarchical multiresolution wavelet. Firstly, the ADC images are decomposed by multiresolution wavelets, which are subsequently selectively reconstructed to form wavelet filtered images. These wavelet filtered

C. Vijayakumar; Gharpure Damayanti; R. Pant; C. M. Sreedhar

2007-01-01

179

An analytic approximation to the Diffusion Coefficient for the periodic Lorentz Gas

An approximate stochastic model for the topological dynamics of the periodic triangular Lorentz gas is constructed. The model, together with an extremum principle, is used to find a closed form approximation to the diffusion coefficient as a function of the lattice spacing. This approximation is superior to the popular Machta and Zwanzig result and agrees well with a range of numerical estimates.

C. Angstmann; G. P. Morriss

2012-02-14

180

An interpretation of potential scale dependence of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient

An interpretation of potential scale dependence of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient H experiments to investigate potential mechanisms behind possible scale-dependent behavior. The focus and characterized by multiple local flow loops formed mainly by small-scale fractures. The water velocity

Zhou, Quanlin

181

Although detailed thermodynamic analyses of the 2-pK diffuse layer surface complexation model generally specify bound site activity coefficients for the purpose of accounting for those non-ideal excess free energies contributing to bound site electrochemical potentials, in applic...

182

Introduction We have improved the pol-FRAP method to measure the rotational diffusion coefficient

Introduction We have improved the pol-FRAP method to measure the rotational diffusion coefficient anisotropic particles needed for other techniques. Pol-FRAP proves to be very sensitive to lowproves.21 s at infinite dilution. Figure 3. Comparison of pol-FRAP with TEM. The hydrodynamic particle radius

Utrecht, Universiteit

183

Expression of optical diffusion coefficient in high-absorption turbid media

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical diffusion coefficient in a homogeneous turbid medium with high absorption was determined by steady-state measurements of the light transmission under the infinite-boundary condition. The intensity of the transmission was well described by the solution of the optical diffusion equation. Moreover, the optical diffusion coefficient D was given by a constant, , where is the reduced scattering coefficient, up to the absorption coefficient of about . These results mean that attenuation by absorption only contributes to exponential attenuation along the optical path defined by the scattering coefficient and geometry of the system even in high-absorption turbid media such as the pathological living tissues of bleeding or haematoma.

Nakai, T.; Nishimura, G.; Yamamoto, K.; Tamura, M.

1997-12-01

184

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-order compact exponential finite difference scheme for solving the time fractional convection-diffusion reaction equation with variable coefficients is considered in this paper. The convection, diffusion and reaction coefficients can depend on both the spatial and temporal variables. We begin with the one dimensional problem, and after transforming the original equation to one with diffusion coefficient unity, the new equation is discretized by a compact exponential finite difference scheme, with a high-order approximation for the Caputo time derivative. We prove the solvability of this fully discrete implicit scheme, and analyze its local truncation error. For the fractional equation with constant coefficients, we use Fourier method to prove the stability and utilize matrix analysis as a tool for the error estimate. Then we discuss the two dimensional problem, give the compact ADI scheme with the restriction that besides the time variable, the convection coefficients can only depend on the corresponding spatial variables, respectively. Numerical results are provided to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

Cui, Mingrong

2015-01-01

185

The effects of deionization processes on meteor radar diffusion coefficients below 90 km

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decay times of VHF radar echoes from underdense meteor trails are reduced in the lower portions of the meteor region. This is a result of plasma neutralization initiated by the attachment of positive trail ions to neutral atmospheric molecules. Decreased echo decay times cause meteor radars to produce erroneously high estimates of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient at heights below 90 km, which affects temperature estimation techniques. Comparisons between colocated radars and satellite observations show that meteor radar estimates of diffusion coefficients are not consistent with estimates from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder satellite instrument and that colocated radars operating at different frequencies estimate different values of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient for simultaneous detections of the same meteors. Loss of free electrons from meteor trails due to attachment to aerosols and chemical processes were numerically simulated and compared with observations to determine the specific mechanism responsible for low-altitude meteor trail plasma neutralization. It is shown that three-body attachment of positive metal ions significantly reduces meteor radar echo decay times at low altitudes compared to the case of diffusion only that atmospheric ozone plays little part in the evolution of low-altitude underdense meteor trails and that the effect of three-body attachment begins to exceed diffusion in echo decay times at a constant density surface.

Younger, J. P.; Lee, C. S.; Reid, I. M.; Vincent, R. A.; Kim, Y. H.; Murphy, D. J.

2014-08-01

186

Analysis in the frequency domain is considered a powerful tool to elicit precise information from spectroscopic signals. In this study, the Fourier transformation technique is employed to determine the diffusion coefficient (D) of a number of proteins in the frequency domain. Analytical approaches are investigated for determination of D from both experimental and data treatment viewpoints. The diffusion process is modeled to calculate diffusion coefficients based on the Fourier transformation solution to Fick's law equation, and its results are compared to time domain results. The simulations characterize optimum spatial and temporal conditions and demonstrate the noise tolerance of the method. The proposed model is validated by its application for the electropherograms from the diffusion path of a set of proteins. Real-time dynamic scanning is conducted to monitor dispersion by employing whole column imaging detection technology in combination with capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) and the imaging plug flow (iPF) experiment. These experimental techniques provide different peak shapes, which are utilized to demonstrate the Fourier transformation ability in extracting diffusion coefficients out of irregular shape signals. Experimental results confirmed that the Fourier transformation procedure substantially enhanced the accuracy of the determined values compared to those obtained in the time domain. PMID:25607375

Zarabadi, Atefeh S; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2015-02-17

187

In this paper, a new development of the classic Onsager phenomenological formalism is derived using relations based on linear response theory. The development concerns the correct description of the fluxes of the atomic isotopes. The resulting expressions in the laboratory frame are surprisingly simple and consist of terms coming from the standard interdiffusion expressions and from Fick s first law where the tracer diffusion coefficient is involved thus providing a better understanding of the relationship between the two approaches - Fick s first law and the Onsager phenomenological formalism. From an experimental application perspective, the new development is applied to the binary alloy case. The formalism provides the means to obtain the interdiffusion coefficient and tracer diffusion coefficients simultaneously from analysis of the interdiffusion concentration profiles in a single experiment.

Belova, Irina [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Sohn, Yong Ho [University of Central Florida; Murch, Prof. Graeme [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

2013-01-01

188

Fickian Diffusion Coefficient of Binary Liquid Mixtures in a Thermogravitational Column

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By measuring the mass fraction difference between the top and the bottom of a thermogravitational column as a function of time, we show that this transient evolution of the separation toward its steady value gives the isothermal mass diffusion coefficient, at least in the validity limit of the Furry-Jones-Onsager theory, whereas the final steady separation produces the thermodiffusion coefficient. The following mixtures have been considered: water-ethanol (39.12 wt% ethanol), toluene-hexane (51.7 wt% toluene), and the three systems of the so-called “benchmark of Fontainebleau”, which are the three binaries composed of isobutylbenzene and/or dodecane and/or 1,2,3,4 tetrahydronaphthalene (50 wt% in each component for each case). The obtained results indicate that reliable values of the isothermal diffusion coefficient can be determined by using the thermogravitational method.

Valencia, J. J.; Bou-Ali, M. M.; Platten, J. K.; Ecenarro, O.; Madariaga, J. M.; Santamaría, C. M.

2007-09-01

189

Measurement of the transverse diffusion coefficient of charge in liquid xenon

Liquid xenon (LXe) is a very attractive material as a detection medium for ionization detectors due to its high density, high atomic number, and low energy required to produce electron-ion pairs. Therefore it has been used in several applications, like {\\gamma} detection or direct detection of dark matter. Now Subatech is working on the R & D of LXe Compton telescope for 3{\\gamma} medical imaging, which can make precise tridimensional localization of a ({\\beta}+, {\\gamma}) radioisotope emitter. The diffusion of charge carriers will directly affect the spatial resolution of LXe ionization signal. We will report how we measure the transverse diffusion coefficient for different electric field (0.5 ~ 1.2 kV/cm) by observing the spray of charge carriers on drift length varying until 12cm. With very-low-noise front-end electronics and complete Monte-Carlo simulation of the experiment, the values of transverse diffusion coefficient are measured precisely.

Chen, W -T; Cussonneau, J -P; Donnard, J; Duval, S; Mohamad-Hadi, A -F; Lamblin, J; Lemaire, O; Ray, P Le; Morteau, E; Oger, T; Scotto-Lavina, L; Stutzmann, J -S; Thers, D

2011-01-01

190

Effect of computed horizontal diffusion coefficients on two-dimensional N2O model distributions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of horizontal diffusion coefficients K(yy) and K(yz), computed directly from the residual circulation, on the N2O distribution in a photochemical model were investigated, using a modified version of the two-dimensional model of Guthrie et al. (1984). The residual circulation was computed using the NMC's temperature data and the heating rates reported by Rosenfield et al. (1987). As compared with the effect of the residual circulation alone, the use of horizontal diffusion coefficients produced substantial changes in the N2O distribution and increased the N2O's lifetime values by a few percent. It is suggested that trace gases, such as CH4, CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CH3Cl, and CCl4, which impact the NO(x), HO(x), and Cl(x) radical distributions and therefore ozone, will be influenced in a similar manner by the addition of more realistic diffusion fields.

Jackman, Charles H.; Guthrie, Paul D.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Newman, Paul A.

1988-01-01

191

IN APRIL 1996, THE UNITED STATES (US) ADDED THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT TO THE LIST OF FACILITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) SAFEGUARDS. AT THAT TIME, THE US PROPOSED THAT THE IAEA CARRY OUT A ''VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT'' AT THE PLANT WITH RESPECT TO DOOWNBLENDING OF ABOUT 13 METRIC TONS OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) IN THE FORM OF URANIUM HEXAFLUROIDE (UF6). DURING THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1997 THROUGH JULY 1998, THE IAEA CARRIED OUT THE REQUESTED VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT. THE VERIFICATION APPROACH USED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT INCLUDED, AMONG OTHER MEASURES, THE ENTRY OF PROCESS-OPERATIONAL DATA BY THE FACILITY OPERATOR ON A NEAR-REAL-TIME BASIS INTO A ''MAILBOX'' COMPUTER LOCATED WITHIN A TAMPER-INDICATING ENCLOSURE SEALED BY THE IAEA.

Aronson, A.L.; Gordon, D.M.

2000-07-31

192

Reptiles are declining globally, and environmental contamination has been suggested as a contributing factor; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between contamination and reptile populations. We performed a mark-recapture study at ponds near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky, to determine if heavy metals had an impact on turtle populations. We measured concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and mercury in red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) tissues and pond sediment and determined the correlation between metal concentrations and red-eared slider density. Metal concentrations measured in the current study were low, and turtle density was not significantly correlated with metal concentrations in tissues or sediment. However, we observed a trend of decreasing turtle density in ponds that had greater metal concentrations. Sex ratio and proportion of juveniles were significantly different among ponds, but it is unclear if these differences are related to contamination associated with the PGDP. PMID:23644581

Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W

2013-10-01

193

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-diffusion coefficients D of both species in model nanocolloidal dispersions have been computed using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, in which three-dimensional model spherical colloidal particles were in a molecularly discrete solvent. The effects of the relative density, size, and concentration of the two species were explored. Simulations were carried out at infinite dilution (a single colloidal particle) and at finite packing fractions (many colloidal particles) in the simulation cell using single interaction centers between the model colloidal particles and solvent molecules. The calculations used the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) or Lennard-Jones (LJ), interaction potentials between all species. Nanocolloid particles with diameters up to ~6 times the solvent molecule were modeled. At liquidlike densities the self-diffusion coefficients of the colloidal particles, Dc, for all sizes and packing fractions, statistically exhibited no mass dependence but a significant colloid particle size dependence. This can be interpreted in a systematic manner using a Mori series expansion. The first Mori coefficient (which is inversely proportional to particle mass) dominates the value of the self-diffusion coefficient for both species, and which also leads to a formal cancellation of the mass dependence at the order of the first Mori coefficient KB1 (the self-diffusion coefficient is therefore determined by a ``static'' property to this order). The values of Dc at each packing fraction are found to be approximately inversely proportional to the colloidal particle diameter, quantitatively following the same trend as the Stokes-Einstein equation, even for the small colloidal particle sizes and finite colloidal particle concentrations studied here. Another consequence of the dominance of the first Mori coefficient is that the normalized velocity autocorrelation function of the colloidal particle at a short time can be represented well at all state points and packing fractions by the analytic form ~=cos(?0t), where ?0=KB1, which is the so-called Einstein frequency. LJ and WCA systems with otherwise the same system parameters manifest the same oscillation frequency, but the LJ oscillation amplitudes are larger and the values of Dc are smaller. The self-diffusion coefficients and shear viscosities obey a volume fraction dependence similar to that found for much larger colloidal particles.

Nuevo, María J.; Morales, Juan J.; Heyes, David M.

1998-11-01

194

The 2D- J-DOSY Experiment: Resolving Diffusion Coefficients in Mixtures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many diffusion- ordered spectroscop y (DOSY) NMR techniques have recently been developed to aid in the deconvolution of complex mixtures. Spectroscopic separation based on chemical and physical properties facilitates the identification of mixture components while eliminating time-consuming separation steps and preserving the chemical environment. One way to improve resolution in such experiments is to spread the spectroscopic information into two dimensions. The 2D- J-DOSY experiment has been designed to resolve mixture components in terms of a chemical shift and proton coupling constant as well as distinguishing them on the basis of translational diffusion. Acquiring a series of spectra as a function of gradient amplitude permits the determination of diffusion coefficients for components that cannot be resolved in the one-dimensional (1D) 1H NMR spectrum. Comparison of the resulting values with those obtained through the traditional 1D diffusion experiment for a mixture of sugars validates The 2D- J-DOSY technique.

Lucas, Laura H.; Otto, William H.; Larive, Cynthia K.

2002-05-01

195

In Fricke dosimetry, optical density measurements are performed some time after dosimeter irradiation. Values of the diffusion coefficient of Fe(3+) in Fricke Xylenol gel (FXG) are necessary for determining the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose from measurements of the optical density. Five sets of FXG dosimeters, kept at different constant temperatures, were exposed to collimated 6 MV photons. The optical density profile, proportional to the Fe(3+) concentration, at the boundary between irradiated and non-irradiated parts of each dosimeter was measured periodically over a period of 60 h. By comparing the experimental data with a function that accounts for the unobserved initial concentration profile of Fe(3+) in the FXG, we obtained diffusion coefficients 0.30±0.05, 0.40±0.05, 0.50±0.05, 0.60±0.05 and 0.80±0.05 mm(2)/h for the temperatures 283.0±0.5, 286.0±0.5, 289.0±0.5, 292.0±0.5, and 296.0±0.5 K, respectively. The activation energy of Fe(3+) diffusion in the gel, 0.54±0.06 eV, was determined from the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients. PMID:24836903

de Oliveira, Lucas Nonato; Sampaio, Francisco Glaildo Almeida; Moreira, Marcos Vasques; de Almeida, Adelaide

2014-08-01

196

Effect of chain flexibility on master curve behavior for diffusion coefficient.

The diffusion coefficients of simple chain models are analyzed as a function of packing fraction, ?, and as a function of a parameter C that is the density raised to a power divided by temperature to look at scalar metrics to find master curves. The central feature in the analysis is the mapping onto an effective hard site diameter, d. For the molecular models lacking restrictions on dihedral angle (e.g., freely jointed), simple mappings of molecular potential to d work very well, and the reduced diffusion coefficient, D*, collapses into a single-valued function of ?. Although this does not work for the dihedral angle restriction case, assuming that d is inversely proportional to temperature to a power results in collapse behavior for an empirically selected value of the power. This is equivalent to D* being a single-valued function of C. The diffusion coefficient of a single-site penetrant in the chain systems also is found to be a scalar metric that can reduce the chain diffusion data for a given system to a single master curve. PMID:24387376

Budzien, Joanne; Heffernan, Julieanne V; McCoy, John D

2013-12-28

197

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many cell-signaling pathways information is transmitted via the diffusion of messenger molecules. In most cases, messengers react with other substances and diffuse at the same time. Effective diffusion coefficients may be introduced to characterize the net transport rate that results from the combined effect of these two processes. It was shown in [B. Pando , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 5338 (2006)10.1073/pnas.0509576103] that even in the simplest scenario in which one bimolecular reaction is involved, two different effective coefficients are relevant. One gives the rate at which small perturbations spread out with time while the other relates the mean square displacement of a single particle to the time elapsed. They coincide in the absence of reactions but may be very different in other cases. Optical techniques provide a relatively noninvasive means by which transport rates can be estimated. In the above mentioned paper it was discussed why, under certain conditions, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), a technique commonly used to estimate diffusion rates in cells, provides information on one of the two effective coefficients. In the present paper we show that, under the same conditions, another commonly used optical technique, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), gives information on the other one. This opens up the possibility of combining experiments to obtain information that goes beyond effective transport rates. In the present paper we discuss different ways to do so.

Sigaut, Lorena; Ponce, María Laura; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

2010-11-01

198

An interpretation of potential scale dependence of the effectivematrix diffusion coefficient

Matrix diffusion is an important process for solutetransport in fractured rock, and the matrix diffusion coefficient is akey parameter for describing this process. Previous studies indicatedthat the effective matrix diffusion coefficient values, obtained from alarge number of field tracer tests, are enhanced in comparison with localvalues and may increase with test scale. In this study, we have performednumerical experiments to investigate potential mechanisms behind possiblescale-dependent behavior. The focus of the experiments is on solutetransport in flow paths having geometries consistent with percolationtheories and characterized by local flow loops formed mainly bysmall-scale fractures. The water velocity distribution through a flowpath was determined using discrete fracture network flow simulations, andsolute transport was calculated using a previously derivedimpulse-response function and a particle-tracking scheme. Values foreffective (or up-scaled) transport parameters were obtained by matchingbreakthrough curves from numerical experiments with an analyticalsolution for solute transport along a single fracture. Results indicatethat a combination of local flow loops and the associated matrixdiffusion process, together with scaling properties in flow pathgeometry, seems to be the dominant mechanism causing the observed scaledependence of theeffective matrix diffusion coefficient (at a range ofscales).

Liu, H.H.; Zhang, Y.Q.; Zhou, Q.; Molz, F.J.

2005-11-30

199

Dissolved and gas-phase concentrations of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 46 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured at eight sites on the Chesapeake Bay at four different times of the year to estimate net diffusive air-water gas exchange rates. Gaseous PAHs ar...

200

The gaseous diffusion process is currently employed at two plants in the US: the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, a postulated design basis accident involving large line-rupture induced releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) is evaluated. When UF{sub 6} is released into the atmosphere, it undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form vaporized hydrogen fluoride (HF) and aerosolized uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}). These reactants disperse in the process building and transport through the building ventilation system. The ventilation system draws outside air into the process building, distributes it evenly throughout the building, and discharges it to the atmosphere at an elevated temperature. Since air is recirculated from the cell floor area to the operating floor, issues concerning in-building worker safety and evacuation need to be addressed. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the transport of HF vapor and UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols throughout the operating floor area following B-line break accident in the cell floor area.

Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, J.C. [J.C. Carter Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1996-12-30

201

Absorption rates of gaseous CO{sub 2} into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) and of gaseous H{sub 2}S into aqueous MDEA were measured in a quiescent, inverted-tube diffusiometer by monitoring the rate of pressure drop. A numerical model for absorption, diffusion, and reaction of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S in blends of MDEA, DEA, and water was developed. The model was used to regress diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for the case of CO{sub 2} absorption and of bisulfide ion for the case of H{sub 2}S absorption from measured absorption rates. CO{sub 2} absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 50 mass % total amine at DEA:MDEA mole ratios of 1:20, 1:4, 1L3, and 2:3. H{sub 2}S absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bisulfide ion were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 20, 35, and 50 mass % MDEA.

Adams, M.E.; Marshall, T.L.; Rowley, R.L. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-07-01

202

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the derivation of a general position-dependent diffusion coefficient to describe the two-dimensional (2D) diffusion in a narrow and smoothly asymmetric channel of varying cross section and non-straight midline embedded in a flat or on a curved surface. We consider the diffusion of non-interacting point-like Brownian particles under no external field. In order to project the 2D diffusion equation into an effective one-dimensional generalized Fick-Jacobs equation in both, flat and curved manifolds using the generalization of the mapping procedure introduced by Kalinay and Percus. The expression obtained is the more general position-dependent diffusion coefficient for 2D narrow channels that lies in a plane, which contains all the well-known previous results both symmetric and asymmetric channels as special cases. In a straightforward manner, previously defining the corresponding Fick-Jacobs equation on a curved surface, this result can be generalized to the case of a narrow 2D channel embedded on a no-flat smooth surface where the full position-dependent diffusion coefficient is modified according to the metric elements that accounts for the curvature of the surface. In addition, the equations for the mean first-passage time are obtained for asymmetrical channels on curved surfaces. As an example we shall solve this equation for the case of an asymmetric channel defined by straight walls embedded on a cylindrical surface having a reflecting wall at the origin and an absorbent one at distance ?L.

Pineda, I.; Chacón-Acosta, G.; Dagdug, L.

2014-12-01

203

Drag and diffusion coefficients of $B$ mesons in hot hadronic matter

The drag and diffusion coefficients of a hot hadronic medium consisting of pions, kaons and eta using open beauty mesons as a probe have been evaluated. The interaction of the probe with the hadronic matter has been treated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. It is observed that the magnitude of both the transport coefficients are significant, indicating substantial amount of interaction of the heavy mesons with the thermal bath. The results may have significant impact on the experimental observables like the suppression of single electron spectra originating from the decays of heavy mesons produced in nuclear collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

Santosh K Das; Sabyasachi Ghosh; Sourav Sarkar; Jan-e Alam

2012-04-27

204

This letter proposes an experimental method to estimate the absorption coefficient of sound absorbing materials under a synthesized diffuse acoustic field in free-field conditions. Comparisons are made between experiments conducted with this approach, the standard reverberant room method, and numerical simulations using the transfer matrix method. With a simple experimental setup and smaller samples than those required by standards, the results obtained with the proposed approach do not exhibit non-physical trends of the reverberant room method and provide absorption coefficients in good agreement with those obtained by simulations for a laterally infinite material. PMID:24993232

Robin, Olivier; Berry, Alain; Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine

2014-07-01

205

and Stell expressed D? ~s /D? s as as 1+Y B 1 as I+Y? a, 2 as I+? + 1+4(Y? as D? s 1+y- a, (2. 17) which replaces the otherwise obtained factor using molecular dynamics simulations. In equation (2. 17), D? n is the diffusivity... measured diffusion coefficient should be tested against this criterion to ratify a negligible secondary flow effect. 23 21 19 17 15 C) 13 R 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 6 0. 7 0. 8 0. 9 1. 0 1. 1 1. 2 Average Velocity (cm/s) Figure 5. Flow Rate Effects...

Orejuela, Mauricio

2012-06-07

206

Thermal Expansion and Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Brenner potential for intra-nanotube interactions and van der Waals forces for polymer-nanotube interface have been used to investigate thermal expansion and diffusion characteristics of carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites. Addition of carbon nanotubes to polymer matrix is found to significantly increase the glass transition temperature Tg, and thermal expansion and diffusion coefficients in the composite above Tg. The increase has been attributed to the temperature dependent increase of the excluded volume for the polymer chains, and the findings could have implications in the composite processing, coating and painting applications.

Wei, Chengyu; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

207

Oxygen diffusion coefficient and solubility in a new proton exchange membrane

The electrochemical monitoring technique is used to measure the solubility and the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in a new proton exchange membrane that is being developed by Cape Cod Research, Inc., Using the method of least squares, the data were fit to an analytical solution of Fick's second law to determine D and c{sub 0}. Values of 0.40 x 10{sup {minus}6}cm{sup 2}/s and 4.98 x 10{sup {minus}6} mol/cm{sup 3} were obtained for the diffusion coefficient and solubility, respectively, of the Cape Cod membrane. These values are significantly less than those of Nafion 117 tested under identical conditions.

Haug, A.T.; White, R.E.

2000-03-01

208

Eddy diffusion coefficient for the atmosphere of Venus from radio scintillation measurements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates are obtained of the vertical mass eddy diffusion coefficient of the Venus atmosphere in the region of turbulence near 60 km on the basis of radio scintillations observed during radio occultation by the atmosphere. The structure constant estimated from Pioneer Venus orbit 18 entrance radio occultation measurements is used, under the assumption that the turbulence is generated by wind-shear, to derive a value of 40,000 sq cm/sec for the vertical mass eddy diffusion coefficient, together with an energy dissipation rate of 20 sq cm/sec and a temperature fluctuation dissipation rate of 0.001 K-squared/sec. Results are noted to fall within the range measured for the earth's troposphere, however, indicate that small-scale turbulence is probably the dominant mechanism for vertical transport near the tropopause in the Venus atmosphere.

Woo, R.; Ishimaru, A.

1981-01-01

209

Molecular dynamics simulation of self-diffusion coefficients for liquid metals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature-dependent coefficients of self-diffusion for liquid metals are simulated by molecular dynamics methods based on the embedded-atom-method (EAM) potential function. The simulated results show that a good inverse linear relation exists between the natural logarithm of self-diffusion coefficients and temperature, though the results in the literature vary somewhat, due to the employment of different potential functions. The estimated activation energy of liquid metals obtained by fitting the Arrhenius formula is close to the experimental data. The temperature-dependent shear-viscosities obtained from the Stokes—Einstein relation in conjunction with the results of molecular dynamics simulation are generally consistent with other values in the literature.

Ju, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Ming; Gong, Zi-Zheng; Ji, Guang-Fu

2013-08-01

210

Determination of the Solute Diffusion Coefficient by the Droplet Migration Method

Further analysis of droplet migration in a temperature gradient field indicates that different terms can be used to evaluate the solute diffusion coefficient in liquid (D{sub L}) and that there exists a characteristic curve that can describe the motion of all the droplets for a given composition and temperature gradient. Critical experiments are subsequently conducted in succinonitrile (SCN)-salol and SCN-camphor transparent alloys in order to observe dynamic migration processes of a number of droplets. The derived diffusion coefficients from different terms are the same within experimental error. For SCN-salol alloys, D{sub L} = (0.69 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and for SCN-camphor alloys, D{sub L} = (0.24 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s.

Shan Liu; Jing Teng; Jeongyun Choi

2007-07-01

211

The objective of the work is to provide accurate data on diffusion coefficients and heats of absorption of acid gases in aqueous amine solutions to assist in the design of economical new amine treating systems and to improve the efficiency of existing plants. Specifically covered in the report are measurements of the mutual diffusion coefficient of methyldiethanolamine(MDEA) and diethanolamine in water. Measurements have been made at 25, 50 and 75C and at 0, 20, 35 and 50 wt% amine. Heats of absorption of CO2 into aqueous mixtures of MDEA have also been measured calorimetrically. Results are reported at temperatures of 120 and 260F and pressures of 500 and 1000 psia at total MDEA concentrations of 20, 35 and 50%.

Rowley, R.L.; Oscarson, J.L.

