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1

ASPEN(Advanced System for Process Engineering) Simulation of a Fixed-Bed Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Power Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fixed-bed integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant has been modeled using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (ASPEN). The ASPEN simulation is based on a conceptual design of a 509-MW IGCC power plant that uses British Gas Corpo...

K. R. Stone

1986-01-01

2

EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

2002-11-27

3

Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

4

Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

2004-01-31

5

Integration of carbonate fuel cells with advanced coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate fuel cells have attributes which make them ideally suited to operate on coal-derived fuel gas; they can convert the methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide present in coal derived fuel gas directly to electricity, are not subject to thermodynamic cycle limits as are heat engines, and operate at temperatures compatible with coal gasifiers. Some new opportunities for improved efficiency have been identified in integrated coal gasification/carbonate fuel cells which take advantage of low temperature catalytic coal gasification producing a methane-rich fuel gas, and the internal methane reforming capabilities of Energy Research Corporation`s carbonate fuel cells. By selecting the appropriate operating conditions and catalyst in the gasifier, methane formation is maximized to improve gasification efficiency and to take advantage of the heat management aspects of the internal reforming carbonate fuel cell. These advanced integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems are projected to have better efficiencies than gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems employing conventional gasification, and also competing non-fuel cell systems. These improved efficiencies would be accompanied by a corresponding reduction in impact on the environment as well.

Steinfeld, G. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Meyers, S.J. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Hauserman, W.B. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

1992-12-01

6

Integration of carbonate fuel cells with advanced coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate fuel cells have attributes which make them ideally suited to operate on coal-derived fuel gas; they can convert the methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide present in coal derived fuel gas directly to electricity, are not subject to thermodynamic cycle limits as are heat engines, and operate at temperatures compatible with coal gasifiers. Some new opportunities for improved efficiency have been identified in integrated coal gasification/carbonate fuel cells which take advantage of low temperature catalytic coal gasification producing a methane-rich fuel gas, and the internal methane reforming capabilities of Energy Research Corporation's carbonate fuel cells. By selecting the appropriate operating conditions and catalyst in the gasifier, methane formation is maximized to improve gasification efficiency and to take advantage of the heat management aspects of the internal reforming carbonate fuel cell. These advanced integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems are projected to have better efficiencies than gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems employing conventional gasification, and also competing non-fuel cell systems. These improved efficiencies would be accompanied by a corresponding reduction in impact on the environment as well.

Steinfeld, G. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)); Meyers, S.J. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)); Hauserman, W.B. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

1992-01-01

7

FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that

Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

2003-01-01

8

FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that

Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt

2001-01-01

9

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC22  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC22, the first test campaign using a high moisture lignite from Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC22 was conducted from March 24 to April 17, 2007. The gasification process was operated for 543 hours, increasing the total gasification operation at the PSDF to over 10,000 hours. The PSDF gasification process was operated in air-blown mode with a total of about 1,080 tons of coal. Coal feeder operation was challenging due to the high as-received moisture content of the lignite, but adjustments to the feeder operating parameters reduced the frequency of coal feeder trips. Gasifier operation was stable, and carbon conversions as high as 98.9 percent were demonstrated. Operation of the PCD and other support equipment such as the recycle gas compressor and ash removal systems operated reliably.

Southern Company Services

2008-11-01

10

Improved system integration for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems are a promising technology for power generation. They include an air separation unit (ASU), a gasification system, and a gas turbine combined cycle power block, and feature competitive efficiency and lower emissions compared to conventional power generation technology. IGCC systems are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility

H. Christopher Frey; Yunhua Zhu

2006-01-01

11

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC16  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report discusses Test Campaign TC16 of the PSDF gasification process. TC16 began on July 14, 2004, lasting until August 24, 2004, for a total of 835 hours of gasification operation. The test campaign consisted of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and high sodium lignite from the North Dakota Freedom mine. The highest gasifier operating temperature mostly varied from 1,760 to 1,850 F with PRB and 1,500 to 1,600 F with lignite. Typically, during PRB operations, the gasifier exit pressure was maintained between 215 and 225 psig using air as the gasification oxidant and between 145 and 190 psig while using oxygen as the oxidant. With lignite, the gasifier operated only in air-blown mode, and the gasifier outlet pressure ranged from 150 to 160 psig.

Southern Company Services

2004-08-24

12

Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study  

SciTech Connect

The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

2003-08-01

13

A Review of Fixed Bed Gasification Systems for Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasification of biomass into useful fuel enhances its potential as a renewable energy resource. The fixed bed gasification systems are classified as updraft, Imbert downdraft, throatless downdraft, crossdraft and two stage gasifiers. Updraft gasifiers are suitable for gasification of biomass containing high ash (up to 15 %) and high moisture content (up to 50 %) and generate producer gas

Sangeeta Chopra; Anil Kr Jain

14

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC17  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results gasification operation with Illinois Basin bituminous coal in PSDF test campaign TC17. The test campaign was completed from October 25, 2004, to November 18, 2004. System startup and initial operation was accomplished with Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, and then the system was transitioned to Illinois Basin coal operation. The major objective for this test was to evaluate the PSDF gasification process operational stability and performance using the Illinois Basin coal. The Transport Gasifier train was operated for 92 hours using PRB coal and for 221 hours using Illinois Basin coal.

Southern Company Services

2004-11-30

15

Control system for a coal gasification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system maintains a predetermined volumetric ratio between fine-particle fuel and a gasification agent which are fed separately into a reactor wherein the fuel is gasified under pressure. The control system includes a first measuring means responsive to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by the fine-particle fuel in a fuel-feed line for producing a fuel-feed signal corresponding to the

P. Gernhardt; W. Grams; W. Danguillier; S. Pohl

1977-01-01

16

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

Southern Company Services

2005-08-31

17

Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350 C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. This paper includes assessment of processing test results of different catalysts. Reactor system results including batch, bench-scale continuous, and engineering-scale processing results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this catalytic gasification system to biomass. The system has utility both for direct conversion of biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for treatment of unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system, high conversion of biomass to fuel gas can be achieved. Medium-Btu is the primary product. Potential exists for recovery/recycle of some of the unreacted inorganic components from the biomass in the aqueous byproduct stream.

Elliott, D. C.; Sealock, L. J.; Phelps, M. R.; Neuenschwander, G. G.; Hart, T. R.

1993-08-01

18

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

Southern Company Services

2008-12-01

19

Proceedings of the eleventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) held the Eleventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting on August 13--15, 1991. Their primary goal is the development of technology essential for private sector commercialization of cost competitive and environmentally acceptable integrated gasification and gas stream cleanup systems. The 1991 Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting provided a forum for scientists and engineers to present their results and exchange ideas. Executives and engineers from several industrial contractors discussed their plans to offer advanced coal gasification and cleanup systems. Over 300 attendees from industry, academia, and government, representing several fortune 500 companies and 11 countries, participated in the 3-day meeting. Participants gave a total of 69 papers in seven sessions, including 35 papers in two poster sessions. Topical areas were: Systems for Production of Power (9 papers); Systems for the Production of Co-Products (5 papers); Advanced Coal Conversion Technology (5 papers); Systems for Gas Stream Cleanup (7 papers); and Advanced Gas Separation Technologies for Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup (8 papers).

Venkataraman, V.K.; Rath, L.K.; Martin, J.W.; Bedick, R.C. [eds.

1991-08-01

20

Proceedings of the eleventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) held the Eleventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting on August 13--15, 1991. Their primary goal is the development of technology essential for private sector commercialization of cost competitive and environmentally acceptable integrated gasification and gas stream cleanup systems. The 1991 Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting provided a forum for scientists and engineers to present their results and exchange ideas. Executives and engineers from several industrial contractors discussed their plans to offer advanced coal gasification and cleanup systems. Over 300 attendees from industry, academia, and government, representing several fortune 500 companies and 11 countries, participated in the 3-day meeting. Participants gave a total of 69 papers in seven sessions, including 35 papers in two poster sessions. Topical areas were: Systems for Production of Power (9 papers); Systems for the Production of Co-Products (5 papers); Advanced Coal Conversion Technology (5 papers); Systems for Gas Stream Cleanup (7 papers); and Advanced Gas Separation Technologies for Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup (8 papers).

Venkataraman, V.K.; Rath, L.K.; Martin, J.W.; Bedick, R.C. [eds.

1991-12-31

21

Proceedings of the eleventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) held the Eleventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting on August 13--15, 1991. Their primary goal is the development of technology essential for private sector commercialization of cost competitive and environmentally acceptable integrated gasification and gas stream cleanup systems. The 1991 Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting provided a forum for scientists and engineers to present their results and exchange ideas. Executives and engineers from several industrial contractors discussed their plans to offer advanced coal gasification and cleanup systems. Over 300 attendees from industry, academia, and government, representing several fortune 500 companies and 11 countries, participated in the 3-day meeting. Participants gave a total of 69 papers in seven sessions, including 35 papers in two poster sessions. Topical areas were: Systems for Production of Power (9 papers); Systems for the Production of Co-Products (5 papers); Advanced Coal Conversion Technology (5 papers); Systems for Gas Stream Cleanup (7 papers); and Advanced Gas Separation Technologies for Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup (8 papers).

Venkataraman, V.K.; Rath, L.K.; Martin, J.W.; Bedick, R.C. (eds.)

1991-08-01

22

Proceedings of the eleventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) held the Eleventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting on August 13--15, 1991. Their primary goal is the development of technology essential for private sector commercialization of cost competitive and environmentally acceptable integrated gasification and gas stream cleanup systems. The 1991 Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting provided a forum for scientists and engineers to present their results and exchange ideas. Executives and engineers from several industrial contractors discussed their plans to offer advanced coal gasification and cleanup systems. Over 300 attendees from industry, academia, and government, representing several fortune 500 companies and 11 countries, participated in the 3-day meeting. Participants gave a total of 69 papers in seven sessions, including 35 papers in two poster sessions. Topical areas were: Systems for Production of Power (9 papers); Systems for the Production of Co-Products (5 papers); Advanced Coal Conversion Technology (5 papers); Systems for Gas Stream Cleanup (7 papers); and Advanced Gas Separation Technologies for Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup (8 papers).

Venkataraman, V.K.; Rath, L.K.; Martin, J.W.; Bedick, R.C. (eds.)

1991-01-01

23

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

Southern Company Services

2008-03-30

24

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC21  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of gasification operation with lignite coal following the 2006 gasifier configuration modifications. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC21, occurring from November 7, 2006, through January 26, 2007. The test campaign began with low sodium lignite fuel, and after 304 hours of operation, the fuel was changed to high sodium lignite, for 34 additional hours of operation. Both fuels were from the North Dakota Freedom mine. Stable operation with low sodium lignite was maintained for extended periods, although operation with high sodium lignite was problematic due to agglomeration formation in the gasifier restricting solids circulation.

Southern Company Services

2007-01-30

25

Experience with high temperature dust filtration in coal gasification systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper tabulates the major experience and future plans worldwide for high temperature filtration of dust-laden gases from coal gasification systems. Past and current experience tabulated includes the hot filtration of gases from entrained-flow and flu...

M. Epstein L. K. Rath

1992-01-01

26

Westinghouse coal gasification combined cycle system for electric utility application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westinghouse coal gasification process and its application to combined cycle plants for electric utility use is presented. The process permits the conversion of coal in an efficient, economical and environmentally acceptable manner, to low-or medium-Btu gas for utility and industrial use. Basically, the combined cycle plant design incorporates an air-blown, fluidized bed gasification system, a combustion turbine system and

F. Gigliotti; R. M. Stavsky; M. Carrington

1981-01-01

27

Techniques for Mercury Control and Measurement in Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

A major concern for power systems that use coal as an energy source is the air emissions from the plant. Although certain air emissions are currently regulated, the emergence of new regulations for other pollutants are on the horizon. Gasification is an important strategy for increasing the utilization of abundant domestic coal reserves. The Department of Energy envisions increased use of gasification in the United States during the next twenty years. As such, the DOE Gasification Technologies Program will strive to approach a near-zero emissions goal with respect to pollutants. The mercury research detailed in this proposal addresses the Gas Cleaning and Conditioning program technology area.

Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Pennline, H.W.

2002-09-20

28

Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID...

M. L. Grygiel

1996-01-01

29

Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering

Grygiel

1996-01-01

30

Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350 C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of

D. C. Elliott; L. J. Sealock; M. R. Phelps; G. G. Neuenschwander; T. R. Hart

1993-01-01

31

Improved system integration for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems are a promising technology for power generation. They include an air separation unit (ASU), a gasification system, and a gas turbine combined cycle power block, and feature competitive efficiency and lower emissions compared to conventional power generation technology. IGCC systems are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility via improved process integration. A process simulation model was developed for IGCC systems with alternative types of ASU and gas turbine integration. The model is applied to evaluate integration schemes involving nitrogen injection, air extraction, and combinations of both, as well as different ASU pressure levels. The optimal nitrogen injection only case in combination with an elevated pressure ASU had the highest efficiency and power output and approximately the lowest emissions per unit output of all cases considered, and thus is a recommended design option. The optimal combination of air extraction coupled with nitrogen injection had slightly worse efficiency, power output, and emissions than the optimal nitrogen injection only case. Air extraction alone typically produced lower efficiency, lower power output, and higher emissions than all other cases. The recommended nitrogen injection only case is estimated to provide annualized cost savings compared to a nonintegrated design. Process simulation modeling is shown to be a useful tool for evaluation and screening of technology options. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

H. Christopher Frey; Yunhua Zhu [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States). Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering

2006-03-01

32

Coal gasification combined-cycle system analysis. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a study involving combustion turbine power plants using coal gasification. The study concentrated on systems integration and the optimization of power plant conceptual designs. In order of importance, the objectives of the study were to: (1) determine potential levels of thermal efficiency for well integrated gasified coal combined cycle (GCC)

J. Garow; S. J. Lehman

1980-01-01

33

Continuous Two-Stage Solar-Gasification System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of solar thermal energy has the potential to play an important role in the production of fuels and chemicals. A continuous two stage fluidized bed hybrid solar coal gasification system designed at the University of New Hampshire to produce synthes...

V. K. Mathur S. Lakshmanan F. K. Manasse V. Venkataramanan R. W. Breault

1980-01-01

34

Engineering evaluation of process heat applications for very high temperature nuclear reactors. [Coal gasification and liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification and liquefaction processes and costs are reviewed. Nuclear-heated processes based on 3000-MWt reactors are compared to the principal fossil-heated coal conversion processes of similar size. The published processes are technically feasible, and costs are consistent with United Engineers' experience. If a 15 percent fixed charge rate and $0.50\\/10 Btu coal can be obtained, and costs published by proponents

D. S. Wiggins; J. J. Williams

1976-01-01

35

Stochastic modeling of coal gasification combined cycle systems: Cost models for selected integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents cost models developed for selected integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. The objective is to obtain a series of capital and operating cost models that can be integrated with an existing set of IGCC process performance models developed at the US Department of Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These models are implemented in ASPEN, a Fortran-based process

H. C. Frey; E. S. Rubin

1990-01-01

36

Power Systems Development Facility: High Temperature, High Pressure Filtration in Gasification Operation  

SciTech Connect

High temperature, high pressure gas filtration is a fundamental component of several advanced coal-fired power systems. This paper discusses the hot-gas filter vessel operation in coal gasification mode at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The PSDF, near Wilsonville, Alabama, is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company, and other industrial participants currently including the Electric Power Research Institute, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, Kellogg Brown & Root Inc. (KBR), and Peabody Energy. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems designed at sufficient size to provide data for commercial scale-up.

Martin, R.A.; Guan, X.; Gardner, B.; Hendrix, H.

2002-09-18

37

Developing Systems Engineering Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems engineering ontologies are required to assist interested parties in understanding the systems engineering discipline's broad and multi-faceted nature. This paper discusses the need for and general benefits of an ontology. The authors discuss the use of the domain knowledge acquisition process ontology modeling technique and its application to capture a systems engineering functional domain ontology. A preliminary systems engineering

B. Sarder; S. Ferreira

2007-01-01

38

Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-05-03

39

Ocean engineering power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The text presents basic thermodynamic principles and engineering considerations for ocean power systems. A survey chapter introduces a wide range of applications of power systems in the oceans. Thermodynamic principles and engine cycles are extensively reviewed in the next chapter. Then, chapters on energy sources, thermal power plants, and engineering of specific types of ocean systems are presented. Engineering principles

Carmichael

1974-01-01

40

Systems engineering management plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is a comprehensive and effective tool used to assist in the management of systems engineering efforts. It is intended to guide the work of all those involved in the project. The SEMP is comprised of three main sections: technical project planning and control, systems engineering process, and engineering specialty integration. The contents of each

Tamara S

2009-01-01

41

Systems engineering management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe the systems engineering procedures to be implemented at the Program level and the minimum requirements for systems engineering at the Program-element level. The Program level corresponds to the Director, OCRWM, or to the organizations within OCRWM to which the Director delegates responsibility for the development of the System

Conner

1985-01-01

42

Cord wood gasification and gas combustion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1.0 Gj\\/hr cord wood gasifier-combustor was designed and tested. Two-staged combustion of cord wood up to a diameter of 15.2 cm was achieved with a net energy efficiency of 70 to 80%. Modulation of the system output was demonstrated. The major problem encountered was loading wood into the hot gasifier on a continuous basis. ref.

F. A. Payne; J. G. Alphin; J. M. Bunn

1981-01-01

43

Manufacturing systems engineering and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a discussion of manufacturing systems engineering and manufacturing systems management as one of the major efforts that concern systems engineers. There are many ways in which we can describe systems engineering and within this manufacturing systems engineering and management. This paper takes a multifaceted view of systems engineering. It attempts to describe systems engineering in terms of

Andrew P. Sage

1996-01-01

44

BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated system that exceeds the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal of 40% (HHV) efficiency at emission levels well below the DOE suggested limits; and (5) An advanced biofueled power system whose levelized cost of electricity can be competitive with other new power system alternatives.

David Liscinsky

2002-10-20

45

Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2008-07-01

46

Hydrogen production by biomass gasification in supercritical water with a fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production by biomass gasification in supercritical water (SCW) is a promising technology for utilizing high moisture content biomass, but reactor plugging is a critical problem for biomass gasification in the tubular reactor. A novel SCW fluidized bed system for biomass gasification was developed successfully in State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering (SKLMF) to prevent the plugging

Y. J. Lu; H. Jin; L. J. Guo; X. M. Zhang; C. Q. Cao; X. Guo

2008-01-01

47

Center for Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary engineering management process that evolves and verifies an integrated, life cycle balanced set of system solutions that satisfy customer needs. It is comprehensive, iterative, multi-functional, technical management process that includes translating operational requirements into configured systems. It is responsible for integrating the technical inputs of the entire design team, managing interfaces, characterizing and managing

K. Bausman; M. Wilson

2003-01-01

48

Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

2012-04-15

49

Power Systems Development Facility: High Temperature, High Pressure Filtration in Gasification Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High temperature, high pressure gas filtration is a fundamental component of several advanced coal-fired power systems. This paper discusses the hot-gas filter vessel operation in coal gasification mode at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Th...

R. A. Martin B. Gardner X. Cuan H. Hendrix

2005-01-01

50

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

51

Nuclear propulsion systems engineering  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

1992-12-31

52

Nuclear propulsion systems engineering  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

1992-01-01

53

Systems engineering management plans.  

SciTech Connect

The Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is a comprehensive and effective tool used to assist in the management of systems engineering efforts. It is intended to guide the work of all those involved in the project. The SEMP is comprised of three main sections: technical project planning and control, systems engineering process, and engineering specialty integration. The contents of each section must be tailored to the specific effort. A model outline and example SEMP are provided. The target audience is those who are familiar with the systems engineering approach and who have an interest in employing the SEMP as a tool for systems management. The goal of this document is to provide the reader with an appreciation for the use and importance of the SEMP, as well as provide a framework that can be used to create the management plan.

Rodriguez, Tamara S.

2009-10-01

54

Advanced coal gasification system for electric power generation. Development of full-size gas turbine combustors using synthetic low-Btu fuel gas at 350°F. Technical status report, June 1974July 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important purpose in developing coal gasification systems for low-Btu fuel gas is to make possible the use of coal in combined-cycle electric generating plants for Utility Service. Air-blown gasification systems will not reach their full potential of usefulness unless it has been proved that gas turbine engines of large ratings can be built with integral combustors. The main thrust

P. W. Pillsbury; S. S. Lin

1976-01-01

55

Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant  

SciTech Connect

Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

1993-01-01

56

Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant  

SciTech Connect

Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

1993-06-01

57

Developing Data System Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early days of general computer systems for science data processing, staff members working on NASA's data systems would most often be hired as mathematicians. Computer engineering was very often filled by those with electrical engineering degrees. Today, the Goddard Space Flight Center has special position descriptions for data scientists or as they are more commonly called: data systems engineers. These staff members are required to have very diverse skills, hence the need for a generalized position description. There is always a need for data systems engineers to develop, maintain and operate the complex data systems for Earth and space science missions. Today's data systems engineers however are not just mathematicians, they are computer programmers, GIS experts, software engineers, visualization experts, etc... They represent many different degree fields. To put together distributed systems like the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System (EOSDIS), staff are required from many different fields. Sometimes, the skilled professional is not available and must be developed in-house. This paper will address the various skills and jobs for data systems engineers at NASA. Further it explores how to develop staff to become data scientists.

Behnke, J.; Byrnes, J. B.; Kobler, B.

2011-12-01

58

Rocket engine condition monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is expected that the Rocket Engine Condition Monitoring System (RECMS) program will define engine monitoring technologies and an integration approach which can be applied to engine development in support of advanced launch system objectives. The RECMS program approaches engine monitoring as a system which is fully integrated with the engine controller, vehicle monitoring system, and ground processing systems to

S. K. Hagar; J. F. Alcock

1989-01-01

59

Engineering analyses for evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Task C  

SciTech Connect

This report satisfies the Task C requirement for DOE contract DE-AC21-81MC16220 to provide engineering analyses of power systems utilizing coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The process information and data necessary for this study were extracted from sources in the public domain, including reports from DOE, EPRI, and EPA; work sponsored in whole or in part by Federal agencies; and from trade journals, MCFC developers, and manufacturers. The computer model used by Westinghouse, designated AHEAD, is proprietary and so is not provided in this report. The engineering analyses provide relative power system efficiency data for ten gasifier/gas cleanup fuel supply systems, including air- and oxygen-blown gasification, hot and cold desulfurization, and a range of MCFC operating pressure from 345 kPaa (50 psia) to 2069 kPaa (300 psia).

Hamm, J.R.; Vidt, E.J.

1982-02-01

60

Development of a high-temperature air-blown gasification system.  

PubMed

Current status of high-temperature air-blown gasification technology development is reviewed. This advanced gasification system utilizes preheated air to convert coal and waste-derived fuels into synthetic fuel gas and value-added byproducts. A series of demonstrated, independent technologies are combined to form the core of this gasification system. A high-temperature, rapid devolatilization process is used to enhance the volatile yields from the fuel and to improve the gasification efficiency. A high-temperature pebble bed filter is used to remove to the slag and particulates from the synthetic fuel gas. Finally, a novel regenerative heater is used to supply the high-temperature air for the gasifier. Component development tests have shown that higher gasification efficiencies can be obtained at more fuel-rich operating conditions when high-temperature air is used as the gasification agent. Test results also demonstrated the flex-fuel capabilities of the gasifier design. Potential uses of this technology range from large-scale integrated gasification power plants to small-scale waste-to-energy applications. PMID:11499577

Pian, C C; Yoshikawa, K

2001-09-01

61

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Second quarter progress report FY-1983, January 1-March 31, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following tasks: (1) process development unit test operations and results; (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies of gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 8 figures, 11 tables.

Not Available

1983-05-16

62

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. First quarter progress report FY-1984, October 1-December 31, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process and component engineering and design; (3) cold flow scaleup facility (CFSF); (4) process analysis; and (5) laboratory support studies of gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 15 figs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1984-07-25

63

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies involving gas solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 9 figures, 19 tables.

Not Available

1983-04-21

64

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Third quarter progress report FY-1983, April 1-June 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following tasks: process development unit test operations; process analysis; process and component engineering and design; cold flow scaleup facility; and laboratory support studies. 3 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

Not Available

1983-09-07

65

Automotive Stirling Engine systems development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30% improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: 1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; 2) the

Richey

1984-01-01

66

Systems engineering management plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe the systems engineering procedures to be implemented at the Program level and the minimum requirements for systems engineering at the Program-element level. The Program level corresponds to the Director, OCRWM, or to the organizations within OCRWM to which the Director delegates responsibility for the development of the System and for coordinating and integrating the activities at the Program-element level. The Office of Policy and Outreach (OPO) and the Office of Resource Management (ORM) support the Director at the Program level. The Program-element level corresponds to the organizations within OCRWM (i.e., the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR) and the Office of Storage and Transportation Systems (OSTS)) with overall responsibility for developing the System elements - that is, the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS) (if approved by Congress), and the transportation system.

Conner, C.W.

1985-10-01

67

Coal gasification: Duluth campus heating plant. Grate support system failure  

SciTech Connect

During the seventh run there was a complete failure of the grate support system. Two massive holes and numerous cracks finished the deterioration of the grate holder that had started on the fifth run of the gasification system. The zero ductile casting was quenched with ash water during an emergency loss of blast air with the resulting depressurization of the producer. The cause of the failure was threefold - quenching of the hot cast iron, low ductility in the material used (Meehanite W-1), and high stresses set up in the casting at bolting locations. To correct this problem the grate support system has undergone the following design changes: (1) The structural part of the grate holder will be a plate steel weldment welded directly (instead of bolting) to the ash pan. This will eliminate gasket leaks, give us a more ductile material for transporting the stress from the grate to the rotating ash pan, and give us better thermal conduction of heat (elimination of gasket thermal break) from the grate holder to water in the ash pan. (2) The grinding lobes will be cast iron wearing attachments bolted to the structural steel grate holder. The attachments will be made of a more ductile iron than Meehanite W-1. In the future, when the grinding lobes wear, they can be replaced without removing the entire grate holder.

Not Available

1980-01-01

68

Advanced Thermochemical Biomass Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of advanced biomass gasification systems offers the potential for increasing the industrial use of biomass. An overview of the limitations of thermal gasification systems for producing medium-Btu gas from biomass is presented. The use of an ex...

R. S. Butner D. C. Elliott L. J. Sealock

1986-01-01

69

Systems thinking or systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem faced by most systems organisations is how to develop and sustain staff with the appropriate systems skills and experience. To date, much has been made of the delineation of systems thinking and systems engineering. In this research, the partitioning of \\

Kate M. Gill

2009-01-01

70

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we focused on getting a bench-scale test system to expose alloy coupons to simulated gasifier environment. The test facility was designed to allow about 20 specimen coupons to be exposed simultaneously for an extend period to a simulated coal gas stream at temperatures up to 1000 C. The simulated gas stream contained about 26%H{sub 2}, 39%CO, 17%CO{sub 2}, 1.4% H{sub 2}S and balance steam. We successfully ran a 100+h test with coated and uncoated stainless steel coupons. The tested alloys include SS304, SS316, SS405, SS409, SS410, and IN800. The main finding is that Ti/Ta coating provides excellent protection to SS405 under conditions where uncoated austenitic and ferritic stainless steel alloy coupons are badly corroded. Cr coatings also appear to afford some protection against corrosion.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01

71

Demonstration of hot gas filtration in advanced coal gasification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is an engineering scale demonstration of advanced coal–fired power systems and high–temperature, high pressure gas filtration systems. The PSDF was designed at sufficient scale so that advanced power systems and components can be tested in an integrated fashion to provide data for commercial scale–up. The PSDF is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy

Xiaofeng Guan; Ben Gardner; Ruth Ann Martin; Jack Spain

2008-01-01

72

Engineering Secure Software Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is there such a thing anymore as a software system that doesn't need to be secure? Almost every software- controlled system faces threats from potential adversaries, from Internet-aware client applications running on PCs, to complex telecommunications and power systems accessible over the Internet, to commodity software with copy protec- tion mechanisms. Software engineers must be cognizant of these threats and

Premkumar T. Devanbu; Stuart G. Stubblebine

73

Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project, Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The DOE entered into a cooperative agreement with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E) under which DOE proposes to provide cost-shared funding to design, construct, and operate an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project to repower an existing steam turbine generator set at the Springfield (Illinois) City Water, Light and Power (CWL&P) Lakeside Generating Station, while capturing 90% of the coal`s sulfur and producing elemental sulfur as a salable by-product. The proposed demonstration would help determine the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed IGCC technology on a scale that would allow the utility industry to assess its applicability for repowering other coal-burning power plants. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by DOE in compliance with the requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The sources of information for this EA include the following: C-E`s technical proposal for the project submitted to DOE in response to the Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Program Opportunity Notice (PON); discussions with C-E and CWL&P staff; the volume of environmental information for the project and its supplements provided by C-E; and a site visit to the proposed project site.