1993-01-01

212

We report on the measurement of diffusion (D), thermodiffusion (D(T)), and Soret (S(T)) coefficients in water-isopropanol mixtures by three different instrumental techniques: thermogravitational column in combination with sliding symmetric tubes, optical beam deflection, and optical digital interferometry. All the coefficients have been measured over the full concentration range. Results from different instruments are in excellent agreement over a broad overlapping composition (water mass fraction) range 0.2 < c < 0.7, providing new reliable benchmark data. Comparison with microgravity measurements (SODI/IVIDIL (Selected Optical Diagnostic Instrument/Influence of VIbration on DIffusion in Liquids)) onboard the International Space Station and with literature data (where available) generally gives a good agreement. Contrary to theoretical predictions and previous experimental expectations we have not observed a second sign change of S(T) at low water concentrations. PMID:22755592

Mialdun, A; Yasnou, V; Shevtsova, V; Königer, A; Köhler, W; Alonso de Mezquia, D; Bou-Ali, M M

2012-06-28

213

Multi-scale prediction of the effective chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete

The N-layered spherical inclusion theory is applied to develop a multi-scale model to predict the effective diffusion coefficient of chloride ion in concrete. The model treats concrete as four-phase composite materials consisting of matrix phase, aggregate phase, ITZ (interfacial transition zone) and their homogenization phase. With hardened cement pastes characterized by three parameters such as the porosity, tortuosity and constrictivity,

Guowen Sun; Yunsheng Zhang; Wei Sun; Zhiyong Liu; Caihui Wang

2011-01-01

214

Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods

The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength ? from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?). There are two standard methods for the derivation of $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) from

Zhong-Ping Lee; Miroslaw Darecki; Kendall L. Carder; Curtiss O. Davis; Dariusz Stramski; W. Joseph Rhea

2005-01-01

215

Diffusion coefficients of some solutes in fcc and liquid Al: critical evaluation and correlation

The diffusion coefficients of several transition elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) and a few non-transition elements (Mg, Si, Ga, and Ge) in fcc and liquid Al are critically reviewed and assessed by means of the least-squares method and semi-empirical correlations. Inconsistent experimental data are identified and ruled out. In the case of the elements,

Yong Du; Y. A Chang; Baiyun Huang; Weiping Gong; Zhanpeng Jin; Honghui Xu; Zhaohui Yuan; Yong Liu; Yuehui He; F.-Y Xie

2003-01-01

216

Thermodynamic scaling law for the diffusion coefficient in hard-sphere system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two scaling laws are investigated, which are devoted to link the diffusion coefficient to the thermodynamic properties for the athermal hard-sphere system, over the wide range of packing fraction covering the stable and metastable regimes. It is found that the most relevant control parameter is not the excess entropy, but the compressibility factor, i.e. the logarithm derivative of the excess entropy with respect to the packing fraction.

Bomont, Jean-Marc; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis

2015-02-01

217

Test of the Universal Scaling Law for the Diffusion Coefficient in Liquid Metals

The recently proposed scaling law relating the diffusion coefficient and the excess entropy of a liquid [M. Dzugutov, Nature (London) 381, 137 (1996)] is tested for several metals using molecular dynamics simulations. Interatomic potentials derived from the embedded atom method are used to study Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ni{sub 3}Al , and AuPt and the angular dependent Stillinger-Weber form is used to investigate Si. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Hoyt, J. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS 9161, P. O. Box 969, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, MS 9161, P. O. Box 969, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States); Asta, Mark [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Sadigh, Babak [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2000-07-17

218

The diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (m? 1), is a measure of the effective attenuation of light in the water column. It characterizes water clarity and is used as a\\u000a proxy for water quality. Mapping of shallow water benthic habitats using optical means, including daytime visible satellite\\u000a imagery, requires knowledge of K to correct for water column effects such as light

D. Palandro; C. Hu; S. Andréfouët; F. E. Muller-Karger

2004-01-01

219

The diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (m–1), is a measure of the effective attenuation of light in the water column. It characterizes water clarity and is used as a\\u000a proxy for water quality. Mapping of shallow water benthic habitats using optical means, including daytime visible satellite\\u000a imagery, requires knowledge of K to correct for water column effects such as light absorption

D. Palandro; C. Hu; S. Andréfouët; F. E. Muller-Karger

220

A new, steady-state experimental system for measurement of the Fickian diffusion coefficients for solutes in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) was designed and evaluated. Mass transfer between a liquid solute and SC-CO{sub 2} was carried out in a parallel plate geometry where a porous metal sheet, immersed in the liquid phase, stabilized the interface. The SC-CO{sub 2} flowed over the porous metal sheet containing the liquid phase which was presaturated with CO{sub 2}. The use of the porous metal sheet and a thin mobile layer allowed flow rates high enough to achieve the necessary pressure drop to eliminate the commonly encountered, density-induced stagnation of SC-CO{sub 2} at the interface while avoiding surface-tension-related problems. The binary diffusion coefficients of methyl oleate in SC-CO{sub 2} at finite concentrations were measured at 40, 50, and 60 C and at pressures ranging from 10.6 to 14.0 MPa. The experimentally measured values were 1.5--4.6 times lower than those predicted for infinite dilution and were found to decrease with solute concentration at constant pressure and temperature. This technique offers advantages over other commonly used methods in that the concentration dependence of diffusion coefficients in multicomponent systems can be studied.

Tuan, D.Q.; Zollweg, J.A.; Rizvi, S.S.H. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Yener, M.E. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Food Engineering] [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Food Engineering; [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

1999-02-01

221

The effect of diffuser angle on the discharge coefficient of a miniature critical nozzle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many researches on critical nozzles have been performed to accurately measure the mass flow rate of gas flow, and to standardize the performance as a flow meter. Recently, much interest is being paid on the measurement of very small mass flow rate in industry fields such as MEMS applications. However, the design and performance data of the critical nozzles obtained so far have been applied mainly to the critical nozzles with comparatively large diameters, and the works available on miniature critical nozzles are lacking. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics method has been applied to investigate the influence of the diffuser angle on discharge coefficient of the miniature critical nozzles. In computations, the throat diameter of critical nozzle is varied from 0.2 mm to 5.0 mm and the diffuser angle is changed from 2 deg to 8 deg. The computational results are validated with some experimental data available. The results show that the present computational results predict appropriately the discharge coefficient of the gas flows through miniature critical nozzles. It is known that the discharge coefficient is considerably influenced by the diffuser angle, as the throat diameter of nozzle becomes small below a certain value. This implies that the miniature critical nozzles should be carefully designed.

Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Heuy Dong; Setoguchi, Toshiaki

2010-06-01

222

In vivo imaging studies in animal models are hindered by variables that contribute to poor image quality and measurement reliability. As such we sought to improve the diffusion coefficient (ADC) of an orthotopic mouse model of gastric cancer in diffusion-weighted images (DWI) using alginate moulding and Ultrasonic coupling medium. BGC-823 human gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into the abdomen of nude mice and 1?mm3 primary tumour was orthotopically transplanted. Alginate and coupling medium were applied to the mice and MRI (T2 and DWI) was performed for 6 weeks. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn and liver and tumour ADC were evaluated. Using alginate moulding, the mean quality total score of DW imaging was 8.53; however, in control animals this value was 5.20 (p < 0.001). The coefficient of variation of ADC of liver in experimental and control groups were 0.071 and 0.270 (p < 0.001), respectively, suggesting this method may be helpful for DWI studies of important human diseases such as gastric cancer. PMID:25123166

Sun, Jia; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Li, Xiao-Ting; Tang, Lei; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Ying-Shi

2014-01-01

223

In vivo imaging studies in animal models are hindered by variables that contribute to poor image quality and measurement reliability. As such we sought to improve the diffusion coefficient (ADC) of an orthotopic mouse model of gastric cancer in diffusion-weighted images (DWI) using alginate moulding and Ultrasonic coupling medium. BGC-823 human gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into the abdomen of nude mice and 1?mm(3) primary tumour was orthotopically transplanted. Alginate and coupling medium were applied to the mice and MRI (T2 and DWI) was performed for 6 weeks. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn and liver and tumour ADC were evaluated. Using alginate moulding, the mean quality total score of DW imaging was 8.53; however, in control animals this value was 5.20 (p < 0.001). The coefficient of variation of ADC of liver in experimental and control groups were 0.071 and 0.270 (p < 0.001), respectively, suggesting this method may be helpful for DWI studies of important human diseases such as gastric cancer. PMID:25123166

Sun, Jia; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Li, Xiao-Ting; Tang, Lei; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Ying-Shi

2014-01-01

224

Theory and simulation of the time-dependent rate coefficients of diffusion-influenced reactions.

A general formalism is developed for calculating the time-dependent rate coefficient k(t) of an irreversible diffusion-influenced reaction. This formalism allows one to treat most factors that affect k(t), including rotational Brownian motion and conformational gating of reactant molecules and orientation constraint for product formation. At long times k(t) is shown to have the asymptotic expansion k(infinity)[1 + k(infinity) (pie Dt)-1/2 /4 pie D + ...], where D is the relative translational diffusion constant. An approximate analytical method for calculating k(t) is presented. This is based on the approximation that the probability density of the reactant pair in the reactive region keeps the equilibrium distribution but with a decreasing amplitude. The rate coefficient then is determined by the Green function in the absence of chemical reaction. Within the framework of this approximation, two general relations are obtained. The first relation allows the rate coefficient for an arbitrary amplitude of the reactivity to be found if the rate coefficient for one amplitude of the reactivity is known. The second relation allows the rate coefficient in the presence of conformational gating to be found from that in the absence of conformational gating. The ratio k(t)/k(0) is shown to be the survival probability of the reactant pair at time t starting from an initial distribution that is localized in the reactive region. This relation forms the basis of the calculation of k(t) through Brownian dynamics simulations. Two simulation procedures involving the propagation of nonreactive trajectories initiated only from the reactive region are described and illustrated on a model system. Both analytical and simulation results demonstrate the accuracy of the equilibrium-distribution approximation method. PMID:8913584

Zhou, H X; Szabo, A

1996-01-01

225

The measurement of self-diffusion coefficients in liquid metals with quasielastic neutron scattering

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasielastic incoherent neutron scattering (QENS) has proven to be a versatile tool to study self diffusion of atoms in liquid metals. Here it is shown, that coherent contributions to the signal in the small q limit appear as a flat and energy independent constant to the QENS signal in single-component liquid metals even for systems with a small incoherent scattering cross section, like aluminum. Container-less processing via electromagnetic or electrostatic levitation devices, especially designed for QENS, enables the in-situ measurement on liquid metallic droplets of sizes between 5 mm to 10 mm in diameter. This gives access to the study of chemically reactive, refractory metallic melts and extends the accessible temperature range to undercoolings of several hundred Kelvin below the respective melting point. Compared to experiments using a thin-walled crucible giving hollow-cylindrical sample geometry it is shown that multiple scattering on levitated droplets is negligible for the analysis of the self-diffusion coefficient. QENS results of liquid germanium and 73germanium isotope mixtures, titanium, nickel, copper and aluminum are reviewed. The self-diffusion coefficients of these systems are best described by an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence around their respective melting points.

Meyer, Andreas

2015-01-01

226

The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

227

228

Apparent Diffusion Coefficient, Fractional Anisotropy and T2 Relaxation Time Measurement

Background: Quantification of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), and T2 relaxation time are increasingly\\u000a important for neuroradiologic applications. A transfer of the values established for 1.5-T to 3-T MRI must be supported by\\u000a a dedicated comparison with special emphasis on possible differences in the spatial distribution.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and Methods: In the present study, brain scans were carried out in 16

Xiao-Qi Ding; Jürgen Finsterbusch; Oliver Wittkugel; Christian Saager; Einar Goebell; Thies Fitting; Ulrich Grzyska; Hermann Zeumer; Jens Fiehler

2007-01-01

229

In this work, we presented new experimental data of diffusion coefficients of four [Bmim (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium)]-based ionic liquids in water at infinite dilution for temperatures ranging from 303.2 to 323.2K using Taylor dispersion technique. The investigated ILs were [Bmim][BF4 (tetrafluoroborate)], [Bmim][MeSO4 (methylsulfate)], [Bmim][PF6 (hexafluorophosphate)], and [Bmim][CF3SO3 (trifluoromethanesulfonate)]. The molar conductivities of these ionic liquids were also measured and the infinite dilution

Chun-Li Wong; Allan N. Soriano; Meng-Hui Li

2009-01-01

230

Apparent diffusion coefficient measurement in a moving phantom simulating linear respiratory motion

Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simulated linear respiratory motion on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)\\u000a measurements.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Six rectangular test tubes (14 × 92 mm) filled with either water, tomato ketchup, or mayonnaise were positioned in a box containing\\u000a agarose gel. This box was connected to a double-acting pneumatic cylinder, capable of inducing periodic

Thomas C. Kwee; Taro Takahara; Isao Muro; Marc Van Cauteren; Yutaka Imai; Rutger A. J. Nievelstein; Willem P. T. M. Mali; Peter R. Luijten

2010-01-01

231

A spatially varying mean magnetic field gives rise to so-called adiabatic focusing of energetic particles propagating through the universe. In the past, different analytical approaches have been proposed to calculate the particle diffusion coefficient along the mean field with focusing. In the present paper, we show how these different results are related to each other. New results for the parallel diffusion coefficient that are more general than previous results are also presented.

Shalchi, A.; Danos, R. J., E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2013-03-10

232

There are several empirical and semianalytical models for the satellite-based estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling spectral irradiance at the wavelength 490 nm, Kd(490), or the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), Kd(PAR). An empirical algorithm has been used to routinely produce NASA standard Kd(490) product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).

Menghua Wang; SeungHyun Son; Lawrence W. Harding Jr

2009-01-01

233

Model cellular membranes enable the study of biological processes in a controlled environment and reduce the traditional challenges associated with live or fixed cell studies. However, model membrane systems based on the air/water or oil/solution interface do not allow for incorporation of transmembrane proteins or for the study of protein transport mechanisms. Conversely, a phospholipid bilayer deposited via the Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir-Schaefer method on a hydrogel layer is potentially an effective mimic of the cross section of a biological membrane and facilitates both protein incorporation and transport studies. Prior to application, however, such membranes must be fully characterized, particularly with respect to the phospholipid bilayer phase transition temperature. Here we present a detailed characterization of the phase transition temperature of the inner and outer leaflets of a chitosan supported model membrane system. Specifically, the lateral diffusion coefficient of each individual leaflet has been determined as a function of temperature. Measurements were performed utilizing z-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), a technique that yields calibration-free diffusion information. Analysis via the method of Wawrezinieck and co-workers revealed that phospholipid diffusion changes from raftlike to free diffusion as the temperature is increased-an insight into the dynamic behavior of hydrogel supported membranes not previously reported. PMID:23705855

Sterling, Sarah M; Allgeyer, Edward S; Fick, Jörg; Prudovsky, Igor; Mason, Michael D; Neivandt, David J

2013-06-25

234

Model cellular membranes enable the study of biological processes in a controlled environment and reduce the traditional challenges associated with live or fixed cell studies. However, model membrane systems based on the air/water or oil/solution interface do not allow for incorporation of transmembrane proteins, or for the study of protein transport mechanisms. Conversely, a phospholipid bilayer deposited via the Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir Schaefer method on a hydrogel layer is potentially an effective mimic of the cross-section of a biological membrane, and facilitates both protein incorporation and transport studies. Prior to application, however, such membranes must be fully characterized, particularly with respect to the phospholipid bilayer phase transition temperature. Here we present a detailed characterization of the phase transition temperature of the inner and outer leaflets of a chitosan supported model membrane system. Specifically, the lateral diffusion coefficient of each individual leaflet has been determined as a function of temperature. Measurements were performed utilizing z-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), a technique that yields calibration-free diffusion information. Analysis via the method of Wawrezinieck and coworkers, revealed that phospholipid diffusion changes from raft-like to free diffusion as the temperature is increased; an insight into the dynamic behavior of hydrogel supported membranes not previously reported. PMID:23705855

Sterling, Sarah M.; Allgeyer, Edward S.; Fick, Jörg; Prudovsky, Igor; Mason, Michael D.; Neivandt, David J.

2013-01-01

235

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of a rarefied, compressible flow in long, constant cross section channels provides an opportunity to study complex gas dynamics in a simple geometry that allows analytical solutions. The problem of a rarefied, compressible flow in near unity aspect ratio rectangular cross section channels has been all but ignored despite it being a common flow geometry. We present analytical expressions for the mass flow rate in long, straight and uniform rectangular cross section microchannels in the slip flow regime. Using these analytical expressions, we extract the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC) as well as the effective channel dimensions to account for a slight curvature of one of the walls of the rectangle. These expressions are effective in near unity aspect ratio rectangular microchannels made by deep reactive ion etching. The dependence of the flow behavior on the channel height to width aspect ratio is discussed as is the effect of the slight deviation from a rectangular cross section. The obtained TMAC results are consistent with values found by previous researchers using similar materials. Finally, a method of determining TMACs in channels consisting of non-homogenous materials or processing methods is presented.

Jang, Jaesung; Wereley, Steven T.

2006-03-01

236

Source term evaluation during seismic events in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

The 00 buildings are expected to collapse (per guidance from structure evaluation) during a seismic event in which acceleration level exceeds 0.15g. All roof beams may slip off supports, and collapse. Equipment may slip off from supports and fall onto the floor. The cell floor is also supposed to collapse due to structural instability and distortion due to excessive acceleration forces. Following structure collapse, expansion joints in the process piping and joints between the piping and equipment are expected to fail. Preliminary analysis showed that converters are likely to remain intact. The UF{sub 6} gas released from the break will rapidly interact with moisture in the air to produce UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF with exothermic energy released of {approximately}0.32 MJ/kg of UF{sub 6} reacted. Depending on the degree of mixing between UF{sub 6} gas, its reaction products, air and freon (R-114), there may occur a strong buoyancy force to disperse UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol particles that are subjected to the gravitational force for settling. Such a chemical reaction will also occur inside the converters. A substantial amount of UF{sub 6} must be stagnated at the bottom of the converters. At the interface between this stagnated UF{sub 6} and air, UF{sub 6} gas will diffuse into the air, undergo the chemical reaction with moisture there, and eventually be released through the break. Furthermore, lubricant oil fire in the building, if it occurs, will enhance the UF{sub 6} release into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to evaluate source term (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF) during such a seismic event. This study takes an approach using multiple steps as follows: (1) Source term evaluation at the break due to mixing between UF{sub 6} and air along with thermal buoyancy induced by chemical reaction energy, (2) Evaluation of additional source term from the converters in which a substantial UF{sub 6} vapor remains, and (3) Source term evaluation with lubricant oil fire.

Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Schmidt, R.W.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

1996-12-30

237

A Device To Emulate Diffusion and Thermal Conductivity Using Water Flow

Time places severe limitations on which experiments can be demonstrated in the classroom. Since diffusion in liquids is a slow process, most classroom demonstrations of diffusion involve gaseous diffusion. They do not show quantitatively the relative concentrations of the diffusing substances nor do they demonstrate the various different general methods of determining diffusion coefficients. An acrylic plastic device has been

Harvey F. Blanck

2005-01-01

238

Coefficient in Energy in Bounded Collisional Plasmas Lev D. Tsendin Abstract--The electron energies in typical gas discharge plasmas do not exceed significantly the first ionization potential. This being the case be de- scribed by a diffusion coefficient in energy . Both collisional and stochastic heating mechanisms

Kaganovich, Igor

239

Effect of cation on diffusion coefficient of ionic liquids at onion-like carbon electrodes.

While most supercapacitors are limited in their performance by the stability of the electrolyte, using neat ionic liquids (ILs) as the electrolyte can expand the voltage window and temperature range of operation. In this study, ILs with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N) as the anion were investigated as the electrolyte in onion-like carbon-based electrochemical capacitors. To probe the influence of cations on the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors, three different cations were used: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1,6-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl). A series of electrochemical characterization tests was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Diffusion coefficients were measured using EIS and correlated with quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation. These three techniques were used in parallel to confirm a consistent trend between the three ILs. It was found that the IL with the smaller sized cation had a larger diffusion coefficient, leading to a higher capacitance at faster charge-discharge rates. Furthermore, the IL electrolyte performance was correlated with increasing temperature, which limited the voltage stability window and led to the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase on the carbon electrode surface, evident in both the CV and EIS experiments. PMID:24920163

Van Aken, Katherine L; McDonough, John K; Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Chathoth, Suresh M; Mamontov, Eugene; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Cummings, Peter T; Dai, Sheng; Gogotsi, Yury

2014-07-16

240

Effect of cation on diffusion coefficient of ionic liquids at onion-like carbon electrodes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While most supercapacitors are limited in their performance by the stability of the electrolyte, using neat ionic liquids (ILs) as the electrolyte can expand the voltage window and temperature range of operation. In this study, ILs with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N) as the anion were investigated as the electrolyte in onion-like carbon-based electrochemical capacitors. To probe the influence of cations on the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors, three different cations were used: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1,6-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl). A series of electrochemical characterization tests was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Diffusion coefficients were measured using EIS and correlated with quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation. These three techniques were used in parallel to confirm a consistent trend between the three ILs. It was found that the IL with the smaller sized cation had a larger diffusion coefficient, leading to a higher capacitance at faster charge-discharge rates. Furthermore, the IL electrolyte performance was correlated with increasing temperature, which limited the voltage stability window and led to the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase on the carbon electrode surface, evident in both the CV and EIS experiments.

Van Aken, Katherine L.; McDonough, John K.; Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Chathoth, Suresh M.; Mamontov, Eugene; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Cummings, Peter T.; Dai, Sheng; Gogotsi, Yury

2014-07-01

241

Group Analysis of Variable Coefficient Diffusion--Convection Equations. III. Conservation Laws

The notions of generating sets of conservation laws of systems of differential equations with respect to symmetry groups and equivalence groups are introduced and applied. This allows us to generalize essentially the procedure of finding potential symmetries for the systems with multidimensional spaces of conservation laws. A class of variable coefficient (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear diffusion-convection equations of general form $f(x)u_t=(g(x)A(u)u_x)_x+h(x)B(u)u_x$ is investigated. Using the most direct method, we carry out two classifications of local conservation laws up to equivalence relations generated by both usual and enhanced equivalence groups. Equivalence with respect to $\\hat G^{\\sim}$ and correct choice of gauge coefficients of equations play the major role for simple and clear formulation of the final results. The notion of contractions of conservation laws and one of characteristics of conservation laws are introduced and contractions of conservation laws of diffusion-convection equations are found.

N. M. Ivanova; R. O. Popovych; C. Sophocleous

2007-10-16

242

Many-particle surface diffusion coefficients near first-order phase transitions at low temperatures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the chemical and jump surface diffusion coefficients, Dc and DJ, near a first-order phase transition at which two phases coexist and the surface coverage, ?, jumps between single-phase values ?-* and ?+*. Contrary to other studies, we consider temperatures that are sufficiently subcritical. Using the local equilibrium approximation, we obtain approximate analytical formulas for the dependences of Dc and DJ on the coverage and system size, N, near such a transition. In the two-phase regime, when ? ranges between ?-* and ?+*, the diffusion coefficients behave as the sums of two hyperbolas, Dc?A-/N|?-?-*|+A+/N|?-?+*| and DJ?A-|?-?+*|/?+A+|?-?-*|/?. This behavior rapidly changes as the system goes from the two-phase regime to either of the single-phase regimes (when ? goes below ?-* or above ?+*). The crossover behavior of Dc(?) and DJ(?) between the two-phase and single-phase regimes is described by rather complex formulas involving the Lambert function. We consider a lattice-gas model on a triangular lattice to illustrate these general results, applying them to four specific examples of transitions exhibited by the model.

Medved', Igor; Trník, Anton

2012-07-01

243

Background The purpose of this study was to determine a new method for the early diagnosis and assessment of mild cognitive impairment in elderly individuals with hypertension. Elderly hypertensive patients with cognitive impairment were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Clinical Dementia Rating Assessment (CDR). Cognitive results were compared to apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging. Methods A total of 191 patients were categorized into four groups: a control group (normal cognition and no hypertension; n=20); a normal group (hypertension and normal cognition; n=33); an mild cognitive impairment group (n=80); and a vascular dementia group (n=58). The MoCA and CDR tests were used to determine cognition. ADC values in eight brain regions were calculated with magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging. Other characteristics were evaluated, eg, blood pressure, MoCA, and CDR scores, and the comparisons of the four groups were made. Results The MoCA and CDR scores differed among the four groups (P<0.001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values increased as cognitive function declined (P<0.001). Cognitive function declined as ADC values increased, and they differed between elderly people with and without hypertension (P<0.001). Among elderly hypertensive participants, ADC values were significantly increased in the cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion The MoCA and CDR tests were sufficiently sensitive to evaluate cognition. Blood pressure was closely related to cognition, as well as to functional and structural changes in the brain. These alterations were evidenced through changes in the ADC values and were most obvious in the cortex and hippocampus. Greater cognitive decline was observed in elderly participants with hypertension compared to those without. As hypertensive stage increased, greater ADC values were observed. PMID:25114516

Zhao, Yanwei; Wu, Gang; Shi, Haiming; Xia, Zhijie; Sun, Tao

2014-01-01

244

In-situ estimate of submesoscale horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients across a front

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fronts, jets and eddies are ubiquitous features of the world oceans, and play a key role in regulating energy budget, heat transfer, horizontal and vertical transport, and biogeochemical processes. Although recent advances in computational power have favored the analysis of mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics from high-resolution numerical simulations, studies from in-situ observations are still relatively scarce. The small dimensions and short duration of such structures still pose major challenges for fine-scale dedicated field experiments. As a consequence, in-situ quantitative estimates of key physical parameters for high-resolution numerical models, such as horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients, are still lacking. The Latex10 campaign (September 1-24, 2010), within the LAgrangian Transport EXperiment (LATEX), adopted an adaptive sampling strategy that included satellite data, ship-based current measurements, and iterative Lagrangian drifter releases to successfully map coherent transport structures in the western Gulf of Lion. Comparisons with AVHRR imagery evidenced that the detected structures were associated with an intense frontal feature, originated by the convergence and subsequent stirring of colder coastal waters with warmer open-sea waters. We present a method for computing horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients by combining the stirring rates estimated from the Lagrangian drifter trajectories with the shapes of the surface temperature and salinity gradient (assumed to be at the equilibrium) from the ship thermosalinograph. The average value we obtained from various sections across the front is 2.5 m2s-1, with horizontal scales (width of the front) ranging between 0.5 and 2.5 km. This is in line with the values commonly used for high-resolution numerical simulations. Further field experiment will be required to extend the results to different ocean regions and regimes, and to thoroughly test the robustness of the equilibrium hypothesis. Remote sensed measurements of sea surface temperature and elevation could also be used to compute fine-scale horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients over larger areas and for different ocean regions. However, the coarse resolution of current sea surface topography observations, and their unreliability over coastal regions, represent important limitations for this type of application. The velocity fields provided by the SWOT mission will allow to retrieve accurate high-resolution stirring rates across the ocean. Combining these rates with remote-sensed SST gradients will make possible to extend our analysis and investigate patterns and variability of submesoscale horizontal eddy diffusion at the global scale.

Nencioli, Francesco; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Doglioli, Andrea; Petrenko, Anne

2013-04-01

245

We suggest a model of rain scavenging of soluble gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere. It is shown that below-cloud gas scavenging is determined by non-stationary convective diffusion equation with the effective Peclet number. The obtained equation was analyzed numerically in the case of log-normal droplet size distribution. Calculations of scavenging coefficient and the rates of precipitation scavenging are performed for wet removal of ammonia (NH3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the atmosphere. It is shown that scavenging coefficient is non-stationary and height-dependent. It is found also that the scavenging coefficient strongly depends on initial concentration distribution of soluble gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere. It is shown that in the case of linear distribution of the initial concentration of gaseous pollutants whereby the initial concentration of gaseous pollutants decreases with altitude, the scavenging coefficient increases with height in the beginning of rainfall. At the later stage of the r...

Elperin, Tov; Krasovitov, Boris; Vikhansky, Alexander

2010-01-01

246

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new mathematical model has been presented to determine the equilibrium segregation (k0) and effective segregation (keff) coefficients for neodymium (Nd) in YAG crystal grown by Czochralski (CZ) method. Determination of diffusion coefficient (DL) of Nd impurity in molten YAG is also investigated. In this model, utilizing Lambert W-function is a new idea to solve the Scheil equation for calculation of effective segregation coefficient. The Nd concentration in the crystal has been measured by optical absorption method to calculate keff. The analyses show that the keff is related to the growth parameters such as crystal growth rate (ug) and crystal rotation rate (?), ( ug/?{?}) but it is independent of the Nd concentration in the initial melt (C0). Based on obtained keff and experimental growth data, k0 and DL of Nd in molten YAG have been calculated. For all experiments, the average value of k0=0.216 and DL=1.4×10-6 (cm2/s) are obtained. Our results are corroborated by the theoretical and experimental data from the literature.

Asadian, M.; Saeedi, H.; Yadegari, M.; Shojaee, M.

2014-06-01

247

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the monatomic Lennard-Jones liquid in a periodic boundary system were performed in order to elucidate the effect of the computational domain size and shape on the self-diffusion coefficient measured by the system. So far, the system size dependence in cubic computational domains has been intensively investigated and these studies showed that the diffusion coefficient depends linearly on the inverse of the system size, which is theoretically predicted based on the hydrodynamic interaction. We examined the system size effect not only in the cubic cell systems but also in rectangular cell systems which were created by changing one side length of the cubic cell with the system density kept constant. As a result, the diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the long side of the rectangular cell significantly increases more or less linearly with the side length. On the other hand, the diffusion coefficient in the direction along the long side is almost constant or slightly decreases. Consequently, anisotropy of the diffusion coefficient emerges in a rectangular cell with periodic boundary conditions even in a bulk liquid simulation. This unexpected result is of critical importance because rectangular fluid systems confined in nanospace, which are present in realistic nanoscale technologies, have been widely studied in recent MD simulations. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism for this serious system shape effect on the diffusion property, the correlation structures of particle velocities were examined.

Kikugawa, Gota; Ando, Shotaro; Suzuki, Jo; Naruke, Yoichi; Nakano, Takeo; Ohara, Taku

2015-01-01

248

The ability to estimate the diffusion coefficient of a solute within hydrogels has important application in the design and analysis of hydrogels used in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. A number of mathematical models have been derived for this purpose; however, they often rely on fitted parameters and so have limited predictive capability. Herein we assess the ability of the obstruction-scaling model to provide reasonable estimates of solute diffusion coefficients within hydrogels, as well as the assumption that a hydrogel can be represented as an entangled polymer solution of an equivalent concentration. Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran solutes were loaded into sodium alginate solutions as well as hydrogels of different polymer volume fractions formed from photoinitiated cross-linking of methacrylate sodium alginate. The tracer diffusion coefficients of these solutes were measured using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The measured diffusion coefficients were then compared to the values predicted by the obstruction-scaling model. The model predictions were within ±15% of the measured values, suggesting that the model can provide useful estimates of solute diffusion coefficients within hydrogels and solutions. Moreover, solutes diffusing in both sodium alginate solutions and hydrogels were demonstrated to experience the same degree of solute mobility restriction given the same effective polymer concentration, supporting the assumption that a hydrogel can be represented as an entangled polymer solution of equivalent concentration. PMID:25499554

Hadjiev, Nicholas A; Amsden, Brian G

2015-02-10

249

In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the monatomic Lennard-Jones liquid in a periodic boundary system were performed in order to elucidate the effect of the computational domain size and shape on the self-diffusion coefficient measured by the system. So far, the system size dependence in cubic computational domains has been intensively investigated and these studies showed that the diffusion coefficient depends linearly on the inverse of the system size, which is theoretically predicted based on the hydrodynamic interaction. We examined the system size effect not only in the cubic cell systems but also in rectangular cell systems which were created by changing one side length of the cubic cell with the system density kept constant. As a result, the diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the long side of the rectangular cell significantly increases more or less linearly with the side length. On the other hand, the diffusion coefficient in the direction along the long side is almost constant or slightly decreases. Consequently, anisotropy of the diffusion coefficient emerges in a rectangular cell with periodic boundary conditions even in a bulk liquid simulation. This unexpected result is of critical importance because rectangular fluid systems confined in nanospace, which are present in realistic nanoscale technologies, have been widely studied in recent MD simulations. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism for this serious system shape effect on the diffusion property, the correlation structures of particle velocities were examined. PMID:25591368

Kikugawa, Gota; Ando, Shotaro; Suzuki, Jo; Naruke, Yoichi; Nakano, Takeo; Ohara, Taku

2015-01-14

250

Conformational Changes of PYP Monitored by Diffusion Coefficient: Effect of N-Terminal ?-Helices

Conformational changes in the light illuminated intermediate (pB) of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) were studied from a viewpoint of the diffusion coefficient (D) change of several N-truncated PYPs, which lacked the N-terminal 6, 15, or 23 amino acid residues (T6, T15, and T23, respectively). For intact PYP (i-PYP), D of pB (DpB) was ?11% lower than that (DpG) of the ground state (pG) species. The difference in D (DpG ? DpB) decreased upon cleavage of the N-terminal region in the order of i-PYP>T6>T15>T23. This trend clearly showed that conformational change in the N-terminal group is the main reason for the slower diffusion of pB. This slower diffusion was interpreted in terms of the unfolding of the two ?-helices in the N-terminal region, increasing the intermolecular interactions due to hydrogen bonding with water molecules. The increase in friction per one residue by the unfolding of the ?-helix was estimated to be 0.3 × 10?12 kg/s. The conformational change in the N-terminal group upon photoillumination is discussed. PMID:16500975

Khan, Javaid Shahbaz; Imamoto, Yasushi; Harigai, Miki; Kataoka, Mikio; Terazima, Masahide

2006-01-01

251

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work proposes an isotropic diffusion weighting method for a high-resolution diffusion-weighted image and for a high-resolution apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map using a single radial scan in MRI. By using a conventional radial imaging technique, a high-resolution diffusion-weighted (DW) image can be obtained at the cost of a long imaging time. To reduce the imaging time, the proposed method acquires a DW image by altering the diffusion gradient directions for each radial spoke. The acquisition order and directions of the diffusion gradients for an accurate DW image and an ADC map are also proposed by modifying the golden angle ratio in 3D space. In addition, an individual-direction diffusion-weighted (id-DW) image can also be obtained by a diffusion gradient direction, which is one of the multiple directions used in isotropic diffusion weighting. Computer simulations and experiment results show that the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the conventional radial diffusion-weighted imaging. This study suggests that the proposed isotropic diffusion-weighted imaging can be used to obtain a DW image and a high-resolution ADC map accurately in a single radial scan, while reducing the artifacts caused by the diffusion anisotropy, compared to the diffusion-weighted echo-planar-imaging.

Seo, Hyunseok; Choi, Joonsung; Oh, Changheun; Han, Yeji; Park, HyunWook

2014-10-01

252

Supratentorial cerebral infarction can cause functional inhibition of remote regions such as the cerebellum, which may be relevant to diaschisis. This phenomenon is often analyzed using positron emission tomography and single photon emission CT. However, these methods are expensive and radioactive. Thus, the present study quantified the changes of infarction core and remote regions after unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion using apparent diffusion coefficient values. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed that the area of infarction core gradually increased to involve the cerebral cortex with increasing infarction time. Diffusion weighted imaging signals were initially increased and then stabilized by 24 hours. With increasing infarction time, the apparent diffusion coefficient value in the infarction core and remote bilateral cerebellum both gradually decreased, and then slightly increased 3–24 hours after infarction. Apparent diffusion coefficient values at remote regions (cerebellum) varied along with the change of supratentorial infarction core, suggesting that the phenomenon of diaschisis existed at the remote regions. Thus, apparent diffusion coefficient values and diffusion weighted imaging can be used to detect early diaschisis. PMID:25206615

Yang, Yunjun; Gao, Lingyun; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yuxin; Yin, Bo; Chen, Weijian; Geng, Daoying

2013-01-01

253

The nature of brain edema in dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) was investigated by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). DWI was performed on normal or bilaterally nephrectomized rats before, and immediately after, hemodialysis. Hemodialysis was performed with a custom-made dialyzer (surface area 150 cm2) against a bicarbonate-buffered bath for 90 min with or without 70 mM urea. Hemodialysis with non-urea bath decreased plasma urea by 21 mM, and plasma osmolality by 22 mosmol/kg H2O, and increased brain water content by 8.0% (all < 0.05), while hemodialysis with urea bath did not affect plasma urea, osmolality, or brain water content. Three sets of axial DWI images of the brain were obtained at different gradient weighing factors with an in-plane resolution of 0.39 mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) of the brain water was not affected by bilateral nephrectomy, or by hemodialysis in normal rats. In nephrectomized rats, brain Dapp was significantly increased after dialysis with non-urea bath (1.15 +/- 0.08 vs 0.89 +/- 0.07 x 10(-9)m2/sec, P < 0.01). No significant changes of brain water Dapp could be observed after dialysis with urea bath. The increased Dapp associated with DDS indicates that brain extracellular water increases and/or intracellular water decreases after hemodialysis. Our results strongly suggest that the brain edema induced by hemodialysis in uremic rats is due to interstitial edema rather than cytotoxic edema. Furthermore, our results support a primary role for the "reverse urea effect" in the pathogenesis of brain edema in DDS.DWI may be a useful diagnostic tool for DDS in patients with end-stage renal disease. PMID:8698867

Galons, J P; Trouard, T; Gmitro, A F; Lien, Y H

1996-01-01

254

Biomolecules have been widely investigated as potential therapeutics for various diseases. However their use is limited due to rapid degradation and poor cellular uptake in vitro and in vivo. To address this issue, we synthesized a new nano-carrier system comprising of cholic acid-polyethylenimine (CA-PEI) copolymer micelles, via carbodiimide-mediated coupling for the efficient delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as model protein. The mean particle size of siRNA- or BSA-loaded CA-PEI micelles ranged from 100-150 nm, with zeta potentials of +3-+11 mV, respectively. Atomic force, transmission electron and field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the micelles exhibited excellent spherical morphology. No significant morphology or size changes were observed in the CA-PEI micelles after siRNA and BSA loading. CA-PEI micelles exhibited sustained release profile, the effective diffusion coefficients were successfully estimated using a mathematically-derived cylindrical diffusion model and the release data of siRNA and BSA closely fitted into this model. High siRNA and BSA binding and loading efficiencies (95% and 70%, respectively) were observed for CA-PEI micelles. Stability studies demonstrated that siRNA and BSA integrity was maintained after loading and release. The CA-PEI micelles were non cytotoxic to V79 and DLD-1 cells, as shown by alamarBlue and LIVE/DEAD cell viability assays. RT-PCR study revealed that siRNA-loaded CA-PEI micelles suppressed the mRNA for ABCB1 gene. These results revealed the promising potential of CA-PEI micelles as a stable, safe, and versatile nano-carrier for siRNA and the model protein delivery. PMID:25133390

Amjad, M Wahab; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul I; Mahali, Shalela M; Katas, Haliza; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, M Naeem Ul; Chuang, Victor T Giam

2014-01-01

255

Biomolecules have been widely investigated as potential therapeutics for various diseases. However their use is limited due to rapid degradation and poor cellular uptake in vitro and in vivo. To address this issue, we synthesized a new nano-carrier system comprising of cholic acid-polyethylenimine (CA-PEI) copolymer micelles, via carbodiimide-mediated coupling for the efficient delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as model protein. The mean particle size of siRNA- or BSA-loaded CA-PEI micelles ranged from 100–150 nm, with zeta potentials of +3-+11 mV, respectively. Atomic force, transmission electron and field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the micelles exhibited excellent spherical morphology. No significant morphology or size changes were observed in the CA-PEI micelles after siRNA and BSA loading. CA-PEI micelles exhibited sustained release profile, the effective diffusion coefficients were successfully estimated using a mathematically-derived cylindrical diffusion model and the release data of siRNA and BSA closely fitted into this model. High siRNA and BSA binding and loading efficiencies (95% and 70%, respectively) were observed for CA-PEI micelles. Stability studies demonstrated that siRNA and BSA integrity was maintained after loading and release. The CA-PEI micelles were non cytotoxic to V79 and DLD-1 cells, as shown by alamarBlue and LIVE/DEAD cell viability assays. RT-PCR study revealed that siRNA-loaded CA-PEI micelles suppressed the mRNA for ABCB1 gene. These results revealed the promising potential of CA-PEI micelles as a stable, safe, and versatile nano-carrier for siRNA and the model protein delivery. PMID:25133390

Amjad, M. Wahab; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul I.; Mahali, Shalela M.; Katas, Haliza; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, M. Naeem ul; Chuang, Victor T. Giam

2014-01-01

256

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the observation of the pore structure and mercury intruding porosimetry (MIP) experiments of some typical porous building materials, we found that the diffusion coefficient of the material can be expressed by that of a representative elementary volume (REV) in which the pore structure can be simplified as a connection in series of macro and meso pores. Based upon that, a macro-meso two-scale model for predicting the diffusion coefficient of porous building materials is proposed. In contrast to the traditional porous mass transfer model for determining the diffusion coefficient described in the literature [Blondeau, P., Tiffonnet, A.L., Damian, A., Amiri, O., Molina, J.L., 2003. Assessment of contaminant diffusivities in building materials from porosimetry tests. Indoor Air 13, 302-310; Seo, J., Kato, S., Ataka, Y., Zhu, Q., 2005. Evaluation of effective diffusion coefficient in various building materials and absorbents by mercury intrusion porosimetry. In Proceedings of the Indoor Air, Beijing, China, pp. 1854-1859], the proposed model relates the volatile organic compound (VOC) diffusion coefficient of building material not only to the porosity of the building material, but also to the pore size distribution and pore connection modes. To verify the model, a series of experiments of VOC emissions of three types of medium-density board were conducted. The comparison of the model and experimental results shows that the proposed model agrees much better with the experimental results than the traditional models in the literature. More validation for other building materials is needed. The proposed model is useful for predicting the VOC diffusion coefficient of porous building materials and for developing low VOC emission building materials.

Xiong, Jianyin; Zhang, Yinping; Wang, Xinke; Chang, Dongwu

257

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling isotopic signatures in systems affected by diffusion, advection, and a reaction which modifies the isotopic abundance of a given species, is a discipline in its infancy. Traditionally, much emphasis has been placed on kinetic isotope effects during biochemical reactions, while isotope effects caused by isotope specific diffusion coefficients have been neglected. A recent study by Donahue et al. (2008) suggested that transport related isotope effects may be of similar magnitude as microbially mediated isotope effects. Although it was later shown that the assumed differences in the isotope specific diffusion coefficients were probably overstated by one or two orders of magnitude ( Bourg, 2008), this study raises several important issues: (1) Is it possible to directly calculate isotopic enrichment factors from measured concentration data without modeling the respective system? (2) Do changes in porosity and advection velocity modulate the influence of isotope specific diffusion coefficients on the fractionation factor ?? (3) If one has no a priori knowledge whether diffusion coefficients are isotope specific or not, what is the nature and magnitude of the error introduced by either assumption? Here we argue (A) That the direct substitution of measured data into a differential equation is problematic and cannot be used as a replacement for a reaction-transport model; (B) That the transport related fractionation scales linearly with the difference between the respective diffusion coefficients of a given isotope system, but depends in a complex non-linear way on the interplay between advection velocity, and downcore changes of temperature and porosity. Last but not least, we argue that the influence of isotope specific diffusion coefficients on microbially mediated sulfate reduction in typical marine sediments is considerably smaller than the error associated with the determination of the fractionation factor.

Wortmann, Ulrich G.; Chernyavsky, Boris M.

2011-06-01

258

Curing and diffusion coefficient study in past?rma, a Turkish traditional meat product.

Changes in water activity (a(w)), moisture and salt contents and salt effective diffusion coefficients (D(eff)) of past?rma samples during the curing process were determined. At the end of the curing stage, a(w) values decreased to 0.942. The average initial moisture content of the samples decreased from 74.56% to 66.64%, depending on the curing time and the average salt content increased to 15.65 g NaCl/100 g dry matter at the end of the 48-hour curing process. Past?rma samples were assumed the geometry of endless slices, and the analytical solution of Fick's second equation was used for determination of salt D(eff) values. Salt D(eff) values were found to vary between 1.49×10(-9)-4.08×10(-9) m(2)/s. PMID:23927919

Akköse, Ahmet; Akta?, Nesimi

2014-01-01

259

A comparative study on temperature dependent diffusion coefficient of liquid Fe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-diffusion coefficients, D, of liquid Fe at different temperatures have been investigated using hard sphere (HS) theory and universal scaling laws (USLs). Inter-ionic interaction is derived from both pseudopotential proposed by Brettonet-Silbert (BS) and many body potential obtained from embedded atom method (EAM). Temperature dependent effective HS diameter, ?(T), and excess entropy, Sex, are the premier ingredients of the study. The former ingredient is calculated using both variational modified hypernetted chain, VMHNC, integral equation theory and Linearized Weeks-Chandler-Andersen, LWCA, thermodynamic perturbation theory together with an empirical relation of Protopapas et al. (1973) [2] whereas the later one is calculated using VMHNC theory alone, with BS and EAM potentials. We observe that D increases with increasing temperatures. The obtained results are compared with those predicted by Protopapas et al. The comparison suggests that USL of Dzugutov and HS theory with BS potential are better choices to predict D(T) of liquid Fe.

Gosh, R. C.; Syed, Ishtiaque M.; Amin, Zahurul; Bhuiyan, G. M.

2013-10-01

260

Surface diffusion coefficient of Au atoms on single layer graphene grown on Cu

A 5?nm thick Au film was deposited on single layer graphene sheets grown on Cu. By thermal processes, the dewetting phenomenon of the Au film on the graphene was induced so to form Au nanoparticles. The mean radius, surface-to-surface distance, and surface density evolution of the nanoparticles on the graphene sheets as a function of the annealing temperature were quantified by scanning electron microscopy analyses. These quantitative data were analyzed within the classical mean-field nucleation theory so to obtain the temperature-dependent Au atoms surface diffusion coefficient on graphene: D{sub S}(T)=[(8.2±0.6)×10{sup ?8}]exp[?(0.31±0.02(eV)/(at) )/kT]?cm{sup 2}/s.

Ruffino, F., E-mail: francesco.ruffino@ct.infn.it; Cacciato, G.; Grimaldi, M. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia-Universitá di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy and MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

2014-02-28

261

Objective To perform a meta-analysis exploring the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and tumor cellularity in patients. Materials and Methods We searched medical and scientific literature databases for studies discussing the correlation between the ADC and tumor cellularity in patients. Only studies that were published in English or Chinese prior to November 2012 were considered for inclusion. Summary correlation coefficient (r) values were extracted from each study, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed to investigate potential heterogeneity. Results Of 189 studies, 28 were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 729 patients. The pooled r for all studies was ?0.57 (95% CI: ?0.62, ?0.52), indicating notable heterogeneity (P<0.001). After the sensitivity analysis, two studies were excluded, and the pooled r was ?0.61 (95% CI: ?0.66, ?0.56) and was not significantly heterogeneous (P?=?0.127). Regarding tumor type subgroup analysis, there were sufficient data to support a strong negative correlation between the ADC and cellularity for brain tumors. There was no notable evidence of publication bias. Conclusions There is a strong negative correlation between the ADC and tumor cellularity in patients, particularly in the brain. However, larger, prospective studies are warranted to validate these findings in other cancer types. PMID:24244402

Bao, Jing; Xia, Yunbao; Zhang, Jiuquan; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Xuequan; Wang, Jian

2013-01-01

262

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modulated photothermal radiometry (PTR) has been widely used to measure the thermal diffusivity of bulk materials. The method is based on illuminating the sample with a plane light beam and measuring the infrared emission with an infrared detector. The amplitude and phase of the PTR voltage is recorded as a function of the modulation frequency and then fitted to the theoretical model. In this work, we test the ability of modulated PTR to retrieve simultaneously the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of homogeneous slabs. In order to eliminate the instrumental factor, self-normalization is used, i.e., the ratio of the PTR signal recorded at the rear and front surfaces. The influence of the multiple reflections of the light beam, the heat losses, and the transparency to infrared wavelengths are analyzed. Measurements performed on a wide variety of homogeneous materials, covering the whole range from transparent to opaque, confirm the validity of the method. In Part II of this work, the method is extended to multilayered materials.

Fuente, Raquel; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza; Salazar, Agustín

2011-08-01

263

A uniqueness result for the identification of a time-dependent diffusion coefficient

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the problem of determining the time-dependent thermal diffusivity coefficient of a medium, when the evolution of the temperature in a part of it is known. Such situations arise in the context of food technology, when thermal processes at high pressures are used for extending the shelf life of the food, in order to preserve its nutritional and organoleptic properties (Infante et al 2009 On the Modelling and Simulation of High Pressure Processes and Inactivation of Enzymes in Food Engineering pp 2203-29 and Otero et al 2007 J. Food Eng. 78 1463-70). The phenomenon is modeled by the heat equation involving a term which depends on the source temperature and pressure increase, and appropriate initial and boundary conditions. We study the inverse problem of determining time-dependent thermal diffusivities k, when some temperature measurements at the border and inside the medium are known. We prove the uniqueness of the inverse problem solution under suitable a priori assumptions on regularity, size and growth of k.

Fraguela, A.; Infante, J. A.; Ramos, A. M.; Rey, J. M.

2013-12-01

264

Spreading waves of a reduced diffusion coefficient of water in normal and ischemic rat brain.

Using echo planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured three-dimensional changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water in eight contiguous coronal slices, encompassing the entire rat brain, before and after local cortical stimulation. We applied chemical (potassium chloride application; n = 6) and mechanical (needle stab; n = 4) stimulations to the right posterior parietal rat cortex. In all animals in which potassium chloride or the needle stab was applied, a region of decreased ADC values to a mean of 0.45 +/- 0.03 x 10(-5)cm2/s occurred. These reduced ADC levels appeared in the posterior parietal cortex within 1 min after cortical stimulation and the change recovered within 1 min. Then a ripple-like movement of similar changes developed across the unilateral cortex. This change was localized to the cortex and no significant ADC changes occurred in subcortical structures. The propagating speed of this movement was 3.4 +/- 0.5 mm/min. These findings are compatible with spreading depression as observed electrophysiologically. Similar ADC changes occurred in areas distinct from the ischemic lesion in 3 of 12 animals subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. This magnetic resonance method could detect spreading ADC decline if it occurred in human diseases including brain ischemia. PMID:7860651

Hasegawa, Y; Latour, L L; Formato, J E; Sotak, C H; Fisher, M

1995-03-01

265

A new coarse-grained model of the E. coli cytoplasm is developed by describing the proteins of the cytoplasm as flexible units consisting of one or more spheres that follow Brownian dynamics (BD), with hydrodynamic interactions (HI) accounted for by a mean-field approach. Extensive BD simulations were performed to calculate the diffusion coefficients of three different proteins in the cellular environment. The results are in close agreement with experimental or previously simulated values, where available. Control simulations without HI showed that use of HI is essential to obtain accurate diffusion coefficients. Anomalous diffusion inside the crowded cellular medium was investigated with Fractional Brownian motion analysis, and found to be present in this model. By running a series of control simulations in which various forces were removed systematically, it was found that repulsive interactions (volume exclusion) are the main cause for anomalous diffusion, with a secondary contribution from HI. PMID:25180859

Hasnain, Sabeeha; McClendon, Christopher L.; Hsu, Monica T.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

2014-01-01

266

Apparent diffusion coefficient values of normal testis and variations with age

The usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in the evaluation of scrotal pathology has recently been reported. A standard reference of normal testicular apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and their variations with age is necessary when interpreting normal testicular anatomy and pathology. We evaluated 147 normal testes using DWI, including 71 testes from 53 men aged 20–39 years (group 1), 67 testes from 42 men aged 40–69 years (group 2) and nine testes from six men older than 70 years (group 3). DWI was performed along the axial plane, using a single shot, multislice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s mm?2. The mean and standard deviation of the ADC values of normal testicular parenchyma were calculated for each age group separately. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc analysis (Dunnett T3) was used for statistical purposes. The ADC values (× 10?3 mm2 s?1) of normal testicular tissue were different among age groups (group 1: 1.08 ± 0.13; group 2: 1.15 ± 0.15 and group 3: 1.31 ± 0.22). ANOVA revealed differences in mean ADC among age groups (F = 11.391, P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed differences between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.008) and between groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.043), but not between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.197). Our findings suggest that ADC values of normal testicular tissue increase with advancing age. PMID:24556745

Tsili, Athina C; Giannakis, Dimitrios; Sylakos, Anastasios; Ntorkou, Alexandra; Astrakas, Loukas G; Sofikitis, Nikolaos; Argyropoulou, Maria I

2014-01-01

267

First-principles binary diffusion coefficients for H, H?, and four normal alkanes + N?.