Not Available

1992-03-01

74

Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project, Clean Coal Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

The DOE entered into a cooperative agreement with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E) under which DOE proposes to provide cost-shared funding to design, construct, and operate an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project to repower an existing steam turbine generator set at the Springfield (Illinois) City Water, Light and Power (CWL P) Lakeside Generating Station, while capturing 90% of the coal's sulfur and producing elemental sulfur as a salable by-product. The proposed demonstration would help determine the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed IGCC technology on a scale that would allow the utility industry to assess its applicability for repowering other coal-burning power plants. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by DOE in compliance with the requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The sources of information for this EA include the following: C-E's technical proposal for the project submitted to DOE in response to the Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Program Opportunity Notice (PON); discussions with C-E and CWL P staff; the volume of environmental information for the project and its supplements provided by C-E; and a site visit to the proposed project site.

Not Available

1992-03-01

75

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. A review of the literature indicated that the Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. We selected diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, and surface coatings of Si and Ti for the preliminary testing. These coatings will be applied using the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition technique developed at SRI which is rapid and relatively inexpensive. We have procured coupons of typical alloys used in a gasifier. These coupons will be coated with Cr, Al, Si, and Ti. The samples will be tested in a bench-scale reactor using simulated coal gas compositions. In addition, we will be sending coated samples for insertion in the gas stream of the coal gasifier.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

76

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01

77

Risk management systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major purpose of the systems management function is to implement the strategic plan of the organization so as to provide a total quality approach, including associated risk management. The author examines a number of issues related to risk management. Systems engineering processes are inherently subject to risks of a variety of types. When risks materialize, they usually manifest themselves

Andrew P. Sage

1995-01-01

78

Engineering scalable biological systems.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast and mammalian systems. However, significant challenges in the construction, probing, modulation and debugging of synthetic biological systems must be addressed in order to achieve scalable higher-complexity biological circuits. Furthermore, concomitant efforts to evaluate the safety and biocontainment of engineered organisms and address public and regulatory concerns will be necessary to ensure that technological advances are translated into real-world solutions. PMID:21468204

Lu, Timothy K

79

GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

SciTech Connect

A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

2000-05-01

80

Stochastic modeling of coal gasification combined cycle systems: Cost models for selected integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems  

SciTech Connect

This report documents cost models developed for selected integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. The objective is to obtain a series of capital and operating cost models that can be integrated with an existing set of IGCC process performance models developed at the US Department of Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These models are implemented in ASPEN, a Fortran-based process simulator. Under a separate task, a probabilistic modeling capability has been added to the ASPEN simulator, facilitating analysis of uncertainties in new process performance and cost (Diwekar and Rubin, 1989). One application of the cost models presented here is to explicitly characterize uncertainties in capital and annual costs, supplanting the traditional approach of incorporating uncertainty via a contingency factor. The IGCC systems selected by DOE/METC for cost model development include the following: KRW gasifier with cold gas cleanup; KRW gasifier with hot gas cleanup; and Lurgi gasifier with hot gas cleanup. For each technology, the cost model includes both capital and annual costs. The capital cost models estimate the costs of each major plant section as a function of key performance and design parameters. A standard cost method based on the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Technical Assessment Guide (1986) was adopted. The annual cost models are based on operating and maintenance labor requirements, maintenance material requirements, the costs of utilities and reagent consumption, and credits from byproduct sales. Uncertainties in cost parameters are identified for both capital and operating cost models. Appendices contain cost models for the above three IGCC systems, a number of operating trains subroutines, range checking subroutines, and financial subroutines. 88 refs., 69 figs., 21 tabs.

Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

1990-06-01

81

Advanced hybrid gasification facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H. [CRS Sirrine, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Dixit, V.B. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States). Riley Research Center

1993-08-01

82

Experience with high temperature dust filtration in coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper tabulates the major experience and future plans worldwide for high temperature filtration of dust-laden gases from coal gasification systems. Past and current experience tabulated includes the hot filtration of gases from entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasifiers, ranging in capacity between 2 and 700 ton/day coal feed and with operating pressures between 10 and 25 bars. GCC power plants are competitive with conventional coal-based power plants with scrubbers and have advantages in efficiency and environmental emissions. Up to recently, all GCC plants have incorporated cold gas cleanup (i.e., water scrubbing) for control of char particulate (dust) entrained out of the gasifier with the raw product gas. All current GCC plant designs for entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasifiers, however, incorporate hot gas filtration for capture of the gasifier dust. Benefits to be derived from hot gas dust filtration in GCC plants are as follows: (1) Enables use of lower cost downstream heat exchangers -- smaller boiler, superheater (reduced fouling/improved heat transfer) -- use of fire-tube (vs. water-wall) design -- use of horizontal heat exchangers; (2) Increases reliability/availability of downstream heat exchangers -- reduced erosion/corrosion -- reduced solids deposits; (3) Improves process efficiency for two-stage entrained-flow gasifiers (e.g., Destec, CE, NEDO/IGC) -- recycle dry (vs. wet) char to gasifier improve carbon conversion -- reduces pressure drop for dust capture (vs. cyclones/scrubbers); and (4) Downstream wastewater cleanup simplified, i.e., wastewater does not contain fines.

Epstein, M. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Rath, L.K. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1992-11-01

83

Experience with high temperature dust filtration in coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper tabulates the major experience and future plans worldwide for high temperature filtration of dust-laden gases from coal gasification systems. Past and current experience tabulated includes the hot filtration of gases from entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasifiers, ranging in capacity between 2 and 700 ton/day coal feed and with operating pressures between 10 and 25 bars. GCC power plants are competitive with conventional coal-based power plants with scrubbers and have advantages in efficiency and environmental emissions. Up to recently, all GCC plants have incorporated cold gas cleanup (i.e., water scrubbing) for control of char particulate (dust) entrained out of the gasifier with the raw product gas. All current GCC plant designs for entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasifiers, however, incorporate hot gas filtration for capture of the gasifier dust. Benefits to be derived from hot gas dust filtration in GCC plants are as follows: (1) Enables use of lower cost downstream heat exchangers -- smaller boiler, superheater (reduced fouling/improved heat transfer) -- use of fire-tube (vs. water-wall) design -- use of horizontal heat exchangers; (2) Increases reliability/availability of downstream heat exchangers -- reduced erosion/corrosion -- reduced solids deposits; (3) Improves process efficiency for two-stage entrained-flow gasifiers (e.g., Destec, CE, NEDO/IGC) -- recycle dry (vs. wet) char to gasifier improve carbon conversion -- reduces pressure drop for dust capture (vs. cyclones/scrubbers); and (4) Downstream wastewater cleanup simplified, i.e., wastewater does not contain fines.

Epstein, M. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Rath, L.K. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States))

1992-01-01

84

Plural engine power producing system  

SciTech Connect

A system is described for producing power utilizing gas turbine engines comprising: a primary engine including a gas generator and a power turbine; a secondary engine including: a compressor; a combustor; and a turbine driving engaged with the compressor; drive means selectively coupling the gas generator of the primary engine and the secondary engine for augmenting the output power of the primary engine and for achieving improved fuel consumption of the system at low power levels.

Banthin, C.; Deman, J.

1993-08-31

85

ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is the development and commercial demonstration of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Cascade Corporation's pulp and paper mill in DeRidder, Louisiana. The advanced power generation system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

2003-01-01

86

ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boise Paper Solutions and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

2002-01-01

87

Assessment of the Labor Impacts of Coal Gasification Systems: Project No. 61027. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Institute of Gas Technology has estimated the labor requirements and their impacts for construction and operation of coal gasification systems (mine and plant). Commercial-size high-, medium-, and low-Btu systems were studied. For the high-Btu system ...

T. D. Donakowski E. J. Daniels

1980-01-01

88

ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

2002-01-01

89

Application of a detailed dimensional solid oxide fuel cell model in integrated gasification fuel cell system design and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems that combine coal gasification and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are promising for highly efficient and environmentally sensitive utilization of coal for power production. Most IGFC system analysis efforts performed to-date have employed non-dimensional SOFC models, which predict SOFC performance based upon global mass and energy balances that do not resolve important intrinsic constraints

Mu Li; Jacob Brouwer; Ashok D. Rao; G. Scott Samuelsen

2011-01-01

90

Computer System Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course, presented by MIT, covers topics on the engineering of computer software and hardware systems. This include: techniques for controlling complexity; strong modularity using client-server design, virtual memory, and threads; networks; atomicity and coordination of parallel activities; recovery and reliability; privacy, security, and encryption; and impact of computer systems on society. The course also looks at case studies of working systems and readings from the current literature provide comparisons and contrasts, and do two design projects. The page also contains lectures notes, additional readings and a projects sections.

2008-11-26

91

Operating System Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From MIT's extraordinary OpenCourseWare projects comes this computer science course focused on operating system engineering. Taught by Frans Kaashoek in the Fall of 2006, this course covers "virtual memory, kernel and user mode, system calls, threads, context switches, interrupts, interprocess communication, coordination of concurrent activities, and the interface between software and hardware" and the interaction between these processes. On the site, visitors will find the course syllabus, lecture notes, lab activities, assignments, exams, and related links and tools. This is a great site for educators to use to bolster or create their own computer science modules on operating systems.

Kaashoek, Frans, 1965-

2006-01-01

92

Data acquisition system and instrumentation for the Rocky Mountain I Coal Gasification test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) designed the data acquisition system (DAS) to measure all surface and subsurface process parameters during the Rocky Mountain I (RM I) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test. The Hewlett Packard (HP) minicomputer-based system acquired data from strings of type-K thermocouples that were emplaced in vertical wells at key locations in the reactor area. Process data such

G. A. Metzger; J. A. Britten

1988-01-01

93

A final report on the Great Plains Gasification Project's environmental, health, and safety information data system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNLs) role in providing information to Department of Energy (DOE) on environmental data generated at the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project (GPCGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. An information system, the Fossil Energy (FE) Environmental, Health, and Safety Information System (EHSIS) was developed at ORNL to assist in tracking, analyzing, and making readily available

P. A. Noghrei-Nikbakht; L. M. Roseberry

1989-01-01

94

User's manual for the Gas Research Institute coal-gasification environmental, health, and safety information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

GRI has developed an information system to provide member companies and other participating researchers access to a carefully screened collection of technical information relevant to controlling potential environmental, health, and safety (EHandS) impacts of coal gasification. The information system does not contain data, but rather a short review of that data or other information, and a rating of its pertinent

G. E. Brown; N. P. Meserole; J. Esh-Sheikh

1985-01-01

95

Acid Gas Removal by Customized Sorbents for Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Systems  

SciTech Connect

In order to reduce exergy losses, gas cleaning at high temperatures is favored in IGFC systems. As shown by thermodynamic data, separation efficiencies of common sorbents decrease with increasing temperature. Therefore, acid gas removal systems have to be developed for IGFC applications considering sorbent capacity, operation temperature, gasification feedstock composition and fuel cell threshold values.

Kapfenberger, J.; Sohnemann, J.; Schleitzer, D.; Loewen, A.

2002-09-20

96

Thermophysical characteristics of the biomass tar from a crop stalk gasification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, the biomass gasification and centralised gas-supply system fed by crop stalks is still at the stage of development and research in China. The purifier of the system has some problems such as huge device, low purifying efficiency, and poor disposal of tar causing secondary pollution. For this reason, the distillate range, calorific value, ignition temperature, flash point and viscosity

Zhang Quanguo; Yang Qunfa; Fan Fengming

2004-01-01

97

Object Based Systems Engineering (OBSE).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives: (1) Communicate the background (past & current state) & motivation for Object Based Systems Engineering (OBSE); (2) Communicate the evolution of Systems Engineering practice; (3) Communicate the concepts of OBSE; (4) Communicate the roadblocks...

J. A. Fitch P. Mendonza

2011-01-01

98

Engineers recommend telecommunications system  

SciTech Connect

Engineers present the case for electric utilities developing an integrated telecommunications network which links its energy management, distribution automation, and load management systems with the utility's business computers over high-speed channels. The most important benefit would be the formation of a single utility-wide, real-time, distributed data base. The historical development of utilities has segmented their operations into generation, transmission, and distribution operations that are like a patchwork quilt that needs to be linked together. 1 figure.

Not Available

1985-08-01

99

Neural Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological brains and engineered electronic computers fall into different categories. Both are examples of complex information\\u000a processing systems, but beyond this point their differences outweigh their similarities. Brains are flexible, imprecise, error-prone\\u000a and slow; computers are inflexible, precise, deterministic and fast. The sets of functions at which each excels are largely\\u000a non-intersecting. They simply seem to be different types of

Steve Furber; Steve Temple

2008-01-01

100

Systems engineering: a practical approach for junior engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a recent engineering graduate's viewpoint(s) about his career with United States Air Force. He discusses the importance of undergraduate engineering disciplines being taught with respect to systems engineering guidelines. He discusses how systems engineering should also be taught from a practical viewpoint. If the systems engineering process is added to the traditional engineering curriculum, it should highlight

Samuel Burnham

2005-01-01

101

Boiler control systems engineering  

SciTech Connect

The book provides in-depth coverage on how to safely and reliably control the firing of a boiler. Regardless of the capacity or fuel, certain fundamental control systems are required for boiler control. Large utility systems are more complex due to the number of burners and the overall capacity and equipment. This book covers engineering details on control systems and provides specific examples of boiler control including configuration and tuning. References to requirements are based on the 2004 NFPA 85 along with other ISA standards. Detailed chapters cover: Boiler fundamentals including piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and a design basis checklist; Control of boilers, from strategies and bumpless transfer to interlock circuitry and final control elements; Furnace draft; Feedwater; Coal-fired boilers; Fuel and air control; Steam temperature; Burner management systems; Environment; and Control valve sizing. 2 apps.

Gilman, J.

2005-07-01

102

Program Plan for Development of Hot Dirty-Gas Heat Exchangers for Coal-Gasification Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the heat exchanger applications, and its scope includes a broad range of gasification systems, such as the generic models for entrained-flow, moving-bed, and fluidized-bed gasifiers. The major application of hot dirty-gas heat excha...

E. L. Churnetski

1983-01-01

103

Use of coal gasification in compressed-air energy storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a study conducted by Energy Storage and Power Consultants (ESPC) whose objective was to try to develop a cost effective Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) power plant concept integrated with the Texaco Coal Gasification System (TCGS). The capital cost of a coal gasification system is significantly higher than some other power plant systems and if operated at low capacity factors, the total cost of electricity would not be competitive. One of the main objectives of this study was to try to develop a concept which would provide continuous operation of the gasification system and, as a result, improve the plant economics through better utilization of its expensive components. Five CAES/TCGS concepts have been identified as the most promising, and were optimized using specifically developed computerized procedures. These concepts utilized various configurations of conventional reheat turbomachinery trains specifically developed for CAES application, the GE Frame 7F, Frame 7E and LM5000 gas turbine units as parts of the integrated CAES/TCGS plant concepts. The project resulted in development of integrated CAES/TCGS plant concepts which were optimized to provide TCGS capacity factors up to over 90%. Cursory economics for some of the integrated CAES/TCGS concepts are slightly better than those of a conventional integrated coal gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) plant. 25 figs., 8 tabs.

Nakhamkin, M. (Energy Storage and Power Consultants, Mountainside, NJ (USA))

1989-09-01

104

Pulse detonation engine test system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test system of pulse detonation engine, based on PCI-6115 Data Acquisition Card and Front Integrated Instrument, Access databases and NI-Measurement Studio programming design suites in Windows. This test system is used to record the test data of pulse detonation engine and research the properties of detonation wave. Plenty of test data of pulse detonation engine which was recorded by

Xiaoming He; Jiankang Lu

2010-01-01

105

ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is the development and commercial demonstration of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Cascade Corporation's pulp and paper mill in DeRidder, Louisiana. The advanced power generation system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as the primary fuel resource. The novel system is based on three advanced technology components: GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and 3-stage solid fuels combustion technologies coupled with one of the power generation approaches used in DOE's HIPPS program. Phase 1 of the project is a technical and economic evaluation of the system at the DeRidder site. A Continuation Application will be submitted at the conclusion of Phase 1 for authorization to proceed to testing and design in Phase 2. Phase 2 includes pilot-scale verification of selected system components and preparation of a detailed engineering design and cost estimate for retrofit of the advanced power system at the DeRidder mill. Phase 3 will complete procurement and construction of the system at the DeRidder site along with all required permitting activities. Phase 4 of the project will included plant commissioning, startup and demonstration operations. Design information for the Gasification Island was completed during the quarter. Two vendor quotations were received for the bark/hog fuel dryers. A final layout plan for the major equipment was developed and submitted to DeRidder for review and approval. The Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) completed a subcontract for a laboratory study on VOC emissions from wood waste drying using bark from the DeRidder mill. Samples of DeRidder's lime mud and green liquor dregs were collected and analyzed in GTI's laboratory. It was determined that lime mud is far too fine to be utilized as inert bed material in the fluidized bed gasifier. Results for the green liquor dregs are currently being reviewed. Design analysis for the in-furnace HPHT Air Heater was completed and the external Syngas Cooler/Air Heater was begun. Materials were received for the air heater tube testing system to be installed in Boiler No. 2 at DeRidder. A refractory interference problem with the original testing system design was discovered and resolved. Analyses of the externally recuperated gas turbine cycles (air heater and booster combustor in parallel or series) were continued including the effects of steam cooling and inlet air humidification on power output and operating cost. Discussions were continued with turbine manufacturers regarding the technical, time and cost requirements for developing an externally recuperated turbine engine suitable for use in the project. A 5-month no-cost time extension was requested and received for the project to accommodate design and evaluation of externally recuperated gas turbines using HPHT air as the working fluid.

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

2003-04-01

106

Process Systems Engineering R&D for Advanced Fossil Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

This presentation will examine process systems engineering R&D needs for application to advanced fossil energy (FE) systems and highlight ongoing research activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the auspices of a recently launched Collaboratory for Process & Dynamic Systems Research. The three current technology focus areas include: 1) High-fidelity systems with NETL's award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) technology for integrating process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and virtual engineering concepts, 2) Dynamic systems with R&D on plant-wide IGCC dynamic simulation, control, and real-time training applications, and 3) Systems optimization including large-scale process optimization, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and cost estimation. Continued R&D aimed at these and other key process systems engineering models, methods, and tools will accelerate the development of advanced gasification-based FE systems and produce increasingly valuable outcomes for DOE and the Nation.

Zitney, S.E.

2007-09-11

107

TWRS Systems Engineering Working Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Systems Engineering (SE) Working Plan (SEWP) is to describe how the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) will implement the SE polity and guidance provided in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP). Sections 2.0 through 4.0 cover how the SE process and management will be performed to develop

Eiholzer

1994-01-01

108

Performance optimization of two-staged gasification system for woody biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a small-scale two-staged gasification system is reported. In this system wood chips are gasified with a fixed bed gasifier and then tar in the produced gas is reformed in a non-catalytic reformer, finally the production gas is used to generate electricity. In this system, the gasifying agents are high temperature air and steam supplied into the gasifier

Yin Wang; Kunio Yoshikawa; Tomoaki Namioka; Yoshirou Hashimoto

2007-01-01

109

Internal combustion engine control system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A control system for an internal combustion engine includes a virtual engine model which mathematically represents the states of the engine in real time, but which is programmed to provide the engine's states at least a fraction of an engine cycle (and preferably at least one-fourth of an engine cycle, i.e., one stroke) to several engine cycles in advance of the real engine. The mass flow entering and leaving the cylinder is modeled, allowing parameters such as the mass of air per cylinder (MAC) and residual exhaust gas to be computed, and thereafter used to generate engine control commands related to fuel injection (air/fuel ratio), spark advance, and so forth.

2007-10-02

110

ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Boise Paper Solutions and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate the commercial applicability of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Paper Solutions' pulp and paper mill located at DeRidder, Louisiana.

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

2002-10-01

111

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Fourth quarter progress report, July 1-September 30, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Technical progress summaries and reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) process development unit (PDU) test operations and results (gasifier test TP-033-1 and maintenance and modifications); (2) process analysis (environmental characterization results, coal gas combustion results, and fines elutriation and consumption results); (3) cold flow scaleup (modifications and maintenance, operations, and data analysis); (4) process and component engineering and design (hot fines recycle modifications, and hot recycled fines); (5) laboratory support studies (gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior). 23 figures, 23 tables.

Not Available

1983-02-17

112

Power Systems Development Facility: High Temperature, High Pressure Filtration in Gasification Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature, high pressure gas filtration is a fundamental component of several advanced coal-fired power systems. This paper discusses the hot-gas filter vessel operation in coal gasification mode at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The PSDF, near Wilsonville, Alabama, is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company, and other industrial participants currently including the Electric Power

R. A. Martin; X. Guan; B. Gardner; H. Hendrix

2002-01-01

113

System study on partial gasification combined cycle with CO{sub 2} recovery - article no. 051801  

SciTech Connect

S partial gasification combined cycle with CO{sub 2} recovery is proposed in this paper. Partial gasification adopts cascade conversion of the composition of coal. Active composition of coal is simply gasified, while inactive composition, that is char, is burnt in a boiler. Oxy-fuel combustion of syngas produces only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, so the CO{sub 2} can be separated through cooling the working fluid. This decreases the amount of energy consumption to separate CO{sub 2} compared with conventional methods. The novel system integrates the above two key technologies by injecting steam from a steam turbine into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine to combine the Rankine cycle with the Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiency of this system will be higher based on the cascade utilization of energy level. Compared with the conventional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), the compressor of the gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and gasifier are substituted for a pump, reheater, and partial gasifier, so the system is simplified. Furthermore, the novel system is investigated by means of energy-utilization diagram methodology and provides a simple analysis of their economic and environmental performance. As a result, the thermal efficiency of this system may be expected to be 45%, with CO{sub 2} recovery of 41.2%, which is 1.5-3.5% higher than that of an IGCC system. At the same time, the total investment cost of the new system is about 16% lower than that of an IGCC. The comparison between the partial gasification technology and the IGCC technology is based on the two representative cases to identify the specific feature of the proposed system.

Xu, Y.J.; Jin, H.G.; Lin, R.M.; Han, W. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China)

2008-09-15

114

Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems  

SciTech Connect

In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

Parekh, R.D.

1982-09-01

115

System identification of jet engines  

SciTech Connect

System identification plays an important role in advanced control systems for jet engines, in which controls are performed adaptively using data from the actual engine and the identified engine. An identification technique for jet engine using the Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter (CGEKF) is described. The filter is constructed for a two-spool turbofan engine. The CGEKF filter developed here can recognize parameter change in engine components and estimate unmeasurable variables over whole flight conditions. These capabilities are useful for an advanced Full Authority Digital Electric Control (FADEC). Effects of measurement noise and bias, effects of operating point and unpredicted performance change are discussed. Some experimental results using the actual engine are shown to evaluate the effectiveness of CGEKF filter.

Sugiyama, N.

2000-01-01

116

Stirling engine heating system  

SciTech Connect

A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

1988-06-28

117

Automotive Stirling Engine systems development  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30% improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: 1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; 2) the development program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and 3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed. The design of an engine intended to meet the program objectives (Mod II) was initiated based on the Reference Engine System Design (RESD)*, which is a departure from existing program engines in that it is a Vee design with an annular regenerator/cooler arrangement, as opposed to the existing U-cannister configuration. The development is expected to take place over an approximate four-year time period, culminating in a vehicle demonstration of fuel economy that meets program goals. This paper presents the performance development of the ASE Program engines. Results obtained with the initial P-40 engines are presented, and Mod I engine performance and vehicle fuel economy measurements are discussed. The actions taken on the upgraded Mod I program are detailed, and the results presented. The Mod II engine design is reviewed, and projections for that system are presented. Accomplishments achieved within the ASE Program since its inception are also summarized.

Richey, A.E.

1984-08-01

118

Engineering Support Services for the DOE/GRI Coal-Gasification Research Program. Evaluation of the Data Base for Single-Stage Gasification of Peat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kellogg has reviewed the data base generated by IGT in the 6 inch PDU for the single stage fluidized bed gasification of peat. Kellogg's central finding is that the existing data base should be expanded by further testing in the PDU, after necessary modif...

L. E. Bostwick D. A. Hubbard K. V. Shah L. T. Do

1982-01-01

119

Engineering Support Services for the DOE/GRI Coal-Gasification Research Program. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Westinghouse Fluidized-Bed Coal Gasification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kellogg was requested by DOE/GRI to perform a technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification process as applied to production of SNG equivalent to 250 billion BTU/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Based on operating ex...

D. A. Hubbard L. E. Bostwick R. W. Laramore T. R. Ethridge

1981-01-01

120

Engineering support services for the DOE\\/GRI coal-gasification research program. Technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized-bed coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kellogg was requested by DOE\\/GRI to perform a technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification process as applied to production of SNG equivalent to 250 billion BTU\\/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Based on operating experiences in the PDU, where most of the key variables have been demonstrated during 5+ years of testing, Westinghouse provided process

L. E. Bostwick; D. A. Hubbard; R. W. Laramore; T. R. Ethridge

1981-01-01

121

Engineering Drawing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of this manual is to present the standard practices and information required in the preparation of engineering drawings. The basic requirements for all drawings and specifications are delineated. Instructions are presented for preparing s...

1978-01-01

122

Hydrogen production via gasification of meat and bone meal in two-stage fixed bed reactor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of meat and bone meal followed by thermal cracking of tar was carried out at atmospheric pressure using a two-stage fixed bed reaction system in series. The first stage was used for the gasification and the second stage was used for thermal cracking of tar. In this work, the effects of temperature (650–850°C) of both stages, equivalence ratio (actual

C. G. Soni; Z. Wang; A. K. Dalai; T. Pugsley; T. Fonstad

2009-01-01

123

Engineering developments for sodium heat engine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report preliminary results of testing and analysis of the stresses induced in tubular beta-double prime-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) membranes as used in sodium heat engine (SHE) cells due to thermal gradients, neutral sodium absorption in the surfaces and bulk material and residual stresses remaining from tube manufacture. The authors report results from experiments conducted on a recirculating single tube vapor-fed cell module operated continuously under load for 850. The electromagnetic pump system used to recirculate the sodium working fluid for this test cell was redesigned and its performance is also discussed.

Hunt, T. K.; Pantolin, J.; Sievers, R. K.; Kummer, J. T.; Novak, Robert F.