Collision integrals related to binary (dilute gas) diffusion are calculated classically for six species colliding with N2. The most detailed calculations make no assumptions regarding the complexity of the potential energy surface, and the resulting classical collision integrals are in excellent agreement with previous semiclassical results for H + N2 and H2 + N2 and with recent experimental results for CnH(2n+2) + N2, n = 2-4. The detailed classical results are used to test the accuracy of three simplifying assumptions typically made when calculating collision integrals: (1) approximating the intermolecular potential as isotropic, (2) neglecting the internal structure of the colliders (i.e., neglecting inelasticity), and (3) employing unphysical R(-12) repulsive interactions. The effect of anisotropy is found to be negligible for H + N2 and H2 + N2 (in agreement with previous quantum mechanical and semiclassical results for systems involving atomic and diatomic species) but is more significant for larger species at low temperatures. For example, the neglect of anisotropy decreases the diffusion coefficient for butane + N2 by 15% at 300 K. The neglect of inelasticity, in contrast, introduces only very small errors. Approximating the repulsive wall as an unphysical R(-12) interaction is a significant source of error at all temperatures for the weakly interacting systems H + N2 and H2 + N2, with errors as large as 40%. For the normal alkanes in N2, which feature stronger interactions, the 12/6 Lennard-Jones approximation is found to be accurate, particularly at temperatures above ?700 K where it predicts the full-dimensional result to within 5% (although with somewhat different temperature dependence). Overall, the typical practical approach of assuming isotropic 12/6 Lennard-Jones interactions is confirmed to be suitable for combustion applications except for weakly interacting systems, such as H + N2. For these systems, anisotropy and inelasticity can safely be neglected but a more detailed description of the repulsive wall is required for quantitative predictions. A straightforward approach for calculating effective isotropic potentials with realistic repulsive walls is described. An analytic expression for the calculated diffusion coefficient for H + N2 is presented and is estimated to have a 2-sigma error bar of only 0.7%. PMID:25273443

Jasper, Ahren W; Kamarchik, Eugene; Miller, James A; Klippenstein, Stephen J

2014-09-28

268

Experiments have demonstrated that single photoisomerizations in amphibian and primate rods can cause the suppression of 3-5% of the dark circulating current at the response peak (Baylor, D. A., T. D. Lamb, and K. W. Yau. 1979. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 288:613-634; Baylor, D. A., B. J. Nunn, and J. L. Schnapf. 1984. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 357:575-607). These results indicate that the change in [cGMP] effected by a single isomerization must spread longitudinally over at least the corresponding fractional length of the outer segment. The effective longitudinal diffusion coefficient, Dx, of cGMP is thus an important determinant of rod sensitivity. We report here measurements of the effective longitudinal diffusion coefficients, Dx, of two fluorescently labeled molecules: 5/6-carboxyfluorescein and 8-(fluoresceinyl)thioguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, introduced into detached outer segments via whole-cell patch electrodes. For these compounds, the average time for equilibration of the entire outer segment with the patch pipette was approximately 6 min. Fluorescence images of rods were analyzed with a one-dimensional diffusion model that included limitations on transfer between the electrode and outer segment and the effects of intracellular binding of the dyes. The analyses yielded estimates of Dx of 1.9 and 1.0 microns 2.s-1 for the two dyes. It is shown that these results place an upper limit on Dx for cGMP of 11 microns2.s-1. The actual value of Dx for cGMP in the rod will depend on the degree of intracellular binding of cGMP. Estimates of the effective buffering power for cGMP in the rod at rest range from two to six (Lamb and Pugh, 1992; Cote and Brunnock, 1993). When combined with these estimates, our results predict that for cGMP itself, Dx falls within the range of 1.4-5.5 microns 2.s-1. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8241412

Olson, A; Pugh, E N

1993-01-01

269

First-principles binary diffusion coefficients for H, H2, and four normal alkanes + N2

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision integrals related to binary (dilute gas) diffusion are calculated classically for six species colliding with N2. The most detailed calculations make no assumptions regarding the complexity of the potential energy surface, and the resulting classical collision integrals are in excellent agreement with previous semiclassical results for H + N2 and H2 + N2 and with recent experimental results for CnH2n+2 + N2, n = 2-4. The detailed classical results are used to test the accuracy of three simplifying assumptions typically made when calculating collision integrals: (1) approximating the intermolecular potential as isotropic, (2) neglecting the internal structure of the colliders (i.e., neglecting inelasticity), and (3) employing unphysical R-12 repulsive interactions. The effect of anisotropy is found to be negligible for H + N2 and H2 + N2 (in agreement with previous quantum mechanical and semiclassical results for systems involving atomic and diatomic species) but is more significant for larger species at low temperatures. For example, the neglect of anisotropy decreases the diffusion coefficient for butane + N2 by 15% at 300 K. The neglect of inelasticity, in contrast, introduces only very small errors. Approximating the repulsive wall as an unphysical R-12 interaction is a significant source of error at all temperatures for the weakly interacting systems H + N2 and H2 + N2, with errors as large as 40%. For the normal alkanes in N2, which feature stronger interactions, the 12/6 Lennard-Jones approximation is found to be accurate, particularly at temperatures above ˜700 K where it predicts the full-dimensional result to within 5% (although with somewhat different temperature dependence). Overall, the typical practical approach of assuming isotropic 12/6 Lennard-Jones interactions is confirmed to be suitable for combustion applications except for weakly interacting systems, such as H + N2. For these systems, anisotropy and inelasticity can safely be neglected but a more detailed description of the repulsive wall is required for quantitative predictions. A straightforward approach for calculating effective isotropic potentials with realistic repulsive walls is described. An analytic expression for the calculated diffusion coefficient for H + N2 is presented and is estimated to have a 2-sigma error bar of only 0.7%.

Jasper, Ahren W.; Kamarchik, Eugene; Miller, James A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

2014-09-01

270

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PURPOSE: Pharmacologic vitreolysis is a new approach to improve vitreo-retinal surgery. Ultimately, the development of drugs to liquefy and detach vitreous from retina should prevent disease by mitigating the contribution of vitreous to retinopathy and eliminate the need for surgery. However, the mechanism of action of pharmacologic vitreolysis remains unclear. The technique of Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to evaluate the effects of microplasmin by following the diffusion coefficients of spherical polystyrene nano-particles injected with microplasmin into the vitreous. METHODS: Diffusion coefficients in dissected (n=9) porcine eyes were measured in vitro. DLS was performed on all specimens at 37°C as often as every 10 minutes for up to 6 hours following injections of human recombinant microplasmin at doses ranging from 0.125 mg to 0.8 mg, with 20 nm diameter tracer nanospheres. RESULTS: DLS findings in untreated porcine vitreous were similar to the previously described findings in bovine and human vitreous, demonstrating a fast (early) component, resulting from the flexible hyaluronan molecules, and a slow (late) component, resulting form the stiff collagen molecules. Microplasmin increased porcine vitreous diffusion coefficients. A new approach was developed to use DLS measurements of vitreous diffusion coefficients to evaluate the effects of microplasmin in intact eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacologic vitreolysis with human recombinant microplasmin increases vitreous diffusion coefficients in vitro. The results of these studies indicate that this new approach using DLS to measure vitreous diffusion coefficients can be used to study the effects of pharmacologic vitreolysis using microplasmin and other agents in intact eyes and ultimately in vivo.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Sebag, J.

2006-02-01

271

Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is employed to study the diffusion process of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in porcine skin optical clearing. The variation of DMSO concentration with time at different depths of the skin was obtained and then the DMSO diffusion coefficient with the passive diffusion model was calculated. Results show that it has a significant difference at different depths of the skin. Also, the DMSO concentration with the depth at different times was obtained and the same method was used to find the change law of the DMSO diffusion coefficient. Results indicate that it also changes with the treatment time. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical model in a previous study. The current results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy has the ability to quantitatively monitor the process of optical clearing. PMID:23416924

Liu, Ping; Huang, Yanyue; Guo, Zhouyi; Wang, Jianping; Zhuang, Zhengfei; Liu, Songhao

2013-02-01

272

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that is equipped with two lasers of different wavelengths was used to conduct high resolution measurements of concentration profiles of a ternary mixture inside a diffusion cell. Windowed Fourier transform along with an advanced unwrapping procedure was employed to extract the phase image from fringe images. Then the phase difference was obtained for a spatial resolution of 1920×1240. According to the measured refractive index profile, concentration contours of two components (out of three) were measured. Consequently, the concentration profile of the third components was calculated. Previously, the analytical solution for binary mixtures was used to estimate only the pure diffusion coefficients. In this study, for the first time, the refractive indices measured by two lasers along with the analytical solution for the ternary system, based on Fick's law, and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) known as a genetic algorithm (GA) were employed to measure the pure and cross diffusion coefficients of a transparent ternary mixture simultaneously. The optimization method to estimate diffusion coefficients was tested against various objective functions, and the best approach was that which was proposed herein. In order to validate the proposed measurement method, the experimental results of the Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument-Diffusion Coefficients in Mixtures (SODI-DCMIX1 project) on board the International Space Station (ISS) were analyzed using this technique and the obtained results were compared with previous techniques.

Ahadi, Amirhossein; Saghir, M. Ziad

2014-08-01

273

The role of surface energy coefficients and nuclear surface diffuseness in the fusion of heavy-ions

We discuss the effect of surface energy coefficients as well as nuclear surface diffuseness in the proximity potential and ultimately in the fusion of heavy-ions. Here we employ different versions of surface energy coefficients. Our analysis reveals that these technical parameters can influence the fusion barriers by a significant amount. A best set of these parameters is also given that explains the experimental data nicely.

Ishwar Dutt; Rajeev K. Puri

2010-04-04

274

Steels, 20CrMnTi and 30CrMnSi, were nitrocarburized at 600 C and 650 C for 5h with rare earths (RE). The experimental results show that the rare earth elements can diffuse into the treated surface layer, in which the concentration profiles of the rare earth La were measured by chemical analysis and ion probe. The diffusion coefficient and activation energy of La have been calculated based on the experimental results mentioned above. The rare earth atoms diffuse mainly along the grain boundaries according to thermodynamic theory and analysis of the calculated data.

Mufu, Y.; Qun, L.; Teqiang, Z.; Yang, C.; Fayi, Z.; Zhiru, L. [Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China)

1995-12-31

275

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two parameterizations of the resonant wave-particle interactions of electrons with ULF waves in the magnetosphere by Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2012] are evaluated using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) diffusion code to estimate the effect of changing a diffusion coefficient on the radiation belt simulation. The period of investigation includes geomagnetically quiet and active time. The simulations take into account wave-particle interactions represented by radial diffusion transport, local acceleration, losses due to pitch-angle diffusion, and mixed diffusion. 1. Brautigam, D. H., and J. M. Albert (2000), Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 105(A1), 291-309, doi:10.1029/1999JA900344 2. Ozeke, L. G., I. R. Mann, K. R. Murphy, I. J. Rae, D. K. Milling, S. R. Elkington, A. A. Chan, and H. J. Singer (2012), ULF wave derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A04222, doi:10.1029/2011JA017463.

Drozdov, Alexander; Mann, Ian; Baker, Daniel N.; Subbotin, Dmitriy; Ozeke, Louis; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam

276

This paper describes applications of phyto-remediation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility that enriched uranium from the early 1950's until 2000. Phyto-remediation has been implemented to assist in the removal of TCE (trichloroethylene) in the groundwater at two locations at the PORTS facility: the X-740 area and the X-749/X-120 area. Phyto-remediation technology is based on the ability of certain plants species (in this case hybrid poplar trees) and their associated rhizo-spheric microorganisms to remove, degrade, or contain chemical contaminants located in the soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, and possibly even the atmosphere. Phyto-remediation technology is a promising clean-up solution for a wide variety of pollutants and sites. Mature trees, such as the hybrid poplar, can consume up to 3,000 gallons of groundwater per acre per day. Organic compounds are captured in the trees' root systems. These organic compounds are degraded by ultraviolet light as they are transpired along with the water vapor through the leaves of the trees. The phyto-remediation system at the X-740 area encompasses 766 one-year old hybrid poplar trees (Populus nigra x nigra, Populus nigra x maximowiczii, and Populus deltoides x nigra) that were planted 10 feet apart in rows 10 feet to 20 feet apart, over an area of 2.6 acres. The system was installed to manage the VOC contaminant plume. At the X749/X-120 area, a phyto-remediation system of 2,640 hybrid poplar trees (Populus nigra x maximowiczii) was planted in seven areas/zones to manage the VOC contaminant plume. The objectives of these systems are to remove contamination from the groundwater and to prevent further migration of contaminants. The goal of these remediation procedures is to achieve completely mature and functional phyto-remediation systems within two years of the initial planting of the hybrid poplar trees at each planting location. There is a direct relationship between plant transpiration, soil moisture, and groundwater flow in a phyto-remediation system. The existing monitoring program was expanded in 2004 in order to evaluate the interactions among these processes. The purpose of this monitoring program was to determine the rate of contaminant removal and to more accurately predict the amount of time needed to remediate the contaminated groundwater. Initial planting occurred in 1999 at the X-740 area, with additional replanting in 2001 and 2002. In 2003, coring of selected trees and chemical analyses illustrated the presence of TCE; however, little impact was observed in groundwater levels, analytical monitoring, and periodic tree diameter monitoring at the X-740 area. To provide better understanding of how these phyto-remediation systems work, a portable weather station was installed at the X-740 area to provide data for estimating transpiration and two different systems for measuring sap flow and sap velocity were outfitted to numerous trees. After evaluating and refining the groundwater flow and contaminant transport models, the data gathered by these two inventive methods can be used to establish a rate of contaminant removal and to better predict the time required in order to meet remediation goals for the phyto-remediation systems located at the PORTS site. (authors)

Lewis, A.C.; Baird, D.R. [CDM Federal Services, P.O. Box 789, Piketon, OH 45661 (United States)

2006-07-01

277

Evaluation of disposal records, soil data, and spatial/temporal groundwater data from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 7 indicate that the peak contaminant concentrations measured in monitoring well (MW) 66 result from the influence of the regional PGDP NW Plume, and does not support the presence of significant vertical transport from local contaminant sources in SWMU 7. This updated evaluation supports the 2006 conceptualization which suggested the high and low concentrations in MW66 represent different flow conditions (i.e., local versus regional influences). Incorporation of the additional lines of evidence from data collected since 2006 provide the basis to link high contaminant concentrations in MW66 (peaks) to the regional 'Northwest Plume' and to the upgradient source, specifically, the C400 Building Area. The conceptual model was further refined to demonstrate that groundwater and the various contaminant plumes respond to complex site conditions in predictable ways. This type of conceptualization bounds the expected system behavior and supports development of environmental cleanup strategies, providing a basis to support decisions even if it is not feasible to completely characterize all of the 'complexities' present in the system. We recommend that the site carefully consider the potential impacts to groundwater and contaminant plume migration as they plan and implement onsite production operations, remediation efforts, and reconfiguration activities. For example, this conceptual model suggests that rerouting drainage water, constructing ponds or basin, reconfiguring cooling water systems, capping sites, decommissioning buildings, fixing (or not fixing) water leaks, and other similar actions will potentially have a 'direct' impact on the groundwater contaminant plumes. Our conclusion that the peak concentrations in MW66 are linked to the regional PGDP NW Plume does not imply that there TCE is not present in SWMU 7. The available soil and groundwater data indicate that the some of the waste disposed in this facility contacted and/or were contaminated by TCE. In our assessment, the relatively small amount of TCE associated with SWMU 7 is not contributing detectable TCE to the groundwater and does not represent a significant threat to the environment, particularly in an area where remediation and/or management of TCE in the NW plume will be required for an extended timeframe. If determined to be necessary by the PGDP team and regulators, additional TCE characterization or cleanup activities could be performed. Consistent with the limited quantity of TCE in SWMU 7, we identify a range of low cost approaches for such activities (e.g., soil gas surveys for characterization or SVE for remediation). We hope that this information is useful to the Paducah team and to their regulators and stakeholders to develop a robust environmental management path to address the groundwater and soil contamination associated with the burial ground areas.

Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

2012-08-28

278

Computer models have been developed to simulate the transient behavior of aerosols and vapors as a result of a postulated accident involving the release of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant. For the current study, gaseous UF{sub 6} is assumed to get released in the cell housing atmosphere through B-line break at 58.97 kg/s for 10 min and 30 min duration at the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants. The released UF{sub 6} undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form hydrogen fluoride (HF) and radioactive uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) while it disperses throughout the process building. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, this study evaluated source terms consisting of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} as well as HF during a postulated UF{sub 6} release accident in a process building. UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} mainly remains as airborne-solid particles (aerosols), and HF is in a vapor form. Some UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols are removed from the air flow due to gravitational settling. The HF and the remaining UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} are mixed with air and exhausted through the building ventilation system. The MELCOR computer code was selected for simulating aerosols and vapor transport in the process building. To characterize leakage flow through the cell housing wall, 3-D CFD tool (CFDS-FLOW3D) was used. About 57% of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} was predicted to be released into the environment. Since HF was treated as vapor, close to 100% was estimated to get released into the environment.

Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Wendel, M.W.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, J.C. [J.C. Carter Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Dyer, R.H. [Dyer Enterprises, Harriman, TN (United States)

1996-12-30

279

An interferometric technique has been used to measure the swelling of a paint film caused by its absorption of water vapour. The diffusion coefficient of water in paint is obtained from the time evolution of the thickness of the paint film, when the paint film is subjected to an almost stepwise change in the relative humidity of the surrounding air.

E. L. J. Goossens; A. J. J. van der Zanden; H. L. M. Wijen; W. H. van der Spoel

2003-01-01

280

Estimation of CO2 diffusion coefficient at 0-10 cm depth in undisturbed and tilled soils

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diffusion coefficients (D) of CO2 at 0 – 10 cm layers in undisturbed and tilled soil conditions were estimated using Penman, Millington-Quirk, Ridgwell et al. (1999), Troeh et al., and Moldrup et al. models. Soil bulk density and volumetric soil water content ('v) at 0 – 10 cm were measured on April...

281

Error expressions derived from the commonly used equations of electroanalytical chemistry using Taylor's series show how a calculated value of n, the number of electrons transferred, depends on the error in D, the diffusion coefficient. The error relationships for chronoamperometry, polarography, chronopotentiometry, and voltammetry at stationary and rotated-disk electrodes are given. It is found that when the relative error in

Newton C. Fawcett; Roy D. Caton Jr

1981-01-01

282

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of gaseous diffusion plant freezer/sublimer systems is to control the inventory of UF6 in the process cascade. When it is desired to decrease process inventory, UF6 vapor is transferred from the process cascade into the freezer/sublimer and frozen out. When it is desired to increase process inventory, UF6 is sublimed out of the freezer/sublimer and transferred back to the process cascade. This process technology has proven to be economically attractive for gaseous diffusion plants because it enables the plant to increase power usage during periods of low electrical utility demands, such as at night when inexpensive, nonfirm power is available, and decrease power usage during periods of high electrical utility demands. Power usage is proportional to process inventory. Control of freeze rate and sublime rate is important to this operation, especially when several freezer/sublimer systems must operate in harmony during a major inventory swing. The purpose of this report is to recommend an improved method to estimate and control the freeze and sublime rates of freezer/sublimer systems.

Ruppel, F. R.

1992-09-01

283

An in situ method of estimating the effective diffusion coefficient for a chemical constituent that diffuses into the primary porosity of a rock is developed by abruptly changing the concentration of the dissolved constituent in a borehole in contact with the rock matrix and monitoring the time-varying concentration. The experiment was conducted in a borehole completed in mudstone on the campus of the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Numerous tracer tests were conducted at this site, which left a residual concentration of sodium chloride in boreholes that diffused into the rock matrix over a period of years. Fresh water was introduced into a borehole in contact with the mudstone, and the time-varying increase of chloride was observed by monitoring the electrical conductivity (EC) at various depths in the borehole. Estimates of the effective diffusion coefficient were obtained by interpreting measurements of EC over 34 d. The effective diffusion coefficient at a depth of 36 m was approximately 7.8??10-6 m2/d, but was sensitive to the assumed matrix porosity. The formation factor and mass flux for the mudstone were also estimated from the experiment. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

Gebrekristos, R.A.; Shapiro, A.M.; Usher, B.H.

2008-01-01

284

Precise diffusion measurements of rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) dissolved in D{sub 2}O at concentrations between 50 and 200 ?M were carried out in the temperature range from 280 to 320 K using pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR). The obtained diffusion coefficients can be used as a calibration reference in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Besides measuring the diffusivity of Rh6G, the diffusion coefficient of the solvent in the same system could be determined in parallel by PFG-NMR as the resonances of water and Rh6G are well separated in the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum. To analyze the differences due to the isotope effect of the solvent (D{sub 2}O vs. H{sub 2}O), the correlation time ?{sub D} of Rh6G was measured by FCS in both D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O. The obtained isotopic correction factor, ?{sub D}(D{sub 2}O)/?{sub D}(H{sub 2}O) = 1.24, reflects the isotope effect of the solvent´s self-diffusion coefficients as determined previously by PFG-NMR.

Majer, G., E-mail: majer@is.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Melchior, J. P. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2014-03-07

285

We suggest a model for a hydrogenic low-temperature nonequilibrium nonideal plasma that allows the kinetic parameters of the plasma to be calculated by the method of molecular dynamics by taking into account the interparticle interaction. The charges interact according to Coulomb's law; for unlike charges, the interaction is assumed to be equal to a constant at a distance smaller than several Bohr radii. For a system of particles, we solve the classical equations of motion under periodic boundary conditions. The initial conditions are specified in such a way that the electrons have a positive total energy. We consider the temperatures 1-50 K and densities n = 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} produced in an experiment through laser cooling and resonant excitation. We calculate the electron state density as a function of the plasma coupling parameter and the electron diffusion coefficient in energy space for highly excited (Rydberg) electron states close to the boundary of the discrete and continuum spectra.

Bobrov, A. A. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Bronin, S. Ya. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Zelener, B. B. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation)], E-mail: bobozel@mail.ru; Zelener, B. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Manykin, E. A. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15

286

Isotopic mass-dependence of metal cation diffusion coefficients in liquid water

Isotope distributions in natural systems can be highly sensitive to the mass (m) dependence of solute diffusion coefficients (D) in liquid water. Isotope geochemistry studies routinely have assumed that this mass dependence either is negligible (as predicted by hydrodynamic theories) or follows a kinetic-theory-like inverse square root relationship (D {proportional_to} m{sup -0.5}). However, our recent experimental results and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the mass dependence of D is intermediate between hydrodynamic and kinetic theory predictions (D {proportional_to} m{sup -{beta}} with 0 {<=} {beta} < 0.2 for Li{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, Mg{sup 2+}, and the noble gases). In this paper, we present new MD simulations and experimental results for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, and Ca{sup 2+} that confirm the generality of the inverse power-law relation D {proportional_to} m{sup -{beta}}. Our new findings allow us to develop a general description of the influence of solute valence and radius on the mass dependence of D for monatomic solutes in liquid water. This mass dependence decreases with solute radius and with the magnitude of solute valence. Molecular-scale analysis of our MD simulation results reveals that these trends derive from the exponent {beta} being smallest for those solutes whose motions are most strongly coupled to solvent hydrodynamic modes.

Bourg, I.C.; Richter, F.M.; Christensen, J.N.; Sposito, G.

2009-01-11

287

Spreading waves of decreased diffusion coefficient after cortical stimulation in the rat brain.

A method is demonstrated for the noninvasive detection and study of spreading cortical depression. Spreading depression (SD) was elicited in rats by topical application of potassium chloride to the exposed cortex. The apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) of water in a region of the cortex, measured using a PFG-NMR spin echo sequence with an observation time of 40 ms, declines 35% within 30 s and recovers to the normal value within the next 30 s. The region of decreased Dapp was shown to be 2 mm in size and to move in the cortex, away from the point of application, with a uniform velocity of 3.3 +/- 0.5 mm/min. The behavior of the affected region is consistent with other reports of the behavior of SD as monitored by electrophysiological means. The technique can be implemented on currently available MRI equipment and makes possible the noninvasive study of SD in animal models of neurological disorders, their therapeutic intervention, and possibly the study of SD in humans. PMID:7968441

Latour, L L; Hasegawa, Y; Formato, J E; Fisher, M; Sotak, C H

1994-08-01

288

Electronic/ionic conductivity and oxygen diffusion coefficient of Sr-Fe-Co-O system

Oxides in the system Sr-Fe-Co-O exhibit both electronic and ionic conductivities. Recently, Sr-Fe-Co-O system attracted great attention because of the potential to be used for oxygen permeable membranes that can operate without the electrodes or external electrical circuitry. Electronic and ionic conductivities at various temperatures have been measured on two compositions in Sr-Fe-Co-O system named SFC-1 and SFC-2. The electronic transference number is much greater than the ionic transference number in SFC-1 sample, while the electronic and ionic transference numbers are very close in SFC-2 sample. At 800{degrees}C, the electronic conductivity and ionic conductivity are {approx}76 S{center_dot}cm-1 and =4 S-cm-1, respectively, for SFC-1. While, for SFC-2, the electronic and ionic conductivities are =10 S-cm-1 and {approx}7 S-cm-1, respectively. By a local fitting to {sigma}{center_dot}T = A exp(-E{sub {alpha}}/{kappa}{Tau}), we found that the oxide ion activation energies are 0.92 eV and 0.37 eV respectively for SFC-1 and SFC-2 samples. Oxygen diffusion coefficient of SFC-2 is {approx}{times}10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}/sec at 900C.

Ma, B.; Park, J.H.; Balachandran, U. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Segre, C.U. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-03-01

289

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental studies of self-diffusion isotopes in silicate melts often have quite large uncertainties when comparing one study to another. We designed an experiment in order to improve the precision of the results by simultaneously studying several elements (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) during the same experiment thereby greatly reducing the relative experimental uncertainties. Results show that the uncertainties on the diffusion coefficients can be reduced to 10 percent, allowing a more reliable comparison of differences of self-diffusion coefficients of the elements. This type of experiment permits us to study precisely and simultaneously several elements with no restriction on any element. We also designed an experiment to investigate the possible effects of multicomponent diffusion during Mg self-diffusion experiments by comparing cases where the concentrations of the elements and the isotopic compositions are different. The results suggest that there are differences between the effective means of transport. This approach should allow us to investigate the importance of multicomponent diffusion in silicate melts.

Paillat, O.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1993-01-01

290

Diffusion of small molecules into glassy polymers is quite complicated and almost always non-Fickian. Little work has been done with the diffusion of low molecular weight polymers that are liquids at room temperature (such as poly(dodecyl acrylate)) into their miscible monomers. We have studied three molecular weights under 20 000 to determine if poly(dodecyl acrylate) diffusion into dodecyl acrylate could be treated with Fick's law and if so to determine the values of the diffusion coefficients. We compare two methods for measuring the diffusion of dodecyl acrylate into poly(dodecyl acrylate): We used laser line deflection (Wiener's method) and improved upon the method from published reports. We also used the dependence of pyrene's fluorescence on the viscosity to measure the concentration distribution, and thus to extract the diffusion coefficient. After an initial relaxation period, diffusion in all cases followed Fick's law with a single concentration-independent diffusion coefficient. Comparison of the diffusion coefficients obtained by both methods yielded the same order of magnitude for the diffusion coefficients (10(-7) cm2/s) and showed the same trend in the dependence on the average molecular weight of the polymer (a decrease in the diffusion coefficient with an increase in the molecular weight). PMID:16852454

Antrim, Daniel; Bunton, Patrick; Lewis, Lydia Lee; Zoltowski, Brian D; Pojman, John A

2005-06-16

291

Molecular and Thermal Diffusion Coefficients of Alkane-Alkane and Alkane-Aromatic Binary Mixtures decane-normal alkanes and methylnaphthalene-normal alkanes are measured at atmospheric pressure and T ) 25 Â°C. The normal alkanes used in this work include nC5-nC20. Thermal diffusion coefficients were

Firoozabadi, Abbas

292

Matrix diffusion is an important transport process in geologic materials of low hydraulic conductivity. For predicting the fate and transport of contaminants, a detailed understanding of the diffusion processes in natural porous media is essential. In this study, diffusive tracer transport (iodide) was investigated in a variety of geologically different limestone and sandstone rocks. Porosity, structural and mineralogical composition, hydraulic

Thomas B Boving; Peter Grathwohl

2001-01-01

293

This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report.

Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L. [and others] [and others

1998-08-01

294

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of experimental studies of the short-time-long-wavelength behavior of collective particle displacements in quasi-one-dimensional (q1D) and quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) colloid suspensions. Our results are reported via the q ?0 behavior of the hydrodynamic function H(q) that relates the effective collective diffusion coefficient De(q), with the static structure factor S(q) and the self-diffusion coefficient of isolated particles D0: H(q)?De(q)S(q)/D0. We find an apparent divergence of H(q) as q ?0 with the form H(q)?q-? (1.7 < ? < 1.9) for both q1D and q2D colloid suspensions. Given that S(q) does not diverge as q ?0 we infer that De(q) does. This behavior is qualitatively different from that of the three-dimensional H(q) and De(q) as q?0, and the divergence is of a different functional form from that predicted for the diffusion coefficient in one-component one-dimensional and two-dimensional fluids not subject to boundary conditions that define the dimensionality of the system. We provide support for the contention that the boundary conditions that define a confined system play a very important role in determining the long-wavelength behavior of the collective diffusion coefficient from two sources: (i) the results of simulations of H(q) and De(q) in quasi-1D and quasi-2D systems and (ii) verification, using data from the work of Lin, Rice and Weitz [Phys. Rev. E 51, 423 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevE.51.423], of the prediction by Bleibel et al., arXiv:1305.3715, that De(q) for a monolayer of colloid particles constrained to lie in the interface between two fluids diverges as q-1 as q ?0.

Lin, Binhua; Cui, Bianxiao; Xu, Xinliang; Zangi, Ronen; Diamant, Haim; Rice, Stuart A.

2014-02-01

295

Nonlinear Diffusions and Stable-Like Processes with Coefficients Depending on the Median or VaR

The paper is devoted to the well-posedness for nonlinear McKean-Vlasov type diffusions with coefficients depending on the median or, more generally, on the {alpha}-quantile of the underlying distribution. The median is not a continuous function on the space of probability measures equipped with the weak convergence. This is one reason why well-posedness of the SDE considered in the paper does not follow by standard arguments.

Kolokoltsov, Vassili N., E-mail: v.kolokoltsov@warwick.ac.uk [University of Warwick, Department of Statistics (United Kingdom)

2013-08-01

296

Molecular translational self-diffusion, a measure of diffusive motion, provides information on the effective molecular hydrodynamic radius, as well as information on the properties of media or solution through which the molecule diffuses. Protein translational diffusion measured by pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) has seen increased application in structure and interaction studies, as structural changes or protein-protein interactions are often accompanied by alteration of their effective hydrodynamic radii. Unlike the analysis of complex mixtures by PFG-NMR, for monitoring changes of protein translational diffusion under various conditions, such as different stages of folding/unfolding, a partial region of the spectrum or even a single resonance is sufficient. We report translational diffusion coefficients measured by PFG-NMR with a modified stimulated echo (STE) sequence where band-selective pulses are employed for all three (1)H RF pulses. Compared with conventional non-selective sequence, e.g. the BPP-LED sequence, the advantage of this modified band-selective excitation short transient (BEST) version of STE (BEST-STE) sequence is multi-fold, namely: (1) potential sensitivity gain as in generalized BEST-based sequences, (2) water suppression is no longer required as the magnetization of solvent water is not perturbed during the measurement, and (3) dynamic range problems due to the presence of intense resonances from molecules other than the protein or peptide of interest, such as non-deuterated detergent micelles, are avoided. PMID:24824112

Yao, Shenggen; Weber, Daniel K; Separovic, Frances; Keizer, David W

2014-07-01

297

The total scattering coefficient is determined from three multiangle scattering measurements at different heights above the burner in a nonsooting laminar ethylene diffusion flame. The local extinction coefficient is determined from multichord extinction measurements. The above analysis quantifies the contribution from scattering to extinction without knowledge of the soot primary particle diameter or the morphology of the aggregates, and the absorption coefficient can now be determined. The primary particle diameter, the number density of primary particles, the average number of primary particles in an aggregate, and the width of the lognormal distribution function for the number of primary particles in an aggregate are calculated using the absorption coefficient and assumed constant values for the fractal dimension, the fractal prefactor, and the complex refractive index for soot. The values for the primary particle diameter obtained from the in situ measurements in this study compare well with those obtained from transmission electron microscopic measurements of thermophoretically sampled soot aggregates in a previous study at all heights in the diffusion flame, while the calculated soot structure parameters compare well with previous studies only at heights between 30 and 50 mm above the burner. (author)

Iyer, Suresh S.; Litzinger, Thomas A.; Lee, Seong-Young; Santoro, Robert J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2007-04-15

298

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of diffusive properties of low-permeability rocks is of interest to the nuclear power industry, which is considering the option of deep geologic repositories for management of radioactive waste. We present a simple, non-destructive, constant source in-diffusion method for estimating one-dimensional pore diffusion coefficients ( Dp) in geologic materials based on X-ray radiography. Changes in X-ray absorption coefficient (? ?) are used to quantify changes in relative concentration ( C/ C0) of an X-ray attenuating iodide tracer as the tracer solution diffuses through the rock pores. Estimated values of Dp are then obtained by fitting an analytical solution to the measured concentration profiles over time. Measurements on samples before and after saturation with iodide can also be used to determine iodide-accessible porosity (? I). To evaluate the radiography method, results were compared with traditional steady-state through-diffusion measurements on two rock types: shale and limestone. Values of Dp of (4.8 ± 2.5) × 10 - 11 m 2·s - 1 (mean ± standard deviation) were measured for samples of Queenston Formation shale and (2.6 ± 1.0) × 10 - 11 m 2·s - 1 for samples of Cobourg Formation limestone using the radiography method. The range of results for each rock type agree well with Dp values of (4.6 ± 2.0) × 10 - 11 m 2·s - 1 for shale and (3.5 ± 1.8) × 10 - 11 m 2·s - 1 for limestone, calculated from through-diffusion experiments on adjacent rock samples. Low porosity (0.01 to 0.03) and heterogeneous distribution of porosity in the Cobourg Formation may be responsible for the slightly poorer agreement between radiography and through-diffusion results for limestones. Mean values of ? I for shales (0.060) and limestones (0.028) were close to mean porosity measurements made on bulk samples by the independent water loss technique (0.062 and 0.020 for shales and limestones, respectively). Radiography measurements offer the advantage of time-saving for diffusion experiments because the experiment does not require steady-state conditions and also allows for visualization of the small-scale heterogeneities in diffusive properties within rocks at the mm to cm scale.

Cavé, Lisa; Al, Tom; Xiang, Yan; Vilks, Peter

2009-01-01

299

Use of NMR Imaging to Determine the Diffusion Coefficient of Water in Bio-based Hydrogels

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diffusion of liquid in a hydrogel material is a fundamental property which must be controlled in order to create effective delivery systems for the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. NMR spectroscopy has been used to determine the diffusion of water and deuterium oxide in a bio-based h...

300

MODELING OF DIFFUSION OF PLUTONIUM IN OTHER METALS AND OF GASEOUS SPECIES IN PLUTONIUM-BASED SYSTEMS

The research is aimed at developing and utilizing computational-modeling-based methodology to treat two major problems. The first of these is to be able to predict the diffusion of plutonium from the surface into the interior of another metal such as uranium or stainless steel (f...

301

Modeling of Diffusion of Plutonium in Other Metals and of Gaseous Species in Plutonium-Based Systems

Establish standards for temperature conditions under which plutonium, uranium, or neptunium from nuclear wastes permeates steel, with which it is in contact, by diffusion processes. The primary focus is on plutonium because of the greater difficulties created by the peculiarities of face-centered-cubic-stabilized (delta) plutonium (the form used in the technology generating the waste).

Bernard R. Cooper; Gayanath W. Fernando; S. Beiden; A. Setty; E.H. Sevilla

2004-07-02

302

We study the well-posedness of the initial value problem on periodic intervals for linear and quasilinear evolution equations for which the leading-order terms have three spatial derivatives. In such equations, there is a competition between the dispersive effects which stem from the leading-order term, and anti-diffusion which stems from the lower-order terms with two spatial derivatives. We show that the dispersive effects can dominate the backwards diffusion: we find a condition which guarantees well-posedness of the initial value problem for linear, variable coefficient equations of this kind, even when such anti-diffusion is present. In fact, we show that even in the presence of localized backwards diffusion, the dispersion will in some cases lead to an overall effect of parabolic smoothing. By contrast, we also show that when our condition is violated, the backwards diffusion can dominate the dispersive effects, leading to an ill-posed initial value problem. We use these results on linear evolution equa...

Wright, J Douglas

2012-01-01

303

The diffusion cascade processing equipment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is located in Buildings X-333, X-330, and X-326. These buildings were referred to as the cascade buildings. Because enriched uranium operations are performed within the cascade buildings, the potential for a criticality accident in these buildings exists. A Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) is in place to alarm in the event of a criticality accident. The CAAS is required to be designed to immediately detect the minimum accident-of-concern. A minimum accident-of-concern in an area with nominal shielding delivers the equivalent of an absorbed dose rate in free air of 20 rads per minute at a distance of 2 meters from the reacting material [Am86]. This report summarizes the analysis that was performed to evaluate the CAAS response to selected minimum accidents-of-concern on the operating floor of the cascade buildings. Selection of potential accident locations was based, in part, on the maximum distance to the closest CAAS detector. The other factor in selecting potential accident locations for analysis was the amount of intervening shielding between the accident location and CAAS detector. If the CAAS was predicted to alarm under conditions of significant shielding, then the system presumably would alarm in response to all accidents greater than the minimum accident-of-concern, at closer distances, and with less shielding.

Brown, A.S.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; Wollard, J.; Dobelbower, M.C.

1997-03-01

304

Recent experimental work has shown that membranes containing aligned carbon nanotubes exhibit transport rates for gases and liquids that are orders of magnitude larger than rates predicted from Knudsen or hydrodynamic no-slip flow. We present atomically detailed simulations of diffusion of water and alkanes through single-walled carbon nanotubes. The self, corrected, and transported diffusivities are calculated for liquid-like densities of water and alkanes in nanotubes using equilibrium molecular dynamics, with thermodynamic correction factors computed from Monte Carlo adsorption isotherm calculations. We also present the zero-coverage diffusivities for these fluids. We discuss the results in comparison with bulk fluid self-diffusivities and experimental data for flow through nanotubes membranes.

Johnson, J.K.; Wang, Y.; Liu, J.-C.; Sholl, D.S.

2007-08-01

305

The radon exhalation rate at the earth's surface from soil or rock with radium as its source is the main mechanism behind the radon activity concentrations observed in both indoor and outdoor environments. During the last two decades, many subsurface radon transport models have used Rogers and Nielson's formula for modeling the unsaturated soil bulk radon diffusion coefficient. This formula uses an "air-filled effective porosity" to account for radon adsorption and radon dissolution in the groundwater. This formula is reviewed here, and its hypotheses are examined for accuracy in dealing with subsurface radon transport problems. The author shows its limitations by comparing one dimensional steady-state analytical solutions of the two-phase (air/water) transport equation (Fick's law) with Rogers and Nielson's formula. For radon diffusion-dominated transport, the calculated Rogers and Nielson's radon exhalation rate is shown to be unrealistic as it is independent of the values of the radon adsorption and groundwater dissolution coefficients. For convective and diffusive transport, radon exhalation rates calculated using Fick's law and this formula agree only for high values of gas-phase velocity and groundwater saturation. However, these conditions are not usually met in most shallow subsurface environments where radon migration takes place under low gas phase velocities and low water saturation. PMID:24670909

Saâdi, Zakaria

2014-05-01

306

The radial diffusion coefficient of 1.3 - 2.3 MeV protons in recurrent proton streams

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents anisotropy measurements of 1.3-2.3 MeV protons in the interplanetary space during recurrent events for which the radial intensity variation is measured within the radial range from about 0.3 to about 4 AU for the period from June, 1973 through April, 1976. The simultaneous measurements of the diffusive anisotropy and the radial gradient are used to make a direct estimate of the interplanetary radial diffusion coefficient, which is independent of any particular solution of the propagation equation. IMP 7 and 8 is required to be sunward of the earth and hence outside of the magnetosphere; if both spacecraft are sunward, measurements from the one farthest from the magnetosphere are used. The resulting values for the radial diffusivity coefficient near 1 AU lie in the range (3 to 9) x 10 to the 20th sq cm/sec, corresponding to scattering mean free paths between 0.03 and 0.1 AU with a mean of 0.06 AU.

Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

1978-01-01

307

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion compounds between iron II lactate and three different cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied by means of experimental and theoretical data. The importance of iron II in the human metabolism effort the necessity of a minimum concentration to the human life. Malnutrition is one great problem in social politics of many countries on the world. The possibility to the development of novel medicines with the iron II species stable look for an increase on the efficiency for this kind of aid. Kinetics measurements confirm the possibility to stop the oxidation reaction. It was the first indication of efficient molecular encapsulation. Diffusion coefficient measurements were carried out by Taylor-Aris diffusion technique. The decrease of diffusion coefficients measured for iron II lactate when alone and forming the inclusion complexes was obtained for all hosts molecules used. Molecular Mechanics calculations were performed to elucidate the perfect arrange of iron II lactate inside CDs cavity. No great differences were obtained to the binding energy for the different hosts. Using the software HyperChem6.03v MM+, AMBER94 and OPLS Forced Fields for iron atom in two chemical environments (a) vacuum and (b) with addition of 250 water molecules (MM+). The solvent treatment was decisive to the order of stability. This order was ?-CD>?-CD>?-CD, the same order of solubility in water. The results contained in this work confirm the possibility to protect iron II lactate against oxidation.

Leite, Rosiley A.; Lino, Antonio C. S.; Takahata, Yuji

2003-01-01

308

Determination of the volumes of acute cerebral infarct in the magnetic resonance imaging harbors prognostic values. However, semiautomatic method of segmentation is time-consuming and with high interrater variability. Using diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient map from patients with acute infarction in 10 days, we aimed to develop a fully automatic algorithm to measure infarct volume. It includes an unsupervised classification with fuzzy C-means clustering determination of the histographic distribution, defining self-adjusted intensity thresholds. The proposed method attained high agreement with the semiautomatic method, with similarity index 89.9 ± 6.5%, in detecting cerebral infarct lesions from 22 acute stroke patients. We demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed computer-assisted prompt segmentation method, which appeared promising to replace the laborious, time-consuming, and operator-dependent semiautomatic segmentation. PMID:24738080

Tsai, Jang-Zern; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Hsiao-Kuang; Lin, Yun-Yu; Lee, Ying-Ying; Chen, Chi-Jen; Lin, Huey-Juan; Smith, Eric Edward; Hsin, Yue-Loong

2014-01-01

309

We firstly measured the swelling of single trabeculae from human femur heads during water imbibition. Since the swelling is caused by water diffusing from external surfaces to the core of the sample, by measuring the sample swelling over time, we obtained direct information about the transport of fluids through the intimate constituents of bone, where the mineralization process takes place. We developed an apparatus to measure the free expansion of the tissue during the imbibition. In particular, we measured the swelling along three natural axes (length L, width W, and thickness T) of plate-like trabeculae. For this aim, we developed a 3D analytical model of the water uptake by the sample that was performed according to Fickian transport mechanism. The results were then utilized to predict the swelling over time along the three sample directions (L, W, T) and the apparent diffusion coefficients DT, DW, and DL. PMID:24967405

Bini, Fabiano; Marinozzi, Andrea

2014-01-01

310

Eddy diffusion coefficients and the variance of the atmosphere 30-60 km

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of numerical models or of new observational programs are checked by comparing them with past observations. In view of the differing analysis techniques or differing data samples, the eddy diffusivities presented here agree remarkably well with past estimates. However, in the application of K-values to two-dimensional models, the actual magnitude of the diffusivities is no more important than their spatial patterns, i.e., their gradients with height and latitude. It should thus be noted that the present patterns are often much different from those of past results.

Nastrom, G. D.; Belmont, A. D.; Brown, D. E.

1980-01-01

311

During exocytosis, small quantities of neurotransmitters are released by the cell. These neurotransmitters can be detected quantitatively using electrochemical methods, principally with disk carbon fiber microelectrode amperometry. An exocytotic event then results in the recording of a current peak whose characteristic features are directly related to the mechanisms of exocytosis. We have compared two exocytotic peak populations obtained from PC12 cells with a disk carbon fiber microelectrode and with a pyrolyzed carbon ring microelectrode array, with a 500 nm ring thickness. The specific shape of the ring electrode allows for precise analysis of diffusion processes at the vicinity of the cell membrane. Peaks obtained with a ring microelectrode array show a distorted average shape, owing to increased diffusion pathways. This result has been used to evaluate the diffusion coefficient of dopamine at the surface of a cell, which is up to an order of magnitude smaller than that measured in free buffer. The lower rate of diffusion is discussed as resulting from interactions with the glycocalyx. PMID:23706095

Trouillon, Raphaël; Lin, Yuqing; Mellander, Lisa J.; Keighron, Jacqueline D.; Ewing, Andrew G.

2013-01-01

312

mainly at middle and high frequencies. In parallel, a simulation model based on the finite-element method using the Finite-Element Method (FEM); (3) comparison between measured and simulated data. The rest room modelling programs. Data for scattering coefficients of vegetation would be very useful for more

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

313

Fluctuation of Solutions to Linear Elliptic Equations with Noisy Diffusion Coefficients

We consider a linear elliptic equation in divergence form on a bounded domain (or on ?) in dimension d ? 2, whose coefficients are perturbed by a stationary noise of correlation length ? > 0. We give estimates on the fluctuation of the solution in function of the correlation length ? of the noise, both in terms of strong L and weak L norms.

Antoine Gloria

2012-01-01

314

Vironmental Technologies, Lawrence LiVermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, LiVermore, California 94551, Department (1.4, 2.8, 3.7, 5.1, and 7.2 wt %), with the latter two compositions being supersaturated. One cross, diffusion of proteins is important in a number of in vivo, laboratory, medical, and manufacturing

Annunziata, Onofrio

315

Simple deterministic dynamical systems with fractal diffusion coefficients R. Klages1,

January 1999 We analyze a simple model of deterministic diffusion. The model consists of a one-dimensional array of scatterers with moving point particles. The particles move from one scatterer to the next in one-dimensional maps, first studied by Grossmann and Fujisaka 40Â42 , by Geisel et al. 43

Klages, Rainer

316

Measurements of the mutual diffusion coefficients (D) of the liganded human hemoglobins (Hb) oxy-HbA and oxy-HbS were performed as a function of Hb concentration (CHb), pH, and ionic strength (tau) by intensity fluctuation spectroscopy (IFS). Average diffusion coefficients, (D), and normalized variances, ((D/(D) - 1)2), were recorded. Results are reported and select features are discussed quantitatively. (a) for tau = 0.15 M, the shape of the (d) vs. CHb curve is found to vary with pH. We developed a precise description of this effect in the form of an algebraic relationship between (D), CHb, and Z, the titration charge. (b) only slight differences between the (D) values of oxy-HbS and oxy-HbA are observed, at tau = 0.15 M, for CHb Less Than or Equal To 10 g%. These differences are explained by the theory of part a. (c) No evidence of aggregation is found in solutions of oxy-HbA or oxy-HbS, at tau = 0.15 M, for CHb Less Than or Equal To 10 g%. (d) Indications of aggregation appear in oxy-HbA solutions at very low concentrations of salt. An estimate is made of the extent of aggregation, and the average radius of a cluster is determined. PMID:7272438

LaGattuta, K J; Sharma, V S; Nicoli, D F; Kothari, B K

1981-01-01

317

For predicting the service life of concrete structures in marine environment, diffusion of chloride (D) is an important parameter.\\u000a Electro-migration tests and ponding tests are two techniques conventionally adopted, however they are destructive in nature.\\u000a EIS (Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) being non-destructive appears a promising technique to arrive at ‘DR’ (D from EIS) in situ in structures. The DR of ordinary

R. Vedalakshmi; R. Renugha Devi; Bosco Emmanuel; N. Palaniswamy

2008-01-01

318

A tracer experiment was conducted at the commercial low-level nuclear waste disposal site near Barnwell, South Carolina, to test a new method for determining the tortuosity and sorption-affected porosity for gaseous diffusion transport of materials in the unsaturated zone. Two tracers, CBrClF/sub 2/ and SF/sub 6/, were released at constant rates of 105 and 3.3 ng/s, respectively, from permeation devices, which were placed in short screened sections in access holes. Soil gas was sampled from 15 piezometers located at various distances from the sources by sequentially pumping 60-160 mL of gas from the piezometers into a dual-column gas chromatograph located at the test site. The CBrClF/sub 2/ concentration data obtained from several of the piezometers were analyzed by use of type curves for a continuous point source in an areally extensive medium bounded above and below by planar no-flow boundaries. The tortuosity of the geologic unit tested, an eolian sand, was determined to be about 0.4, and the sorption-affected porosity to be 0.22. The tortuosity value is plausible, but the sorption-affected porosity value is substantially less than that computed from the drained porosity, particularly if adjustments are made for retardation due to solution of the tracer in the liquid phase and sorption on the solid phase. The SF/sub 6/ data could not be reliably analyzed.

Kreamer, D.K.; Weeks, E.P.; Thompson, G.M.

1988-03-01

319

Multi-well pumping tests have been concluded at wells MW79, MW108, and PW1 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) to determine the hydraulic properties of the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). Soil cores suggest that the RGA consists of a thin sandy facies (2 to 6 feet) at the top of a thicker (> 10 feet) gravelly facies. Previous analyses have not considered any permeability contrast between the two facies. To assess the accuracy of this assumption, TVA personnel conducted borehole flowmeter tests at wells MW108 and PW1. Well MW79 could not be tested. The high K sand unit is probably 10 times more permeable than comparable zone in the gravelly portion of the RGA. Previous analyses of the three multi-well aquifer tests do not use the same conceptual aquifer model. Data analysis for one pumping test assumed that leakance was significant. Data analysis for another pumping test assumed that a geologic boundary was significant. By collectively analyzing all three tests with the borehole flowmeter results, the inconsistency among the three pumping tests can be explained. Disparity exists because each pumping test had a different placement of observation wells relative to the high K zone delineating by flowmeter testing.

Young, S.C.; Julian, S.C.; Neton, M.J.

1993-01-01

320

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant C-400 Decontamination Facility generators aqueous solutions that originate in drum washing, machine parts and equipment cleaning, and other decontamination processes. In general, the waste contains uranyl, fluoride, carbonate, and nitrate ions, in addition to soaps, detergents, secondary contaminants, and particulate matter. The main contaminants are fluoride, technetium, uranium, and other heavy metals. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, the releases of radioactive materials must be as low as reasonably achievable and be below the derived concentration guide limits. To comply with the DOE order, an action plan was formulated. The action plan included a literature search to support best available technology evaluation of treatment alternatives, a quality assurance/quality control plan, suggestion of alternative treatment options, bench-scale test studies of the proposed treatment alternatives, and establishment of the final recommendation. Five major technologies were considered: precipitation/coprecipitation, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, supported liquid membranes, and ion exchange. Biosorption was also briefly considered. Based on C-400's requirements and facilities, the precipitation/coprecipitation process appears to be the best suited for use at the plant. Four different treatment options using the precipitation/coprecipitation technology were proposed. Bench-scale studies of all four options were suggested. Options 1 and 2 represent a combination of lime-softening and iron coprecipitation. Laboratory test evaluations were initiated and the results involving Options 1 and 2 reported here. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Del Cul, G.D.

1991-02-01

321

As part of a Safeguards Agreement between the US and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio, was added to the list of facilities eligible for the application of IAEA safeguards. Currently, the facility is in the process of downblending excess inventory of HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) from US defense related programs for commercial use. An agreement was reached between the US and the IAEA that would allow the IAEA to conduct an independent verification experiment at the Portsmouth facility, resulting in the confirmation that the HEU was in fact downblended. The experiment provided an opportunity for the DOE laboratories to recommend solutions/measures for new IAEA safeguards applications. One of the measures recommended by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and selected by the IAEA, was a digital video surveillance system for monitoring activity at the HEU feed stations. This paper describes the SNL implementation of the digital video system and its integration with the Load Cell Based Weighing System (LCBWS) from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The implementation was based on commercially available technology that also satisfied IAEA criteria for tamper protection and data authentication. The core of the Portsmouth digital video surveillance system was based on two Digital Camera Modules (DMC-14) from Neumann Consultants, Germany.

Martinez, R.L.; Tolk, K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whiting, N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Castleberry, K.; Lenarduzzi, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-08-01

322

Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-03-01

323

Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms applicable'' and relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-03-01

324

The US Department of Energy (DOE) must manage wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in accordance with Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requirements and as prescribed in a Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) between DOE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). PCB-containing wastes are currently stored in the PORTS process buildings where they are generated. DOE proposes to modify and expand the Waste Accountability facility (X-7725A) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio, to provide a central storage location for these wastes. The proposed action is needed to eliminate the fire and safety hazards presented by the wastes. In this EA, DOE considers four alternatives: (1) no action, which requires storing wastes in limited storage areas in existing facilities; (2) modifying and expanding the X-7725A waste accountability facility; (3) constructing a new PCB waste storage building; and (4) shipping PCB wastes to the K-25 TSCA incinerator. If no action is taken, PCB-contaminated would continue to be stored in Bldgs X-326, X-330, and X-333. As TSCA cleanup activities continue, the quantity of stored waste would increase, which would subsequently cause congestion in the three process buildings and increase fire and safety hazards. The preferred alternative is to modify and expand Bldg. X-7725A to store wastes generated by TSCA compliance activities. Construction, which could begin as early as April 1996, would last approximately five to seven months, with a total peak work force of 70.

NONE

1995-11-01

325

As part of a program intended to replace the present evaporative coolant at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) with a non-ozone-depleting alternate, a series of investigations of the suitability of candidate substitutes in under way. One issue concerning a primary candidate, c-C4F8, is the possibility that it might produce the highly toxic perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in high temperature environments. This study was commissioned to determine the likelihood and severity of decomposition under two specific high temperature thermal environments, namely the use of a flame test for the presence of coolant vapors and welding in the presence of coolant vapors. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate available data to provide information that will allow the technical and industrial hygiene staff at the GDPs to perform appropriate safety evaluations and to determine the need for field testing or experimental work. The scope of this study included a literature search and an evaluation of the information developed therefrom. Part of that evaluation consists of chemical kinetics modeling of coolant decomposition in the two operational environments. The general conclusions are that PFIB formation is unlikely in either situation but that it cannot be ruled out completely under extreme conditions. The presence of oxygen, moisture, and combustion products will tend to lead to formation of oxidation products (COF2, CO, CO2, and HF) rather than PFIB.

Trowbridge, L.D.

1999-03-01

326

This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Houk, T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant] [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

1998-08-01

327

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-diffusion of colloidal particles confined to a cylindrical microchannel is considered theoretically and numerically. Virial expansion of the self-diffusion coefficient is performed. Two-body and three-body hydrodynamic interactions are evaluated with high precision using the multipole method. The multipole expansion algorithm is also used to perform numerical simulations of the self-diffusion coefficient, valid for all possible particle packing fractions. Comparison with earlier results shows that the widely used method of reflections is insufficient for calculations of hydrodynamic interactions even for small packing fractions and small particles radii, contrary to the prevalent opinion.

K?dzierski, Marcin; Wajnryb, Eligiusz

2011-10-01

328

The binary infinite dilute diffusion coefficients, D{sub 12}{sup ?}, of some alkylbenzenes (Ph-C{sub n}, from Ph-H to Ph-C{sub 12}) from 313 K to 333 K at 15 MPa in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The MD values agree well with the experimental ones, which indicate MD simulation technique is a powerful way to predict and obtain diffusion coefficients of solutes in supercritical fluids. Besides, the local structures of Ph-C{sub n}/CO{sub 2} fluids are further investigated by calculating radial distribution functions and coordination numbers. It qualitatively convinces that the first solvation shell of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2} is significantly influenced by the structure of Ph-C{sub n} solute. Meanwhile, the mean end-to-end distance, the mean radius of gyration and dihedral angle distribution are calculated to gain an insight into the structural properties of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2}. The abnormal trends of radial distribution functions and coordination numbers can be reasonably explained in term of molecular flexibility. Moreover, the computed results of dihedral angle clarify that flexibility of long-chain Ph-C{sub n} is the result of internal rotation of C-C single bond (?{sub c-c}) in alkyl chain. It is interesting that compared with n-alkane, because of the existence of benzene ring, the flexibility of alkyl chain in Ph-C{sub n} with same carbon atom number is significantly reduced, as a result, the carbon chain dependence of diffusion behaviors for long-chain n-alkane (n ? 5) and long-chain Ph-C{sub n} (n ? 4) in scCO{sub 2} are different.