124

Management issues in systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

When applied to a system, the doctrine of successive refinement is a divide-and-conquer strategy. Complex systems are sucessively divided into pieces that are less complex, until they are simple enough to be conquered. This decomposition results in several structures for describing the product system and the producing system. These structures play important roles in systems engineering and project management. Many

Robert Shishko; Robert G. Chamberlain; Robert Aster; Vincent Bilardo; Kevin Forsberg; Hal Mooz; Lou Polaski; Ron Wade

1993-01-01

125

Boiling liquid engine cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boiling liquid cooling system is described for an engine, comprising: means defining in the engine a coolant jacket into which coolant is introduced in liquid state and from which coolant is discharged in gaseous state; a radiator into which gaseous coolant from the coolant jacket is introduced to be liquified; an electric pump for pumping the coolant thus liquified

N. Miura; Y. Hayashi

1987-01-01

126

Actively pressurized engine cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of operating an engine cooling system of the type comprising a heat exchanger, means for circulating a liquid coolant through coolant passages in the engine and through the heat exchanger, and means for adjusting the cooling effect of the heat exchanger on the fluid, the method comprising the steps of: adjusting the heat transfer capacity

Scarselletta

1988-01-01

127

Combustion engineering two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow coal-gasification process-development-unit program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program was conducted to design, construct and operate a two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow, low-Btu coal-gasification process-development unit (PDU) having a capacity of 5 tons\\/h of coal. The program was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Combustion Engineering, Inc. The objectives of the program were: (1) to demonstrate the capability and suitability of

S. L. Darling; R. W. Koucky; M. C. Tanca

1983-01-01

128

Combustion Engineering two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow coal-gasification-process development-unit program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program was conducted to design, construct and operate a two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow, low-Btu coal-gasification-process development unit (PDU) having a capacity of 5 tons\\/h of coal. The program was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Combustion Engineering, Inc. The objectives of the program were: (1) to demonstrate the capability and suitability of

S. L. Darling; R. W. Koucky; M. C. Tanca

1983-01-01

129

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained flow gasification for power generation systems. [Zinc titanates  

SciTech Connect

To help achieve the goal of clean, low cost power generation from coal, Texaco submitted an unsolicited proposal in July 1986 to develop and demonstrate the integration of high temperature desulfurization with the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The main goals of the proposed program were: Develop and demonstrate in-situ desulfurization of synthesis gas in an entrained flow gasifier using both air and oxygen gasification. Develop and demonstrate a high efficiency integrated system on a process development unit (PDU) scale which would include coal preparation, gasification, sulfur removal, particle and trace element removal and a gas turbine. In addition, secondary goals were proposed which would help further major research in which DOE/METC was already involved. These were: Test advanced instruments developed by METC for coal conversion processes. Screen alternative high temperature sulfur removal sorbents that could be used external to the gasifier. Development of these sorbents would provide a backup to the in-situ desulfurization approach. Accomplishments to date are presented.

Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.; Jung, D.Y.; Kassman, J.S.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Yang, P.P.

1992-01-01

130

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained flow gasification for power generation systems  

SciTech Connect

To help achieve the goal of clean, low cost power generation from coal, Texaco submitted an unsolicited proposal in July 1986 to develop and demonstrate the integration of high temperature desulfurization with the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The main goals of the proposed program were: Develop and demonstrate in-situ desulfurization of synthesis gas in an entrained flow gasifier using both air and oxygen gasification. Develop and demonstrate a high efficiency integrated system on a process development unit (PDU) scale which would include coal preparation, gasification, sulfur removal, particle and trace element removal and a gas turbine. In addition, secondary goals were proposed which would help further major research in which DOE/METC was already involved. These were: Test advanced instruments developed by METC for coal conversion processes. Screen alternative high temperature sulfur removal sorbents that could be used external to the gasifier. Development of these sorbents would provide a backup to the in-situ desulfurization approach. Accomplishments to date are presented.

Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.; Jung, D.Y.; Kassman, J.S.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Yang, P.P.

1992-11-01

131

Total energy by gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil gasification plant may be used as a ''total energy'' system for supplying all the various energy needs of a large chemical or refining plant. The plant would produce a low-Btu gas from medium- and high-sulfur crude using either the Shell or Texaco gasification process. Special arrangements can be included in the plant to recycle carbon formed in the

J. B. Fortuin; D. Haag

1974-01-01

132

Energy Systems Engineering Technician Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

St. Lawerence College of Ontario, Canada offers a two year program for students interested in becoming Energy Systems Engineering Technicians serving the alternative energy industry. The website offers a description of the program and links to required courses.

2010-06-07

133

Engineering evaluation of PRENFLO-based integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant designs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a recent PRENFLO-based coal gasification combined cycle (GCC) power plant study performed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Florida Power Light Company,and Virginia Power. In this study, the merits of a novel integration concept were assessed in which (a) the feed air to the pressurized air separation unit is extracted from the compressor portion of the combustion turbines and (b) waste nitrogen from the air separation unit is used to control nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) formation by fuel gas saturation. The novel concept uses an air separation unit designed for elevated pressure. Because all of the air needed for oxygen production is provided from the combustion turbines, dedicated air compressors for the air separation unit have not been provided. Waste nitrogen, produced in the air separation unit, is returned to the combustors of the combustion turbines for controlling the formation of nitrogen oxides and for producing additional combustion turbine output. The advantages of the novel concept, referred to as the Highly Integrated Concept, are apparent in lower net plant heat rate, lower capital cost, and, therefore, a lower bus-bar electricity cost at similar environmental emissions.

DePriest, W.; Van Laar, J. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-11-01

134

User Engineering: A New Look at System Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

User Engineering is a new System Engineering perspective responsible for defining and maintaining the user view of the system. Its elements are a process to guide the project and customer, a multidisciplinary team including hard and soft sciences, rapid p...

L. L. McLaughlin

1987-01-01

135

ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources.

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

2002-07-01

136

ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and METHANE de-NOX{reg_sign} technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources.

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

2002-01-01

137

Engineering the Lymphatic System  

PubMed Central

The recent advances in our understanding of lymphatic physiology and the role of the lymphatics in actively regulating fluid balance, lipid transport, and immune cell trafficking has been furthered in part through innovations in imaging, tissue engineering, quantitative biology, biomechanics, and computational modeling. Interdisciplinary and bioengineering approaches will continue to be crucial to the progression of the field, given that lymphatic biology and function are intimately woven with the local microenvironment and mechanical loads experienced by the vessel. This is particularly the case in lymphatic diseases such as lymphedema where the microenvironment can be drastically altered by tissue fibrosis and adipocyte accumulation. In this review we will highlight contributions engineering and mechanics have made to lymphatic physiology and will discuss areas that will be important for future research.

Nipper, Matthew E.

2011-01-01

138

BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has

David Liscinsky

2002-01-01

139

Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering  

SciTech Connect

From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

2011-06-01

140

The bumpy road of biomass gasification in the Netherlands: Explaining the rise and fall of an emerging innovation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the concept of System Functions of Innovation Systems is applied to provide an explanation of the success or failure of an emerging technology, i.e. biomass gasification, with empirical data on the evolution of this technology in the Netherlands during 1980–2004. A new list of System Functions has been developed lately and is used to identify the most

Simona O. Negro; Roald A. A. Suurs; Marko P. Hekkert

2008-01-01

141

Stochastic modeling of coal gasification combined cycle systems  

SciTech Connect

This report has described a new stochastic modeling capability for the ASPEN chemical process simulator. The stochastic modeling capability can be used to evaluate the performance of any chemical plant which can be formulated using the simulator. An application of this capability to the KRW IGCC system performance model also was illustrated. Cost models for selected IGCC systems also have been developed for implementation in ASPEN, as described in a separate topical report (Frey and Rubin, 1989). These models estimate the capital cost of various plant sections, as well as system operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, and total annual costs. The economic models are sensitive to key system flow rates and process design parameters, and are fully integrated with the IGCC performance models. The economic models can be used to quantify cost differences in system designs, and to identify key uncertainties important for comparative economic evaluations and research planning. Applications of probabilistic analysis combining uncertainties in performance and cost parameters also can be used to estimate process contingency factors (used in traditional cost analyses to represent additional costs that are expected to occur, but that are not included explicitly in the cost estimate), or to supplant the traditional contingency factor approach by incorporating expert knowledge about uncertainties at the more disaggregated level of process performance and cost parameters. Detailed case studies of IGCC system performance and cost employing the new stochastic modeling capability are planned as part of future efforts in this research. Two appendices are included with this report: technical reference manual for ASPEN stochastic block and users manual for stochastic simulation in ASPEN. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Rubin, E.S.; Diwekar, U.M.

1989-11-01

142

Environmental regulations and emerging energy technologies: A case study of the low-Btu coal gasification/combined-cycle system  

SciTech Connect

The types and rates of environmental effluents from low-Btu coal gasification/combined-cycle power plant facilities are a result of interactions among process design parameters, coal properties, and environmental control technologies. System comparisons as well as environmental regulatory policy should be based on an understanding of how these elements are related, enabling comparisons of different gasification systems and evaluations of the effects of specific regulatory policies on system performance. To aid in making general system comparisons, an analysis methodology was developed based upon a two-level factorial design that allows a systematic evaluation to be conducted with simultaneous variation of a number of key system variables. General system comparisons utilizing this methodology was developed based upon a two-level factorial design that allows a systematic evaluation to conducted with simultaneous variation of a number of key system variables. General system comparisons utilizing this methodology are conducted for systems based on the commercially available fixed-bed Lurgi gasifier, the fixed-bed gasifier utilizing tar-recycle, and the second-generation entrained-bed Foster-Wheeler gasifier. These are followed by case studies which examine: (1) comparisons of coal gasification/combined-cycle systems to conventional coal based power systems, (2) the effects of increasing the level of sulfur-dioxide control on gasification/combined-cycle plant perfromance, and (3) an application of the ''bubble policy'' to sulfur-dioxide control.

Bloyd, C.N.

1982-01-01

143

Making a case for Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 2007, the Systems Engineering Advancement (SEA) Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) decided to design a multi-day Systems Engineering Workshop to train systems engineers in the practice of systems engineering. They were determined to avoid the trap of merely giving hours of lectures and presentations that would bore the audience and soon be forgotten. They decided to

P. A. Jansma

2010-01-01

144

Making a case for systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 2007, the Systems Engineering Advancement (SEA) Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) decided to design a multi-day Systems Engineering Workshop to train systems engineers in the practice of systems engineering. They were determined to avoid the trap of merely giving hours of lectures and presentations that would bore audiences and soon be forgotten. They decided to base

P. A. T. Jansma

2010-01-01

145

Nuclear engine system simulation (NESS) program update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second phase of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis code has been completed. The standalone, versatile Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code provides an accurate, detailed assessment of engine system operating performance, weight, and sizes. The critical information is required to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. This recent

Christine M. Scheil; Dennis G. Pelaccio; Lyman J. Petrosky

1993-01-01

146

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC09  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Test Campaign TC09 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC09 in air- and oxygen-blown modes. Test Run TC09 was started on September 3, 2002, and completed on September 26, 2002. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run, with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen was smooth. The gasifier temperature varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 125 to 270 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC09, 414 hours of solid circulation and over 300 hours of coal feed were attained with almost 80 hours of pure oxygen feed.

Southern Company Services

2002-09-30

147

Earth Systems Science and Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing the essential energy and water systems to support human needs while understanding and addressing their environmental consequences is a watershed problem for the 21st century. The LLNL Earth System Science and Engineering Program seeks to provide the scientific understanding and technological expertise to help provide solutions at both global and regional scales. Our work is highly collaborative with universities,

Rotman

2006-01-01

148

A Distributed Systems Engineering Curriculum for Working Engineers in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a workforce initiative grant, we are developing a catalog and curricular structure to enable working engineers in California to obtain Systems Engineering education from a variety of providers in a self-paced manner. The target audience for this effort is companies and indi- viduals who require better Systems Engineering capabilities, but lack the resources and infra- structure for

Kurt Colvin; Robert Crockett

149

Controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system: a modified-stream method for in situ coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The underground coal gasification process, in practice, is subject to various problems that make it difficult to maintain and control an efficient long-term operation. One of the major problems is the need to move the injection point (where the combustion-supporting air or oxygen from the surface is fed into the coal seam) to new areas of unburned coal as the burn progresses. To achieve better control of the gasification process, we recommend the controlled retracting injection point or CRIP system. The controlled retracting injection point or CRIP system is designed to keep the injection point on the bottom of the coal seam and to move it backwards away from the collapse zone into fresh, solid coal. The principle of controlled retraction allows the operator to choose the optimum time and distance to move the injection point, and consequently the burn zone, to get the best possible performance from the gasifier. Although this system will work with coal seams of any thickness, it is particularly well suited to thick coal seams where the cavity grows by coal collapse as well as combustion. Placement of the production channel at the top of the seam above the injection well ensures isolation from the effects of collapse and reduces the risk of plugging the production well.

Hill, R.W.; Shannon, M.J.

1981-04-15

150

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC11  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Test Campaign TC11 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). Test run TC11 began on April 7, 2003, with startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until April 18, 2003, when a gasifier upset forced the termination of the test run. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,650 and 1,800 F at pressures from 160 to 200 psig during air-blown operations and around 135 psig during enriched-air operations. Due to a restriction in the oxygen-fed lower mixing zone (LMZ), the majority of the test run featured air-blown operations.

Southern Company Services

2003-04-30

151

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC07  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Test Campaign TC07 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC07. Prior to TC07, the Transport Reactor was modified to allow operations as an oxygen-blown gasifier. Test Run TC07 was started on December 11, 2001, and the sand circulation tests (TC07A) were completed on December 14, 2001. The coal-feed tests (TC07B-D) were started on January 17, 2002 and completed on April 5, 2002. Due to operational difficulties with the reactor, the unit was taken offline several times. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,700 and 1,780 F at pressures from 200 to 240 psig. In TC07, 679 hours of solid circulation and 442 hours of coal feed, 398 hours with PRB coal and 44 hours with coal from the Calumet mine, and 33 hours of coke breeze feed were attained. Reactor operations were problematic due to instrumentation problems in the LMZ resulting in much higher than desired operating temperatures in the reactor. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable and the modifications to the lower part of the gasifier performed well while testing the gasifier with PRB coal feed.

Southern Company Services

2002-04-05

152

Lignite-to-Methanol: An Engineering Evaluation of Winkler Gasification and ICI Methanol Synthesis Route. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the work reported herein was to develop a preliminary conceptual design, capital requirements, and product cost for a lignite-to-methanol plant incorporating Winkler Gasification Technology and ICI Methanol synthesis. The lignite-to-metha...

S. Goyen E. Baily J. Mawer R. Arai

1980-01-01

153

Coal-to-Methanol: An Engineering Evaluation of Texaco Gasification and ICI Methanol-Synthesis Route. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a technical and economic evaluation of producing methanol from bituminous coal using Texaco coal gasification and ICI methanol synthesis. The scope of work included the development of an overall configuration for a larg...

P. A. Buckingham D. D. Cobb A. A. Leavitt W. G. Snyder

1981-01-01

154

Systems engineering at the nanoscale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials have provided some of the greatest leaps in technology over the past twenty years, but their relatively early stage of maturity presents challenges for their incorporation into engineered systems. Perhaps even more challenging is the fact that the underlying physics at the nanoscale often run counter to our physical intuition. The current state of nanotechnology today includes nanoscale materials and devices developed to function as components of systems, as well as theoretical visions for "nanosystems," which are systems in which all components are based on nanotechnology. Although examples will be given to show that nanomaterials have indeed matured into applications in medical, space, and military systems, no complete nanosystem has yet been realized. This discussion will therefore focus on systems in which nanotechnology plays a central role. Using self-assembled magnetic artificial cilia as an example, we will discuss how systems engineering concepts apply to nanotechnology.

Benkoski, Jason J.; Breidenich, Jennifer L.; Wei, Michael C.; Clatterbaughi, Guy V.; Keng, Pei Yuin; Pyun, Jeffrey

2012-05-01

155

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC10  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Test Campaign TC10 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC10 in air- (mainly for transitions and problematic operations) and oxygen-blown mode. Test Run TC10 was started on November 16, 2002, and completed on December 18, 2002. During oxygen-blown operations, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,825 F at pressures from 150 to 180 psig. After initial adjustments were made to reduce the feed rate, operations with the new fluidized coal feeder were stable with about half of the total coalfeed rate through the new feeder. However, the new fluidized-bed coal feeder proved to be difficult to control at low feed rates. Later the coal mills and original coal feeder experienced difficulties due to a high moisture content in the coal from heavy rains. Additional operational difficulties were experienced when several of the pressure sensing taps in the gasifier plugged. As the run progressed, modifications to the mills (to address processing the wet coal) resulted in a much larger feed size. This eventually resulted in the accumulation of large particles in the circulating solids causing operational instabilities in the standpipe and loop seal. Despite problems with the coal mills, coal feeder, pressure tap nozzles and the standpipe, the gasifier did experience short periods of stability during oxygenblown operations. During these periods, the syngas quality was high. During TC10, the gasifier gasified over 609 tons of Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and accumulated a total of 416 hours of coal feed, over 293 hours of which were in oxygen-blown operation. No sorbent was used during the run.

Southern Company Services

2002-12-30

156

User's manual for the Gas Research Institute coal-gasification environmental, health, and safety information system. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

GRI has developed an information system to provide GRI managers, member companies, and other participating researchers access to a carefully screened collection of technical information relevant to controlling potential environmental, health, and safety (EHandS) impacts of coal gasification and related technologies, many of which are also used in natural gas production. The information system does not contain data, but rather

N. P. Meserole; E. W. Brown

1988-01-01

157

Core Concepts of Systems Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This telecollaborative project is designed to provide students in grades 9-12 with an orientation to systems engineering concepts. Through guided activities students will reverse-engineer a common device that contains both electrical and mechanical components and then create a systems diagram for the deconstructed device. (In this case, the device is a disposable camera.) In partnership with other project participants across the country, learners will reassemble the device and test their reconstruction against quality controls. The project is free with teacher registration. The module includes lesson plans, comprehensive teacher tutorial, reference material, question sets and worksheets, and digital collaboration tools. This resource was developed by the Center for Innovation in Science and Engineering Education (CIESE). Participation is cost-free with teacher registration. Editor's Note: Several components of this activity specifically address a physics curriculum. Disposable flash cameras provide an opportunity for analysis of electric field, charging a capacitor, and energy storage on a capacitor.

158

Evaluation of advanced coal gasification combined-cycle systems under uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems have not been commercially demonstrated, and uncertainties remain regarding their commercial-scale performance and cost. Therefore, a probabilistic evaluation method has been developed and applied to explicitly consider these uncertainties. The insights afforded by this method are illustrated for an IGCC design featuring a fixed-bed gasifier and a hot gas cleanup system. Detailed case studies are conducted to characterize uncertainties in key measures of process performance and cost, evaluate design trade-offs under uncertainty, identify research priorities, evaluate the potential benefits of additional research, compare results for different uncertainty assumptions, and compare the advanced IGCC system to a conventional system under uncertainty. The implications of probabilistic results for research planning and technology selection are discussed in this paper.

Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S. (Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (US))

1992-05-01

159

Systems Engineering Cost Estimation for Space Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of COSYSMO, a systems engineering cost model, is explored in the context of space systems through the analysis of two main assumptions. First, the WBS elements of the model are mapped to a prototypical WBS for space systems. Second, the life cycle phases assumed in the model are mapped to the phases outlined in the latest National Security

Ricardo Valerdi; Marilee J. Wheaton; Jared Fortune

2007-01-01

160

Security systems engineering overview  

SciTech Connect

Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.).

Steele, B.J.

1996-12-31

161

Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest a portfolio of distinct but related systems engineering activities that collectively may work well in very difficult environments. The CASE methodology acknowledges the human factor and encourages exerting influence rather than control. We advocate their consideration and application in limited domains, at first, to gain confidence in their viability.

B. E. White

2009-01-01

162

System engineering aspects on IBC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service and system engineering aspects developed within the RACE (Research and Development in Advanced Communications in Europe) program by project R 1044, entitled IBC (integrated broadband communications) Development and Implementation Strategies are described. It is shown how broadband interactive services will support business applications and how residential customers can be offered TV-based services. The features and technical characteristics of the

F. Casali; J. Vandenameele

1991-01-01

163

Cooling system for automotive engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine: a structure subject to heat flux; and a cooling system is described which consists of: a cooling circuit which includes: (a) a coolant jacket formed about the structure subject to high heat flux and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form, permitted to boil and discharged in gaseous form, (b) a radiator exposed to a

Hirano

1986-01-01

164

Advanced coal-gasification system for electric-power generation. First quarterly progress report, Fiscal Year 1981, October 1-December 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Westinghouse Coal Gasification Program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized fluidized bed gasification system for production of low- and intermediate-Btu fuel gas for electric power generation, syngas, feedstocks or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scale-up data for the process and hardware.

Arthurs, M.J.; Chelen, E.J.; Cherish, P.; Haldipur, G.B.; Keairns, D.L.; Rath, L.K.

1981-01-30

165

Suggested Criteria for Evaluating Systems Engineering Methodologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems engineering is the application of mathematical and scientific principles to practical ends in the life-cycle of a system. A methodology for systems engineering is a carefully developed, relatively complex procedure or process for applying these ma...

A. Gates A. S. Paul T. L. Gill

1989-01-01

166

Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas[trademark] staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas[trademark], necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

1992-01-01

167

Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas{trademark}, necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II & III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

1992-11-01

168

Knowledge-Based Systems Engineering Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge-based method for systems engineering risk assessment has been automated in an expert system tool. Expert COSYSMO performs systems engineering risk assessment in conjunction with cost estimation using the Constructive Systems Engineering Cost Model (COSYSMO). The technique is an extension of COSYSMO which supports project planning by identifying, categorizing, quantifying, and prioritizing system-level risks. Workshops and surveys with seasoned

Raymond Madachy; Ricardo Valerdi

2008-01-01

169

Management System for Engineering Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of independent profession based societies, ethics charter/codes of professional bodies have significant influence on the conduct of engineers. Contrarily in Japan, most of active engineers are in-house and feel immediate identity as the member of firm or institution, rather than professional bodies. Therefore, establishment and operation of engineering ethics management system (E2ms) is essential for incentive to make innovative and ethical decision with confidence. The paper introduces the outline of the educational kit for E2ms developed by the author. The kit aims to enhance ability of management relevant to E2ms. The kit also involves ten cases for case method teaching. The test use of the kit indicates the potential to create satisfactory educational achievement.

Yashiro, Tomonari

170

Joint Tactical Radio System - Enterprise System Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) is a core transformational program within the Department of Defense (DoD), critical to extending the Global Information Grid (GIG) to the tactical edge. The Joint Program Executive Office (JPEO) was established in 2005 to manage the development of JTRS. One of the JPEO's assigned responsibilities was to expand the approach to systems engineering across

Richard North; Calvin Vu; Tom Woodland

2007-01-01

171

Engineering Design Information System (EDIS)  

SciTech Connect

This manual is a guide to the use of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS) Phase I. The system runs on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3081 unclassified computer. This is the first phase in the implementation of EDIS, which is an index, storage, and retrieval system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy. This manual presents on overview of EDIS, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. This manual describes how to access EDIS and how to operate system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF), and Soft Master viewing features employed by this system. Appendix A contains a description of the Soft Master viewing capabilities provided through the EDIS View function. Appendix B provides examples of the system error screens and help screens for valid codes used for screen entry. Appendix C contains a dictionary of data elements and descriptions.

Smith, P.S.; Short, R.D.; Schwarz, R.K.

1990-11-01

172

Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant  

DOEpatents

System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.

Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa

2013-09-17

173

A Generic, Adaptive Systems Engineering Information Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems engineering tasks generate large volumes of data and information that must be available over the lifecycle of the system. This paper outlines an information model designed to support existing systems engineering methods and practices as well newly developed techniques. Specific methods and models used for the capture, encoding and persistence of systems engineering information and design artifacts were given

Joseph J. Simpson; Scott Grasman; Ann Miller; Cihan Dagli

2005-01-01

174

Systems engineering: A problem of perception  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of systems engineering as a discipline, process, procedure or a set of heuristics will have an impact on the implementation strategy, the training methodology, and operational environment. The systems engineering upgrade activities in the New Mexico Weapons Development Center and a search of systems engineering related information provides evidence of a degree of ambiguity in this characterization of systems engineering. A case is made in this article for systems engineering being the engineering discipline applied to the science of complexity. Implications of this characterization and some generic issues are delineated with the goal of providing an enterprise with a starting point for developing its business environment.

Senglaub, M.

1995-08-01

175

A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System  

SciTech Connect

In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering. Furthermore, with little effort the modeling capabilities described in this report can be extended to support other DOE programs, such as ultra super critical boiler development, oxy-combustion boiler development or modifications to existing plants to include CO2 capture and sequestration.

Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai

2008-06-18

176

Environmental Restoration Project - Systems Engineering Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Environmental Restoration (ER) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes relevant Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) management processes and shows how they implement systems engineering. The objective of this SEMP is to ex...

T. D. Anderson

1998-01-01

177

Interactions of aqueous metal ions with organic compounds found in coal gasification: model systems  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of metal ions with organic compounds indigenous to coal gasification materials was studied in a model system. Aqueous solutions of FeT , CuS and NiS in contact with mixtures of selected organic compounds were examined by using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Aqueous FeT ions and, to a lesser extent, CuS ions extract organic compounds from the nonaqueous layer and associate with these organic molecules in aqueous solution. Quantitative aspects of the extraction process were measured by gas chromatographic methods, while spectroscopic measurements were used to characterize the association between metal ions and organic molecules. The interaction of the metal ion solutions was compared to that of buffers of similar pH. The behavior of both the iron and copper ion solutions differed from that of the buffers.

Jorgensen, A.D.; Stetter, J.R.; Stamoudis, V.C.

1985-10-01

178

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The primary activity this period was preparation and presentation of the findings on this project at the Twenty-Third annual Pittsburgh Coal Conference. Dr. Malhotra attended this conference and presented a paper. A copy of his presentation constitutes this quarterly report.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-09-30

179

Professional Issues in System Safety Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many years the profession of system safety engineering has been emerging. This paper argues that the time has now come when it requires recognition, a voice, proper governance and leadership. System safety engineering is an amalgam of many disciplines, in particular, software engineering, safety engineering and management, and systems engineering, and this paper shows that system safety engineering must address the most difficult aspects of all of these. But professional matters extend beyond merely technical considerations, and the paper concludes by showing why there is the need for a new professional body.

McDermid, John; Thomas, Martyn; Redmill, Felix

180

Unconfined flow as a mechanism of water influx to a UCG (underground coal gasification) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water influx to an operating underground coal gasification (UCG) cavity plays a major role in determining the success of the process. Often coal seams are aquifers, and as a result water influx estimates for a UCG cavity need to consider the flow of water from the coal to the cavity. Since the gasification cavity is gas filled, the flow takes

C. B. Thorsness; E. A. II Grens

1987-01-01

181

Availability analysis handbook for coal gasification and combustion turbine-based power systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook addresses the analysis of the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of advanced-technology coal gasification power generation plants, subsytems, and components. It includes methods, procedures, and data needed to perform complete RAM analyses of advanced-technology coal gasification plants. 9 refs., 41 figs., 44 tabs.

H. P. Himpler; R. C. Young

1985-01-01

182

Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized-bed coal gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Kellogg was requested by DOE/GRI to perform a technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification process as applied to production of SNG equivalent to 250 billion BTU/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Based on operating experiences in the PDU, where most of the key variables have been demonstrated during 5+ years of testing, Westinghouse provided process data for the gasifier area. Kellogg selected the overall processing sequence and established design bases for the balance of the plant. This work was subsequent to a previous (1979) screening evaluation of Westinghouse by Kellogg: comparison of the two designs reveals the following: The 1980 gasifier design basis, while more detailed, is almost identical to that of 1979. The gas treatment and sulfur recovery schemes were significantly changed: Combined shift/methanation was substituted for stand-alone reaction units; independent Selexol units for removal of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ replaced a non-selective Benfield unit; and a Claus-SCOT combination replaced Stretford units and significantly improved the flue gas desulfurization. Key results of the current efforts are compared with those of the screening evaluation. The reductions in efficiencies in the new calculations are attributed to a more realistic evaluation of plant energy requirements and to lack of optimization of individual plant section designs. The economic data indicate that a noteworthy reduction in gas cost was accomplished by a reduction in the capital cost of the plant, such that Kellogg concludes, as previously for the screening evaluation, that the Westinghouse process appears to be superior to existing processes (i.e., Lurgi) and at least competitive with other processes evaluated under the DOE/GRI joint program.

Bostwick, L.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Laramore, R.W.; Ethridge, T.R.

1981-04-01

183

Ignition system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ignition control system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: means for detecting engine operating conditions to produce operating condition signals indicative at predetermined intervals of engine crank angle; means for computing engine ignition timing in response to the operating condition signals to produce an ignition timing deciding signal; means for selectively distributing an ignition timing signal to

N. Onogi; M. Shimamoto

1987-01-01

184

Lubricating oil filtration system for an engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil filtering system is described for an engine including a drive shaft, a lubricating system for the engine, an oil sump, a governor for controlling a throttle of the engine. The governor includes driven means drivingly interconnected with the drive shaft. The oil filtering system comprises: a housing; an oil inlet means defined in the housing in flow communication

Kronich

1987-01-01

185

A nuclear power plant system engineering workstation  

Microsoft Academic Search

System engineers offer an approach for effective technical support for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. System engineer groups are being set up by most utilities in the United States. Institute of Nuclear Power operations (INPO) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have endorsed the concept. The INPO Good Practice and a survey of system engineer programs in the

J. H. Mason; J. W. Crosby

1989-01-01

186

Industrial Biosystems Engineering and Biorefinery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Industrial Biosystems Engineering (IBsE) was suggested as a new engineering branch to be developed for meeting the needs of science and technology professionals in the upcoming bioeconomy. With emphasis on systems, IBsE built upon the interfaces between systems biology, bioprocessing, and systems engineering. This article discusses the background, the suggested definition, the theoretical framework, and methodologies of

Shulin Chen

2008-01-01

187

Single-Stage Fluidized-Bed Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order ...

F. S. Lau D. M. Rue S. A. Weil D. V. Punwani

1982-01-01

188

Waste to Energy Conversion by Stepwise Liquefaction, Gasification and "Clean" Combustion of Pelletized Waste Polyethylene for Electric Power Generation---in a Miniature Steam Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amounts of waste plastics discarded in developed countries are increasing drastically, and most are not recycled. The small fractions of the post-consumer plastics which are recycled find few new uses as their quality is degraded; they cannot be reused in their original applications. However, the high energy density of plastics, similar to that of premium fuels, combined with the dwindling reserves of fossil fuels make a compelling argument for releasing their internal energy through combustion, converting it to thermal energy and, eventually, to electricity through a heat engine. To minimize the emission of pollutants this energy conversion is done in two steps, first the solid waste plastics undergo pyrolytic gasification and, subsequently, the pyrolyzates (a mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrogen) are blended with air and are burned "cleanly" in a miniature power plant. This plant consists of a steam boiler, a steam engine and an electricity generator.

Talebi Anaraki, Saber

189

Multimedia Feedback Systems for Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The World Wide Web has become a key tool for information sharing. Engineers and scientists are finding that the web is especially suited to publishing the graphical, multi-layered information that is typical of their work. Web pages are easier to distribute than hardcopy. Web movies have become more accessible, in many offices, than videos. Good VRML viewing software, bundled with most new PCs, has sufficient power to support many engineering needs. In addition to publishing information science and engineering has an important tradition of peer and customer review. Reports, drawings and graphs are typically printed, distributed, reviewed, marked up, and returned to the author. Adding review comments to paper is easy. When, however, the information is in electronic form, this ease of review goes away. It's hard to write on videos. It's even harder to write comments on animated 3D models. These feedback limitations reduce the value of the information overall. Fortunately, the web can also be a useful tool for collecting peer and customer review information. When properly formed, web reports, movies, and 3D animations can be readily linked to review notes. This paper describes three multimedia feed-back systems that Sandia National Laboratories has developed to tap that potential. Each system allows people to make context-sensitive comments about specific web content and electronically ties the comments back to the web content being referenced. The fuel system ties comments to specific web pages, the second system ties the comments to specific frames of digital movies, and the third ties the comments to specific times and viewpoints within 3D animations. In addition to the technologies, this paper describes how they are being used to support intelligent machine systems design at Sandia.

Gladwell, S.; Gottlieb, E.J.; McDonald, M.J.; Slutter, C.L.

1998-12-15

190

Data Integration for Military Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military systems have many of the same concerns as commercial systems, that is, real-time performance, availability, security, safety, life-cycle maintenance and upgrade. In military systems, however these concerns are encountered in combinations and intensity that few commercial systems can rival. The integration needs for total system engineering of military systems are far ranging across integration types, engineering domains, and technologies.

Ngocdung Hoang; Michael Jenkins; Nicholas Karangelen

1996-01-01

191

Uncertainty Analysis of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems Based on Frame 7H versus 7F Gas Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine

Yunhua Zhu; H. Christopher Frey

2006-01-01

192

Engine driven heating system components for Stirling engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanical drive system permits a single electric motor to drive at least three rotary components necessary to the cold starting of a Stirling engine. These components comprise a rotary preheater, an air atomizing pump for facilitating proper injection of fuel particle size, and a combustion air blower, all necessary to heat the working gas of a Stirling engine prior

L. A. Reams; A. E. Geddes

1978-01-01

193

Pulse combustion engine and heat transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid heating and cooling system is described comprising in combination a pulse combustion heat engine, primary heat exchange means for transferring heat rejected by the heat engine to a primary fluid to be heated, and a heat pump system. The heat engine includes chamber means for pulse combustion of a fuel to provide combustion gases which have cyclic periods

R. J. Priem; M. R. Ghassemzadeh; J. C. Griffiths

1987-01-01

194

CHEMFLUB: a computer code model for fluidized bed coal gasification reactors. Volume III. Systems manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Systems Manual is to provide detailed material and descriptions relating to the structure and operation of the CHEMFLUB computer code. It is prepared for computer scientists, systems level analysts, and programmers whose responsibilities include modifications to the computer code, solution of program\\/system problems, etc. This volume is not being written for the physcists or engineers who

1984-01-01

195

Computer-Aided Manufacturing System Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of computer-aided engineering environment is envisioned which will improve the productivity of manufacturing\\/industrial engineers. This environment would be used by engineers to design and implement future manufacturing systems and subsystems. This paper describes work which is currently underway at the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on computer-aided manufacturing system engineering environments. The NIST

C. R. Mclean

1993-01-01

196

RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

2003-01-01

197

Design of advanced fossil-fuel systems (DAFFS): a study of three developing technologies for coal-fired, base-load electric power generation. Integrated coal gasification/combined cycle power plant with Texaco gasification process  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to present the facility description, plant layouts and additional information which define the conceptual engineering design, and performance and cost estimates for the Texaco Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. Following the introductory comments, the results of the Texaco IGCC power plant study are summarized in Section 2. In Section 3, a description of plant systems and facilities is provided. Section 4 includes pertinent performance information and assessments of availability, natural resource requirements and environmental impact. Estimates of capital costs, operation and maintenance costs and cost of electricity are presented in Section 5. A Bechtel Group, Inc. assessment and comments on the designs provided by Burns and Roe-Humphreys and Glasgow Synthetic Fuel, Inc. are included in Section 6. The design and cost estimate reports which were prepared by BRHG for those items within their scope of responsibility are included as Appendices A and B, respectively. Appendix C is an equipment list for items within the BGI scope. The design and cost estimate classifications chart referenced in Section 5 is included as Appendix D. 8 references, 17 figures, 15 tables.

Not Available

1983-06-01

198

Design of advanced fossil-fuel systems (DAFFS): a study of three developing technologies for coal-fired, base-load electric power generation. Integrated coal-gasification/combined power plant with BGC/Lurgi gasification process  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to present the facility description, plant layouts and additional information which define the conceptual engineering design, and performance and cost estimates for the BGC/Lurgi Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. Following the introductory comments, the results of the British Gas Corporation (BGC)/Lurgi IGCC power plant study are summarized in Section 2. In Secion 3, a description of plant systems and facilities is provided. Section 4 includes pertinent performance information and assessments of availability, natural resource requirements and environmental impact. Estimates of capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and cost of electricity are presented in Section 5. A Bechtel Group Inc. (BGI) assessment and comments on the designs provided by Burns and Roe-Humphreys and Glasgow Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (BRHG) are included in Section 6. The design and cost estimate reports which were prepared by BRHG for those items within their scope of responsibility are included as Appendices A and B, respectively. Apendix C is an equipment list for items within the BGI scope. The design and cost estimate classifications chart referenced in Section 5 is included as Appendix D. 8 references, 18 figures, 5 tables.

Not Available

1983-06-01

199

Lignite-to-methanol: an engineering evaluation of Winkler gasification and ICI methanol synthesis route. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the work reported herein was to develop a preliminary conceptual design, capital requirements, and product cost for a lignite-to-methanol plant incorporating Winkler Gasification Technology and ICI Methanol synthesis. The lignite-to-methanol complex described herein is designed to produce 15,000 TPD of fuel grade methanol. The complex is designed to be self-sufficient with respect to all utility services, offsites,

S. Goyen; E. Baily; J. Mawer; R. Arai

1980-01-01

200

Extractors Manual for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Data Base System: Major Plants Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National concern over the depletion of conventional energy sources has prompted industry to evaluate coal gasification as an alternative source of energy. One approach being evaluated is gasifying coal in a gasifier and feeding the fuel gas to a combined-...

1986-01-01

201

Extractors Manual for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Data Base System: Test Data Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National concern over the depletion of conventional energy sources has prompted industry to evaluate coal gasification as an alternative source of energy. One approach being evaluated is gasifying coal in a gasifier and feeding the fuel gas to a combined-...

1986-01-01

202

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained flow gasification for power generation systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To help achieve the goal of clean, low cost power generation from coal, Texaco submitted an unsolicited proposal in July 1986 to develop and demonstrate the integration of high temperature desulfurization with the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). ...

T. F. Leininger A. Robin D. Y. Jung J. S. Kassman J. K. Wolfenbarger

1992-01-01

203

Plan for Systems Engineering of the NRD Data Transmission System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A proposed systems engineering plan is presented which would be used as a guide in accomplishing systems analysis and engineering to support the NRD Data Transmission System Improvement Program. The need to relate specific performance parameters of the NR...

O. Cardinale

1968-01-01

204

Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) systems engineering policy provided in 97-IMSD-193. The SEMP defines the products, process, organization...

L. G. Peck

1998-01-01

205

Novel hydrogen separation device development for coal gasification system applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken for the development of a novel Electrochemical Hydrogen Separator (EHS) technology for low-cost hydrogen separation from coal derived gases. Design and operating parameter testing was performed using subscale cells (25 cm{sup 2}). High H{sub 2} purity, >99% is one of the main features of the EHS. It was found that N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} behave as equivalent inerts; EHS performance is not affected by the balance of feed gas containing these components. This product purity level is not sacrificed by increased H{sub 2} recovery. CO, however, does adversely affect EHS performance and therefore feed stream pretreatment is recommended. Low levels of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} were added to the feed gas stream and it was verified that these impurities did not affect EHS performance. Task 2 demonstrated the scale-up to full size multi-cell module operation while maintaining a stable energy requirement. A 10-cell full-size module (1050 cm{sup 2} cell active area) was operated for over 3,800 hours and gave a stable baseline performance. Several applications for the EHS were investigated. The most economically attractive systems incorporating an EHS contain low pressure, dilute hydrogen streams, such as coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems, hydrogen plant purification and fluid catalytic cracker units. In addition, secondary hydrogen recovery from PSA or membrane tailstreams using an EHS may increase overall system efficiency.

Not Available

1993-08-01

206

40 CFR 92.116 - Engine output measurement system calibrations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Engine output measurement system calibrations. 92.116 Section 92.116 ...Engine output measurement system calibrations. (a) General requirements for dynamometer calibration. (1) The engine flywheel...

2012-07-01

207

Systems engineering and analysis. Third edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics presented in this book have been organized into 6 parts and 19 chapters. Part 1 presents an introduction to systems and systems engineering in the context of system science and good engineering practice. Part 2 addresses the system design process as a series of evolutionary steps, progressing from the identification of a need through conceptual design, preliminary design,

B. S. Blanchard; W. J. Fabrycky

1998-01-01

208

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. In previous tests, we had frequently encountered problems with our steam generator that were exacerbated by the very low flow rates that we needed. During this period we installed a new computer-controlled system for injecting water into the steam generator that eliminated this problem. We also tested alloy coupons coated by using the improved procedures described in our last quarterly report. Most of these coatings were nitrided Ti and Ta coatings, either by themselves, or sometimes with barrier layers of Al and Si nitrides. The samples were tested for 300 h at 900 C in a gas stream designed to mimic the environment in the high temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). Three samples that showed least corrosion were exposed for an additional 100 h.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-06-01

209

Assessment of a coal-gasification fuel-cell system for utility application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical and economic feasibility of a coal gasification-advanced phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant for electric utility application were defined and assessed. The system design criteria selected reslted in a modular, relatively small sized poer plant that could be configured with a basic building block of approximately 11 MW. A range of coals and lignite was evaluated as the basic feedstock for a low-Btu fixed-bed conventional air-blown coal gasifier. The system included gas processing, cleanup, compression and delivery of sulfur-free hydrogen-rich gas to an advanced phosphoric acid fuel cell. Equipment erection and operating costs, in 1981 dollars, were solicited from American industry for all process sections. The plant was designed and evaluated on the basis of low capital cost, lowest overall heat rate and, as far as possible, with off-the-shelf technology. A 44 MW lignite example plant utilizing the basic building block concept was defined and evaluated for Lincoln, Nebraska, as an example site.

Cronin, P. G.; Murphy, A. J.; Newton, R. J.; Wagner, E. S.

1982-05-01

210

Usability Engineering for Complex Interactive Systems Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usability engineering is a cost-effective, user- centered process that ensures a high level of effectiveness, efficiency, and safety in complex interactive systems. This paper presents a brief description of usability engineering activities, and discusses our experiences with leading usability engineering activities for three very different types of interactive applications: a responsive workbench-based command and control application called Dragon, a wearable

Joseph L. Gabbard; Deborah Hix; J. Edward Swan II; Mark A. Livingston; Tobias H. Höllerer; Simon J. Julier; Dennis Brown; Yohan Baillot

211

14 CFR 25.1165 - Engine ignition systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...simultaneous demands of the engine ignition system and the greatest demands... (c) The design of the engine ignition system must account forâ (1...engine ignition. (h) Each engine ignition system of a turbine powered...

2010-01-01

212

14 CFR 25.1165 - Engine ignition systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...simultaneous demands of the engine ignition system and the greatest demands... (c) The design of the engine ignition system must account forâ (1...engine ignition. (h) Each engine ignition system of a turbine powered...

2009-01-01

213

Membrane separation of carbon dioxide in the integrated gasification combined cycle systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated gasification combined cycle systems (IGCC) are becoming more popular because of the characteristics, by which they are characterized, including low pollutants emissions, relatively high efficiency of electricity production and the ability to integrate the installation of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Currently, the most frequently used CO2 capture technology in IGCC systems is based on the absorption process. This method causes a significant increase of the internal load and decreases the efficiency of the entire system. It is therefore necessary to look for new methods of carbon dioxide capture. The authors of the present paper propose the use of membrane separation. The paper reviews available membranes for use in IGCC systems, indicates, inter alia, possible places of their implementation in the system and the required operation parameters. Attention is drawn to the most important parameters of membranes (among other selectivity and permeability) influencing the cost and performance of the whole installation. Numerical model of a membrane was used, among others, to analyze the influence of the basic parameters of the selected membranes on the purity and recovery ratio of the obtained permeate, as well as to determine the energetic cost of the use of membranes for the CO2 separation in IGCC systems. The calculations were made within the environment of the commercial package Aspen Plus. For the calculations both, membranes selective for carbon dioxide and membranes selective for hydrogen were used. Properly selected pressure before and after membrane module allowed for minimization of energy input on CCS installation assuring high purity and recovery ratio of separated gas.

Kotowicz, Janusz; Skorek-osikowska, Anna; Janusz-szyma?ska, Katarzyna

2010-09-01

214

Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) systems engineering policy provided in 97-IMSD-193. The SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Project to implement the policy. The SEMP will be used as the basis for tailoring the systems engineering applications to

Peck

1998-01-01

215

A road map for implementing systems engineering  

SciTech Connect

Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Weapons Systems Engineering Center; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1997-02-01

216

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983  

SciTech Connect

KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

None

1987-07-31

217

Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.  

PubMed

There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill. PMID:19767203

Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

2009-09-19

218

Ice engineering complex adopts pump energy system. [Army Corps of Engineers Ice Engineering Facility, Hanover, NH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pumps can recover waste heat and be used in ice engineering projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. An Ice Engineering facility in Hanover, New Hampshire will use heat pumps for such problems as ice jams, icing of hydroelectric inlets, canal locks and harbors, and general winter navigation. Other uses will include basement and office heating systems that

Aamot; H. W. C

1977-01-01

219

Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

2009-04-15

220

Tank waste remediation system engineering plan  

SciTech Connect

This Engineering Plan describes the engineering process and controls that will be in place to support the Technical Baseline definition and manage its evolution and implementation to the field operations. This plan provides the vision for the engineering required to support the retrieval and disposal mission through Phase 1 and 2, which includes integrated data management of the Technical Baseline. Further, this plan describes the approach for moving from the ``as is`` condition of engineering practice, systems, and facilities to the desired ``to be`` configuration. To make this transition, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering will become a center of excellence for TWRS which,will perform engineering in the most effective manner to meet the mission. TWRS engineering will process deviations from sitewide systems if necessary to meet the mission most effectively.

Rifaey, S.H.

1998-01-09

221

Three-Dimensional Morphology of Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the structure and form of systems engineering using the technique of morphological analysis is presented. The result is a model of the field of systems engineering that may be rich in applications. Three uses given for illustration are in taxonomy, discovery of new sets of activities, and systems science curriculum design.

Arthur Hall

1969-01-01

222

Understanding the Value of Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practices of systems engineering are believed to have high value in the development of complex systems. Heuristic wisdom is that an increase in the quantity and quality of systems engineering (SE) can reduce project schedule while increasing product quality. This paper explores recent theoretical and statistical information concerning this heuristic value of SE. It explores the underlying theoretical relationships

Eric C. Honour

223

Gasification Product Improvement Facility status  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded a two phase contract for the construction of a Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) to develop an innovative air blown, dry bottom, pressurized fixed bed gasifier based on the patented PyGas{trademark} fixed bed process. The objective of the project is to provide a test site to support early commercialization of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The GPIF will be capable of processing run of mine high swelling coals that comprise 87% of all Eastern US coals. This program will generate useful scale up data that will be utilized to develop commercial size designs. The project will also support the development of a hot gas clean up subsystem and the gasifier infrastructure consisting of controls, special instrumentation and interconnects with Allegheny Power System`s host power plant, Fort Martin Station in Maidesville, West Virginia. This paper presents the status of the GPIF project. It describes the work performed in the past year on the PyGas process development, gasifier design, plant engineering/layout, tie in with the existing Fort Martin facility, procurement, site permitting and project scheduling.

Carson, R.D.; Dixit, V.B.; Sadowski, R.S.; Thamaraichelvan, P.; Culberson, H.

1995-11-01

224

The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department of Tsinghua University in 1992. The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in China is much lower than that of the advanced countries, but the coal consumption is much higher, which brings about the waste of primary energy resources and the pollution of the environment. With the deep study of the gasification technology, Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, as the improved system, came into birth in 1996 based on the partial gasification one. At the end of 1997, a new cycle scheme similar to IGCC was created. This paper focuses on several classes combined cycle put forward by Tsinghua University, depending on the plant configuration and carbon conversion, making the solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

Zhao, Li; Xu, Xiangdong

1999-12-01

225

TARDEC Advanced Systems Engineering Capability (ASEC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems Engineering (SE) is a knowledge-based process. Its success depends on timely, efficient and effective knowledge capture, sharing of that knowledge among a diverse set of system stakeholders, and formulation of the system trade space to enable deci...

P. Mendonza

2012-01-01

226

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period, we conducted several exposure tests with coated and uncoated coupons including a ''500-h'' test. The first experiment was a 316-h test and was designed to look at the performance of Ti/Ta nitride coatings, which seemed to fare the best in earlier tests. The next experiment was a 112-h test with a range of pure metals and commercially available materials. Its purpose was to help identify those metals that best withstood gasifier environment, and hence should be good ingredients for coatings. Finally, we ran a ''500-h'' test, which was also our milestone, with coupons coated with Ti/Ta nitride or Cr/Al coatings.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-09-01

227

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in an integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high-alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period, we conducted a simulated gasifier test primarily with TiN-coated steel samples. Although the test showed these coatings to offer significant protection against corrosion, they also revealed a lack of uniformity in the coatings. We spent a considerable amount of effort improving our coatings procedure as well as the fluidized bed reactor and its heater. Based on the results collected thus far, we selected 12 samples and sent them to ConocoPhillips for testing in their gasifier at the Wabash River Energy plant.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-12-01

228

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we conducted two 300-hour tests. In the first test, we exposed samples at 900 C under conditions simulating the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The second test was at 370 C, corresponding to the filter units following the HTHRU. The tests were showed the resilience of silicon nitride as a coating component, and the new coating procedures better penetrated the pores in sintered metal filter samples. Finally, we also received samples that were exposed in the Wabash River plant. Unfortunately, all these samples, that were prepared last year, were severely eroded and/or corroded.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-03-15

229

Mutagenicity of Tween 80-solvated mild gasification products in the Ames salmonella microsomal assay system  

SciTech Connect

The results of the Tween 80-solvated Ames testing of six mild gasification samples indicate significant mutagenic activity only in the composite materials (MG-119 and MG-120), previously suspected from the DMSO-solvated assays, which had shown some variable but ultimately insignificant mutagenic responses. The activity of these samples from the Tween 80-solvated assays was quite low when compared to either the positive controls or the SRC-II HD coal-liquefaction reference material. The class of mutagenic activity expressed by these samples solvated in Tween 80 was that of an indirect-acting, frameshift mutagen(s) since significant activity was found only on tester strain TA98 in the presence of the metabolic activation fraction (S9). Because DMSO and other solvents have been shown to affect the mutagenic activity of certain pure chemicals, the possibility of solvent/mutagen interactions in complex mixtures such as coal-derived liquids exists. Thus, the testing of the genotoxic activity of undefined, chemically complex compounds may require the use of at least two solvent systems to reduce the possibility of artifactual findings. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1992-01-13

230

Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system  

SciTech Connect

The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a t echnoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

1997-12-01

231

Systems Engineering Plan for Surface Navy Theater Air Defense (TAD)-Volume 1: System Requirements Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This plan for system requirements engineering defines the steps necessary to engineer Surface Navy Theater Air Defense (TAD) as a system. The high level architectures and requirements that result from this process are intended to guide future development ...

P. J. Stafford T. W. Kimbrell R. L. Kniceley D. L. Brunson R. G. Acree

1999-01-01

232

Earth Systems Science and Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Providing the essential energy and water systems to support human needs while understanding and addressing their environmental consequences is a watershed problem for the 21st century. The LLNL Earth System Science and Engineering Program seeks to provide the scientific understanding and technological expertise to help provide solutions at both global and regional scales. Our work is highly collaborative with universities, laboratories and industrial partners across the world and involves observational data, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. The energy systems we have enjoyed for the last 100 years have resulted in the advanced standard of living in the developed world and a major emerging problem with climate change. Now we face a simultaneous realization that our reliance on fossil fuels is a source of conflict and economic disruption as well as causing potentially abrupt, even catastrophic global climate change. The climate and energy problem is perhaps the greatest challenge ever faced by mankind. Fossil fuel remains the least expensive and most available source of energy and the basis of our economy. The use of fossil fuels, especially over the last 100 years has led to a 30% increase in CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The problem is growing. The population of the Earth will increase by several billion people in the next 50 years. If economic growth is to continue, the demand for energy is estimated to approximately double in the next 50 years so that we will need approximately 10 TW more energy than the 15 TW we use now. Much of this demand will come from the developing world where most of the population growth will occur and where advanced energy technology is not generally used. The problem affects and is affected by a complex system of systems. The climate and energy problem will affect resources, social structure and the probability of increased conflict. No one person, no one nation, no one technology can solve the problem. There is no parallel precedent on which to model a solution. On these grounds, we have chosen to tackle four key tasks: (1) Understanding the natural Earth system and anthropogenic systems examining key forcings and processes driving these systems and the interactions between systems; (2) Identify climate change impacts important to society and develop strategies and technologies to adapt to the climate change that is inevitable given past, current, and potential emissions; (3) Developing strategies and technologies to reduce/eliminate greenhouse gas emissions thereby mitigating climate change while generating energy that is economically and socially viable; and (4) Engaging with appropriate economic, legal, social, and political structures to inform key decisions.

Rotman, D A

2006-02-21

233

Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

1992-06-01

234

Method and system for controlling an engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes method for controlling an engine provided with an auto-decelerator system in a construction vehicle the construction vehicle having plural operating levers, characterized in that the auto-decelerator system is automatically temporarily actuated immediately after all of the plural operating levers have been returned to their neutral positions, respectively, thereby causing a small extent reduction in the number of revolutions of the engine, and after allowing the engine to run under such a condition for a predetermined period, the auto-decelerator system is automatically actuated again to reduce the number of revolutions of the engine to those in the idling speed condition.

Sakaguchi, S.; Nagata, Y.

1988-10-04

235

A planning support system for system of systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a planning system for SOSE (system of systems engineering). Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the planning for SOSE, the architecture framework of the planning system is introduced, which not only supports the process design and organization design, but also monitor of SOSE process. A plan representation is proposed for planning SOSE, which emphasizes on

Yong Wang; Zhong Liu; Wei-Ming Zhang; Jin-Cai Huang; Bao-Xin Xiu

2007-01-01

236

Applying systems engineering to astronomical projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the award of the VISTA project to the United Kingdom Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC), the need for a formal systems approach and dedicated systems engineering management was identified as a key requirement for the success of that project. The structuring of projects within the UK ATC has been increasingly biased toward a systems engineering approach. ROE projects such as CGS4, while very successful, were based on a traditional engineering discipline approach. The systems responsibility was split between the Project Scientist and the Project Manager. Such an approach can be made to work on internal projects where the entire team and project sponsor are in close proximity. As instrumentation projects have grown larger, become more complex and increasingly geographically distributed through international collaboration, the need for technical discipline enforced by a formal system engineering approach has correspondingly grown. Internal projects also benefit and are becoming increasingly reliant on systems engineering as a means to mitigating both schedule and budget risks. This paper describes and analyses the ongoing introduction of a formal systems approach within the UK ATC. Structuring of projects through a sub-system approach rather than by discipline, formal requirements capture, traceability and the use of systems tools to monitor performance are described. The introduction of systems engineering as a discipline is discussed and progress to date reported. Systems engineering activities in previous projects and ongoing implementation in current projects are analysed. Lessons learnt are described and future development in the systems approach outlined.