Wang, Jinyang; Zhong, Haimin; Qiu, Wenda; Chen, Liuping, E-mail: cesclp@mail.sysu.edu.cn [KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)] [KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Feng, Huajie [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)

2014-03-14

329

Accurate values of diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide in water and brine at reservoir conditions are essential to our understanding of transport behavior of carbon dioxide in subsurface pore space. However, the experimental data are limited to conditions at low temperatures and pressures. In this study, diffusive transfer of carbon dioxide in water at pressures up to 45 MPa and temperatures from 268 to 473 K was observed within an optical capillary cell via time-dependent Raman spectroscopy. Diffusion coefficients were estimated by the least-squares method for the measured variations in carbon dioxide concentration in the cell at various sample positions and time. At the constant pressure of 20 MPa, the measured diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in water increase with increasing temperature from 268 to 473 K. The relationship between diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide in water [D(CO2) in m2/s] and temperature (T in K) was derived with Speedy–Angell power-law approach as: D(CO2)=D0[T/Ts-1]m where D0 = 13.942 × 10?9 m2/s, Ts = 227.0 K, and m = 1.7094. At constant temperature, diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in water decrease with pressure increase. However, this pressure effect is rather small (within a few percent).

Lu, Wanjun; Guo, Huirong; Chou, I.-M.; Burruss, R.C.; Li, Lanlan

2013-01-01

330

Purpose. To determine association between apparent diffusion coefficient value on diffusion-weighted imaging and Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer. Methods. This retrospective case series was conducted at Radiology Department of Aga Khan University between June 2009 and June 2011. 28 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer were included who underwent ultrasound guided sextant prostate biopsy and MRI. MRI images were analyzed on diagnostic console and regions of interest were drawn. Data were entered and analyzed on SPSS 20.0. ADC values were compared with Gleason score using one-way ANOVA test. Results. In 28 patients, 168 quadrants were biopsied and 106 quadrants were positive for malignancy. 89 lesions with proven malignancy showed diffusion restriction. The mean ADC value for disease with a Gleason score of 6 was 935?mm(2)/s (SD = 248.4?mm(2)/s); Gleason score of 7 was 837?mm(2)/s (SD = 208.5?mm(2)/s); Gleason score of 8 was 614?mm(2)/s (SD = 108?mm(2)/s); and Gleason score of 9 was 571?mm(2)/s (SD = 82?mm(2)/s). Inverse relationship was observed between Gleason score and mean ADC values. Conclusion. DWI and specifically quantitative ADC values may help differentiate between low-risk (Gleason score, 6), intermediate-risk (Gleason score, 7), and high-risk (Gleason score 8 and 9) prostate cancers, indirectly determining the aggressiveness of the disease. PMID:24967293

Anwar, Shayan Sirat Maheen; Anwar Khan, Zahid; Shoaib Hamid, Rana; Haroon, Fahd; Sayani, Raza; Beg, Madiha; Khattak, Yasir Jamil

2014-01-01

331

Purpose. To determine association between apparent diffusion coefficient value on diffusion-weighted imaging and Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer. Methods. This retrospective case series was conducted at Radiology Department of Aga Khan University between June 2009 and June 2011. 28 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer were included who underwent ultrasound guided sextant prostate biopsy and MRI. MRI images were analyzed on diagnostic console and regions of interest were drawn. Data were entered and analyzed on SPSS 20.0. ADC values were compared with Gleason score using one-way ANOVA test. Results. In 28 patients, 168 quadrants were biopsied and 106 quadrants were positive for malignancy. 89 lesions with proven malignancy showed diffusion restriction. The mean ADC value for disease with a Gleason score of 6 was 935?mm2/s (SD = 248.4?mm2/s); Gleason score of 7 was 837?mm2/s (SD = 208.5?mm2/s); Gleason score of 8 was 614?mm2/s (SD = 108?mm2/s); and Gleason score of 9 was 571?mm2/s (SD = 82?mm2/s). Inverse relationship was observed between Gleason score and mean ADC values. Conclusion. DWI and specifically quantitative ADC values may help differentiate between low-risk (Gleason score, 6), intermediate-risk (Gleason score, 7), and high-risk (Gleason score 8 and 9) prostate cancers, indirectly determining the aggressiveness of the disease. PMID:24967293

Anwar, Shayan Sirat Maheen; Anwar Khan, Zahid; Shoaib Hamid, Rana; Haroon, Fahd; Sayani, Raza; Khattak, Yasir Jamil

2014-01-01

332

The primary goal of this paper is to describe a combined MR relaxation (T(2) and T(1?)), diffusion (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]), and elastography (shear stiffness) method of fully characterizing the development of tissue-engineered cartilage in terms of the changes in its composition, structure, and mechanical properties during tissue growth. Then, we may better use MR-based methodologies to noninvasively monitor and optimize the cartilage tissue engineering process without sacrificing the constructs. This process begins by demonstrating the potential capability of T(2), T(1?), ADC, and shear stiffness in characterizing a scaffold-free engineered cartilage. The results show that, in addition to the conventional T(2) and ADC, T(1?) and MRE can be used as potential biomarkers to assess the specific changes in proteoglycan content and mechanical properties of engineered cartilage during culture. Moreover, to increase the efficiency of MR characterization, two new methodologies for simultaneous acquisition of diffusion and MRE (dMRE), and T(1?) and MRE (T(1?)-MRE) are introduced that allow the simultaneous characterization of both biochemical and mechanical properties of engineered cartilage tissue. The feasibilities of dMRE and T(1?)-MRE approaches are validated on tissue-mimicking phantoms. The results show good correspondence between simultaneous acquisitions and conventional separate acquisition methods. PMID:25403876

Yin, Ziying

2014-01-01

333

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we consider the identifiability of two coefficients a(u) and c(x) in a quasilinear elliptic partial differential equation from the observation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map. We use a linearization procedure due to Isakov (1993 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 124 1-12) and special singular solutions to first determine a(0) and c(x) for x ? ?. Based on this partial result, we are then able to determine a(u) for u \\in {R} by an adjoint approach.

Egger, Herbert; Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik; Schlottbom, Matthias

2014-03-01

334

We describe our semi-automatic segmentation of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WBDWI) using a Markov random field (MRF) model to derive tumor total diffusion volume (tDV) and associated global apparent diffusion coefficient (gADC); and demonstrate the feasibility of using these indices for assessing tumor burden and response to treatment in patients with bone metastases. WBDWI was performed on eleven patients diagnosed with bone metastases from breast and prostate cancers before and after anti-cancer therapies. Semi-automatic segmentation incorporating a MRF model was performed in all patients below the C4 vertebra by an experienced radiologist with over eight years of clinical experience in body DWI. Changes in tDV and gADC distributions were compared with overall response determined by all imaging, tumor markers and clinical findings at serial follow up. The segmentation technique was possible in all patients although erroneous volumes of interest were generated in one patient because of poor fat suppression in the pelvis, requiring manual correction. Responding patients showed a larger increase in gADC (median change?=?+0.18, range?=??0.07 to +0.78×10?3 mm2/s) after treatment compared to non-responding patients (median change?=??0.02, range?=??0.10 to +0.05×10?3 mm2/s, p?=?0.05, Mann-Whitney test), whereas non-responding patients showed a significantly larger increase in tDV (median change?=?+26%, range?=?+3 to +284%) compared to responding patients (median change?=??50%, range?=??85 to +27%, p?=?0.02, Mann-Whitney test). Semi-automatic segmentation of WBDWI is feasible for metastatic bone disease in this pilot cohort of 11 patients, and could be used to quantify tumor total diffusion volume and median global ADC for assessing response to treatment. PMID:24710083

Blackledge, Matthew D.; Collins, David J.; Tunariu, Nina; Orton, Matthew R.; Padhani, Anwar R.; Leach, Martin O.; Koh, Dow-Mu

2014-01-01

335

Drag force, diffusion coefficient, and electric mobility of small particles. II. Application

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a generalized treatment of the drag force of a spherical particle due to its motion in a laminar fluid media. The theory is equally applicable to analysis of particle diffusion and electric mobility. The focus of the current analysis is on the motion of spherical particles in low-density gases with Knudsen number Kn?1. The treatment is based on the gas-kinetic theory analysis of drag force in the specular and diffuse scattering limits obtained in a preceding paper [Z. Li and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. E., 68, 061206 (2003)]. Our analysis considers the influence of van der Waals interactions on the momentum transfer upon collision of a gas molecule with the particle and expresses this influence in terms of an effective, reduced collision integral. This influence is shown to be significant for nanosized particles. In the present paper, the reduced collision integral values are obtained for specular and diffuse scattering, using a Lennard-Jones-type potential energy function suitable for the interactions of a gas molecule with a particle. An empirical formula for the momentum accommodation function, used to determine the effective, reduced collision integral, is obtained from available experimental data. The resulting treatment is shown to be accurate for interpreting the mobility experiments for particles as small as ˜1 nm in radius. The treatment is subsequently extended to the entire range of the Knudsen number, following a semiempirical, gas-kinetic theory analysis. We demonstrate that the proposed formula predicts very well Millikan’s oil-droplet experiments [R. A. Millikan, Philos. Mag. 34, 1 (1917); Phys. Rev. 22, 1 (1923)]. The rigorous theoretical foundation of the proposed formula in the Kn?1 limit makes the current theory far more general than the semiempirical Stokes-Cunningham formula in terms of the particle size and condition of the fluid and, therefore, more attractive than the Stokes-Cunningham formula.

Li, Zhigang; Wang, Hai

2003-12-01

336

Objective To investigate the relationships between the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the speed of contrast-enhancement in hepatic hemangiomas. Materials and Methods Sixty-nine hepatic hemangiomas (? 1 cm) were evaluated with DWI, by using multiple b values (b = 50, 400, 800 s/mm2), followed by a gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The lesions were classified into three groups, according to the speed of contrast-enhancement on the portal phase. ADCs were measured on the ADC map automatically, and were calculated by using the two different b values (mADC50-400 with b values = 50 and 400; mADC400-800 with b values = 400 and 800 s/mm2). Results The mean ADCs (× 10-3 mm2/s) were significantly higher in the rapid group (1.9 ± 0.44) than in the intermediate (1.7 ± 0.35, p = 0.046) or the slow groups (1.4 ± 0.34, p = 0.002). There were significant differences between the rapid and the slow groups in mADC50-400 (2.12 vs. 1.48; p = 0.008) and mADC400-800 (1.68 vs. 1.22, p = 0.010), and between the rapid and the intermediate groups in mADC50-400 (2.12 vs. 1.79, p = 0.049). Comparing mADC50-400 with mADC400-800, there was a significant difference only in the rapid group (p = 0.001). Conclusion Higher ADCs of rapidly-enhancing hemangiomas may be related to richer intralesional vascular perfusion. Also, the restricted diffusion may be attributed to the difference of structural characteristics of hemangioma. PMID:23118571

Nam, Se Jin; Park, Kae Young; Chung, Jae-Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

2012-01-01

337

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative transfer modelling in atmosphere, water, and on the air-water surface was used to create an algorithm and computer code for satellite monitoring Chinese estuarine and coastal waters. The atmospheric part of the algorithm is based on the Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance (REST) model for calculation of optical properties of the atmosphere from the top of the atmosphere to the target; for modelling optical properties from target towards satellite's sensor, an optical reciprocity principle has been used. An algorithm uses estimates derived from three different sources: 1) the MODIS-based software; 2) radiative transfer equations, and 3) well-known empirical relationships between measured parameters and optical depths and transmittances for such atmospheric components as molecules, aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, precipitable water vapor and uniformly mixed gases. Using this model allowed us to derive a reliable relationship relating an important parameter, the diffuse-to-global solar incoming irradiance ratio, to the aerosol optical thickness, solar zenith angle and wavelength. The surface and underwater parts of the algorithm contained theoretical and semi-empirical relationships between inherent (such as absorption, scattering and backscattering coefficients) and apparent (remote-sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd) optical properties, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measured in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal area. The first false colour maps of SSC and Kd demonstrated a well accordance with the multi-year field observations in the region, and suggest promise for use of this algorithm for the regular monitoring of Chinese and worldwide natural waters.

Sokoletsky, Leonid; Yang, Xianping; Shen, Fang

2014-11-01

338

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) C-400 Decontamination Facility generates aqueous solutions that originate in drum washing, machine parts and equipment cleaning, and other decontamination processes. The chemical composition of the waste depends on the particular operation involved. In general, the waste contains uranyl, fluoride, carbonate, and nitrate ions, plus soaps, detergents, secondary contaminants, and particulate matter. The uranium content is rather variable ranging between 0.5 and 30 g/l. The main contaminants are fluoride, technetium, uranium, and other heavy metals. The plan included (1) a literature search to support best available technology (BAT) evaluation of treatment alternatives, (2) a quality assurance/quality control plan, (3) suggestion of alternative treatment options, (4) bench-scale tests studies of the proposed treatment alternatives, and (5) establishment of the final recommendation. The following report records the evaluation of items (1) to (3) of the action plan for the BAT evaluation of alternatives for the treatment and retreatment of uranium-contaminated wastewater at the PGDP C-400 treatment facility. After a thorough literature search, five major technologies were considered: (1) precipitation/coprecipitation, (2) reverse osmosis, (3) ultrafiltration, (4) supported liquid membranes, and (5) ion exchange. Biosorption was also considered, but as it is a fairly new technology with few demonstrations of its capabilities, it is mentioned only briefly in the report. Based on C-400's requirements and facilities, the precipitation/coprecipitation process appears to be the best suited for use at the plant. Four different treatment options using the precipitation/coprecipitation technology are proposed. Bench-scale studies of the four options are suggested. 37 refs.

Del Cul, G.D.; Osborne, P.E.; Beck, D.E.

1991-01-01

339

The U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is in the early stages of decommissioning and decontamination. During operations, the site drew a large amount of electric power and had multiple large switchyards on site. These are a source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination to both on-site and off-site streams. Some soil remediation has been completed in the main switchyard. During 2011 and 2012, fifteen sites were sampled at the surface (<10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) to characterize the extent of PCB contamination, to identify weathering and migration of PCB contamination and to explore potential polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) contamination due to transformer fires and explosions in the 1950s and 1960s. Stagnant sites tended to exhibit more migration of contamination to deeper sediments than sites with fast-moving waters, and the highest concentrations were found at the bottom of a settling pond. A signature set of five dioxin-like PCBs were consistently found across the site with higher concentrations in carbon rich surface sediments. PCB concentrations had a significant inverse correlation with clay content, suggesting that PCBs did not bind to clays at this site. Remediation has reduced PCB concentrations throughout the site compared to levels found in previous studies and long-term upkeep of sediment lagoons is necessary to retain PCB and dioxin-rich sediments. The flow regimen, organic carbon and clay content play a very important role in the fate of PCBs in the environment at the surface as well as downward migration. PMID:25113188

Kruse, Natalie A; Bowman, Jennifer; Lopez, Dina; Migliore, Elizabeth; Jackson, Glen P

2014-11-01

340

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modulated photothermal radiometry (PTR) and a modulated photopyroelectric (PPE) technique have been widely used to measure the thermal diffusivity of bulk materials. The method is based on illuminating the sample with a plane light beam and measuring the infrared emission with an infrared detector (PTR) or the electric voltage produced by a pyroelectric sensor in contact with the sample (PPE). The amplitude and phase of both photothermal signals are recorded as a function of the modulation frequency and then fitted to the theoretical model. In this work, we compare the ability of modulated PTR and PPE to retrieve simultaneously the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of homogeneous slabs. In order to eliminate the instrumental factor, self-normalization is used, i.e., the ratio of the photothermal signal recorded at the rear and front surfaces. The influence of the multiple reflections of the light beam and the transparency to infrared wavelengths are analyzed. Measurements performed on a wide variety of homogeneous materials, transparent and opaque, good and bad thermal conductors, confirm the validity of the method. The advantages and disadvantages of both techniques are discussed.

Fuente, R.; Mendioroz, A.; Apiñaniz, E.; Salazar, A.

2012-11-01

341

Cooling of fruits and vegetables, immediately after the harvest, has been a widely used method for maximizing post-harvest life. In this paper, an optimization algorithm and a numerical solution are used to determine simultaneously the convective heat transfer coefficient, hH, and the thermal diffusivity, ?, for an individual solid with cylindrical shape, using experimental data obtained during its cooling. To this end, the one-dimensional diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates is discretized and numerically solved through the finite volume method, with a fully implicit formulation. This solution is coupled to an optimizer based on the inverse method, in which the chi-square referring to the fit of the numerical simulation to the experimental data is used as objective function. The optimizer coupled to the numerical solution was applied to experimental data relative to the cooling of a cucumber. The obtained results for ? and hH were coherent with the values available in the literature. With the results obtained in the optimization process, the cooling kinetics of cucumbers was described in details. PMID:25190830

da Silva, Wilton Pereira; E Silva, Cleide M D P S

2014-09-01

342

The aim of this study was to create a new phantom for a 3 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device for the calculation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and to mimic the ADC values of normal and tumor tissues at various temperatures, including the physiological body temperature of 37°C. The phantom was produced using several concentrations of sucrose from 0 to 1.2 M, and the DWI was performed using various phantom temperatures. The accurate ADC values were calculated using the DWIs of the phantoms, and an empirical formula was developed to calculate the ADC values of the phantoms from an arbitrary sucrose concentration and arbitrary phantom temperature. The empirical formula was able to produce ADC values ranging between 0.33 and 3.02×10?3 mm2/sec, which covered the range of ADC values of the human body that have been measured clinically by 3T MRI in previous studies. The phantom and empirical formula developed in this study may be available to mimic the ADC values of the clinical human lesion by 3T MRI. PMID:25013504

HARA, MARINA; KURODA, MASAHIRO; OHMURA, YUICHI; MATSUZAKI, HIDENOBU; KOBAYASHI, TOMOKI; MURAKAMI, JUN; KATASHIMA, KAZUNORI; ASHIDA, MASAKAZU; OHNO, SEIICHIRO; ASAUMI, JUN-ICHI

2014-01-01

343

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protons that are convected into the inner magnetosphere in response to enhanced magnetic activity can resonate with ducted plasmaspheric hiss in the outer plasmasphere via an anomalous Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance. Plasmaspheric hiss is a right-hand-polarized electromagnetic emission that is observed to fill the plasmasphere on a routine basis. When plasmaspheric hiss is confined within field-aligned ducts or guided along density gradients, wave normal angles remain largely below 45 deg. This allows resonant interactions with ions at typical ring current and radiation belt energies to take place. Such field-aligned ducts have been observed both within the plasmasphere and in regions outside of the plasmasphere. Wave intensities are estimated using statistical information from studies of detached plasma regions. Diffusion coefficients are presented for a range of L shells and proton energies for a fixed wave distribution. Harmonic resonances in the range N = +/-100 are considered in order to include interactions between hiss at 100 Hz to 2 kHz frequencies, and protons in the energy range between approximately 10 keV and 1000 keV. Diffusion timescales are estimated to be of the order of tens of days and comparable to or shorter than lifetimes for Coulomb decay and charge exchange losses over most of the energy and spatial ranges of interest.

Kozyra, J. U.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Miller, R. H.; Lyons, L. R.

1994-01-01

344

Self-diffusion coefficients and shear viscosity of inverse power fluids: from hard- to soft-spheres.

Molecular dynamics computer simulation has been used to compute the self-diffusion coefficient, D, and shear viscosity, eta(s), of soft-sphere fluids, in which the particles interact through the soft-sphere or inverse power pair potential, phi(r) = epsilon(sigma/r)(n), where n measures the steepness or stiffness of the potential, and epsilon and sigma are a characteristic energy and distance, respectively. The simulations were carried out on monodisperse systems for a range of n values from the hard-sphere (n --> infinity) limit down to n = 4, and up to densities in excess of the fluid-solid co-existence value. A new analytical procedure is proposed which reproduces the transport coefficients at high densities, and can be used to extrapolate the data to densities higher than accurately accessible by simulation or experiment, and tending to the glass transition. This formula, DX(c-1) proportional, variant A/X + B, where c is an adjustable parameter, and X is either the packing fraction or the pressure, is a development of one proposed by Dymond. In the expression, -A/B is the value of X at the ideal glass transition (i.e., where D and eta(s)(-1) --> 0). Estimated values are presented for the packing fraction and the pressure at the glass transition for n values between the hard and soft particle limits. The above expression is also shown to reproduce the high density viscosity data of supercritical argon, krypton and nitrogen. Fits to the soft-sphere simulation transport coefficients close to solid-fluid co-existence are also made using the analytic form, ln(D) = alpha(X)X, and n-dependence of the alpha(X) is presented (X is either the packing fraction or the pressure). PMID:18597018

Heyes, D M; Bra?ka, A C

2008-07-21

345

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of boron diffusion in strained silicon germanium buried layers reveals a fractional interstitial component of boron diffusion (fBI) in Se0.8Ge0.2 approximately equal to the fBI value in silicon. In conjunction with computer-simulated boron profiles, the results yield an absolute lower-bound of fBI in Si0.8Ge0.2 of ˜0.8. In addition, the experimental methodology provides a unique vehicle for measuring the segregation coefficient; oxidation-enhanced diffusion is used instead of an extended, inert anneal to rapidly diffuse the dopant to equilibrium levels across the interface, allowing the segregation coefficient to be measured more quickly.

Fang, Tilden T.; Fang, Wingra T. C.; Griffin, Peter B.; Plummer, James D.

1996-02-01

346

A 73-year-old man, with a history of hypertension and left supraclavicular fossa arteriovenous malformation with multiple previous uncomplicated vessel embolisation procedures, presented with acute spastic quadriparesis and urinary retention following upper limb angiography and embolisation. There was no evidence of preceding infection or neurological disease prior to the event. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was unremarkable. MRI of the cervical spine with a 1.5 Tesla magnet performed 13 hours from symptom onset revealed bilateral paramedian intramedullary T2-weighted signal change without gadolinium enhancement limited to the grey matter with corresponding diffusion restriction extending from C5-6 down to the mid-T1. The diagnosis of cervical spinal cord infarction (SCI) was made and the patient was given regular aspirin and atorvastatin. On follow-up at 3 months, there was modest improvement with respect to his quadriparesis and was walking unaided. An extensive literature review on the role of MRI in SCI is discussed. PMID:23628439

Tsang, Benjamin K-T; Foster, Emma; Kam, Anthony; Storey, Elsdon

2013-11-01

347

In this work, we generalize the current theory of strong convergence rates for the backward Euler–Maruyama scheme for highly non-linear stochastic differential equations, which appear in both mathematical finance and bio-mathematics. More precisely, we show that under a dissipative condition on the drift coefficient and super-linear growth condition on the diffusion coefficient the BEM scheme converges with strong order of

Xuerong Mao; Lukasz Szpruch

2012-01-01

348

An analytical solution for transient soil-gas diffusion coupled to two convective-dispersive solute transport equations is presented. First-order kinetic transformations, linear equilibrium distribution coefficient for both solutes, and equilibrium gas solubility for the gaseous product were assumed. The solution was obtained by means of Laplace transforms for zero initial concentrations of all three species, pulse application of both solutes, and semi-infinite

A. N. Angelakis; T. N. Kadir; D. E. Rolston

1993-01-01

349

Non-diffusive gaseous ignition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditions under which ignition phenomena are governed by the diffusionless limit of the compressible reactive Navier Stokes equations are outlined. Classical theories for spatially homogeneous explosions at high activation energies with one-step chemistry are briefly reviewed, including the determination of the critical value of the heat loss below which a bifurcation takes place. A natural extension of classical models occurs for spatially distributed cases that arise in the propagation of high-frequency small amplitude pulses through reactive media. As well as exponential non-linearities associated with Arrhenius kinetics, these waves also involve convective non-linearities. The analysis leads to dynamic values of the critical applied amplitude that can generate thermal ignition, even when the background state is sub-critical. Aspects of this theory are relevant to safety concerns in the storage of combustible materials. General small amplitude spatial disturbances are described by the non-linear Clarke equation in which the high frequency limit corresponds to propagation at the isentropic sound speed, but the low frequency limit is associated with the isothermal sound speed. In this formulation, the path of the ignition front is supersonic. Analytical solutions of the Clarke equation are developed by employing the Newtonian limit in which the sound speeds lie close together. Ignition times predicted by Newtonian asymptotics agree remarkably well with those found from numerical solutions of the Clarke equation. Many practical ignition problems are not controlled by one-step chemistry. New results are presented for a three-step chain branching mechanism. The approach is based on an ordered limit in which relevant activation energies are large. Problems examined include spatially homogeneous thermal explosions for which a novel independent variable is employed. For spatially distributed cases, emphasis is placed on the structure of the induction zone and extended Clarke equations are deduced for chain-branched chemistry. Using the Newtonian limit again gives excellent agreement with numerical solutions.

Blythe, Philip A.

2003-11-01

350

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractional diffusion equations were shown to provide an adequate and accurate description of transport processes exhibiting anomalous diffusion behavior. Recently, spectral Galerkin methods were developed for space-fractional diffusion equations aiming at achieving exponential convergence. An optimal order error estimate in the fractional energy norm was proved under the assumption that the true solution to the fractional diffusion equation has the desired regularity. An optimal order error estimate in the L2 norm was proved via the well known Nitsche lifting technique under the assumption that the true solution to the corresponding boundary-value problem of the fractional diffusion equation has the required regularity for each right-hand side. In this paper we show that the true solution to the Dirichlet boundary-value problem of a conservative fractional diffusion equation of order 2 - ? with 0 < ? < 1 as well as a constant diffusivity coefficient and a constant source term is not in the fractional Sobolev space H 3 / 2 - ? in general, but is still in the Besov space B?3/ 2 - ? (L2). Hence, the provable convergence rate of a spectral Galerkin method in the L2 norm is at most of the order O (N - (3 / 2 - ?)), where N is the degree of the polynomial space in the numerical method. Numerical experiments show that the spectral Galerkin method exhibits a subquadratic convergence in the L2 norm for any 0 < ? < 1. We develop a high-accuracy preserving spectral Galerkin method for the Dirichlet boundary-value problem of one-sided variable-coefficient conservative fractional diffusion equations. The method has a proved high-order convergence rate of arbitrary order (i) without requiring the smoothness of the true solution u to the given boundary-value problem, but only assuming that the diffusivity coefficient and the right-hand source term have the desired regularity; (ii) for a variable diffusivity coefficient; and (iii) for an inhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition. Numerical experiments substantiate the theoretical analysis and show that the method exhibits exponential convergence provided the diffusivity coefficient and the right-hand source term have the desired regularity.

Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xuhao

2015-01-01

351

Diffusion length variation and proton damage coefficients for InP/In(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs solar cells

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indium phosphide solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of lighter, mechanically strong and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5 and 3 MeV proton irradiations are explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence is calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient K(L) is plotted as a function of proton fluence.

Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D. J.

1993-01-01

352

Background We tested the feasibility of a simple method for assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratios between prostate cancer and healthy prostatic tissue. Methods The requirement for institutional review board approval was waived. A set of 20 standardized core transperineal saturation biopsy specimens served as the reference standard for placement of regions of interest on ADC maps in tumorous and normal prostatic tissue of 22 men with PCa (median Gleason score: 7; range, 6–9). A total of 128 positive sectors were included for evaluation. Two diagnostic ratios were computed between tumor ADCs and normal sector ADCs: the ADC peripheral ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal peripheral zone tissue, ADC-PR), and the ADC central ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal central zone tissue, ADC-CR). The performance of the two ratios in detecting high-risk tumor foci (Gleason 8 and 9) was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results Both ADC ratios presented significantly lower values in high-risk tumors (0.48?±?0.13 for ADC-CR and 0.40?±?0.09 for ADC-PR) compared with low-risk tumors (0.66?±?0.17 for ADC-CR and 0.54?±?0.09 for ADC-PR) (p?