Craig, Simon C.; Born, Andrew J.

2004-09-01

237

Spent Nuclear Fuel project systems engineering management plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the WHC Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to describe the systems engineering approach and methods that will be integrated with established WHC engineering practices to enhance the WHC engineering management of the SNF Project. ...

J. C. Womack

1995-01-01

238

Automotive engines oil level surveillance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an engine crankcase oil surveillance system with restoration of oil sufficiency if needed, for use with an engine having a sump and an ignition system. It comprises: a vertical oil detection member extending down to and into the pump; timing means set for a specific period of time after initiation; timer initiation means for initiating the timing

M. C. Rasdal; V. J. Rasdal; M. C. Bates

1991-01-01

239

A nuclear power plant system engineering workstation  

Microsoft Academic Search

System engineers offer an approach to effective technical support for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. System engineer groups are being set up by most utilities in the United States; Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have endorsed the concept. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process for developing

J. H. Mason; J. W. Crosby

1989-01-01

240

Communications track for systems engineering majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Weapons and Systems Engineering Department at the United States Naval Academy offers an undergraduate degree in Systems Engineering (Controls) to approximately 100 midshipmen annually. Fourth year students are allowed to specialize by taking a two-course track chosen from several areas of interest. Our communications track is one of these areas. The communication track integrates signal analysis and processing methods,

Svetlana Avramov-Zamurovic; Carl Wick; Terry Dwan

1998-01-01

241

Integrated Systems Engineering and Test & Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presentation given at the AF Systems Engineering Conference, Dayton OH, 16-17 August 2011. Part of a breakout session chaired by Ms Eileen Bjorkman. Discussion links the systems engineering process used in a program to help manage risk levels with the tes...

P. Waters

2011-01-01

242

Engineering automation in interactive critical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability

Regina Bernhaupt; Guy A. Boy; Michael Feary; Philippe A. Palanque

2011-01-01

243

Proceeding of the sixth annual gasification contractors meeting  

SciTech Connect

On June 24 and 25, 1986, METC sponsored the Sixth Annual Gasification Contractors Meeting which was held at the Ramada Inn in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification projects sponsored by the Department of Energy. To foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities. To facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 170 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and overseas coal research organizations attended the 2-day meeting. Twenty-nine papers and nine poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in fundamental mechanisms/innovative concepts, fluid dynamic/modeling, gas separation/upgrading, and operating experience of the large-scale pilot plants in the US Scientists, engineers, and administrators discussed many of the issues facing those engaged in the research and development activities that constitute the gasification program. This document constitutes the proceedings of that meeting and serves as a summary of the gasification program. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Ghate, M.R.; Baker Jarr, L.A. (eds.)

1986-06-01

244

Data acquisition system and instrumentation for the Rocky Mountain I Coal Gasification test  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) designed the data acquisition system (DAS) to measure all surface and subsurface process parameters during the Rocky Mountain I (RM I) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test. The Hewlett Packard (HP) minicomputer-based system acquired data from strings of type-K thermocouples that were emplaced in vertical wells at key locations in the reactor area. Process data such as injection and production flow rates, temperatures, and pressures were also measured and stored by the DAS. In addition, the gas analysis data from gas chromatographs and the mass spectrometer were logged throughout the test. An improved method of measuring the water to dry gas ratio was also developed and utilized for the RM I test. It consisted of a proven hydrostatic liquid level measurement technique and a novel purge method thus producing water/dry data that was considerably improved in both accuracy and frequency of measurement. An additional diagnostic instrument added to the CRIP injection liner and a VIW1 dip tube was a stainless teel jacketed twisted pair of copper wires whose lengths were measured using a time domain reflectometer (TDR) technique. The measurement of the cable lengths would be correlated to the length of the liner and dip tube over the duration of the test. This measurement combined with thermocouple data was used to model cavity growth. Early indications are that a number of subsurface thermocouples may have burst because of gas buildup in the sheath. Many may have failed before they actually saw a critical process temperature. Future use of any sheath type thermocouples will require acceptance testing and vendor qualification to preclude this type of failure. Future UCG tests will require the use of cost-effective and reliable subsurface diagnostics, such as the TDR technique combined with thermocuples, to characterize the dimensions, position, and movement of the underground burn cavity. 7 refs., 8 figs.

Metzger, G.A.; Britten, J.A.

1988-08-01

245

The acoustics of racing engine intake systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally aspirated racing engines have tuned intake systems and can now achieve volumetric efficiencies in excess of 125% and peak engine speeds in excess of 18,000rev/min. Engines designed for single seater racing commonly dispense with the intake manifold and its convoluted and restricting flow path preferring single lengths of pipe feeding each cylinder separately. An investigation into the intake process on a single cylinder racing engine has shown that inertial ram effects make a strong contribution to the intake process at high engine speeds whereas acoustic resonance effects are more important to the rather weak wave action that occurs at low engine speeds. An acoustic model of the resonant wave action has proved useful in distinguishing between these two effects. The attributes of the acoustic model have been compared to those of more traditional time-marching gas-dynamics calculation methods. A decoupled hybrid method has been shown to yield calculations of the wave dynamics in the intake system of a single cylinder racing engine that show fair agreement with measured results up to the 10th harmonic of the engine cycle frequency. In a case study, the intake characteristics of a single cylinder racing engine have been shown to differ only slightly from those expected from the V10 engine on which it is based, although this will only be the case when the dimensions of the intake system are chosen appropriately.

Harrison, M. F.; Dunkley, A.

2004-04-01

246

Systems Engineering for Large-Scale Fingerprint Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems engineering for large-scale Automated Fingerprint Recognition Systems (AFIS) involves system planning, specification,\\u000a design, development, testing, and operational support. Testing these systems includes the complex activity of measuring the\\u000a system’s performance. The desired system performance, however, affects each of the system’s engineering functions. For large-scale\\u000a systems, estimating the performance of the full-scale operational system and planning for its development are

Rajiv Khanna

247

Ramgen Power Systems for Military Engine Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ramgen Power Systems, Inc. (RPS) is developing two high efficiency gas turbine engine concepts that combine many of the proven features of supersonic compression and expansion systems, commonly used in supersonic flight inlet and nozzle designs, with conv...

C. W. Sohn D. Brown D. Mahoney F. H. Holcomb G. Tamm

2007-01-01

248

Westinghouse gasification process  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the coal gasification sytem, which utilizes a single-stage, pressurized, fluidized-bed gasifier, followed by heat recovery and gas cleaning. The gasifier can be fired with air or oxygen to produce a low- or medium-Btu gas, respectively. Byproducts from the gasification sytem include sulfur, ammonia and an agglomerated ash that are projected to be nontoxic and suitable for disposal by landfill. Design and operational design of a pilot plant, which has been tested since 1975, are included, along with operational results. Data are given on the methanol synthesis including economic considerations. Detailed engineering for a 1200 metric ton/d prototype is progressing according to schedule. The commercial prototype will be ready for start-up in 1983.

Schwartz, C.W.; Rath, L.K.; Freier, M.D.

1982-04-01

249

14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section...Powerplant Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems, the following...

2013-01-01

250

Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) System: A Modified-Stream Method for in Situ Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The underground coal gasification process, in practice, is subject to various problems that make it difficult to maintain and control an efficient long-term operation. One of the major problems is the need to move the injection point (where the combustion...

M. J. Shannon R. W. Hill

1981-01-01

251

Controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system: a modified-stream method for in situ coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underground coal gasification process, in practice, is subject to various problems that make it difficult to maintain and control an efficient long-term operation. One of the major problems is the need to move the injection point (where the combustion-supporting air or oxygen from the surface is fed into the coal seam) to new areas of unburned coal as the

R. W. Hill; M. J. Shannon

1981-01-01

252

Experimental Results of Olive Pits Gasification in a Fixed Bed Downdraft Gasifier System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental legislation and interest in using newly utilized renewable biomass energy sources in small-scale downdraft biomass gasifiers have stimulated this research work. Biomass gasification for the production of green and clean energy generation in the form of electricity and\\/or heat is a viable alternative to fossil fuels and a clean technology, which can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and facilitate closure

Murat Dogru

2012-01-01

253

Effects of sulfur emission controls on the cost of gasification combined cycle power systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic evaluations were performed for a series of coal gasification-combined cycle power generation facilities, each differing in the mode of operation of the sulfur removal unit. The objectives of the study were to determine the added cost of power associated with more stringent sulfur emission requirements as well as the economic impact of the pressure level at which sulfur removal

S. Feerrar; J. Joiner; J. Kellard; B. McElmurry

1978-01-01

254

Influence of system integration options on the performance of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) plant consists of a power block and a gasifier block, and a smooth integration of these two parts is important. This work has analyzed the influences of the major design options on the performance of an IGCC plant. These options include the method of integrating a gas turbine with an air separation unit and

Jong Jun Lee; Young Sik Kim; Kyu Sang Cha; Tong Seop Kim; Jeong L. Sohn; Yong Jin Joo

2009-01-01

255

Supercritical water gasification of real biomass feedstocks in continuous flow system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, supercritical water gasification of the selected five biomass samples (cauliflower residue, acorn, tomatoes residue, extracted acorn and hazelnut shell) was investigated. Lignocellulosic feedstocks were gasified in a continuous flow reactor at 600 °C and 35 MPa. The product gas is composed of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide and a small amount of C2 compounds. Quantitative analysis of product

Tülay Güngören Madeno?lu; Nikolaos Boukis; Mehmet Sa?lam; Mithat Yüksel

2011-01-01

256

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period we tested coated alloy coupons under conditions designed to mimic the conditions in the filter unit after the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The filter unit is another important area where corrosion has caused unscheduled downtime, and the remedy has been the use of sintered metal tubes made of expensive alloys such as inconel. The objective of our test was to determine if those coatings on 400-series steel that were not able to withstand the harsher conditions of the HTHRU, may be sufficiently resistant for use in the filter unit, at the reduced temperatures. Indeed, most of our coatings survived well; the exceptions were the coated porous samples of SS316. We continued making improvements to our coatings apparatus and the procedure began during the last quarter. As a result of these modifications, the coupons we are now producing are uniform. We describe the improved procedure for preparing diffusion coatings. Finally, because porous samples of steel in grades other than SS316 are not readily available, we also decided to procure SS409 powder and fabricate our own sintered porous coupons.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-01-01

257

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the hightemperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several 409 low alloy steel samples after coating them in our fluidized bed reactor and also after exposing them to our corrosion test. We report the following findings: 1. A protective coating was deposited inside a porous 409 steel sample to protect it from sulfidation attack. The coating was based on a combination of Si diffusion layer, Nb interlayer and nitrides of titanium and silicon. 2. Analysis of solid coupons exposed to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that multilayer metal/ceramic coatings provide a better protection than ceramic coatings. 3. Deposition of several ceramic/metal multilayer coatings showed that coatings with niobium and tantalum interlayers have good adhesion. However, coatings with a tungsten interlayer suffered localized delaminating and coatings with Zr interlayers showed poor adhesion. 4. Analysis of solid coupons, coated with the above-mentioned multilayer films, after exposure to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that niobium is the best candidate for interlayer material.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2007-03-31

258

Dynamic simulation models for selective sulfur removal in coal gasification systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted, under EPRI Agreement RP1038-6, to investigate the feasibility of using computer simulation models to predict the steady-state and transient behavior of selective acid gas treating units. One of the prime objectives was to determine whether these models could be used to simulate the acid gas absorption units in coal gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plants. Two dynamic simulation models were investigated; one model was developed by S-Cubed (formerly Systems, Science and Software) and the other was an in-house program developed by Hyprotech Ltd. These models were tailored specifically for the Norton Co. SELEXOL process for this study and incorporated an empirically fitted property package to represent the solvent. Both models used the same property package and were tested against SELEXOL plant data provided from the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, Pennsylvania, the Texaco pilot plant in Montebello, California and the TVA pilot plant in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. The results of this study are presented in this report. Although there were inconsistencies in some of the plant data, the models appeared to compare favorably with the plant data. The S-Cubed and Hyprotech model yielded nearly identical results when tested against the Bi-Gas plant data. Overall, the Hyprotech model proved to be faster than the S-Cubed version by about an order of magnitude and therefore offered the more attractive option for general simulation applications. However, further work is still needed to improve the solvent property predictions in the model. 7 refs.

Vysniauskas, T.; Sim, W.D.

1985-07-01

259

Visualizing systems engineering data with Java  

SciTech Connect

Systems Engineers are required to deal with complex sets of data. To be useful, the data must be managed effectively, and presented in meaningful terms to a wide variety of information consumers. Two software patterns are presented as the basis for exploring the visualization of systems engineering data. The Model, View, Controller pattern defines an information management system architecture. The Entity, Relation, Attribute pattern defines the information model. MVC ?Views? then form the basis for the user interface between the information consumer and the MVC ?Controller?/?Model? combination. A Java tool set is described for exploring alternative views into the underlying complex data structures encountered in systems engineering.

Barter, R; Vinzant, A

1998-11-10

260

Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) implementation of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Systems Engineering (SE) policy provided in Tank Waste Remediation System Systems Engineering Management Policy, DOE\\/RL letter, 95-RTI-107, Oct. 31, 1995. This SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Program to accomplish SE objectives. This TWRS

Peck

1996-01-01

261

Dynamic modeling of gas turbines in integrated gasification fuel cell systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid systems for use in integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems operating on coal will stretch existing fossil fuel reserves, generate power with less environmental impact, while having a cost of electricity advantage over most competing technologies. However, the dynamic performance of a SOFC-GT in IGFC applications has not been previously studied in detail. Of particular importance is how the turbo-machinery will be designed, controlled and operated in such applications; this is the focus of the current work. Perturbation and dynamic response analyses using numerical SimulinkRTM models indicate that compressor surge is the predominant concern for safe dynamic turbo-machinery operation while shaft over-speed and excessive turbine inlet temperatures are secondary concerns. Fuel cell temperature gradients and anode-cathode differential pressures were found to be the greatest concerns for safe dynamic fuel cell operation. Two control strategies were compared, that of constant gas turbine shaft speed and constant fuel cell temperature, utilizing a variable speed gas turbine. Neither control strategy could eliminate all vulnerabilities during dynamic operation. Constant fuel cell temperature control ensures safe fuel cell operation, while constant speed control does not. However, compressor surge is more likely with constant fuel cell temperature control than with constant speed control. Design strategies that provide greater surge margin while utilizing constant fuel cell temperature control include increasing turbine design mass flow and decreasing turbine design inlet pressure, increasing compressor design pressure ratio and decreasing compressor design mass flow, decreasing plenum volume, decreasing shaft moment of inertia, decreasing fuel cell pressure drop, maintaining constant compressor inlet air temperature. However, these strategies in some cases incur an efficiency penalty. A broad comparison of cycles employing cathode recycle using either an ejector or a blower indicate that the cycles with the blower provide better turbo-machinery stability and higher system efficiencies than the cycles with the ejector. A comparison of two models controlled to maintain constant fuel cell operating temperatures of 1,100 K and 1,373 K, show similar dynamic performance trends, indicating that the results are applicable to planar and tubular SOFC-GT systems and should apply to other operating temperatures.

Maclay, James Davenport

262

Congeneration system with a Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cogeneration system for producing process heat for useful purposes and electric energy. It comprises an electric generator; a Stirling cycle engine having an output shaft operatively coupled to the generator for driving the generator, the engine including at least one internal fuel combustor; means for circulating a cooling liquid about the generator and engine to extract heat therefrom; an exhaust system coupled with the engine for exhausting combustion gases from the engine, the exhaust system including a condensing heat exchanger for cooling the combustion gases below the condensing, temperature of the water vapor in the exhaust gases; means for directing the cooling liquid around the condensing heat exchanger to extract heat therefrom and heat the liquid; and means for directing the cooling liquid for useful purposes.

Meijer, R.J.; Meijer, E.J.; Godett, T.M.

1991-12-24

263

Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was performed that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs that utilize two or more of the propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4 and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined focused on the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where feasible. From the evaluation baseline employed, tripropellant MTV LOX cooled and bipropellant LEV and MEV engine systems are identified.

Pelaccio, D.; Jacobs, M.; Collins, J.; Scheil, C.; Meyer, M.

1992-07-01

264

The development of engine evaporative cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental heat transfer study has been conducted on a new engine cooling system in which heat is removed from the engine through the boiling process in the water jacket and is radiated to the air through a condenser. By carrying out a basic experiment using a model boiler as a substitute for the cylinder heat water jacket and a

T. Kubozuka; N. Ogawa; Y. Hirano; Y. Hayashi

1987-01-01

265

Engine induction system and method  

SciTech Connect

The patent describes a method of inducting air into the intake of an internal combustion engine to reduce engine pumping losses, the engine having an intake plenum connected to a plurality of cylinders each having at least one primary and one secondary intake valve. It comprises the steps of: first, blocking the flow of air to the secondary valves; second, opening each primary intake valve one at a time and closing that valve prior to the opening of the primary intake valve of any other cylinder thereby precluding overlap between the openings of primary valves of different cylinders; and third, at heavier loads, unblocking the flow of air to the secondary valves to obtain greater air flow.

Clarke, J.R.; Wolfe, B.C.

1989-08-29

266

A systems engineering primer for every engineer and scientist  

SciTech Connect

The Systems Engineering (SE) staff at LBNL has generated the following artifacts to assist projects with implementing a systems approach: (1) The present document that focuses on the what, why, and when of SE. It also provides a simple case-study to illustrate several SE tasks. (2) A web site with primary emphasis on the project life-cycle and workflow, (http://www-eng.LBNL.gov/Systems/index.html). It includes: SE guidelines and principles; A list of in-house tools; Templates; Case studies with ''how to'' examples; and Links to useful SE material. These sources are living documents to be updated as necessary. The viewpoint adopted in this document is that what LBNL engineers and scientists need is a set of principles and guiding practices for developing R and D systems rather than a ''cookbook''. There are many excellent ''how to'' resources such as the ''INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook'' to guide those in search of more details. The SE staff is another resource available to consult and support projects. This document specifies SE principles and activities that are applicable to all LBNL projects independent of their specific differences. Each project should tailor the SE implementation to meet its individual needs and culture including project-specific resources, procedures, products, and tools.

Edwards, William R.

2001-12-10

267

Analysis of integrating compressed air energy storage concepts with coal gasification/combined-cycle systems for continuous power production  

SciTech Connect

A previous study sponsored by EPRI concluded that integrating a compressed-air energy storage (CAES) plant with a coal-gasification system (CGS) can reduce the required capacity and cost of the expensive gasification system. The results showed that when compared at an equal plant capacity, the capital cost of the CGS portion of the integrated CAES/CGS plant can be reduced by as much as 30% relative to the same portion of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. Furthermore, the capital cost of the CAES/CGS.plant, configured as a peaking unit, was found to be slightly lower than that of the base-load IGCC plant. However, the overall economics of the CAES/CGS plant were adversely affected by the low capacity factor of the peak-load service, and ultimately, were found to be less attractive than the IGCC plant. The main objective of this study was to develop and analyze integrated CAES/CGS power plant concepts which provide for continuous (around-the-clock) operation of both the CAES reheat turboexpander train and the CGS facility. The developed concepts also provide utility-load management functions by driving the CAES compressor trains with off-peak electricity supplied through the grid. EPRI contracted with Energy Storage Power Consultants, Inc. (ESPC) to develop conceptual designs, optimized performance characteristics, and preliminary cost data for these CAES/CGS concepts, and to provide a technical and cost comparison to the IGCC plant. The CAES/CGS concepts developed by ESPC for the current study contrast from those of Reference 1.

Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.; Andersson, L. (Energy Storage and Power Consultants, Inc., Mountainside, NJ (United States))

1992-12-01

268

40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section 89.329 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

2013-07-01

269

40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section 91.307 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...

2013-07-01

270

40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section 90.307 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...

2013-07-01

271

14 CFR 23.1165 - Engine ignition systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...simultaneous demands of the engine ignition system and the greatest demands... (c) The design of the engine ignition system must account forâ (1...ignition. (e) Each turbine engine ignition system must be independent of...

2010-01-01

272

14 CFR 23.1165 - Engine ignition systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...simultaneous demands of the engine ignition system and the greatest demands... (c) The design of the engine ignition system must account forâ (1...ignition. (e) Each turbine engine ignition system must be independent of...

2009-01-01

273

Computer Based Systems Engineering Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern computer based systems are complex multi-systems consisting of many connected individual subsystems; each one of them is typically also a multicomputer system. The subsystems in a multi-system can be either geographically distributed or locally connected systems. Typical examples of computer based systems are medical systems, process control systems, communications systems, weapon systems and large information systems.\\u000a The development of

Jonah Z. Lavi; Ashok K. Agrawala; Raymond J. A. Buhr; Ken Jackson; Michael Jackson; Bernard Lang

1991-01-01

274

Using a systems engineering process to develop engineered barrier system design concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology used to develop conceptual designs of the engineered barrier system and waste packages for a geologic repository is based on an iterative systems engineering process. The process establishes a set of general mission requirements and then conducts detailed requirements analyses using functional analyses, system concept syntheses, and trade studies identifications to develop preliminary system concept descriptions. The feasible

L. J. Jardine; D. W. Short

1991-01-01

275

Biomedical engineering equipment management system (BEEMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation will review practical tools and reports generated by our system (BEEMS) Biomedical Equipment Management System that serves unique purpose. Management systems must contain valuable information that can be used to improve management of and level of service performance. The relationship between database elements within this system and their contribution to the benefit of both the Biomedical Engineering Department

C. Molina; Y. David

2003-01-01

276

Civil Engineering Decision Support Systems in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Civil engineering decision support systems (construction, building life cycle, refurbishment, total quality management, innovation, etc.) created in Lithuania are described in this paper. The above decision support systems comprise of the following constituent parts: data (database and its management system), models (model base and its management system) and a user interface. Presentation of information in databases may be in

E. K. Zavadskas; A. Kaklauskas

277

Gasification and power generation characteristics of woody biomass utilizing a downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy utilization from biomass resources has started to attract public attention as a method to reduce CO2 emissions. In this study, the characteristics of syngas production from biomass gasification were investigated in a downdraft gasifier that was combined with a small gas engine system for power generation. Syngas temperatures from the gasifier were maintained at a level of 700–1000 °C. When

Young-Il Son; Sang Jun Yoon; Yong Ku Kim; Jae-Goo Lee

2011-01-01

278

Nuclear engine system simulation (NESS) program update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second phase of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis code has been completed. The standalone, versatile Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code provides an accurate, detailed assessment of engine system operating performance, weight, and sizes. The critical information is required to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. This recent development effort included incorporation of an updated solid-core nuclear thermal reactor model that yields a reduced core weight and higher fuel power density when compared to a NERVA type reactor. NESS can now analyze expander, gas generator, and bleed cycles, along with multi-redundant propellant pump feed systems. Performance and weight of efficient multi-stage axial turbopump can now be determined, in addition to the traditional centrifugal pump. Key code outputs include reactor operating charactertistics and weights and well as engine system parameters such as performance, weights, dimensions, pressures, temperatures, mass flows and turbopump operating characteristics for both design and off-design operating conditions. Representative NTP engine system designs are also shown. An overview of NESS methodology and capabilities is presented in this paper, with special emphasis being placed on recent code developments.

Scheil, Christine M.; Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

1993-01-01

279

Cryogenic Engineering for Superconducting Power Transmission Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The successful introduction of helium-cooled (superconducting) transmission systems into electric utility networks will open a vast market for cryogenic engineering components and services. If only 10 percent of the anticipated investment in transmission ...

E. B. Forsyth

1976-01-01

280

Road map for implementing systems engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of syst...

F. F. Dean B. Bentz A. T. Bahill

1997-01-01

281

Dynamic simulation models for selective sulfur removal in coal gasification systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted, under EPRI Agreement RP1038-6, to investigate the feasibility of using computer simulation models to predict the steady-state and transient behavior of selective acid gas treating units. One of the prime objectives was to determine whether these models could be used to simulate the acid gas absorption units in coal gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plants. Two dynamic

T. Vysniauskas; W. D. Sim

1985-01-01

282

NEEDS: The National Engineering Education Delivery System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NEEDS: The National Engineering Education Delivery System is a digital library of learning resources for engineering education. NEEDS provides web-based access to a database of learning resources where the user (whether they be learners or instructors) can search for, locate, download, and comment on resources to aid their learning or teaching process. In addition NEEDS supports a multi-tier evaluation system from our national award competition with sponsors from industry to user-based reviews of individual learning resources.

2010-06-24

283

Systems engineering: application to VISTA design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-performance nature of VISTA, the Visible & Infra-Red Survey Telescope for Astronomy, with its wide-field high-throughput f\\/1 optical design coupled with the multi-organisation, multi-disciplinary nature of the VISTA collaboration places significant demands on the project's Systems Engineering function. The project has relied heavily on a Systems Engineering approach, which has been vigorously applied throughout the conception, specification, and tendering

Andrew J. Born; Ian Egan

2004-01-01

284

Implementing Systems Engineering on a CERCLA Project  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), enacted in 1980, provides a regulatory and legal mechanism to reduce risks from prior disposal of hazardous and toxic chemicals. Regulations, Standards, and Guidelines have been published to further define the CERCLA Process. The OU 7-10 Staged Interim Action Project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is a CERCLA project working to remediate the pre-1970 disposal pit in which transuranic materials have been disposed. This paper analyzes the CERCLA process from a systems engineering perspective and describes how systems engineering is implemented on this project.

G. A. Beitel

1999-06-01

285

Systems engineering interfaces: A model based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering of interfaces is a critical function of the discipline of Systems Engineering. Included in interface engineering are instances of interaction. Interfaces provide the specifications of the relevant properties of a system or component that can be connected to other systems or components while instances of interaction are identified in order to specify the actual integration to other systems or components. Current Systems Engineering practices rely on a variety of documents and diagrams to describe interface specifications and instances of interaction. The SysML[1] specification provides a precise model based representation for interfaces and interface instance integration. This paper will describe interface engineering as implemented by the Operations Revitalization Task using SysML, starting with a generic case and culminating with a focus on a Flight System to Ground Interaction. The reusability of the interface engineering approach presented as well as its extensibility to more complex interfaces and interactions will be shown. Model-derived tables will support the case studies shown and are examples of model-based documentation products.

Fosse, E.; Delp, C. L.

286

Design and Cost Estimate of a 20-Ton-Per-Hour Pulverized-Coal, Suspension-Type, Pressurized Gasification System Test Facility. Final Report. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the detailed design and cost estimate for a Babcock and Wilcox pressurized 20-ton/hr pulverized-coal, suspension gasification system. In Vol. 1, the first portion of the report covers system description. This includes process and flow ...

1976-01-01

287

Design and Cost Estimate of a 20-Ton-Per-Hour Pulverized-Coal, Suspension-Type, Pressurized Gasification System Test Facility. Final Report. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the detailed design and cost estimate for a Babcock and Wilcox pressurized 20-ton/hr pulverized-coal, suspension gasification system. In Vol. 1, the first portion of the report covers system description. This includes process and flow ...

1976-01-01

288

Spent Nuclear Fuel project systems engineering management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the WHC Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to describe the systems engineering approach and methods that will be integrated with established WHC engineering practices to enhance the WHC engineering management of the SNF Project. The scope of the SEMP encompasses the efforts needed to manage the WHC implementation of systems engineering on the SNF Project. This

1995-01-01

289

Underground coal gasification review  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification appears to be one of the most attractive sources of feedstock to produce synfuels from coal because the process can produce methanol and substitute natural gas at prices competitive with existing energy sources. Savings in the form of reduced oil and gas imports from the first year of commercial operations would pay for the entire R and D budget necessary to perfect the underground coal gasification process. The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification has been well established by 21 small scale field tests carried out in the US since 1973. Cost estimates based on the resultant data are encouraging. Methanol is estimated to cost $0.52/gal (without tax) and SNG is estimated to cost $5.19/10/sup 6/ Btu, all in 1982 dollars. The environmental effects associated with the technology appear to be acceptable. Successful commercialization of the process would probably triple the proven reserves of US coal, which would be sufficient to last for hundreds of years. At this stage of development, underground coal gasification is a high risk technology and will remain so until large scale field tests are successfully carried out. These tests are recommended by the Gas Research Institute and by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. A seven year program costing about $200 million would permit initial commercial production in ten years. A recent small scale field test, the Centralia Partial Seam CRIP test, was very successful. Steam and oxygen was employed to gasify 2000 tons of coal over a 30 day period, producing 250 Btu/scf gas. A larger scale test is presently being planned for Centralia, Washington, involving the US DOE and an industrial consortium led by the Gas Research Institute. 28 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Stephens, D.R.; Hill, R.W.; Borg, I.Y.

1985-01-01

290

Grand Challenges for Systems Engineering Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems engineering is rapidly becoming recognised as a key discipline in a number of sectors including Aerospace & Defence, Automotive, Construction, Energy, Transportation, Consumer Electronics, IT, Pharmaceutical & Healthcare and Telecommunications. This trend is driven by growing system complexity and the need for optimal integration of people, processes and technologies. Consequently, the shear scale of future system complexity is likely

Roy S. Kalawsky

2009-01-01

291

PISTON ENGINE INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of intake and exhaust system design is to control the transfer of acoustic energy from the sources and its emission by the system with minimal loss of engine performance. A rational design process depends on the adoption of a design methodology based on predictive modelling of acoustic behaviour. Virtually any system geometry can be modelled by breaking it

P. O. A. L. Davies

1996-01-01

292

Two-tank working gas storage system for heat engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a working gas control system for use in connection with a hot gas engine including a power controller for admitting the working gas to the engine to increase engine power and for releasing working gas from the engine to decrease engine power. A compressor compresses the working gas released from the engine. Storage vessels are included for

Hindes

1987-01-01

293

Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan  

SciTech Connect

This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) systems engineering policy provided in 97-IMSD-193. The SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Project to implement the policy. The SEMP will be used as the basis for tailoring the systems engineering applications to the development of the physical systems and processes necessary to achieve the desired end states of the program. It is a living document that will be revised as necessary to reflect changes in systems engineering guidance as the program evolves. The US Department of Energy-Headquarters has issued program management guidance, DOE Order 430. 1, Life Cycle Asset Management, and associated Good Practice Guides that include substantial systems engineering guidance.

Peck, L.G.

1998-01-08

294

14 CFR 33.91 - Engine system and component tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.91 Engine system and component tests. (a) For those systems or components that...

2013-01-01

295

40 CFR 86.1318-84 - Engine dynamometer system calibrations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Engine dynamometer system calibrations. 86.1318-84 Section 86.1318-84...1318-84 Engine dynamometer system calibrations. (a) The engine flywheel torque...calibrated at least once each month with the calibration equipment described in §...

2013-07-01

296

Gas turbine engine component cooling system  

SciTech Connect

In a gas turbine engine including a compressor supported in an annular frame, the frame having a front frame portion extending upstream of the compressor, the front frame having radially inner and outer surfaces, the inner surface defining a flowpath to the compressor, a system is described for cooling an engine component which consists of: the front frame including an aperture extending therethrough; a housing for mounting the engine component therein, including a plurality of heat transfer fins extending outwardly therefrom; and the housing being mounted to the radially outer surface of the front frame so that the heat transfer fins extend through the aperture and into the flowpath.

Colman, M.E.; Goeller, R.E.

1986-09-02

297

2007 gasification technologies conference papers  

SciTech Connect

Sessions covered: gasification industry roundtable; the gasification market in China; gasification for power generation; the gasification challenge: carbon capture and use storage; industrial and polygeneration applications; gasification advantage in refinery applications; addressing plant performance; reliability and availability; gasification's contribution to supplementing gaseous and liquid fuels supplies; biomass gasification for fuel and power markets; and advances in technology-research and development

NONE

2007-07-01

298

Engineered containment and control systems : nurturing nature.  

SciTech Connect

The development of engineered containment and control systems for contaminated sites must consider the environmental setting of each site. The behaviors of both contaminated materials and engineered systems are affected by environmental conditions that will continue to evolve over time as a result of such natural processes as climate change, ecological succession, pedogenesis, and landform changes. Understanding these processes is crucial to designing, implementing, and maintaining effective systems for sustained health and environmental protection. Traditional engineered systems such as landfill liners and caps are designed to resist natural processes rather than working with them. These systems cannot be expected to provide long-term isolation without continued maintenance. In some cases, full-scale replacement and remediation may be required within 50 years, at an effort and cost much higher than for the original cleanup. Approaches are being developed to define smarter containment and control systems for stewardship sites, considering lessons learned from implementing prescriptive waste disposal regulations enacted since the 1970s. These approaches more effectively involve integrating natural and engineered systems; enhancing sensors and predictive tools for evaluating performance; and incorporating information on failure events, including precursors and consequences, into system design and maintenance. An important feature is using natural analogs to predict environmental conditions and system responses over the long term, to accommodate environmental change in the design process, and, as possible, to engineer containment systems that mimic favorable natural systems. The key emphasis is harmony with the environment, so systems will work with and rely on natural processes rather than resisting them. Implementing these new integrated systems will reduce current requirements for active management, which are resource-intensive and expensive.

MacDonell, M.; Clarke, J.; Smith, E.; Dunn, J.; Waugh, J.; Environmental Assessment; Vanderbilt Univ.; ORNL; Kleinfelder; U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office

2004-06-01

299

User engineering: A new look at system engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

User Engineering is a new System Engineering perspective responsible for defining and maintaining the user view of the system. Its elements are a process to guide the project and customer, a multidisciplinary team including hard and soft sciences, rapid prototyping tools to build user interfaces quickly and modify them frequently at low cost, and a prototyping center for involving users and designers in an iterative way. The main consideration is reducing the risk that the end user will not or cannot effectively use the system. The process begins with user analysis to produce cognitive and work style models, and task analysis to produce user work functions and scenarios. These become major drivers of the human computer interface design which is presented and reviewed as an interactive prototype by users. Feedback is rapid and productive, and user effectiveness can be measured and observed before the system is built and fielded. Requirements are derived via the prototype and baselined early to serve as an input to the architecture and software design.

McLaughlin, Larry L.

1987-10-01

300

OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in the Department of Energy (DOE) to implement a program for the safe and permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To achieve this objective, the OCRWM is developing the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS), an integrated waste management system consisting of four system elements: the waste acceptance system, the transportation system, the monitored retrievable storage facility, and the mined geologic disposal system. The development of such a system requires management of many diverse disciplines that are involved in research, siting, design, licensing, construction, and external interactions. Systems engineering will be used by OCRWM to manage, evaluate, integrate, and document all aspects of the technical development of the waste management requirements of the Program are met. Systems engineering will be applied to all technical activities to (1) specify the sequence of technical activities necessary to define the requirements the waste management system must satisfy, (2) to develop the waste management system, (3) to relate system elements to each other, and (4) to determine how the waste management system can be optimized to most effectively satisfy the requirements. Furthermore, systems engineering will be used in the management of technical activities at the program and project levels by specifying procedures, studies, reviews, and documentation requirements.

Not Available

1993-01-01

301

Devon station repowering study: Phase 2, Conceptual design of a coal gasification facility: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 1985 conceptual design and economic analysis of a coal gasification facility producing medium-Btu fuel gas from a Pittsburgh bituminous coal is described in this report. The gasification facility is sited at Connecticut Light and Power Company's Devon Generating Station, Milford, Connecticut. The report was prepared by Lummus Crest, Inc., United Engineers and Constructors, and Northeast Utilities Service Company. Northeast Utilities Service Company and the Electric Power Research Institute co-sponsored the study. The facility design incorporates the proprietary Shell Coal Gasification Process. This process uses a pressurized, high temperature, entrained flow gasification reactor to perform the initial conversion of coal to gas. Dry pulverized coal, oxygen, and a small quantity of steam is fed into the process to produce a medium-Btu gas with a higher heating value of 301.0 Btu/SCF. The plant consumes 5688 tons of coal per day to produce 5083 MM Btu/hr of medium-Btu gas. The synthetic gas is supplied to a combined cycle plant adjacent to the proposed facility. Minimal integration of the gasification and combined cycle systems is included in the plant design. A description of the site and plant facilities, including overall material and energy balances, block flow diagrams, and site arrangement drawings, are presented. A description of the major systems, including an equipment summary, are also provided. An overall capital cost estimate and project execution schedule were prepared. An engineering and economic analysis of the impact of adding the coal gasification facility to the repowering project is presented. This analysis, prepared by Northeast Utilities Service Company, compares the gasified coal combined cycle plant with two options, a pulverized coal steam plant and the repowered plant without the gasification facility. 13 figs., 23 tabs.

Rorstrom, E.G.; Athas, J.G.; Wagner, G.A.; Cooperberg, D.; Bender, D.J.; Willson, E.J. Jr.

1988-12-01

302

Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects  

SciTech Connect

DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

Not Available

1997-08-01

303

Systems Engineering Education Based on Evolutional Project-Based Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge and skills in systems engineering including project management are necessary for engineers who are engaged in planning and developing systems. Experiences of project execution are necessary for understanding systems engineering. Challenge is how to teach systems engineering to students who have scarce project experiences. In the education, giving the experience including a real experience and a pseudo-experience will

Masahiro Inoue; Hiroshi Hasegawa

2010-01-01

304

Challenges in Engineering Distributed Shipboard Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a representative Navy shipboard control system and discusses its distributed implementa- tion. The real-time, fault t olerance and scalability as- pects are discussed; the system configuration is de- scribed; and the c omputing infrastructure is s umma- rized. The paper also p resents challenges which a re likely to be faced by the engineers of the next

Lonnie R. Welch; Binoy Ravindran; Robert D. Harrison; Leslie Madden; Michael W. Masters; Wayne Mills

1996-01-01

305

Turbine Engine Diagnostics System Study (Final Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a system study for the Turbine Engine Diagnostics (TED) program are presented. This research project was initiated to develop a method of approach and prototype design for a system capable of predicting the failure of rotating parts in turb...

B. K. Mcquiston R. L. Dehoff

1991-01-01

306

A Retrieval System for Engineering Drawings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the problems encountered in the design and implementation of a complete, computerized retrieval system for the engineering and architectural drawings of several large Southern California land development firms: developing a specialized cataloging system and format, a customized thesaurus, computer software, and managerial procedures. The…

Tenopir, Carol; Cibbarelli, Pamela

1979-01-01

307

Expert tutoring system for teaching mechanical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the work undertaken, at the Higher Technical School of Industrial Engineers of Gijón, for the development of computer aided systems, in the line of expert systems, concentrating research, and development in the field of mechanical design. We are using this software as an integrated tool in our work for teaching machine design. Models to develop the software

Ricardo Tucho Navarro; J. M. Sierra; J. E. Fernández; R. Vijande; G. Morís

2003-01-01

308

OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in the Department of Energy (DOE) to implement a program for the safe and permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To achieve this objective, the OCRWM is developing an integrated waste-management system consisting of three elements: the transportation system, the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility, and the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS). The development of such a system requires management of many diverse disciplines that are involved in research, siting, design, licensing, and external interactions. The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe how the systems-engineering process will be implemented in the development of the waste-management system. Systems engineering will be used by the OCRWM to manage, integrate, and document all aspects of the technical development of the waste-management system and its system elements to ensure that the requirements of the waste-management program are met. It will be applied to all technical activities of the OCRWM program. It will be used by the OCRWM to specify the sequence of technical activities necessary to define the requirements the waste-management system must satisfy, to develop the waste-management system, to relate system elements to each other, and to determine how the waste-management system can be optimized to most effectively satisfy the requirements. Furthermore, systems engineering will be used in the management of Program activities at the program, program-element, and project levels by specifying procedures, studies, reviews, and documentation requirements. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-03-01

309

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems  

SciTech Connect

This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

1991-09-01

310

Optimization in the systems engineering process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The essential elements of the design process consist of the mission definition phase that provides the system requirements, the conceptual design, the preliminary design and finally the detailed design. Mission definition is performed largely by operations analysts in conjunction with the customer. The result of their study is handed off to the systems engineers for documentation as the systems requirements. The document that provides these requirements is the basis for the further design work of the design engineers at the Lockheed-Georgia Company. The design phase actually begins with conceptual design, which is generally conducted by a small group of engineers using multidisciplinary design programs. Because of the complexity of the design problem, the analyses are relatively simple and generally dependent on parametric analyses of the configuration. The result of this phase is a baseline configuration from which preliminary design may be initiated.

Lemmerman, Loren A.

311

ASPEN. Advanced System for Process Engineering  

SciTech Connect

ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.

Bajura, R.A. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1985-10-01

312

Titanium in Engine Valve Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium alloys offer a unique combination of high strength-to-weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and favorable high temperature mechanical properties. Still, their relatively high cost has discouraged consideration for widespread use in automotive components. Recent demands for increased fuel economy have led to the consideration of these alloys for use as valve train materials where higher costs might be offset by improvements in performance and fuel economy. Lighter weight valve train components permit the use of lower spring loads, thus reducing friction and increasing fuel economy. Camshaft friction measurements made on a typical small displacement engine indicate that a twoto-four percent increase in fuel economy can be achieved. Valve train components are, however, subject to a severe operating environment, including elevated temperatures, sliding wear and high mechanical loads. This paper discusses the details of alloy and heat treatment selection for optimizing valve performance. When properly manufactured, titanium valves have been shown to withstand very stringent durability testing, indicating the technical feasibility of this approach to fuel economy improvement.

Allison, J. E.; Sherman, A. M.; Bapna, M. R.

1987-03-01

313

Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

P. Dixon

2004-04-26

314

Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers  

SciTech Connect

The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical engineers made impact. Through a basic understanding of the history of MEMS, the background physics and scaling in micromechanical systems, and an introduction to baseline MEMS processes, a mechanical engineer should be well on his way to Alice's wonderland in the ever-exciting playground of MEMS.

Lee, A. P., LLNL

1996-11-18

315

Research needs for coal gasification and coal liquefaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of coal-gasification and coal-liquefaction technologies is discussed. Consideration is given to applications of coal-gasification technologies, the principal coal-gasification systems, and process-research recommendations. Processing steps in direct and indirect coal liquefaction are outlined, with emphasis placed on past, current, and projected unit sizes of direct coal-liquefaction plants.

Penner, S. S.; Alpert, S. B.; Bendanillo, V.; Clardy, J.; Furlong, L. E.; Leder, F.; Lees, L.; Reichl, E.; Ross, J.; Sieg, R. P.

1980-11-01

316

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Advanced electric power generation systems use a coal gasifier to convert coal to a gas rich in fuels such as H{sub 2} and CO. The gas stream contains impurities such as H{sub 2}S and HCl, which attack metal components of the coal gas train, causing plant downtime and increasing the cost of power generation. Corrosion-resistant coatings would improve plant availability and decrease maintenance costs, thus allowing the environmentally superior integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) plants to be more competitive with standard power-generation technologies. Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in the IGCC system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy will improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. In this study, the use of corrosion-resistant coatings on low alloy steels was investigated for use as high-temperature components in IGCC systems. The coatings were deposited using SRI's fluidized-bed reactor chemical vapor deposition technique. Diffusion coatings of Cr and Al were deposited by this method on to dense and porous, low alloy stainless steel substrates. Bench-scale exposure tests at 900 C with a simulated coal gas stream containing 1.7% H{sub 2}S showed that the low alloy steels such SS405 and SS409 coated with {approx}20%Cr and Al each can be resistant to sulfidation attack for 500 h. However, exposure to an actual coal gasifier gas stream at the Wabash River gasifier facility for 1000 h in the temperature range 900 to 950 C indicated that Cr and Al present in the coating diffused further into the substrate decreasing the protective ability of these elements against attack by H{sub 2}S. Similarly, adherent multilayer coatings containing Si, Ti, Al, and Nb were also deposited with subsequent nitridation of these elements to increase the corrosion resistance. Both dense and porous SS409 or SS 410 alloy substrates were coated by using this method. Multilayer coatings containing Ti-Al-Si nitrides along with a diffusion barrier of Nb were deposited on SS410 and they were found also to be resistant to sulfidation attack in the bench scale tests at 900 C. However, they were corroded during exposure to the actual coal gasifier stream at the Wabash River gasifier facility for 1000 h. The Cr/Al coatings deposited inside a porous substrate was found to be resistant to sulfidation attack in the bench-scale simulated tests at 370 C. The long-term exposure test at the Wabash River gasifier facility at 370 C for 2100 h showed that only a minor sulfidation attack occurred inside the porous SS 409 alloy coupons that contained Cr and Al diffusion coatings. This attack can be prevented by improving the coating process to deposit uniform coatings at the interior of the porous structure. It is recommended that additional studies be initiated to optimize the FBR-CVD process to deposit diffusion coatings of the corrosion resistant elements such as Cr, Al, and Ti inside porous metal filters to increase their corrosion resistance. Long-term exposure tests using an actual gas stream from an operating gasifier need to be conducted to determine the suitability of the coatings for use in the gasifier environment.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Jordi Perez; Marc Hornbostel; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2007-05-31

317

Systems Engineering (SE) Patterns and Pattern Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns are classically used to effectively capture large, complex bodies of information and knowledge. This paper outlines the current state of systems engineering (SE) pattern application and proposes improvements and additions to SE patterns, pattern maps and pattern languages. A pattern is a solution of a specific problem placed in a specific context. A pattern language is a collection of

Joseph J. Simpson; Mary J. Simpson

318

Industrial engineering the Toyota Production System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the manifold linkages connecting the Toyota Production System (TPS) back to the Gilbreths and others, and to determine how these have contributed to enterprise-wide best practice. Industrial engineering (IE) theory rapidly subsumed method study and thereby made considerable contributions to output in World War II (WWII). The outcome is the

Denis R. Towill

2010-01-01

319

The Systems and Global Engineering Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Systems and Global Engineering (SAGE) Project in which students collaborate with others from around the world to model solutions to some of today's most significant global problems. Stevens Institute of Technology and the New Jersey Technology Education Association (NJTEA) have teamed up to develop innovative…

Harms, Henry; Janosz, David A., Jr.; Maietta, Steve

2010-01-01

320

Air fuel control system for Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air\\/fuel control system including apparatus and method for a stirling engine is disclosed. A signal generated by deviation of the temperature of the heater head gas temperature from a setpoint is used to control an air flow throttle valve. Variations in the air flow of the external combustion circuit is sensed by way of a vortex-shedding device which delivers

Fenton

1980-01-01

321

Modeling organizations for information systems requirements engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In attempting to understand information system environments during requirements engineering, it is often helpful to have an understanding of the `whys' as well as the `whats' about the environment. A natural way to answer why questions is by tracing them to goals. In an organizational environment, however, the whys do not originate from a single set of given goals. Organizational

Eric S. K. Yu

1993-01-01

322

Produktentwicklung auf der Basis von Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems Engineering itself is a discipline which is most common in use in the area of aeronautics and aerospace industry. But this methodology is also applicable to other domains as automotive-, railway or telecommunication-industry. This article briefly describes how to use the emerging ISO Standard \\

C. Düsing

323

A Retrieval System for Engineering Drawings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and implementation of a complete, computerized retrieval system for the engineering and architectural drawings and maps of several large land development firms are discussed. Such collections present unique problems to the cataloger. Each collection is limited in geographic scope to the land owned or developed by the firm; types of maps…

Tenopir, Carol; Cibbarelli, Pamela

324

System for cooling internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for cooling internal combustion engines comprising: a main cooling water line for circulating water through a radiator; a by-pass cooling water line diverging from the main cooling water line and circulating water without passing through the radiator; a motor-driven valve mechanism positioned for mixing the water from the main cooling water line with the water from

M. Nishikata; M. Nozaki

1987-01-01

325

The Systems and Global Engineering Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the Systems and Global Engineering (SAGE) Project in which students collaborate with others from around the world to model solutions to some of today's most significant global problems. Stevens Institute of Technology and the New Jersey Technology Education Association (NJTEA) have teamed up to develop innovative…

Harms, Henry; Janosz, David A., Jr.; Maietta, Steve

2010-01-01

326

Systems engineering of agricultural robot design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systems engineering method to evaluate the performance of an agricultural robot by simulating and comparing different types of robots, number of arms, multiple arm configurations, workspace design and dynamic characteristics. Numerical simulation tools were developed to quantify measures of machine performance such as cycle time and percentage of successful cycles based on an extensive statistical analysis

Yael Edan; Gaines E. Miles

1994-01-01

327

The systems engineering overview and process (from the Systems Engineering Management Guide, 1990)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past several decades have seen the rise of large, highly interactive systems that are on the forward edge of technology. As a result of this growth and the increased usage of digital systems (computers and software), the concept of systems engineering has gained increasing attention. Some of this attention is no doubt due to large program failures which possibly could have been avoided, or at least mitigated, through the use of systems engineering principles. The complexity of modern day weapon systems requires conscious application of systems engineering concepts to ensure producible, operable and supportable systems that satisfy mission requirements. Although many authors have traced the roots of systems engineering to earlier dates, the initial formalization of the systems engineering process for military development began to surface in the mid-1950s on the ballistic missile programs. These early ballistic missile development programs marked the emergence of engineering discipline 'specialists' which has since continued to grow. Each of these specialties not only has a need to take data from the overall development process, but also to supply data, in the form of requirements and analysis results, to the process. A number of technical instructions, military standards and specifications, and manuals were developed as a result of these development programs. In particular, MILSTD-499 was issued in 1969 to assist both government and contractor personnel in defining the systems engineering effort in support of defense acquisition programs. This standard was updated to MIL-STD499A in 1974, and formed the foundation for current application of systems engineering principles to military development programs.

328

14 CFR 29.1165 - Engine ignition systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...large enough to meet the simultaneous demands of the engine ignition system and the greatest demands of any electrical system...from the same source. (c) The design of the engine ignition system must account forâ (1) The condition of...

2010-01-01

329

14 CFR 29.1165 - Engine ignition systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...large enough to meet the simultaneous demands of the engine ignition system and the greatest demands of any electrical system...from the same source. (c) The design of the engine ignition system must account forâ (1) The condition of...

2009-01-01

330

Systems Engineering at the Superconducting Super Collider  

SciTech Connect

Systems Engineering at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory has made significant advances in the past year. It is heavily influenced by organizational changes, specifically the changes of the Project Manager. Technical documentation now includes the project plans necessary to guide the establishment and maintenance of the cost, schedule, and technical baselines. Specification and interface document preparation are progressing at a rapid pace to support the pace of construction and procurement. Speciality engineering has matured as evidenced by the completion of the first safety analysis report for the Accelerator Surface String Test and by the reallocation of reliability requirements to the individual components per an assumed operating scenario.

Nonte, J.

1992-03-01

331

The JWST data management system engineering database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Engineering Data Processing (EDP) component of the James Webb Telescope (JWST) Data Management System (DMS) will collect calibrated engineering values for about 15,000 parameters, 300 million samples per day, with a potential daily database growth of 14 GB, 5 TB per year, 50 TB for a 10-year mission. While data will be mostly received in (time, parameter) order, fast access requires translation into (parameter, time) organization and sorting. Organization and indexing of the data will affect storage requirements as well as ingest and access efficiency. Fast access is critical to pipelines processing and calibrating science data.

Nieto-Santisteban, Maria A.

2012-09-01

332

Engine starter and accessory drive system  

SciTech Connect

An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

Stockton, T.R.

1986-10-07

333

Software systems development in petroleum engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many approaches to designing software systems have been developed for use in commercial or business environments. These development methods and procedures have improved dramatically over the last ten years although it is only recently that these have been employed in scientific and technological applications. Many of these implementations have been unsuccessful because the design methodology has been divorced from the practical requirements of the industry in which the software system is to operate. This paper discusses a modern approach to software development which directly relates to an engineering environment and which is designed to satisfy practical criteria of acceptability of the software when delivered to the petroleum engineer. Since all field developments nowadays rely heavily on associated software systems, the approach presented here can lead to improved mechanical systems reliability and shorter development/design cycles.

Browning, D. J.; Cain, G. M.; Carmichael, N. P.; Gouldstone, F. G.; Wadsley, A. W.; Webb, S. J.; Winder, P.

1985-10-01

334

Coal gasification system with a modulated on/off control system  

DOEpatents

A modulated control system is provided for improving regulation of the bed level in a fixed-bed coal gasifier into which coal is fed from a rotary coal feeder. A nuclear bed level gauge using a cobalt source and an ion chamber detector is used to detect the coal bed level in the gasifier. The detector signal is compared to a bed level set point signal in a primary controller which operates in proportional/integral modes to produce an error signal. The error signal is modulated by the injection of a triangular wave signal of a frequency of about 0.0004 Hz and an amplitude of about 80% of the primary deadband. The modulated error signal is fed to a triple-deadband secondary controller which jogs the coal feeder speed up or down by on/off control of a feeder speed change driver such that the gasifier bed level is driven toward the set point while preventing excessive cycling (oscillation) common in on/off mode automatic controllers of this type. Regulation of the bed level is achieved without excessive feeder speed control jogging.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01

335

Down to Earth systems engineering: The forgotten ground segment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems engineering involves dealing with a project, a system, at the level at which it operates. The system perspective is concerned with the behaviour and interfaces rather than implementation details, and engineering a given instance of a system is typically much more complex than the sum of its parts precisely because we are concerned with overall behaviour. Systems engineering is

Ed Chester

2009-01-01

336

Engineering Requirements for System Reliability and Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements engineering (RE) is concerned with the elicitation of the objectives to be achieved by the system-to-be, the operationalization of such ob- jectives into specifications of requirements and assumptions, the assignment of re- sponsibilities for those specifications to agents such as humans, devices and soft- ware, and the evolution of such requirements over time and across system families. Getting high-quality

Axel van LAMSWEERDE

337

Cryogenic engineering for superconducting power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful introduction of helium-cooled (superconducting) transmission systems into electric utility networks will open a vast market for cryogenic engineering components and services. If only 10 percent of the anticipated investment in transmission facilities in the U.S. after 1990 is made in helium-cooled systems this will represent a potential annual market of over $120,000,000 for the manufacturers of cryogenic components.

Forsyth

1976-01-01

338

A Vectorization System for Architecture Engineering Drawings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a vectorization system for architecture engineering drawings. The system employs the line-symbol-text\\u000a vectorization workflow to recognize graphic objects in the order of increasing characteristic complexity and progressively\\u000a simplify the drawing image by removing recognized objects from it. Various recognition algorithms for basic graphic types\\u000a have been developed and efficient interactive recognition methods are proposed as complements to

Feng Su; Jiqiang Song; Shijie Cai

2005-01-01

339

Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance...

M. A. Balady

1997-01-01

340

14 CFR 33.95 - Engine-propeller systems tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Engine-propeller systems tests. 33.95 Section...Aircraft Engines § 33.95 Engine-propeller systems tests. If the engine is designed to operate with a propeller, the following tests must be...

2013-01-01

341

Spent Nuclear Fuel project systems engineering management plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the WHC Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to describe the systems engineering approach and methods that will be integrated with established WHC engineering practices to enhance the WHC engineering management of the SNF Project. The scope of the SEMP encompasses the efforts needed to manage the WHC implementation of systems engineering on the SNF Project. This implementation applies to, and is tailored to the needs of the SNF project and all its subprojects, including all current and future subprojects

Womack, J.C.