2014-01-01

353

In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The available evidence supports adjusting the western and northwestern Water Policy boundary. Based on the historical and modeled hydrogeological data reflecting past flow and plume attenuation, along with associated plume migration toward the northeast, the establishment of a new boundary along the westernmost margin of the earliest indication of the TCE plume is proposed and justified on hydrogeological grounds. Approximately 30% of the original area would remain within the adjusted Water Policy area west and northwest of the PGDP facility. This modification would release about 70% of the area, although individual properties would overlap the new boundary.

None

2012-12-13

354

The Deposit Removal Project was undertaken with the support of the U. S. Department of Energy at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) formerly the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The project team performed the safe removal of the hydrated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) deposits from the K-29 Building of the former Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The deposits had developed as a result of air leakage into UF{sub 6} gas process pipes; UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} became hydrated by moisture from the air and deposited inside the pipes. The mass, its distribution, and the hydrogen content [that is, the ratio of H to U (H/U)], were the key parameters that controlled the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Earlier gamma-ray spectrometry measurements in K-29 had identified the largest deposits in the building. The first and third largest deposits in the building were measured in this program. The first deposit, found in the Unit 2, Cell 7, B-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Hockey Stick'') was about 1,300 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.34 wt% {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-}50% uncertainty) and according to the gamma-ray spectroscopy was uniformly distributed. The second deposit (the third-largest deposit in the building), found in the Unit 2, Cell 6, A-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Tee-Pipe''), had a uranium deposit estimated to be about 240 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.4 wt % {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-} 20% uncertainty). Before deposit removal activities began, the Deposit Removal Project team needed to survey the inside of the pipes intrusively to assess the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Therefore, the spatial distribution of the deposits, the total uranium deposit mass, and the moderation level resulting from hydration of the deposits, all of which affect nuclear criticality safety were required. To perform the task safely and effectively, the Deposit Removal Project team requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) characterize the two largest deposits with the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven transmission (CFSDT) technique, an active neutron interrogation method developed for use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to identify nuclear weapons components in containers. The active CFSDT measurement technique uses CFSDT time-of-flight measurements of prompt neutrons and gamma rays from an externally introduced {sup 252}Cf source.

Hannon, T.F.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Uckan, T.; Valentine, T.E.; Wyatt, M.S.

1998-05-01

355

The overarching objective of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) enzyme activity probe (EAP) effort is to determine if aerobic cometabolism is contributing to the attenuation of trichloroethene (TCE) and other chlorinated solvents in the contaminated groundwater beneath PGDP. The site-specific objective for the EAP assessment is to identify if key metabolic pathways are present and expressed in the microbial community--namely the pathways that are responsible for degradation of methane and aromatic (e.g. toluene, benzene, phenol) substrates. The enzymes produced to degrade methane and aromatic compounds also break down TCE through a process known as cometabolism. EAPs directly measure if methane and/or aromatic enzyme production pathways are operating and, for the aromatic pathways, provide an estimate of the number of active organisms in the sampled groundwater. This study in the groundwater plumes at PGDP is a major part of a larger scientific effort being conducted by Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and North Wind Inc. in which EAPs are being applied to contaminated groundwater from diverse hydrogeologic and plume settings throughout the U.S. to help standardize their application as well as their interpretation. While EAP data provide key information to support the site specific objective for PGDP, several additional lines of evidence are being evaluated to increase confidence in the determination of the occurrence of biodegradation and the rate and sustainability of aerobic cometabolism. These complementary efforts include: (1) Examination of plume flowpaths and comparison of TCE behavior to 'conservative' tracers in the plume (e.g., {sup 99}Tc); (2) Evaluation of geochemical conditions throughout the plume; and (3) Evaluation of stable isotopes in the contaminants and their daughter products throughout the plume. If the multiple lines of evidence support the occurrence of cometabolism and the potential for the process to contribute to temporal and spatial attenuation of TCE in PGDP groundwater, then a follow-up enzyme probe microcosm study to better estimate biological degradation rate(s) is warranted.

Looney, B; M. Hope Lee, M; S. K. Hampson, S

2008-06-27

356

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependences of the effective diffusion coefficients of the components of three-component gas systems, used in the synthesis of ammonia, were calculated in the temperature range 298-800 K. The results obtained can be used as reference data.

Zhavrin, Yu. I.; Kosov, V. N.; Poyarkov, I. V.; Asembaeva, M. K.; Fedorenko, O. V.; Nysanbaeva, A. T.

2013-05-01

357

White matter (WM) injury after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) in rat is associated with disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We hypothesized that WM injury as seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would correlate with regions of increased MMP activity. MRI was performed 3 days after BCAO surgery in rats. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC)

Rohit Sood; Yi Yang; Saeid Taheri; Eduardo Candelario-Jalil; Eduardo Y Estrada; Espen J Walker; Jeffrey Thompson; Gary A Rosenberg

2009-01-01

358

Formulas are derived for evaluating the diffusion coefficient and size of gas molecules from transient coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements. Numerical estimates are presented for hydrogen. (special issue devoted to the 80th birthday of S.A. Akhmanov)

Nikitin, Sergei Yu [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-31

359

Propagation of energetic solar cosmic rays was studied by solving the focussed transport equation without adiabatic deceleration. In our calculations, we considered the change of pitch angle diffusion coefficient due to the variation of magnetic field strength along Archimedian interplanetary magnetic field lines in addition to magnetic field fluctuation and its correlation length depending upon radial distance from the sun.

Takasuke Sakai

1999-01-01

360

Objective Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can help differentiate between central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and Glioblastoma (GBM). However, overlap between ADCs for GBM and lymphoma have been reported because of various region of interest (ROI) methods. Our aim is to explore ROI method to provide the most reproducible results for differentiation. Materials and Methods We studied 25 CNS lymphomas and 62 GBMs with three ROI methods: (1) ROI1, whole tumor volume; (2) ROI2, multiple ROIs; and (3) ROI3, a single ROI. Interobserver variability of two readers for each method was analyzed by intraclass correlation(ICC). ADCs were compared between GBM and lymphoma, using two-sample t-test. The discriminative ability was determined by ROC analysis. Results ADCs from ROI1 showed most reproducible results (ICC >0.9). For ROI1, ADCmean for lymphoma showed significantly lower values than GBM (p?=?0.03). The optimal cut-off value was 0.98×10?3 mm2/s with 85% sensitivity and 90% specificity. For ROI2, ADCmin for lymphoma was significantly lower than GBM (p?=?0.02). The cut-off value was 0.69×10?3 mm2/s with 87% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Conclusion ADC values were significantly dependent on ROI method. ADCs from the whole tumor volume had the most reproducible results. ADCmean from the whole tumor volume may aid in differentiating between lymphoma and GBM. However, multi-modal imaging approaches are recommended than ADC alone for differentiation. PMID:25393543

Ahn, Sung Jun; Shin, Hyun Joo; Chang, Jong-Hee; Lee, Seung-Koo

2014-01-01

361

The mechanism of water and sodium apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in rat skeletal muscle during global ischemia was examined by in vivo 1H and 23Na magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The ADCs of Na+ and water are expected to have similar characteristics because sodium is present as an aqua-cation in tissue. The shift reagent, TmDOTP5(-), was used to separate intra- and extracellular sodium (Na+i and Na+e, respectively) signals. Water, total tissue sodium (Na+t), Na+i, and Na+e ADCs were measured before and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hr after ischemia. Contrary to the general perception, Na+i and Na+e ADCs were identical before ischemia. Thus, ischemia-induced changes in Na+e ADC cannot be explained by a simple change in the size of relative intracellular or extracellular space. Na+t and Na+e ADCs decreased after 2-4 hr of ischemia, while water and Na+i ADC remained unchanged. The correlation between Na+t and Na+e ADCs was observed because of high Na+e concentration. Similarly, the correlation between water and Na+i ADCs was observed because cells occupy 80% of the tissue space in the skeletal muscle. Ischemia also caused an increase in the Na+i and an equal decrease in Na+e signal intensity due to cessation of Na+/K+-ATPase function. PMID:18306401

Babsky, Andriy M; Topper, Stephen; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Yong; James, Judy R; Hekmatyar, Shahryar K; Bansal, Navin

2008-03-01

362

Ion self-diffusion coefficients have been measured for ionic liquids based on the cations N-acetoxyethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-ethylammonium ([N(112,2OCO1)](+)) and its non-functionalised analogue, N,N-dimethyl-N-ethyl-N-pentylammonium ([N1125](+)), and N,N-dimethyl-N-ethyl-N-methoxyethoxyethylammonium ([N(112,2O2O1)](+)), and its analogue, N,N-dimethyl-N-ethyl-N-heptylammonium ([N1127](+)) and the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide anion. The functionalised chain on an ammonium cation has the same length, in terms of the number of atoms, as the non-functionalised chain of the corresponding analogue. For [N(112,2OCO1)][Tf2N] and [N1127][Tf2N], the cation and anion self-diffusion coefficients are equal, within experimental error, whereas for [N1125][Tf2N], the cation diffuses more quickly, and for [N(112,2O2O1)][Tf2N], it is the anion that diffuses more quickly than the ether-functionalised cation. But these differences are relatively small, just beyond experimental error. The data are used to calculate velocity cross-correlation coefficients (VCC or f(ij)) and distinct diffusion coefficients (D(ij)(d)). Both the self-diffusion and distinct diffusion coefficients are analysed in terms of (fractional) Stokes-Einstein-Sutherland equations. Though the self-diffusion coefficients, as with the conductivity and viscosity, show marked differences in absolute terms between the functionalised and non-functionalised forms, being higher for the ethoxy-substituted IL and lower for the acetoxy-substituted IL, these are largely removed by scaling with the viscosity. Thus the transport properties are better understood as functions of the viscosity rather than the temperature and density, per se. The presence of the alkoxy-substituted side chains is known to change the local mesoscopic liquid structure, but it appears once this is done, the transport properties scale correspondingly. In the case of the acetoxy-substituted IL, this is also largely the case, but the Nernst-Einstein deviation parameter, ?, which depends on the difference between the anion-cation VCC and the mean of the cation-cation and anion-anion VCCs, is smaller than that of its analogue salt, and also temperature dependent. PMID:24709921

Harris, Kenneth R; Makino, Takashi; Kanakubo, Mitsuhiro

2014-05-21

363

Diffusion coefficients for Tl, Pb, Cd, In, Zn, Bi, As, Mo and Sb in hydrous rhyolite at 100-200 MPa

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of experiments have been conducted to determine the diffusivities of Tl, Pb, Cd, In, Zn, Bi, As, Mo and Sb in hydrous rhyolitic melt. Diffusion experiments used two adjoining glass cylinder of the same hydrous composition, one doped with the elements of interest at ~ 100 ppm. These couples were rapidly heated to 850, 1000 and 1150°C at 100-200 MPa for a few hours. After quenching the sectioned charges were analyzed by both synchrotron XRF (The Diamond Light Source) and LA-ICP-MS (University of Oxford). The data shows excellent correlation between these two techniques. The diffusion profiles were fitted to a 1-D diffusion couple equation to determine the diffusivities and fitting to the different temperature runs defined the Arrhenius parameters. We find that for 850°C the diffusion coefficients follow the trend Tl>Pb>Cd>Zn>In>Bi>As>Sb>Mo. Additional experiments were performed with either S or Cl added (to both sides of the diffusion couple). In general S increases the diffusion rate of all metals except Mo and Sb, which diffuse slower in the presence of S. Chlorine also speeds up the diffusion of metals with the exception of In, Mo and Sb. The systematic change in diffusivities of these metals and their different behaviour in the presence of the ligands that are also observed to be significant in volcanic gases, are important in determining the distribution of these metals during degassing (e.g. MacKenzie and Canil, 2008). This is particularly important in a dynamic environment such as a volcanic conduit. There are also implications for economic exploration and well as hazard mitigation.

Berlo, Kim; Brooker, Richard; Wilke, Max

2014-05-01

364

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion coefficient of dissolved CO_ at 40 bar pressure and 21 ± 1°C was calculated using Raman spectroscopy of aqueous solutions, from 0 to 6 molNaCl . Kg^-1 H_2O, loaded in a High-Pressure Optical Cell.

Belgodere, C.; Dubessy, J.; Sterpenich, J.; Pironon, J.; Vautrin, D.; Caumon, M. C.; Robert, P.; Randi, A.; Birat, J. P.

2014-06-01

365

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS), we investigated the proton dynamics for two superprotonic conductors, CsHSO4 and Rb3H(SeO4)2. To evaluate the self-diffusion coefficients and the number of mobile protons on both superprotonic and normal phases, we focused on proton dynamics not only in the phase above Tc, but also in the phase below Tc. In Rb3H(SeO4)2, the self-diffusion of protons was observed even below the Tc phase. In contrast to popular belief, no large changes in the self-diffusion coefficients were observed across Tc. Nevertheless, the increase in the number of mobile protons across Tc was about 14.5 times, which was estimated from the integrated intensity of QENS spectra, and this change could not account for the increased magnitude of proton conductivity, which is about 500 times. As a large translational self-diffusion coefficient has not been reported in previous works by QENS experiments, there are still unknown factors that contribute to the Nernst–Einstein relation that need to be discovered.

Kamazawa, Kazuya; Harada, Masashi; Araki, Toru; Matsuo, Yasumitsu; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Sugiyama, Jun

2014-07-01

366

Purpose The objective of our study was to analyze the differences between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) partitions (created using the K-Means algorithm) between benign and malignant neck lesions and evaluate its benefit in distinguishing these entities. Material and methods MRI studies of 10 benign and 10 malignant proven neck pathologies were post-processed on a PC using in-house software developed in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). Lesions were manually contoured by two neuroradiologists with the ADC values within each lesion clustered into two (low ADC-ADCL, high ADC-ADCH) and three partitions (ADCL, intermediate ADC-ADCI, ADCH) using the K-Means clustering algorithm. An unpaired two-tailed Student’s t-test was performed for all metrics to determine statistical differences in the means between the benign and malignant pathologies. Results Statistically significant difference between the mean ADCL clusters in benign and malignant pathologies was seen in the 3 cluster models of both readers (p=0.03, 0.022 respectively) and the 2 cluster model of reader 2 (p=0.04) with the other metrics (ADCH, ADCI, whole lesion mean ADC) not revealing any significant differences. Receiver operating characteristics curves demonstrated the quantitative difference in mean ADCH and ADCL in both the 2 and 3 cluster models to be predictive of malignancy (2 clusters: p=0.008, area under curve=0.850, 3 clusters: p=0.01, area under curve=0.825). Conclusion The K-Means clustering algorithm that generates partitions of large datasets may provide a better characterization of neck pathologies and may be of additional benefit in distinguishing benign and malignant neck pathologies compared to whole lesion mean ADC alone. PMID:20007723

Srinivasan, A.; Galbán, C.J.; Johnson, T.D.; Chenevert, T.L.; Ross, B.D.; Mukherji, S.K.

2014-01-01

367

Reductive dechlorination is being implemented at the X-749/X-120 trichloroethene (TCE) plume South Barrier Wall containment site at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The purpose of this paper is to present the effectiveness of the reductive dechlorination at PORTS. Reductive dechlorination is an in situ remediation technology that utilizes existing subsurface microbes to biologically degrade volatile organic compounds in groundwater. Monitoring in the barrier wall area reveals the presence of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC) injected in the spring of 2004 in two groundwater monitoring wells closest to the injection points. Oxidation/reduction potential in these two wells has decreased steadily since injection, but has not yet reached optimal reducing levels for TCE degradation. Monitoring the effectiveness of the injection is hampered by near-stagnant groundwater flow due in part to the South Barrier Wall. The X-749/X-120 TCE groundwater plume lies beneath approximately 91 acres in the southern portion of PORTS, and extends southward threatening to cross the DOE property boundary. A 1,077-foot long subsurface bentonite barrier wall was installed in 1993 at the southern DOE property boundary to restrict movement of contaminated groundwater from traveling off-site until other remedial technologies could be implemented. In 2003, TCE was detected on the south side of the barrier wall (but still within DOE property) above drinking water standards of 5 micrograms per liter. Monitoring has also detected TCE in groundwater beyond the western edge of the barrier wall. In the spring of 2004, DOE initiated the injection of a reductive dechlorination compound known as Hydrogen Release Compound-extended release formula (HRC-X) into the subsurface using direct push technology (DPT). The HRC-X was injected within the saturated zone from the top of bedrock to 10 feet above bedrock as the probe was withdrawn from the push. A total of 180 DPT points were completed within three treatment zones: north, west, and south of the X-749 South Barrier Wall. The HRC-X (glycerol tripoly-lactate) degrades chlorinated organic compounds, such as TCE, into non-toxic compounds such as ethene and ethane. Upon being injected into the subsurface, HRC-X slowly reacts with groundwater and releases lactic acid. As the anaerobic microbes (which are naturally present in the subsurface) metabolize the lactic acid, low concentrations of dissolved hydrogen are produced. These hydrogen molecules strip the chlorinated (TCE) molecules of their chlorine atoms. During the chemical process of this reductive dechlorination, the lactic acid degrades to pyruvic acid and finally to acetic acid. As the subsurface environment becomes more anaerobic, the TCE degrades. Lactic acid and acetic acid were detected in two wells immediately down-gradient from the HRC-X injection areas. The oxidation/reduction potential has dropped in these two monitoring wells, but did not reach ideal levels for reductive dechlorination of the TCE until after June 2005. The methane concentration in the two wells has increased since the injection of HRC-X, but has not likely reached extreme methano-genesis levels that may restrict the dechlorination process. Through June 2005, concentrations of TCE and TCE degradation products had not yet changed significantly in response to reductive dechlorination. However, by November 2005 the concentration of TCE at monitoring well X749-45G had decreased from a high of 59 {mu}g/L (April 2005) to 9.6 {mu}g/L. At well X749-97G TCE had decreased from a high of 6.3 {mu}g/L (June 2005) to 2.6 {mu}g/L in November 2005. Groundwater monitoring of the wells for reductive dechlorination effectiveness will continue on a semiannual basis in order to track the chemical and biochemical changes in the groundwater. (authors)

Rieske, D. E.; Baird, D. R.; Lawson, N. E. [CDM Federal Programs, P.O. Box 789, Piketon, OH 45661 (United States)

2006-07-01

368

An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

1995-05-30

369

An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN)

1995-01-01

370

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with high-temperature steam oxidation behaviour of Zr1Nb fuel cladding. First of all, comprehensive experimental program was conducted to provide sufficient experimental data, such as the thicknesses of evolved phase layers and the overall weight gain kinetics, as well as the oxygen concentration and nanohardness values at phase boundaries. Afterwards, oxygen diffusion coefficients in the oxide, in the ?-Zr(O) layer, in the double-phase (? + ?)-Zr region, and in the ?-phase region have been estimated based on the experimental data employing analytical solution of the multiphase moving boundary problem, assuming the equilibrium conditions being fulfilled at the interface boundaries. Eventually, the determined oxygen diffusion coefficients served as input into the in-house numerical code, which was designed to predict the high-temperature oxidation behaviour of Zr1Nb fuel cladding. Very good agreement has been achieved between the numerical calculations and the experimental data.

Négyesi, M.; Chmela, T.; Veselský, T.; Krej?í, J.; Novotný, L.; P?ibyl, A.; Bláhová, O.; Burda, J.; Siegl, J.; Vrtílková, V.

2015-01-01

371

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the variable-coefficient diffusion—advection (DA) equation, which arises in modeling various physical phenomena, is studied by the Lie symmetry approach. The similarity reductions are derived by determining the complete sets of point symmetries of this equation, and then exact and numerical solutions are reported for the reduced second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Further, an extended (G'/G)-expansion method is applied to the DA equation to construct some new non-traveling wave solutions.

Vikas, Kumar; K. Gupta, R.; Ram, Jiwari

2014-03-01

372

Lattice diffusion coefficients have been determined for 19 elements (Li, Be, Na, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Y,\\u000a Zr, Eu, Gd, Lu and Hf) in a single crystal of San Carlos olivine as a function of crystallographic orientation, at 1,300°C,\\u000a 1 bar and fO2 = 10?8.3 bars, by equilibration with a synthetic silicate melt. Results for Li, Na, V,

Carl Spandler; Hugh St. C. O’Neill

2010-01-01

373

A comprehensive characterisation of an ionic liquid based electrolyte for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) was performed by determination of triiodide diffusion coefficients, viscosities and photovoltaic performances. The electrolyte, consisting of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII), and iodine, was examined at varying ionic liquid molar ratio and fixed iodine concentration, as well as at fixed ionic liquid molar ratio and varying

Philipp Wachter; Markus Zistler; Christian Schreiner; Marko Berginc; Urša Opara Krašovec; Dirk Gerhard; Peter Wasserscheid; Andreas Hinsch; Heiner J. Gores

2008-01-01

374

The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is one of the promising methods not only for driving the non-inductive current required for steady-state tokamak operation, but also for controlling the plasma current profile to improve confinement in tokamak experiments. A direct consequence of experimental imperfection is difficult to obtain reliable estimate of the radial diffusion coefficient (D{sub st}) of the lower hybrid driven current. In this paper, the radial profile of D{sub st} is estimated to investigate its effect on the current driven by lower hybrid wave (LHW) in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Compared with the case of the constant radial diffusion coefficient, the efficiency of LHW driven current with the radial dependent diffusion coefficient D{sub st} ({rho}) becomes either higher or lower with respect to the plasma parameters, such as the density and the magnetic fluctuation. It is also found that the profiles of the LHW driven current are different. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the radial dependence of D{sub st} in order to get an accurate and reliable result in the numerical simulation of LHCD.

Zhang Xianmei; Wang Yanhui; Yu Limin; Shen Xin; Wang Jianbin [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 385, Shanghai 200237 (China)

2012-07-15

375

This article is an important theoretical development of the previous articles (I) and (III) in which are introduced the basic concepts of the theory. Here, diffusion equations are established and their solutions are given for the simple model with one elastic constant and isotropy of reciprocal space. The classical diffusion laws for translation (Fick law) and rotation are recovered in

F. Volino

1997-01-01

376

CCSD(T) ground state potential curves of Pb···RG systems (RG = He, Ne and Ar) are presented and the importance of the inclusion of spin-orbit effects is discussed. The closed-shell character of the Pb atom at the two-component relativistic level of relativistic theory leads to shallower potential energy curves compared to scalar relativistic open-shell calculations. The pressure-independent cross-diffusion coefficients pD12 have been simulated using the extrapolated two-component CCSD(T) ground state potential curves. The diffusion coefficients from scattering theory are compared with simulations based on molecular dynamics (MD) using the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) and the Einstein equation. A correction for the proper assessment of the uncertainty in the VACF is proposed. The acceleration of the MD simulation of Pb in RG diffusion is proposed utilizing the RG in Pb diffusion. The dU[TQ]Z/CCSD(T) potential curve of Pb···He (De = 8.667 cm(-1), re = 4.683 Å) supports only one vibrational level. The anharmonicity of this potential is compared to the potential of He···He which also supports only one vibrational level. The comparison is based on the mean square separations of the vibrational wave function. PMID:25072899

Sladek, Vladimir; Bu?inský, Lukáš; Matuška, Ján; Il?in, Michal; Lukeš, Vladimír; Laurinc, Viliam

2014-09-14

377

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A class of higher order compact (HOC) schemes has been developed with weighted time discretization for the two-dimensional unsteady convection-diffusion equation with variable convection coefficients. The schemes are second or lower order accurate in time depending on the choice of the weighted average parameter and fourth order accurate in space. For 0.51, the schemes are unconditionally stable. Unlike usual HOC schemes, these schemes are capable of using a grid aspect ratio other than unity. They efficiently capture both transient and steady solutions of linear and nonlinear convection-diffusion equations with Dirichlet as well as Neumann boundary condition. They are applied to one linear convection-diffusion problem and three flows of varying complexities governed by the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results obtained are in excellent agreement with analytical and established numerical results. Overall the schemes are found to be robust, efficient and accurate. Copyright

Kalita, Jiten C.; Dalal, D. C.; Dass, Anoop K.

2002-04-01

378

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of sugar and sugar-containing materials is well recognized nowadays, owing to their application in industrial processes, particularly in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Because of the large numbers of those compounds involved and the relatively small number of solubility and/or diffusion coefficient data for each compound available, it is highly desirable to measure the solubility and/or diffusion coefficient as efficiently as possible and to be able to improve the accuracy of the methods used. In this work, a new technique was developed for the measurement of the diffusion coefficient of a stationary solid solute in a stagnant solvent which simultaneously measures solubility based on an inverse measurement problem algorithm with the real-time dissolved amount profile as a function of time. This study differs from established techniques in both the experimental method and the data analysis. The experimental method was developed in which the dissolved amount of solid solute in quiescent solvent was investigated using a continuous weighing technique. In the data analysis, the hybrid genetic algorithm is used to minimize an objective function containing a calculated and a measured dissolved amount with time. This is measured on a cylindrical sample of amorphous glucose in methanol or ethanol. The calculated dissolved amount, that is a function of the unknown physical properties of the solid solute in the solvent, is calculated by the solution of the two-dimensional nonlinear inverse natural convection problem. The estimated values of the solubility of amorphous glucose in methanol and ethanol at 293 K were respectively 32.1 g/100 g methanol and 1.48 g/100 g ethanol, in agreement with the literature values, and support the validity of the simultaneously measured diffusion coefficient. These results show the efficiency and the stability of the developed technique to simultaneously estimate the solubility and diffusion coefficient. Also the influence of the solution density change and the initial concentration conditions on the dissolved amount was investigated by the numerical results using the estimated parameters. It is found that the theoretical assumption to simplify the inverse measurement problem algorithm is reasonable for low solubility.

Hu, Chengyao; Huang, Pei

2011-05-01

379

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the net movement of particles from areas of high concentration (number of particles per unit area) to low concentration. In this activity, students use a molecular dynamics model to view the behavior of diffusion in gases and liquids.

2012-07-19

380

A simple fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) apparatus using a fluorescence microscope with a conventional mercury arc lamp, working under conditions of "uniform disk illumination" is described. This set-up was designed essentially for the use of anthracene as fluorescent probe, which is bleached (photodimerization reaction) by illumination in the near ultraviolet range (360 nm). It is shown that the lateral diffusion coefficients D can be readily calculated from fluorescence recovery curves using a finite differentiate method in combination with statistical analysis of the data. In contrast to the analytical solutions so far described, this numerical approach is particularly versatile. With a minimization algorithm, D and the probe mobile fraction can be readily calculated for any recovery time under various experimental conditions. These include different probe concentration profiles in the illuminated area after the bleaching step, and situations of infinite or noninfinite reservoir in the diffusion area outside the illuminated area. PMID:3395663

Lopez, A; Dupou, L; Altibelli, A; Trotard, J; Tocanne, J F

1988-06-01

381

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto collocation (L-GL-C) method is applied to solve the space-fractional advection diffusion equation with nonhomogeneous initial-boundary conditions. The Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points are used as collocation nodes for spatial fractional derivatives as well as the Caputo fractional derivative. This approach is reducing the problem to the solution of a system of ordinary differential equations in time which can be solved by using any standard numerical techniques. The proposed numerical solutions when compared with the exact solutions reveal that the obtained solution produces highly accurate results. The results show that the proposed method has high accuracy and is efficient for solving the space-fractional advection diffusion equation.

Bhrawy, A. H.; Baleanu, D.