1995-10-03

342

Expanding the limits on engines and vehicles imposed by circulating liquid engine cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operational limits of the cooling system for a liquid cooled internal combustion engine are also limits on the engine's power, fuel economy and air quality possibilities. When coolant temperatures in a traditional liquid cooled engine approach the saturation temperature of water, optimum engine settings must be degraded to prevent detonation. This paper discusses the nature of the limits imposed

J. W. Evans; J. T. Light

1986-01-01

343

A computer aided reservoir engineering (CARE) system  

SciTech Connect

An advanced graphic post-processing system has been developed. The principal feature of this system is an three-dimensional (3D) expression of the whole reservoir phenomena as engineering animation. This system can show the distribution of parameters of the reservoir simulations by forming colored-transparent iso-value surfaces in the 3D space and the dynamic changes of the parameters by moving the surfaces smoothly with interpolation of the data between calculated time steps. Furthermore, it can create a contour map on an arbitrary cross section of the reservoir. The system is applicable to presentation and instruction as well as to result evaluation.

Matsumoto, M. (Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

1988-01-01

344

Systems engineering for Air Force C3I systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each day, sophisticated information systems provide the U.S. with crucial capabilities both to understand the world situation and to react effectively as required by our nation's decision makers. These systems attest to the success of the cooperative efforts of government and industry. Over the last 35 years, to help provide those capabilities, The MITRE Corporation has been privileged to fulfill the role of systems engineer on more than 100 different command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) systems for the Air Force and other elements of the Department of Defense (DOD). A long history of successful performance in this broad role provides MITRE with detailed knowledge of the systems' operational capabilities and needs, proficiency in their systems engineering, and a C3I-related corporate memory unmatched by any other organization. That background is the foundation of this book on systems engineering at MITRE.

Monahan, John H.

1993-06-01

345

7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

Galitski, Timothy P.

2008-04-01

346

An EHF telecommunication system engineering model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extremely high frequency telecommunication system engineering model (ETSEM) was developed as an aid in the design of line-of-sight (LOS) communication systems from 10 to 100 GHz. ETSEM provides tabulation of path geometry parameters and analyzes ray path and Fresnel zone clearances to help the engineer design the path. ETSEM also predicts the performance (availability) of both digital and analog systems based on state-of-the-art EHF propagation models and equipment specifications. Attenuation by rain, clear air absorption and multipath are modeled. These are expected essentially to determine the statistics of link availability as limited by propagation impairments. Performance may be predicted by any interval of months of the year. A climatological data base for North America and Europe provides parameters for the propagation models. ETSEM has been implemented on a desk top computer. Weaknesses and limitations of the model are discussed.

Allen, Kenneth C.

1987-11-01

347

Engineering Design Information System (EDIS) user' manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual is a guide to the use of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS). The system runs on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3084 unclassified computer. EDIS is in the second phase of implementation, which provides an index, storage, and retrieval system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy (DOE). The second phase also provides additional hard copy request functionality. Section 2.0 of this manual presents an overview of EDIS, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. Section 3.0 describes how to access EDIS and how to operate system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF), Soft Master viewing, and FT/Express file transfer features employed by this system. Appendix A lists the special hardware and software requirements that must be met to run the View function. Appendix B contains a description of the Soft Master viewing capabilities provided through the EDIS View function. Appendix C contains a list of special hardware and software requirements for the Store and Download functions of EDIS. Appendix D provides examples of the system error screens and help screens for valid codes used for screen entry. Appendix E contains a dictionary of data elements and descriptions.

Smith, P.S.; Short, R.D.

1991-11-01

348

The View-Constraint Duality in Database Systems, Software Engineering, and Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In database systems, software engineering, and systems engineering, the concepts of constraints and views are commonly and\\u000a effectively used. Considered distinct, they stand as well-established notions in each domain’s body of knowledge. The focus\\u000a of this paper is to explore the duality between views and constraints in these domains and investigate the efficacy of this\\u000a duality in enabling more effective

John A. Springer; Edward L. Robertson

2008-01-01

349

Handbook of biomass downdraft gasifier engine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook has been prepared by the Solar Energy Research Institute under the US Department of Energy \\/bold Solar Technical Information Program\\/. It is intended as a guide to the design, testing, operation, and manufacture of small-scale (less than 200 kW (270 hp)) gasifiers. A great deal of the information will be useful for all levels of biomass gasification. The

T. B. Reed; A. Das

1988-01-01

350

Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The 'Forest Products Gasification Initiative', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE...

J. A. Kieffer

2000-01-01

351

Engineering index : a metric for assessing margin in engineered systems  

SciTech Connect

Inherent in most engineered products is some measure of margin or over design. Engineers often do not retain design and performance knowledge so they can quantify uncertainties and estimate how much margin their product possesses. When knowledge-capture and quantification is neither possible, nor permissible, engineers rely on cultural lore and institutionalised practices to assign nominal conditions and tolerances. Often what gets lost along the way is design intent, product requirements, and their relationship with the product's intended application. The Engineering Index was developed to assess the goodness or quality of a product.

Dolin, Ronald M.

2002-01-01

352

Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

2011-06-01

353

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

354

Efficiency terms for Stirling-engine systems  

SciTech Connect

Thermal efficiencies are the primary indicators of the quality of design and performance of any energy system. However, in the case of Stirling engine systems, there is no widely accepted standard terminology in use, which would allow valid comparative evaluations to be made. Discussions with Department of Energy staff and with the Stirling machine research community have confirmed that this lack of standard terms is giving rise to severe problems in comparing the results of different research programs. To help overcome these problems, 14 efficiency terms that describe the performance of 6 combinations of the basic system components - the heat source, the engine, and the load - are proposed. The efficiency terms are defined in terms of an energy accounting flowchart, which allows individual components or the entire system to be reported consistently so that the results of various research groups may be properly compared. The appendixes contain three sets of sample calculations, two of which use test run data from an actual free-piston and a kinematic Stirling engine.

Crowley, J.L.

1983-06-01

355

Engineering-support services for the DOE\\/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

During July-September 1981 Kellogg continued to actively monitor operations at BI-GAS, Westinghouse and IGT (for peat gasification). Pilot plant\\/PDU tests which were monitored and reported included BI-GAS Tests G-17D, G-17E, and G-17F; Westinghouse PDU test runs TP-0282 and TP-028-3 and CFSF Tests TP-M002-2 and TP-M006-1; Peatgas pilot plant Tests number 2 and number 3; and single-stage peat gasification PDU Test

L. E. Bostwick; T. R. Ethridge; W. C. Gilwood; P. E. Glasgow; D. A. Hubbard; K. V. Shah; D. L. Singer; M. R. Smith; W. E. Ward

1981-01-01

356

Desulfurization of fuel gases in fluidized bed gasification and hot fuel gas cleanup systems  

DOEpatents

A problem with the commercialization of fluidized bed gasification is that vast amounts of spent sorbent are generated if the sorbent is used on a once-through basis, especially if high sulfur coals are burned. The requirements of a sorbent for regenerative service in the FBG process are: (1) it must be capable of reducing the sulfur containing gas concentration of the FBG flue gas to within acceptable environmental standards; (2) it must not lose its reactivity on cyclic sulfidation and regeneration; (3) it must be capable of regeneration with elimination of substantially all of its sulfur content; (4) it must have good attrition resistance; and, (5) its cost must not be prohibitive. It has now been discovered that calcium silicate pellets, e.g., Portland cement type III pellets meet the criteria aforesaid. Calcium silicate removes COS and H/sub 2/S according to the reactions given to produce calcium sulfide silicate. The sulfur containing product can be regenerated using CO/sub 2/ as the regenerant. The sulfur dioxide can be conveniently reduced to sulfur with hydrogen or carbon for market or storage. The basic reactions in the process of this invention are the reactions with calcium silicate given in the patent. A convenient and inexpensive source of calcium silicate is Portland cement. Portland cement is a readily available, widely used construction meterial.

Steinberg, M.; Farber, G.; Pruzansky, J.; Yoo, H.J.; McGauley, P.

1983-08-26

357

Engineering Design Information System, Document Number Reserve System user's manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual is a guide to the Document Number Reserve System on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3081 unclassified computer. The Reserve System is the first phase of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS), which is under development as an index and storage system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy. The Reserve System will control the entry of documents into EDIS. This manual presents an overview of the Reserve System, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. Describes how to access the system and how to operate the system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), and Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF) features employed by this system. This paper contains a dictionary of data elements maintained by the system. The data values are collected from the user and captured from Engineering Management Information System (EMIS) data tables. It provides a printout of the system help and error screens. And it presents the tutorial screens that provide on-line assistance for operating the system screens.

Schwarz, R.L. (ed.); Rosser, J.H.; Walker, C.T.

1989-12-01

358

A systems engineering approach to AIS accreditation  

SciTech Connect

The systems engineering model provides the vehicle for communication between the developer and the customer by presenting system facts and demonstrating the system in an organized form. The same model provides implementors with views of the system`s function and capability. The authors contend that the process of obtaining accreditation for a classified Automated Information System (AIS) adheres to the typical systems engineering model. The accreditation process is modeled as a ``roadmap`` with the customer represented by the Designed Accrediting Authority. The ``roadmap`` model reduces the amount of accreditation knowledge required of an AIS developer and maximizes the effectiveness of participation in the accreditation process by making the understanding of accreditation a natural consequence of applying the model. This paper identifies ten ``destinations`` on the ``road`` to accreditation. The significance of each ``destination`` is explained, as are the potential consequences of its exclusion. The ``roadmap,`` which has been applied to a range of information systems throughout the DOE community, establishes a paradigm for the certification and accreditation of classified AISs.

Harris, L.M.; Hunteman, W.J.

1994-04-01

359

Program plan for development of hot dirty gas compressors\\/expanders for coal gasification systems. [Gasifiers of Texaco, Shell, Koppers-Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi, Winkle, Westinghouse, U-Gas and Exxon catalytic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This effort was conducted to provide supporting data for a proposed Department of Energy program for the development of components for hot dirty gas service in gasification systems. This report deals with compressor\\/expander applications, and its scope includes a broad range of gasification systems such as the generic models for entrained-flow, moving-bed, and fluidized-bed gasifiers. The normal isostatic operation of

Lackey

1983-01-01

360

RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate (GHRR) equal to the original boiler design. Boiler efficiencies (cogeneration-steam plus air) is increased from the original design value of 70% to 78.9% due to a combination of improved burnout, operation with lower excess air, and drier fuel. For the fully implemented plant, the thermal efficiency of fuel to electricity conversion is 79.8% in the cogeneration mode, 5% above the design goal. Finally, self-generated electricity will be increased from the 10.8 MW currently attributable to No.2 Boiler to 46.7MW, an increase of 332%. Environmental benefits derived from the system include a reduction in NOx emissions from the boiler of about 30-50% (90-130 tons/year) through syngas reburning, improved carbon burnout and lower excess air. This does not count NOx reduction that may be associated with replacement of purchased electricity. The project would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the generation of electricity to meet the mill's power requirements, including 50,000 tons/yr from a net reduction in gas usage in the mill and an additional 410,000 tons/yr reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions due to a 34 MW reduction of purchased electricity. The total CO{sub 2} reduction amounts to about 33% of the CO{sub 2} currently generated to meet the mills electricity requirement. The overall conclusion of the study is that while significant engineering challenges are presented by the proposed system, they can be met with operationally acceptable and cost effective solutions. The benefits of the system can be realized in an economic manner, with a simple payback period on the order of 6 years. The results of the study are applicable to many paper mills in the U.S. firing woodwastes and other solid fuels for steam and power production.

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

2003-11-01

361

Biomedical engineering strategies in system design space.  

PubMed

Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism's repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a "system design space" for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further development will be made. PMID:21203848

Savageau, Michael A

2011-01-04

362

Biomedical Engineering Strategies in System Design Space  

PubMed Central

Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism's repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a “system design space” for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further development will be made.

Savageau, Michael A.

2011-01-01

363

High Response, Low Level Pulse Engine Thrust Stand System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high response, low level pulse engine thrust stand system has been designed, fabricated, and installed at the Air Force Flight Test Center, Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base. This system is designed to measure rocket engine thurst in ...

A. J. Couvillion J. D. Smith R. Kuberek

1966-01-01

364

Astronomical and space-based systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Master's degree ``Outils et Systèmes de l'Astronomie et de l'Espace'' (OSAE, ``Astronomical and Space-based Systems Engineering'') is intended for students interested in Astronomy and Space technology. Students undergo a comprehensive training in partnership with international-level laboratories and with leading private companies. The degree provides physicists with a wide range of skills, appropriate for those whose intention is to participate

Benoît Mosser; Alain Abergel

2011-01-01

365

Soft Methods in Earth Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The narrowly defined technical problems that occupied civil engineers during the last century and a half, such as the mechanics\\u000a of the materials steel, concrete and water, have for most practical purposes been solved. The outstanding challenges relate\\u000a to interactions between technological systems, the natural environment and human society, at a range of scales up to the global.\\u000a Management of

Jim W. Hall

2006-01-01

366

A Distributed Systems Engineering Curriculum for Working Engineers in California CSER 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a workforce initiative grant, we are developing a catalog and curricular structure to enable working engineers in California to obtain Systems Engineering education from a variety of providers in a self-paced manner. The target audience for this effort is companies and indi- viduals who require better Systems Engineering capabilities, but lack the resources and infra- structure for

Kurt Colvin; Robert Crockett

2008-01-01

367

Improving sustainability of engineering projects through the application of systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the application of a systems engineering approach to handling the additional complexity introduced into engineering projects by including sustainability characteristics as design parameters. Systems engineering incorporates a 'top-down' approach that ensures that all the stakeholder requirements and their complex interdependencies are correctly identified and then reflected throughout the detailed development of the project. The case study presented

Barnaby Smeaton; Erik W. Aslaksen

368

3D Digital Library Service System for Engineering Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although 3D engineering component models are becoming widely available due to the recent technological advancement and modeling tools, we lack engineering component models library service system where they can be searched and retrieved efficiently. This paper described the architecture and function modules of 3D engineering components library that enables users to navigate large sets of 3D engineering models. Critical service

Xuemei Liu; Aiping Li

2007-01-01

369

Program plan for development of hot dirty-gas heat exchangers for coal-gasification systems. [Entrained-flow, moving bed, and fluidized-bed gasifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report deals with the heat exchanger applications, and its scope includes a broad range of gasification systems, such as the generic models for entrained-flow, moving-bed, and fluidized-bed gasifiers. The major application of hot dirty-gas heat exchangers is in the area of heat recovery for improved gasifier efficiency. The inlet temperature requirements for these heat exchangers varies from approx. 650

Churnetski

1983-01-01

370

Development of a hot-gas-cleanup system for integrated coal-gasification\\/molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program to develop a hot gas cleanup system for integrated coal gasification\\/molten carbonate fuel cell power plants is divided into the following six tasks: (1) project plan and design of experiments; (2) exploratory and supporting studies; (3) Design and bench-scale development reactor and associated equipment; (4) ordering of equipment and construction of Reactor and Associated equipment; (5) bench-scale HâS,

S. E. Lyke; L. J. Jr. Sealock; G. L. Roberts

1983-01-01

371

The systems engineering capability maturity model: where to start?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systems engineering capability maturity model is a tool designed to help companies measure and improve their system engineering processes. The architecture of the model is designed to provide the user with a lot of flexibility, and to not be overly prescriptive with regards to how companies should structure their improvement plans. However, the result is that the systems engineering

K. Cusick

1997-01-01

372

Systems engineering implementation plan for the liquid effluents services program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A graded approach is being taken by the Liquid Effluents Services Program in implementing systems engineering because of the advanced state of the program. The approach is cost-effective and takes credit for related work already completed, yet retains the benefits of systems engineering. This plan describes how the Liquid Effluents Services Program will implement systems engineering so there is a

Lowe

1995-01-01

373

PRODUCT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT WITHIN KNOWLEDGE-BASED ENGINEERING SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge-based engineering systems are now becoming more commonplace in engineering industry. There is a need to ensure the technology is used correctly and to provide the user with all the possible benefits that the system can offer. This paper looks at how product knowledge can be managed within knowledge-based engineering systems to ensure that the knowledge retains its value and

P. Sainter; K. Oldham; A. Larkin; A. Murton; R. Brimble

2000-01-01

374

Viewing Web Search Engines as Corpus Query Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine whether a web search engine can function as a corpus management system, by describing the similarities between corpus query systems and web search engines and we present a prototype implementation of a corpus management system incorporated in a Greek web search engine. We target our research towards the examination of common features that exist among

Alexandros Ntoulas; Sofia Stamou; Manolis Tzagarakis; Ioanna Tsakou; Dimitris Christodoulakis

375

46 CFR 169.693 - Engine order telegraph systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine order telegraph systems. 169.693 Section...Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.693 Engine order telegraph systems. An engine order telegraph system is not...

2011-10-01

376

Systems engineering considerations for operational support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operations support as considered here is the infrastructure of people, procedures, facilities and systems that provide NASA with the capability to conduct space missions. This infrastructure involves most of the Centers but is concentrated principally at the Johnson Space Center, the Kennedy Space Center, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It includes mission training and planning, launch and recovery, mission control, tracking, communications, data retrieval and data processing.

Aller, Robert O.

377

Screening of low cost sorbents for arsenic and mercury capture in gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

A novel laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor has been developed to investigate trace metal capture on selected sorbents for cleaning the hot raw gas in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants. The new reactor design is presented, together with initial results for mercury and arsenic capture on five sorbents. It was expected that the capture efficiency of sorbents would decrease with increasing temperature. However, a commercial activated carbon, Norit Darco 'Hg', and a pyrolysis char prepared from scrap tire rubber exhibit similar efficiencies for arsenic at 200 and at 400{sup o}C (70% and 50%, respectively). Meta-kaolinite and fly ash both exhibit an efficiency of around 50% at 200{sup o}C, which then dropped as the test temperature was increased to 400{sup o}C. Activated scrap tire char performed better at 200{sup o}C than the pyrolysis char showing an arsenic capture capacity similar to that of commercial Norit Darco 'Hg'; however, efficiency dropped to below 40% at 400{sup o}C. These results suggest that the capture mechanism of arsenic (As4) is more complex than purely physical adsorption onto the sorbents. Certain elements within the sorbents may have significant importance for chemical adsorption, in addition to the effect of surface area, as determined by the BET method. This was indeed the case for the mercury capture efficiency for all four sorbents tested. Three of the sorbents tested retained 90% of the mercury when operated at 100{sup o}C. As the temperature increased, the efficiency of activated carbon and pyrolysis char reduced significantly. Curiously, despite having the smallest Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area, a pf-combustion ash was the most effective in capturing mercury over the temperature range studied. These observations suggest that the observed mercury capture was not purely physical adsorption but a combination of physical and chemical processes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Cedric Charpenteau; Revata Seneviratne; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-09-15

378

Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from four commercially significant coals of different rank. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The combustion and gasification kinetics of four size graded coal chars were investigated experimentally in Combustion Engineering's Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). The chars were prepared in the DTFS from commercially significant coals representing a wide range of rank; these included a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam hvAb coal, an Illinois No. 6 Seam hvCb coal, a Wyoming Sub C, and a Texas Lignite A. Additionally, a number of standard ASTM and special bench scale tests were performed on the coals and chars to characterize their physicochemical properties. Results showed that the lower rank coal chars were more reactive than the higher rank coal chars and that combustion reactions of chars were much faster than the corresponding gasification reactions. Fuel properties, temperature, and reactant gas partial pressure had a significant influence on both combustion and gasification, and particle size had a mild but discernible influence on gasification. Fuel reactivities were closely related to pore structure. Computer simulation of the combustion and gasification performances of the subject samples in the DTFS supported the experimental findings.

Nsakala, N.Y.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

1982-09-01

379

Internal combustion engine control system for use with turbo-charged engine, and method  

SciTech Connect

To permit operation of engines, particularly turbo-charged engines, at the maximum power level just short of causing engine knocking, and preventing engine knocking, temperatures in the engine are sensed and, if an excessive temperature signal is detected, for example excessive engine temperature, exhaust gas temperature, turbo-charged air, or turbo charger temperature, a fuel supply system, for example a fuel injection system, is controlled to enrich the mixture, for example by multiplying the fuel injection time by a factor as commanded by an additional control stage which stores in a memory, such as a rom engine operating characteristic curves. In addition, spark retardation by a retarding angle (Alpha 1) can be commanded, the spark retardation in combination with enriching of the fuel-air mixture being less than without such enrichment, thus permitting operation of the engine at appropriate power and efficiency level without noticeably increasing fuel consumption in the course of continued operation of the engine.

Denz, H.; Stumm, H.; Zechnall, M.

1983-06-28

380

Lubrication system for a vertical shaft engine  

SciTech Connect

A lubrication system is described for a vertical shaft engine comprising a crank case having an upper and a lower wall, a vertical crank shaft, a vertical balancing shaft, upper and lower bosses formed in the upper and lower walls for rotatably supporting the shafts, an oil pump housed in the lower wall, and an oil feeding passage for feeding lubricating oil from the pump to any part desired to be lubricated in the engine. The improvement comprises: the pump having a drive shaft housed under the balancing shaft, the lower end of the balancing shaft housed in one of the lower losses, the balancing shaft being rotatably supported by an antifriction bearing; and the antifriction bearing being held in an upper part of the one lower boss.

Hashigaki, Y.; Umeda, T.

1987-05-12

381

Low emission turbo compound engine system  

SciTech Connect

A diesel or HHCI engine has an air intake and an exhaust for products of combustion. A pair of turbochargers receive the products of combustion in a series relationship and an exhaust aftertreatment device receive the products of combustion from the downstream turbine. A power turbine receives the output from the exhaust aftertreatment device and an EGR system of the power turbine passes a selected portion of the output to a point upstream of the upstream turbocharger compressor. A device adds fuel to the aftertreatment device to regenerate the particulate filter and the power turbine recoups the additional energy. The power turbine may be used to drive accessories or the prime output of the engine.

Vuk; Carl T. (Denver, IA)

2011-05-31

382

Heat engine development for solar thermal power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parabolic dish solar collector systems for converting sunlight to electrical power through a heat engine will, require a small heat engine of high performance long lifetime to be competitive with conventional power systems. The most promising engine candidates are Stirling, high temperature Brayton, and combined cycle. Engines available in the current market today do not meet these requirements. The development of Stirling and high temperature Brayton for automotive applications was studied which utilizes much of the technology developed in this automotive program for solar power engines. The technical status of the engine candidates is reviewed and the components that may additional development to meet solar thermal system requirements are identified.

Pham, H. Q.; Jaffe, L. D.

383

Combustion Engineering Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Repowering Project -- Clean Coal II Project. Annual report, November 20, 1990--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The IGCC system will consist of CE`s air-blown, entrained-flow, two-stage, pressurized coal gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup process; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-Btu coal gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment. The IGCC will include CE`s slogging, entrained-flow, gasifier operating in a pressurized mode and using air as the oxidant. The hot gas will be cleaned of particulate matter (char) which is recycled back to the gasifier. After particulate removal, the product gas will be cleaned of sulfur prior to burning in a gas turbine. The proposed project includes design and demonstration of two advanced hot gas cleanup processes for removal of sulfur from the product gas of the gasifier. The primary sulfur removal method features a newly developed moving-bed zinc ferrite system downstream of the gasifier. The process data from these pilot tests is expected to be sufficient for the design of a full-scale system to be used in the proposed demonstration. A second complementary process is in situ desulfurization achieved by adding limestone or dolomite directly to the coal feed. The benefit, should such an approach prove viable, is that the downstream cleanup system could be reduced in size. In this plant, the gasifier will be producing a low-Btu gas (LBG). The LBG will be used as fuel in a standard GE gas turbine to produce power. This gas turbine will have the capability to fire LBG and natural gas (for start-up). Since firing LBG uses less air than natural gas, the gas turbine air compressor will have extra capacity. This extra compressed air will be used to pressurize the gasifier and supply the air needed in the gasification process. The plant is made of three major blocks of equipment as shown in Figure 2. They are the fuel gas island which includes the gasifier and gas cleanup, gas turbine power block, and the steam turbine block which includes the steam turbine and the HRSG.

Not Available

1993-03-01

384

Systems engineering implementation plan for the liquid effluents services program  

SciTech Connect

A graded approach is being taken by the Liquid Effluents Services Program in implementing systems engineering because of the advanced state of the program. The approach is cost-effective and takes credit for related work already completed, yet retains the benefits of systems engineering. This plan describes how the Liquid Effluents Services Program will implement systems engineering so there is a common understanding. Systems engineering work to be performed and the products of that work are identified. The relation to the current planning process and integration with the sitewide systems engineering effort is described.

Lowe, S.S.

1995-01-01

385

Decoupling torque control system for automotive engine tester  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel decoupling control method of the engine torque control for the automobile engine tester. The engine tester is mainly composed of a dynamometer control system and an engine control system. The conventional engine tester has the problem that the performance of the engine torque control system is deteriorated by the influences of the interference between the dynamometer speed control system and the engine torque control system. The authors proposed the practical engine torque control system based on an observer and an identification system to eliminate the interference of the dynamometer speed control system. The effect of observer's parameter error on the engine torque estimation response was analyzed. According to the result of this analysis, a practical method is proposed to identify the engine inertia moment and the shaft spring coefficient that are parameters of the observer. The authors confirmed through simulation and experiments that the proposed decoupling engine torque control system realizes a robust control system from the interference with the dynamometer speed control system.

Nomura, Masakatsu; Suzuki, Masahiko; Hori, Michitaka; Terashima, Masayuki

2000-04-01

386

Recovery of plastic wastes from dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel and its utilization in small gasification system.  

PubMed

An effort to utilize solid wastes at dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was carried out. The produced RDF briquette was then utilized in the gasification system. These wastes were initially examined for their physical composition and chemical characteristics. The wastes contained high plastic content of 24.6-44.8%, majority in polyethylene plastic bag form. The plastic wastes were purified by separating them from other components through manual separation and trommel screen after which their content increased to 82.9-89.7%. Subsequently, they were mixed with binding agent (cassava root) and transformed into RDF briquette. Maximum plastic content in RDF briquette was limit to 55% to maintain physical strength and maximum chlorine content. The RDF briquette was tested in a down-draft gasifier. The produced gas contained average energy content of 1.76 MJ/m(3), yielding cold gas efficiency of 66%. The energy production cost from this RDF process was estimated as USD0.05 perkWh. PMID:19758801

Chiemchaisri, Chart; Charnnok, Boonya; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

2009-09-15

387

Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect

For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

2009-01-07

388

Knowledge based expert systems for engineering: Classification, education and control  

SciTech Connect

Applications in the book cover all branches of engineering including manufacturing, electrical and electronic systems, industrial automation, and civil engineering. Particular applications include gearbox selection, maintenance advisers, helicopter engine troubleshooting, power system control, network management, intelligent tutors, finite element advisers, diagnosis of mechanical failure, welding advisers, plant operation, structural optimisation and fault diagnosis.

Sriram, D.; Adey, R.A.