2013-10-01

382

Mathematical and chemical description of friction of diffusive phosphorized iron

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of tribological tests on Armco iron after gaseous phosphorizing treatment are presented. As a result of the phosphorizing process, the diffusive layers of the iron phosphides Fe2P and Fe3P, with structure defined by selection of the process parameters, have been formed on the iron surface. It has been proved that the presence of the iron phosphides in the surface layer improves the tribological properties of iron. The optimization of the gaseous phosphorizing parameters has been carried out while assuming minimum wear and dry sliding friction coefficient as optimization criteria. A proposed explanation of the dry friction mechanism occurring between the phosphorized surface and the steel surface is given.

Nowacki, Jerzy

1994-04-01

383

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide injected in an aquifer rises quickly to the top of the reservoir and forms a gas cap from where it diffuses into the underlying water layer. Transfer of the CO2 to the aqueous phase below is enhanced due to the high density of the carbon dioxide containing aqueous phase. This paper investigates the behavior of the diffusive interface in an enclosed space in which initially the upper part is filled with pure carbon dioxide and the lower part with liquid. Our analysis differs from a conventional analysis as we take the movement of the diffusive interface due to mass transfer and the composition dependent viscosity in the aqueous phase into account. The same formalism can also be used to describe the situation when an oil layer is underlying the gas cap. Therefore we prefer to call the lower phase the liquid phase. In this paper we include these two effects into the stability analysis of a diffusive interface between CO2 and a liquid in the gravity field. We identify the relevant bifurcation parameter as q = ?Ra, where ? is the width of the interface. This implies the (well known) scaling of the critical time ˜Ra-2 and wavelength ˜Ra-1(The critical time tc and critical wavelength kc are defined as follows: ?(k) ? 0 ?t ? tc; equality only holds for t = tc and k = kc). Inclusion of the interface upward movement leads to earlier destabilization of the system. Increasing viscosity for increasing CO2 concentration stabilizes the system. The theoretical results are compared to bulk flow visual experiments using the Schlieren technique to follow finger development in aquifer sequestration of CO2. In the appendix, we include a detailed derivation of the dispersion relation ?(k) in the Hele-Shaw case [C. T. Tan and G. M. Homsy, Phys. Fluids 29, 3549-3556 (1986)], 10.1063/1.865832 which is nowhere explicitly given.

Meulenbroek, Bernard; Farajzadeh, Rouhollah; Bruining, Hans

2013-07-01

384

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two single crystals of the same ingot and a polycrystal with compositions close to CuIn2Te3.5, CuIn3Te5 and CuIn4Te6, respectively, have been studied using impedance spectroscopy at different temperatures in the 20-120 °C range. The negative imaginary impedance part, -Z**, as a function of the real impedance part, Z*, (Nyquist plots) can be fitted to one or two semicircles associated with the Warburg diffusion and related one or two mobile ions, depending on the slice composition. In dc current and using the current intensity decay method at 20 °C, the conductivity as a function of time permits one to compute the diffusion coefficients of one or two mobile ions observed in impedance spectroscopy. The diffusion coefficients of the Cu ion are higher than those in CuInSe2 and are associated with the number of copper vacancies, VCu, and indium-copper antisites, InCu, in the Cu sublattice. EDAX measurements in the slice profile, before and after the electrical analysis, confirm a massive motion of Cu atoms along the slice thickness. In all samples, there is a region with composition close to CuIn1.7Te3 and a new atomic distribution, different in each sample depending on the initial composition and their structure. The ionic motion permits one to understand the behaviour of chalcopyrite thin films when they are grown with a composition gradient (from a Cu-rich chalcopyrite to an In-rich one).

Diaz, R.; Cervera, M.; Rueda, F.

2012-06-01

385

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) measurements and single-spin-echo measurements have been made at frequencies of ?=10, 20, and 50 MHz for two relatively homogeneous porous porcelain materials with different pore sizes, both saturated separately with three liquids of different diffusion coefficients. The CPMG transverse relaxation rate is increased by an amount R by diffusion in the inhomogeneous fields caused by susceptibility differences ? R shows the dependence on ? (half the echo spacing) given by the model of Brown and Fantazzini [Phys. Rev. B 47, 14 823 (1993)] if relaxation is slow enough that there are several CPMG echoes in a transverse relaxation time. For ? values over a range of a factor of about 40, the increase of R with ? is nearly linear, with a slope that is independent of pore dimension a and diffusion coefficient D. For this nearly linear region and a short initial region quadratic in ?, we find R~(??)2. In these regions we can scale and compare measurements of R taken for different values of ? ?, a, and D by plotting RD/(1/3??a)2 vs D?/a2. The asymptotic values of R for large ? for CPMG data can be inferred from the asymptotic slope, -Rs, of lnM (magnetization) for single spin echoes as a function of echo time t=2?. It is shown from the Bloch-Torrey equations for NMR with diffusion that, for any combination of parameters ?, ?, a, or D, the magnetization M is a function of both a dimensionless time (either tu=Dt/a2 or tv=1/3??t) and a dimensionless parameter ?=1/3??a2/D. If ?<2 (for our particular porous media and definition of the distance a), the asymptotic slope of -lnM is approximately Rs=1/3??, that is, it is proportional to only the first power of ?? and does not depend on either a or D. These results are compatible with the existence of a long-tailed distribution of phases, such as a truncated Cauchy distribution, at echo time. Diffusion does not lead to a reduction of Rs because averages of choices from a Cauchy distribution give the same distribution rather than a narrower one as for the Gaussian distribution. For larger ? the decay of lnM decreases and no longer approaches a linear asymptote during measurement times. A semiempirical expression for the large-? case is given. These scaling laws should help in predicting the effects of changes in frequency and of susceptibility contrast as well as of changes in temperature, fluid, or range of pore sizes or other characteristic dimensions.

Borgia, Giulio C.; Brown, Robert J. S.; Fantazzini, Paola

1995-03-01

386

Prediction of diffusion coefficient of polymer materials is important in the pharmaceutical research and becomes the aim of this paper. This paper bases the prediction method on the estimation of the polymer fractional free volume at different environmental conditions. Focussing on glassy polymers, the free volumes of polymer films were estimated using the model of Vrentas et al. [J.S. Vrentas, J.L. Duda, H.-C. Ling, Antiplasticization and volumetric behavior in glassy polymers, Macromolecules 21 (1988) 1470-1475]. The required data are the moisture sorption and glass transition temperature data, which were measured on various hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (used as a model material) free films at different water activities. The temperature and molecular weight particularly determine the free volume of the polymer, while the sorbed water can either decrease or increase the specific free volume of the polymer. At high water activity, the amount of water sorbed in the film increases to such level that the direct free volume addition by water becomes proportional to the contribution of the polymer itself. This confirms the importance of considering the environmental effect on the diffusivity of polymer during coating material selection. The presented approach enables the prediction of the diffusivity at any given relevant material variable and therefore has the potency to be used as a formulation development tool. PMID:19409985

Laksmana, Fesia Lestari; Hartman Kok, Paul Jean Antoine; Vromans, Herman; Van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

2009-07-12

387

We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

2008-03-01

388

This study investigated several knowledge gaps with respect to the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for measurement of oxyanions (As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), PO4(3-), and V(V)) using the ferrihydrite and Metsorb™ binding layers. Elution efficiencies for each binding layer were higher with 1:20 dilutions, as analytical interferences for ICP-MS were minimised. Diffusion coefficients measured by diffusion cell and by DGT time-series experiments were found to agree well and generally agreed with previously reported values, although a range of diffusion coefficients have been reported for inorganic As and Se species. The relative binding affinity for both ferrihydrite and Metsorb™ was PO4(3-) ? As(V)>V(V) ? As(III)>Se(IV) > Se(VI) and effective binding capacities were measured in single ion solutions, and spiked synthetic freshwater and seawater, advising practical decisions about DGT monitoring. Under the conditions tested the performance of both ferrihydrite and Metsorb™ binding layers was directly comparable for As(V), As(III) Se(IV), V(V) and PO4(3-) over a deployment spanning ? 2 days for both freshwater and seawater. In order to return quantitative data for several analytes we recommend that the DGT method using either ferrihydrite or Metsorb™ be deployed for a maximum of 2 days in marine waters likely to contain high levels of the most strongly adsorbing oxyanions contaminants. The high pH, the competitive ions present in seawater and the identity of co-adsorbing ions affect the capacity of each binding layer for the analytes of interest. In freshwaters, longer deployment times can be considered but the concentration and identity of co-adsorbing ions may impact on quantitative uptake of Se(IV). This study found ferrihydrite-DGT outperformed Metsorb-DGT while previous studies have found the opposite, with variation in binding materials masses used being a likely reason. Clearly, preparation of both binding layers should always be optimised to produce the highest capacity possible, especially for seawater deployments. PMID:24216197

Price, Helen L; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

2013-11-25

389

Diffusion of ammonia gas in PDMS characterized by ATR spectroscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetic parameters of a chemo-optical transducer layer sensitive to gaseous ammonia are characterized by means of attenuation total reflection method. The tested layer consists of cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane matrix sensitized by quinoline-based organometallic dye showing the selective chemical reaction with ammonia. Upper and lower limits of the ammonia diffusion coefficient and the ammonia-dye reaction constant are derived from the obtained experimental data and compared with other data available in literature and obtained from computer simulations.

Levinský, Petr; Kalvoda, Ladislav; Aubrecht, Jan; Fojtíková, Jaroslava

2015-01-01

390

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tracer experiment was conducted at the commercial low-level nuclear waste disposal site near Barnwell, South Carolina, to test a new method for determining the tortuosity and sorption-affected porosity for gaseous diffusion transport of materials in the Unsaturated zone. Two tracers, CBrClF2 and SF6, were released at constant rates of 105 and 3.3 ng/s, respectively, from permeation devices, which were placed in short screened sections in access holes. Soil gas was sampled from 15 piezometers located at various distances from the sources by sequentially pumping 60-160 mL of gas from the piezometers into a dual-column gas chromatograph located at the test site. The CBrClF2 concentration data obtained from several of the piezometers were analyzed by use of type curves for a continuous point source in an areally extensive medium bounded above and below by planar no-flow boundaries. The tortuosity of the geologic unit tested, an eolian sand, was determined to be about 0.4, and the sorption-affected porosity to be 0.22. The tortuosity value is plausible, but the sorption-affected porosity value is substantially less than that computed from the drained porosity, particularly if adjustments are made for retardation due to solution of the tracer in the liquid phase and sorption on the solid phase. The SF6 data could not be reliably analyzed.

Kreamer, David K.; Weeks, Edwin P.; Thompson, Glenn M.

1988-03-01

391

The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is the site of five former gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process buildings that were used to enrich uranium from 1945 to 1985. The process equipment in the original two buildings (K-25 and K-27) was used for the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU), while that in the three later buildings (K-29, K-31 and K-33) produced low enriched uranium (LEU). Equipment was contaminated primarily with uranium and to a lesser extent technetium (Tc). Decommissioning of the GDP process buildings has presented several unique challenges and produced many lessons-learned. Among these is the importance of good, up-front characterization in developing the best demolition approach. Also, chemical cleaning of process gas equipment and piping (PGE) prior to shutdown should be considered to minimize the amount of hold-up material that must be removed by demolition crews. Another lesson learned is to maintain shutdown buildings in a dry state to minimize structural degradation which can significantly complicate characterization, deactivation and demolition efforts. Perhaps the most important lesson learned is that decommissioning GDP process buildings is first and foremost a waste logistics challenge. Innovative solutions are required to effectively manage the sheer volume of waste generated from decontamination and demolition (D and D) of these enormous facilities. Finally, close coordination with Security is mandatory to effectively manage Special Nuclear Material (SNM) and classified equipment issues. (authors)

Kopotic, James D. [United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Office, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Office, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Ferri, Mark S.; Buttram, Claude [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, East Tennessee Technology Park, P. O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, East Tennessee Technology Park, P. O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2013-07-01

392

The vertical spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of Kd is an important optical property related to the penetration and availability of light underwater, which is of fundamental interest in studies of ocean physics and biology. Models developed in the recent decades were mainly based on theoretical analyses and numerical (radiative transfer) simulations to estimate this property in optically deep waters, thus leaving inadequate knowledge of its variability at multiple depths and wavelengths, covering a wide range of solar incident geometry, in turbid coastal waters. In the present study, a new model is developed to quantify the vertical, spatial and temporal variability of K(d) at multiple wavelengths and to quantify its dependence with respect to solar incident geometry under differing sky conditions. Thus, the new model is derived as a function of inherent optical properties (IOPs - absorption a and backscattering b(b)), solar zenith angle and depth parameters. The model results are rigorously evaluated using time-series and discrete in situ data from clear and turbid coastal waters. The K(d) values derived from the new model are found to agree with measured data within the mean relative error 0.02~6.24% and R² 0.94~0.99. By contrast, the existing models have large errors when applied to the same data sets. Statistical results of the new model for the vertical spectral distribution of K(d) in clear oceanic waters (for different solar zenith and in-water conditions) are also good when compared to those of the existing models. These results suggest that the new model can provide an improved interpretation about the variation of the vertical spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance, which will have important implications for ocean physics, biogeochemical cycles and underwater applications in both relatively clear and turbid coastal waters. PMID:24514558

Simon, Arthi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

2013-12-01

393

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year spatial patterns of ocean color in the Baltic Sea differ in temporal evolution and magnitude. We have investigated the interannual variability of the spatially averaged vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm, Kd(490), in response to atmospheric forcing and river discharge. Our results indicate that atmospheric forcing does not have a significant influence on the interannual anomalies of Kd(490) in the Baltic Sea. This is in contrast to the North Atlantic site located at similar latitudes, were interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms (and ocean color) is to a large degree controlled by a local weather. Instead, in the Baltic Sea, the interannual variability of Kd(490) is significantly influenced by the river runoff. Higher values of Kd(490) are observed in years with larger inflow of water from rivers. Without an access to more detailed information about the concentrations of various optically significant water components, we can only speculate about the possible reasons for this correlation, but it is most likely a combination of several factors. These include: development of more intense phytoplankton blooms associated with larger supply of nutrients delivered by rivers, advection of optically important material with river water, as well as different physical condition for phytoplankton growth due to more stable water stratification. The diffuse attenuation coefficient plays a critical role in many oceanographic processes. For example, Kd is essential for quantification of radiative heating of the ocean, in models of primary production and other photoprocesses, and in studies discussing water turbidity and water quality. Better understanding of the variability of Kd in the Baltic Sea can impove our knowledge of this marine environment.

Stramska, Malgorzata

2013-04-01

394

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The molecules move until equilibrium is reached. If a perfume is sprayed on one side of the room, the perfume molecules will eventually spread out all over the room until there are equal concentrations of the molecules throughout the space.

Christopher Thomas (None;)

2006-11-09

395

Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

1991-09-01

396

To simplify the complex 1H NMR spectrum of a fulvic acid sample and gain structural and molecular size information, spectral editing techniques were used in conjunction with a general PFG NMR pulse sequence. These editing techniques exploit differences in T1 and T2 relaxation times as well as differences in coupling constants. The experiments were initially performed on a model mixture of glutamic acid and ethyl acetate in order to validate the method as a technique for measurement of diffusion coefficients. The editing experiments were then applied to the International Humic Substances Society Suwannee River fulvic acid standard. These editing techniques allowed more selective measurement of diffusion coefficients for broad classes of components within regions of the 1H NMR spectrum of the fulvic acid solution. The average radii of gyration calculated for the Suwannee River fulvic acid sample from the diffusion coefficients are in good agreement with literature values. PMID:9183176

Dixon, A M; Larive, C K

1997-06-01

397

Objective The purpose of this study was to differentiate true progression from pseudoprogression of glioblastomas treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with temozolomide (TMZ) by using histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) maps. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with histopathologically proven glioblastoma who had received CCRT with TMZ underwent perfusion-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (b = 0, 1000 sec/mm2). The corresponding nCBV and ADC maps for the newly visible, entirely enhancing lesions were calculated after the completion of CCRT with TMZ. Two observers independently measured the histogram parameters of the nCBV and ADC maps. The histogram parameters between the true progression group (n = 10) and the pseudoprogression group (n = 10) were compared by use of an unpaired Student's t test and subsequent multivariable stepwise logistic regression analysis to determine the best predictors for the differential diagnosis between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was employed to determine the best cutoff values for the histogram parameters that proved to be significant predictors for differentiating true progression from pseudoprogression. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to determine the level of inter-observer reliability for the histogram parameters. Results The 5th percentile value (C5) of the cumulative ADC histograms was a significant predictor for the differential diagnosis between true progression and pseudoprogression (p = 0.044 for observer 1; p = 0.011 for observer 2). Optimal cutoff values of 892 × 10-6 mm2/sec for observer 1 and 907 × 10-6 mm2/sec for observer 2 could help differentiate between the two groups with a sensitivity of 90% and 80%, respectively, a specificity of 90% and 80%, respectively, and an area under the curve of 0.880 and 0.840, respectively. There was no other significant differentiating parameter on the nCBV histograms. Inter-observer reliability was excellent or good for all histogram parameters (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.70-0.99). Conclusion The C5 of the cumulative ADC histogram can be a promising parameter for the differentiation of true progression from pseudoprogression of newly visible, entirely enhancing lesions after CCRT with TMZ for glioblastomas. PMID:23901325

Song, Yong Sub; Park, Chul-Kee; Yi, Kyung Sik; Lee, Woong Jae; Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Il Han; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Chang, Kee-Hyun

2013-01-01

398

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the advent of the internet, a number of artists and related organizations have become interested in utilizing the web to promulgate new forms of artistic creation and their subsequent dissemination. Supported by the Arts Council of England, these Diffusion eBooks are essentially pdf files that readers can download, print out and make into booklets. As the site suggests, "the Diffusion format challenges conventions of interactivity-blending the physical and the virtual and breaking the dominance of mouse and screen as the primary forms of human computer interaction...the format's aim is to take the reader away from the screen and computer and engage them in the process of production." There are a number of creative booklets available here for visitors, complete with instruction on how to assemble them for the desired effect. For anyone with even a remote interest in the possibilities afforded by this rather curious new form of expression, this website is worth a look.

399

NA processes such as biodegradation, sorption, dilution dispersion, advection, and possibly sorption and diffusion are occurring in the Northeast and Northwest plumes. However, the overall biological attenuation rate for TCE within the plumes is not sufficiently rapid to utilize as remedial option. The mobility and toxicity of {sup 99}Tc is not being reduced by attenuating processes within the Northwest Plume. The current EPA position is that NA is not a viable remedial approach unless destructive processes are present or processes are active which reduce the toxicity and mobility of a contaminant. Therefore, active remediation of the dissolved phase plumes will be necessary to reduce contaminant concentrations before an NA approach could be justified at PGDP for either plume. Possible treatment methods for the reduction of dissolved phase concentrations within the plumes are pump-and-treat bioaugmentation, biostimulation, or multiple reactive barriers. Another possibility is the use of a regulatory instrument such as an Alternate Concentration Limit (ACL) petition. Biodegradation of TCE is occurring in both plumes and several hypothesis are possible to explain the apparent conflicts with some of the geochemical data. The first hypothesis is active intrinsic bioremediation is negligible or so slow to be nonmeasurable. In this scenario, the D.O., chloride, TCE, and isotopic results are indicative of past microbiological reactions. It is surmised in this scenario, that when the initial TCE release occurred, sufficient energy sources were available for microorganisms to drive aerobic reduction of TCE, but these energy sources were rapidly depleted. The initial degraded TCE has since migrated to downgradient locations. In the second scenario, TCE anaerobic degradation occurs in organic-rich micro-environments within a generally aerobic aquifer. TCE maybe strongly absorbed to organic-rich materials in the aquifer matrix and degraded by local Immunities of microbes, perhaps even under anaerobic conditions. Chloride, generated by degradation in such microenvironment is released rapidly into the water, as is CO{sub 2}, from respiration of the microorganisms. TCE and its organic degradation products are retained on the aquifer matrix by sorption, and released more slowly into the groundwater. In this process, chloride produced from the microbial reaction may become separated in the plume from the residual TCE. This may explain why the chloride isotope ratio and dissolved TCE do not correlate with the DIC isotope ratio. The relationship between the {delta}{sup 37}Cl values of TCE and dissolved inorganic chloride is consistent with what would be expected from the degradation of TCE, but is complicated by the elevated levels of background chloride, presumably due to agriculture practice, and complex behavior of TCE in the aquifer.

Clausen, J.L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Heraty, L.J.; Huang, L.; Abrajano,T.

1997-11-25

400

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1990, Van Den Enden et al. proposed a method for the determination of water droplet size distributions in emulsions using a pulsed-field-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) T1-weighted stimulated-echo technique. This paper describes both the T1-weighted spin-echo sequence, an improved method based on this earlier work, and, the standard PFG spin-echo sequence. These two methods were compared for water self-diffusion coefficient measurement in the fatty protein concentrate sample used as a 'cheese model.' The transversal and longitudinal relaxation parameters T1 and T2 were determined according to the temperature and investigated for each sample; fat-free protein concentrate sample, pure anhydrous milk fat, and fatty protein concentrate sample. The water self-diffusion in fat-free protein concentrate samples followed a linear behavior. Consequently, the water self-diffusion coefficient could be easily characterized for fat-free protein concentrate samples. However, it seemed more complicated to obtain accurate water self-diffusion in fatty protein concentrate samples since the diffusion-attenuation data were fitted by a bi-exponential function. This paper demonstrates that the implementation of the T1-weighted spin-echo sequence, using the different T1 properties of water and fat phases, allows the accurate determination of water self-diffusion coefficient in a food product. To minimize the contribution of the 1H nuclei in the fat phase on the NMR echo signal, the fat protons were selectively eliminated by an additional 180° pulse. This new method reduces the standard errors of diffusion data obtained with a basic spin-echo technique, by a factor of 10. The effectiveness of the use of the T1-weighted spin-echo sequence to perform accurate water self-diffusion coefficients measurement in fatty products is thus demonstrated.

Métais, Angélique; Mariette, François

2003-12-01

401

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HI observations have revealed in several shell galaxies the presence of gaseous shells slightly displaced from the stellar shells radially, in the outward direction. We propose a mechanism to form this gaseous shells, based on the well-known phase-wrapping process of the companion matter in a merger, with nearly radial orbits. The mechanism relies on the existence of a clumpy interstellar matter, and on dynamical friction experienced by the companion core.

Combes, F.; Charmandaris, V.

402

Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of a primary lesion correlates with local failure in primary head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 38 patients with primary HNSCC (12 oropharynx, 20 hypopharynx, 4 larynx, 2 oral cavity) treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy with radiation dose to gross tumor volume equal to or over 60 Gy and who underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging. Ten patients developed local failure during follow-up periods of 2.0 to 9.3 months, and the remaining 28 showed local control during follow-up periods of 10.5 to 31.7 months. The variables that could affect local failure (age, tumor volume, ADC, T stage, N stage, dose, treatment method, tumor location, and overall treatment time) were analyzed using logistic regression analyses for all 38 patients and for 17 patients with Stage T3 or T4 disease. Results: In univariate logistic analysis for all 38 cases, tumor volume, ADC, T stage, and treatment method showed significant (p < 0.05) associations with local failure. In multivariate analysis, ADC and T stage revealed significance (p < 0.01). In univariate logistic analysis for the 17 patients with Stage T3 or T4 disease, ADC and dose showed significant (p < 0.01) associations with local failure. In multivariate analysis, ADC alone showed significance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that pretreatment ADC, along with T stage, is a potential indicator of local failure in HNSCC treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy.

Hatakenaka, Masamitsu, E-mail: mhatake@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Matsuo, Yoshio; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Sunami, Shunya; Kamitani, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Taro; Yoshiura, Takashi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Nakashima, Torahiko [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Nishikawa, Kei [Radiology Center, Kyushu University Hospital, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan)

2011-10-01

403

Diffusion coefficients (D) of hydrogen in fused silica capillaries (FSC) were determined between 296 and 523 K by Raman spectroscopy using CO2 as an internal standard. FSC capsules (3.25 ?? 10-4 m OD, 9.9 ?? 10-5 m ID, and ???0.01 m long) containing CO2 and H2 were prepared and the initial relative concentrations of hydrogen in these capsules were derived from the Raman peak-height ratios between H2 (near 587 cm-1) and CO2 (near 1387 cm-1). The sample capsules were then heated at a fixed temperature (T) at one atmosphere to let H2 diffuse out of the capsule, and the changes of hydrogen concentration were monitored by Raman spectroscopy after quench. This process was repeated using different heating durations at 296 (room T), 323, 375, 430, 473, and 523 K; the same sample capsule was used repeatedly at each temperature. The values of D (in m2 s-1) in FSC were obtained by fitting the observed changes of hydrogen concentration in the FSC capsule to an equation based on Fick's law. Our D values are in good agreement with the more recent of the two previously reported experimental data sets, and both can be represented by: ln D = - (16.471 ?? 0.035) - frac(44589 ?? 139, RT) (R2 = 0.99991) where R is the gas constant (8.3145 J/mol K), T in Kelvin, and errors at 1?? level. The slope corresponds to an activation energy of 44.59 ?? 0.14 kJ/mol. The D in FSC determined at 296 K is about an order of magnitude higher than that in platinum at 723 K, indicating that FSC is a suitable membrane for hydrogen at temperature between 673 K and room temperature, and has a great potential for studying redox reactions at these temperatures, especially for systems containing organic material and/or sulphur. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Shang, L.; Chou, I.-M.; Lu, W.; Burruss, R.C.; Zhang, Y.

2009-01-01

404

Abstract The objective of this study was to explore the evolution of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in normal-appearing tissue of the corpus callosum during the 1st year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and relate findings to outcome. Fifty-seven patients (mean age 34 [range 11–63] years) with moderate to severe TBI were examined with diffusion weighted MRI at three time points (median 7 days, 3 and 12 months), and a sex- and age-matched control group of 47 healthy individuals, were examined once. The corpus callosum was subdivided and the mean ADC values computed blinded in 10 regions of interests without any visible lesions in the ADC map. Outcome measures were Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) and neuropsychological domain scores at 12 months. We found a gradual increase of the mean ADC values during the 12 month follow-up, most evident in the posterior truncus (r=0.19, p<0.001). Compared with the healthy control group, we found higher mean ADC values in posterior truncus both at 3 months (p=0.021) and 12 months (p=0.003) post-injury. Patients with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) lesions in the corpus callosum in the early MRI, and patients with disability (GOSE score ?6) showed evidence of increased mean ADC values in the genu and posterior truncus at 12 months. Mean ADC values in posterior parts of the corpus callosum at 3 months predicted the sensory-motor function domain score (p=0.010–0.028). During the 1st year after moderate and severe TBI, we demonstrated a slowly evolving disruption of the microstructure in normal appearing corpus callosum in the ADC map, most evident in the posterior truncus. The mean ADC values were associated with both outcome and ability to perform speeded, complex sensory-motor action. PMID:23837731

Håberg, Asta Kristine; Skandsen, Toril; Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Vik, Anne

2014-01-01

405

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional aerosol model is employed in investigating the sensitivity of the stratospheric distributions of gaseous sulfur compounds and sulfate aerosol particles to changes in OH and CS2 concentrations, in eddy diffusion coefficients, and in important chemical rate constants. By comparing model predictions with recent observational data for SO2, OCS, and particulates, it is found that, with regard to atmospheric sulfur, CS2 is only a secondary source of sulfur for the stratosphere relative to OCS and that background tropospheric CS2 concentrations by volume are likely to be less than 70 parts per trillion. It is also established that under stratospheric conditions the rate coefficients for the reactions of OH with OCS and CS2 may be substantially smaller than the room temperature laboratory values of Kurylo (1978).

Turco, R. P.; Whitten, R. C.; Toon, O. B.; Inn, E. C. Y.; Hamill, P.

1981-01-01