1987-01-01

389

Spent nuclear fuel project systems engineering management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to describe the systems engineering approach and methods that will be integrated with established WHC engineering practices. The methodology promotes and ensures sound management of the SNF Project. The scope of the document encompasses the efforts needed to manage the WHC implementation of systems engineering on the SNF Project including risk management process, design

Westinghouse Hanford

1996-01-01

390

An undergraduate degree program for communication systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for skilled engineers in the fields of data communications and telecommunications industries called for the introduction of a new and unique undergraduate degree program for communication systems engineering. The methodology for determining the needs of this program, the formulation of its curriculum, a description of the communication systems engineer, and the student reaction to the program is

Ran Giladi

1999-01-01

391

Image systems engineering education in an electronic classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital imaging technologies have now developed to the point where engineers specializing in image systems engineering are needed in order for imaging to reach its full potential, In 1996, the University of Iowa launched a multiphase project for the development of a well-structured interdisciplinary image systems engineering curriculum with both depth and breadth in its offerings. This project has been

Milan Sonka; Edwin L. Dove; Steve M. Collins

1998-01-01

392

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine is described having a structure subject to high heat flux; and a cooling system for removing heat from the engine. In addition, a method is described of cooling an internal combustion engine using a cooling system comprising the steps of: introducing liquid coolant into a cooling circuit which includes a coolant jacket formed about structure of

Kubozuka

1987-01-01

393

Biomaterial systems for orthopedic tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Health Organization has estimated that one out of seven Americans suffers from a musculoskeletal impairment, annually incurring 28.6 million musculoskeletal injuries---more than half of all injuries. Bone tissue engineering has evolved rapidly to address this continued health concern. In the last decade, the focus of orthopedic biomaterials design has shifted from the use of common engineering metals and plastics to smart materials designed to mimic nature and elicit favorable bioresponse. Working within this new paradigm, this thesis explores unique chemical and materials systems for orthopedic tissue engineering. Improving on current titanium implant technologies, porous titanium scaffolds were utilized to better approximate the mechanical and structural properties of natural bone. These foam scaffolds were enhanced with bioactive coatings, designed to enhance osteoblastic implant colonization. The biopolymer poly(L-lysine) was incorporated into both hydroxypatite and octacalcium phosphate mineral phases to create modified organoapatite and pLys-CP coatings respectively. These coatings were synthesized and characterized on titanium surfaces, including porous structures such as titanium mesh and titanium foam. In addition, in vitro osteoblastic cell culture experiments probed the biological influences of these coatings. Organoapatite (OA) accelerated preosteoblastic colonization of titanium mesh and improved cellular ingrowth into titanium foam. Alternatively, the thin, uniform pLys-CP coating demonstrated significant potential as a substrate for chemically binding biological molecules and supramolecular assemblies. Biologically, pLys-CP demonstrated enhanced cellular attachment over titanium and inorganic calcium phosphate controls. Supramolecular self-assembled nanofiber assemblies were also explored both as stand-alone tissue engineering gels and as titanium coatings. Self-supporting nanofiber gels induced accelerated, biomimetic mineralization. Osteoblasts encapsulated in mineralizing gels became dormant, down-regulating glucose-lactate metabolism, cell proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase expression. Still viable, though, these cells up-regulated cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression upon release from the gel. These self-assembled nanofibers were also applied to titanium surfaces, where they influenced calcium phosphate nucleation and growth on those surfaces. Each of these materials systems is the product of a valuable integration of materials science, chemistry, and medicine. By creatively combining elements of these different disciplines, it is possible to design new and exciting approaches to orthopedic tissue engineering.

Spoerke, Erik David

2003-06-01

394

Engineering task plan for purged light system  

SciTech Connect

A purged, closed circuit television system is currently used to video inside of waste tanks. The video is used to support inspection and assessment of the tank interiors, waste residues, and deployed hardware. The system is also used to facilitate deployment of new equipment. A new light source has been requested by Characterization Project Operations (CPO) for the video system. The current light used is mounted on the camera and provides 75 watts of light, which is insufficient for clear video. Other light sources currently in use on the Hanford site either can not be deployed in a 4-inch riser or do not meet the ignition source controls. The scope of this Engineering Task Plan is to address all activities associated with the specification and procurement of a light source for use with the existing CPO video equipment. The installation design change to tank farm facilities is not within the scope of this ETP.

BOGER, R.M.

1999-05-11

395

40 CFR 92.116 - Engine output measurement system calibrations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.116 Engine output measurement system...

2013-07-01

396

Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed duri...

D. G. Pelaccio C. M. Scheil L. J. Petrosky

1993-01-01

397

Spent nuclear fuel project systems engineering management plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to describe the systems engineering approach and methods that will be integrated with established WHC engineering practices. The methodology promotes and ensures sound management of the SNF Project. The scope of the documen...

J. C. Womack

1996-01-01

398

A systems engineering management approach to resource management applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a program management response to the following question: how can the traditional practice of systems engineering management, including requirements specification, be adapted, enhanced, or modified to build future planning and scheduling systems for effective operations? The systems engineering management process, as traditionally practiced, is examined. Extensible resource management systems are discussed. It is concluded that extensible systems are a

R. S. Hornstein

1989-01-01

399

Gasification of rice straw in a fluidized-bed gasifier for syngas application in close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems.  

PubMed

The feasibility and operation performance of the gasification of rice straw in an atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifier was studied. The gasification was carried out between 700 and 850 °C. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F) for rice straw was 4.28 and air supplied was 7-25% of that necessary for stoichiometric combustion. Mass and power balances, tar concentration, produced gas composition, gas phase ammonia, chloride and potassium concentrations, agglomeration tendencies and gas efficiencies were assessed. Agglomeration was avoided by replacing the normal alumina-silicate bed by a mixture of alumina-silicate sand and MgO. It was shown that it is possible to produce high quality syngas from the gasification of rice straw. Under the experimental conditions used, the higher heating value (HHV) of the produced gas reached 5.1 MJ Nm(-3), the hot gas efficiency 61% and the cold gas efficiency 52%. The obtained results prove that rice straw may be used as fuel for close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems. PMID:22297044

Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; Otero, M; Morán, A; García, A I

2012-01-14

400

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Third quarter progress report FY-1984, April 1-June 30, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the KRW coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW pressurized, fluidized-bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) modifications to the PDU; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) advanced process design and analysis; and (5) laboratory support studies. For laboratory support studies, coal and/or char fines from Wyoming Sub C, Western Kentucky, Republic of South Africa (RSA), and Pittsburgh seam coals processed in the PDU were characterized for reactivity on a thermogravimetric analyzer. The average relative reactivity of the fines (-120 x +140 mesh) was found to be nearly the same as that for larger size distribution (18 x 60 mesh, -1.0 + 0.25 mm). This is consistent with the observations of studies reported in literature on carbon gasification reactions.

Not Available

1986-01-31

401

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Volume 1, Final report, September 1987--October 1993  

SciTech Connect

A five-year Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) was awarded to Texaco on September 30, 1987 to develop and demonstrate hot gas clean-up for the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The program targeted the development and demonstration of a high efficiency integrated power generating system on a pilot plant scale that includes coal-sorbent slurry preparation, Texaco coal gasification, high temperature in-situ and external sulfur removal, particulate removal, advanced instruction, and if available, a gas turbine. To accomplish these goals, a comprehensive research and demonstration program that included theoretical and bench scale experimental studies, pilot scale demonstration runs, and detailed process economic evaluations was coordinated. The pilot scale studies, which were performed in the 20 tpd gasifiers at Texaco`s Montebello Research Laboratory, integrated in-situ desulfurization, external desulfurization, high temperature filtration and advanced instrumentation. Using data from the bench scale experiments and pilot scale demonstrations, the process economics studies compared the overall Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plant efficiencies and costs for eighteen hot gas cleanup configurations to the efficiencies and costs for two ``base cases`` using commercially available cold gas cleanup technology. Several promising configurations using hot gas cleanup were identified.

Robin, A.M.; Davis, L.A.; Leininger, T.F. [and others

1993-10-01

402

The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department\\u000a of Tsinghua University in 1992. The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in\\u000a China is much lower than that of the advanced countries, but the coal consumption is much higher, which brings about the

Li Zhao; Xiangdong Xu

1999-01-01

403

NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and

Michael Schwartz

2004-01-01

404

System Engineering in C4ISR System Functional Requirements Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional requirements analysis of C4ISR is the major stage to guide the development staff to find out the user requirements in order to satisfy the needs of command personnel and executives during the construction of C4ISR system. It effects directly on the rate of process and appropriation budget of the following engineering, and is likely to be the main criterion

Zhi ZhiGang; Guo QiSheng; Meng QingJun; Li GuangHui

2009-01-01

405

Engineering of microorganisms for the production of biofuels and perspectives based on systems metabolic engineering approaches.  

PubMed

The increasing oil price and environmental concerns caused by the use of fossil fuel have renewed our interest in utilizing biomass as a sustainable resource for the production of biofuel. It is however essential to develop high performance microbes that are capable of producing biofuels with very high efficiency in order to compete with the fossil fuel. Recently, the strategies for developing microbial strains by systems metabolic engineering, which can be considered as metabolic engineering integrated with systems biology and synthetic biology, have been developed. Systems metabolic engineering allows successful development of microbes that are capable of producing several different biofuels including bioethanol, biobutanol, alkane, and biodiesel, and even hydrogen. In this review, the approaches employed to develop efficient biofuel producers by metabolic engineering and systems metabolic engineering approaches are reviewed with relevant example cases. It is expected that systems metabolic engineering will be employed as an essential strategy for the development of microbial strains for industrial applications. PMID:21889585

Jang, Yu-Sin; Park, Jong Myoung; Choi, Sol; Choi, Yong Jun; Seung, Do Young; Cho, Jung Hee; Lee, Sang Yup

2011-08-25

406

Satisfying winter peak-power demand with phased gasification  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study, commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration, was to investigate application of this concept to the Pacific Northwest. Coal gasification combined-cycle (GCC) plants are receiving serious attention from eastern utilities. Potomac Electric (PEPCO) has engaged Fluor Technology to perform conceptual and preliminary engineering for a nominal 375-MW coal GCC power generation facility to be located in northern Montgomery County, Maryland. Other eastern utilities are engaged in site-specific investigations of satisfying future power requirements employing this alternative, which involves an environmentally superior method of using coal. Coal is combined with oxygen to produce a medium-heating-value fuel gas as an alternative to natural gas. The fuel gas, cleaned to remove sulfur compounds, is burned in gas turbine-generator sets. The hot exhaust gas is used to generate steam for additional power generation. The gasification combined cycle plant is highly efficient and has a high level of flexibility to meet power demands. This study provided background for consideration of one alternative for satisfying winter peak-load demand. The concept is feasible, depending on the timing of the installation of the gasification system, projections of the cost and the availability of natural gas, and restrictions on the use of natural gas. It has the advantage of deferring capacity addition and capital outlay until power is needed and economics are favorable.

Hall, E.H.; Moss, T.E.; Ravikumar, R.

1987-01-01

407

System Engineering Management and Implementation Plan for Project W-211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systems Engineering Management and Implementation Plan (SEMIP) describes the Project W-211 implementation of the Tank Farm Contractor Systems Engineering Management Plan (TFC SEMP). The SEMIP defines the systems engineering products and processes used by the project to comply with the TFC SEMP, and provides the basis for tailoring systems engineering processes by applying a graded approach to identify appropriate

VAN BEEK

2000-01-01

408

Electronic control system for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An electronic control system for internal combustion engines which has signal generator circuits for the fuel metering and for the ignition. During starting, especially in the case of cold starting, three different phases are provided for controlling the injected fuel quantity and for regulating the fuel quantity downward; furthermore, the ignition angle is adjusted in accordance with temperature and rpm. In terms of the fuel metering, the boundary between the first and second phase is dependent on the rpm or on a maximum total number of revolution cycles, and the end of the second phase is predetermined by a minimum metering signal which is dependent on temperature. In the ignition system, there is an increasing adjustment toward ''early'' approximately in the rpm range between 200 and 600 revolutions per minute as well as an increasing adjustment toward ''late'' as the temperature increases.

Auracher, G.; Clement, A.; Daumer, R.; Schwarz, H.; Theml, T.; Venzke, W.; Virgilio, G.; Weichel, B.; Wilfert, T.

1984-02-21

409

Moisture monitoring and control system engineering study  

SciTech Connect

During the past 50 years, a wide variety of chemical compounds have been placed in the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) on the Hanford Site. A concern relating to chemical stability, chemical control, and safe storage of the waste is the potential for propagating reactions as a result of ferrocyanide-oxidizer and organic-oxidizer concentrations in the SSTS. Propagating reactions in fuel-nitrate mixtures are precluded if the amounts of fuel and moisture present in the waste are within specified limits. Because most credible ignition sources occur near the waste surface, the main emphasis of this study is toward monitoring and controlling moisture in the top 14 cm (5.5 in.) of waste. The purpose of this engineering study is to recommend a moisture monitoring and control system for use in SSTs containing sludge and saltcake. This study includes recommendations for: (1) monitoring and controlling moisture in SSTs; (2) the fundamental design criteria for a moisture monitoring and control system; and (3) criteria for the deployment of a moisture monitoring and control system in hanford Site SSTs. To support system recommendations, technical bases for selecting and using a moisture monitoring and control system are presented. Key functional requirements and a conceptual design are included to enhance system development and establish design criteria.

Carpenter, K.E.; Fadeff, J.G.

1995-05-16

410

Gasification and combustion technologies of agro-residues and their application to rural electric power systems in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass based power generation has the potential to add up to 20,000 MW of distributed capacity in India close to the rural load centers. However, the present production of biomass-based electricity is modest, contributing a mere 300 MW of installed capacity. In this thesis, we shall examine some of the scientific, technological and policy issues concerned with the generation and commercial viability of biomass-based electric power. We first consider the present status of biomass-based power in India and make an attempt to understand the reasons for low utilization. Our analysis suggests that the small-scale biomass power plants (<100 kW) when used for village electrification have a low Plant Load Factor (PLF) that adversely affects their economic viability. Medium Scale units (0.5 MW--5 MW) do not appear attractive because of the costs involved in the biomass transportation. There is thus a merit in considering power plants that use biomass available in large quantities in agro-processing centers such as rice or sugar mills where power plants of capacities in excess of 5 MW are possible without biomass transportation. We then simulate a biomass gasification combustion cycle using a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine since it can run totally on biomass gas. The gasifier and engine are modeled using the chemical equilibrium approach. The simulation is used to study the impact of fuel moisture and the performance of different biomass feedstock. Biomass power plants when used for decentralized power generation; close to the rural load centers can solve some of the problems of rural power supply: provide voltage support, reactive power and peak shaving. We consider an innovative option of setting up a rural electricity micro-grid using a decentralized biomass power plant and selected a rural feeder in Tumkur district, Karnataka for three-phase AC load flow studies. Our results suggest that this option significantly reduces the distribution losses and improves the voltage profiles. We examine a few innovative policy options for making a rural micro-grid economically viable and also a pricing mechanism for reactive power and wheeling. We next consider co-firing biomass and coal in utility boilers as an attractive option for biomass utilization because of low capital costs; high efficiency of utility boilers; lower CO2 emissions (per kWh) and also lower NOx and SO2. However, efficiency derating of the boilers caused by unburnt carbon in the fly ash is a major concern of the utilities. We develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based model to understand the impact of co-firing on utility boilers. A detailed biomass devolatilization sub-model is also developed to study the importance of intra-particle heat and mass transport. Finally, we conduct an experimental study of the pyrolysis of rice husk. We conducted single particle experiments in a Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM) at the Department of Material Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University coupled with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis of partially and fully combusted particles. Our results seem to indicate that the role of silica fibers is not merely to act as geometric shields for the carbon atoms. Instead there appears to be a strong and thermally resistant inter-molecular bonding that prevents carbon conversion. Therefore, it may not be possible to achieve full carbon conversion.

Bharadwaj, Anshu

411

Gasification. 2nd. ed.  

SciTech Connect

This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt [Lurgi Oel Gas Chemie (Germany)

2008-02-15

412

Systems Engineering Sizing in the Age of Acquisition Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

As organizations develop more complex systems, increased emphasis is being placed on Systems Engineering (SE) to ensure that cost and schedule are within budget. Correspondingly, the failure to adequately plan and fund the systems engineering effort appears to have contributed to a number of cost overruns and schedule slips, especially in the development of complex ground and space systems. Government

Ricardo Valerdi; Michael Ernstoff; Paul H. Mohlman; Evin Stump

413

ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates have no impact on the model developed in this report.

R. Jarek

2005-08-29

414

Power Systems Development Facility. Technical Progress Report Gasification Test Run GCT3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses test campaign GCT3 of the Halliburton KBR transport reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Al...

2002-01-01

415

Biomass Gasification and Power Generation Using Advanced Gas Turbine Systems. Final Report, November 2001-September 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Conn...

D. Liscinsky

2002-01-01

416

PORE: Procurement-Oriented Requirements Engineering Method for the Component-Based Systems Engineering Development Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current research in Component-Based Systems Engineering (CBSE) focuses on design and integration processes. There is little interest in the requirements engineering and product evaluation\\/selection processes that must precede design and integration. Also most current methods and tools support systems design and integration but neglect the requirements engineering and product evaluation\\/selection processes. However, in spite of this lack of focus

Cornelius Ncube; Neil. A. M. Maiden; George T. Heineman; Francios Bronsard; Gilberto Matos; Dilip Soni; Lana Kuzmanov

1999-01-01

417

Gas turbine engine compartment vent system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes improvement in a gas turbine engine of the type having a core engine, a shroud surrounding the core engine, a tubular outer nacelle defining an annular bypass duct therebetween and a fan disposed in the nacelle inlet for directing compressed air flow into and through the bypass duct, the shroud spaced from the engine sufficiently to provide space for installation of heat sensitive engine related components. The improvement comprises: at least one vent through the shroud, selectively positioned to direct compressed fan air from the bypass duct into the space between the shroud and engine for direct impingement on at least one of the heat sensitive engine related components for cooling same; the vent comprising an open ended tube extending through a hole in the shroud, bonded thereto, and terminating therein adjacent to the heat sensitive engine related components.

Mutch, H.

1991-10-08

418

Smart and genetically engineered biomaterials and drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, synthesis, and properties of novel stimuli-sensitive and genetically engineered biomaterials and drug delivery systems are reviewed. Two approaches to their engineering are presented. One approach is to improve the traditional methods of synthesis, as demonstrated by the example of controlled copolymerization of ?-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides. The other approach, discussed in more detail, uses genetic engineering methods. The design

Jind?ich Kope?ek

2003-01-01

419

A modified LPV modeling technique for turbofan engine control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified LPV (Linear Parameter Varying) modeling technique for nonlinear system was put forward and is applied in a turbofan engine model and control analysis. First, a quasi-LPV model of a turbofan engine is designed at various engine operating points using linearized models and the scheduling variable is the fan speed. Then, according to the feedback method, the quasi-LPV model

Li Shu-qing; Zhang Sheng-xiu

2010-01-01

420

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program - Combustion system development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) Program objectives are to develop kinematic Stirling engines, and transfer Stirling-engine technology to the United States. Stringent emissions requirements and the high-temperature environment of an ASE combustion system require a reduced flame temperature via techniques such as recirculation of combustion products, while the high recuperated air temperature causes fuel nozzle plugging and premature failure of

1984-01-01

421

Model-based diagnostics of gas turbine engine lubrication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current research was to develop improved methodology for diagnosing anomalies and maintaining oil lubrication systems for gas turbine engines. The effort focused on the development of reasoning modules that utilize the existing, inexpensive sensors and are applicable to on-line monitoring within the full-authority digital engine controller (FADEC) of the engine. The target application is the Enhanced

Byington

1998-01-01

422

Engineering Education Program Review: State University System of Florida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents the results of a review of engineering programs offered at the universities governed by the Board of Regents of the State University System of Florida conducted by a team of engineering consultants. It begins with comments on recent and current trends in engineering employment and education, followed by a discussion of…

Prados, John W.; And Others

423

Process Systems Engineering: Halfway through the first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area of chemical engineering which has become known as Process Systems Engineering developed initially out of the availability of a tool, the high-speed digital computer. Coincidentally, 50 years ago, computers appeared for the first time, and as they became more generally available and useful, chemical engineers were amongst the first to recognise and exploit their potential for large scale

Jack Ponton

1995-01-01

424

Research on Agriculture Domain Meta-Search Engine System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of agriculture web information brings a fact that search engine can not return a satisfied result for users' queries. In this paper, we propose an agriculture domain search engine system, called ADSE, that can obtains results by an advance interface to several searches and aggregates them. We also discuss two key technologies: agriculture information determination and engine.

Xie, Nengfu; Wang, Wensheng

425

Research on Agriculture Domain Meta-Search Engine System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of agriculture web information brings a fact that search engine can not return a satisfied result for users’ queries. In this paper, we propose an agriculture domain search engine system, called ADSE, that can obtains results by an advance interface to several searches and aggregates them. We also discuss two key technologies: agriculture information determination and engine.

Xie, Nengfu; Wang, Wensheng

426

Tank waste remediation system engineering plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Engineering Plan describes the engineering process and controls that will be in place to support the Technical Baseline definition and manage its evolution and implementation to the field operations. This plan provides the vision for the engineering required to support the retrieval and disposal mission through Phase 1 and 2, which includes integrated data management of the Technical Baseline.

Rifaey

1998-01-01

427

Pulse combustion engine and heat transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulse combustion powered apparatus for heating and pressurizing fluids is described comprising in combination a pulse combustion heat engine, compressor means, and primary heat exchange means for transferring heat rejected by the heat engine to a primary fluid to be heated. The heat engine includes chamber means for pulse combustion of a fuel to provide combustion gases which have

R. J. Priem; M. R. Ghassemzadeh; J. C. Griffiths

1988-01-01

428

A system for reliable engineering software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the software developed to support engineering design calculations is produced by persons whose primary job skill is not that of computer scientist. Software validation techniques suitable for use by these engineer-programmers have been under investigation by the Navy as part of a project designed to increase the reliability, usability, and portability of engineering design software. The results of

L. M. Culpepper

1975-01-01

429

Introducing systems engineering to industrial design engineering students with hands-on experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents an innovative educational project to introduce systems engineering to third year students in industrial design engineering at the University of Twente. In a short period the students are confronted with new technology, namely sensors and actuators. They have to apply this technology in a complex situation, the design of a home climate system or an intelligent automobile.

G. Maarten Bonnema; Ilanit F. Lutters-Weustink; Fred J. A. M. van Houten; H. Selvaraj; V. Muthukumar

2005-01-01

430

Suction system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A suction system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising an air cleaner and an elbow tube through which air cleaned by the air cleaner is supplied to a carbureter, the elbow tube including a first passage portion extending coaxially with an inlet of the carbureter, the first passage portion having a top side, and a second passage portion extending along an axis which crosses the axis of the first passage portion at an angle, wherein a first end of the first passage portion is coupled with the inlet of the carbureter, while the other end thereof is closed, and a first end of the second passage portion is coupled with an outlet of the air cleaner.

Nagashima, A.

1989-04-11

431

Induction system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An induction system is described for an internal combustion engine having first and second groups of cylinders of which firing orders are respectively discontinuous. It consists of: a first collector for supplying air to the first group of cylinders; a second collector for supplying air to the second group of cylinders; a first main air supply passage fluidly connected to the first collector to form a first supply line; a second main air supply passage fluidly connected to the second collector to form a second air supply line independent from the first air supply line; a first throttle valve disposed in the first main or supply passage; a second throttle valve disposed in the first main air supply passage; an additional air supply passage bypassing the first and second throttle valves for supplying additional air to the first and second collectors; and an additional air control valve disposed in the additional air supply passage for controlling air flow therethrough.

Ura, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Yasuda, M.

1987-10-20

432

Induction system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An induction system for an internal combustion engine having cylinders is described, comprising: an intake manifold having passages for supplying air to the cylinders and an upstream planar joining end face; a collector unit located upstream of the intake manifold for supplying air to the passages of the intake manifold and having a planar joining end face which is joined with the planar joining end face of the intake manifold; and a groove formed in at least one of the joining end faces to define therebetween a fluid recirculation passage and having a main groove section and a plurality of outlet groove sections branching off from the main groove section so that recirculation fluid is drawn in the main groove section and distributed from the outlet groove sections to the passages of the intake manifold, respectively.

Yasuda, M.; Nishimura, S.; Ura, S.

1987-12-29

433

Ignition system for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

Timing increment signals produced by an engine driven tachogenerator are used for controlling both ignition timing shift and the dwell time of the interruptor switch of the ignition system. Counting of increment pulses by the ignition coil primary current rises to a predetermined value (I/sub 0/) are measures a dwell time fraction and provides a count result that goes into a computation of which the result measures the duration of a counting of increments between the end of one dwell time and the beginning of the next. For better dynamic behavior the count value representing the dwell time fraction (beta t) is corrected in a calculating stage by a factor which represents the proportional change in the duration of an increment signal (such a signal at a fixed point in the cycle to the most increment signal).

Harter, W.

1983-04-05

434

Hydraulic systems performance of Army engine oils  

SciTech Connect

A technical evaluation of qualified military specification lubricants was started by the U.S. Army Belvoir Research and Development Center and was performed at the U.S. Army Fuels and Lubricants Research Laboratory (AFLRL) located at Southwest Research Institute. This work was conducted to determine if such lubricants can be used as hydraulic fluids in Army Commercial Construction Equipment (CCE) and Selected Material Handling Equipment (SMHE). Sixteen military specification lubricants were extensively evaluated using twelve selected tests required by equipment manufacturers and one test developed by AFLRL in conjunction with John Deere. From the data developed, lubricants meeting Army specifications passed 88 percent of all the tests. It appears that the Army engine oils are good potential candidates for use as hydraulic and power transmission lubricants within the Army CCE/SMHE systems. Areas of concern include copper corrosion, wet brake/clutch frictional performance, and final drive gear wear.

Marbach, H.W.; Lestz, S.J.

1984-01-01

435

Scaffolds for central nervous system tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits and to date there is no universally accepted treatment. Owing to the profound impact, extensive studies have been carried out aiming at reducing inflammatory responses and overcoming the inhibitory environment in the CNS after injury so as to enhance regeneration. Artificial scaffolds may provide a suitable environment for axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and are of particular importance in cases in which the injury has resulted in a cavitary defect. In this review we discuss development of scaffolds for CNS tissue engineering, focusing on mechanism of CNS injuries, various biomaterials that have been used in studies, and current strategies for designing and fabricating scaffolds.

He, Jin; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Spector, Myron; Cui, Fu-Zhai

2012-03-01

436

On chaotic dynamics in nuclear engineering systems  

SciTech Connect

The mapping [rho][sub n+1] = [var phi][[rho][sub n] + kQ[sub o](exp [rho][sub n] [minus] 1)] is shown to belong to the universal class of quadratic mappings with a negative Schwarzian derivative, thus rigorously providing the reasons underlying this mapping's ability to follow the well-known Feigenbaum scenario to deterministic chaos. This scenario proceeds through an infinite cascade of period-doubling bifurcations, as noted in numerical experiments by Shabalin in a recent paper on power instabilities in periodically pulsed reactors. An analysis of this paper is also presented together with an overall perspective of the current state of research on chaotic dynamics in nuclear engineering systems.

Cacuci, D.G. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe Inst. for Reactor Safety, Karlsruhe (Germany))

1993-09-01

437

Applying Systems Engineering Principles in Improving Health Care Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In a highly publicized joint report, the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine recently recommended\\u000a the systematic application of systems engineering approaches for reforming our health care delivery system. For this to happen,\\u000a medical professionals and managers need to understand and appreciate the power that systems engineering concepts and tools\\u000a can bring to redesigning and improving health

Renata Kopach-Konrad; Mark Lawley; Mike Criswell; Imran Hasan; Santanu Chakraborty; Joseph Pekny; Bradley N. Doebbeling

2007-01-01

438

Combined engineering and mission simulator for a satellite SAR system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulator for a Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system can be categorized according to its functional use: Engineering Simulator or Mission Simulator. An Engineering Simulator provides a high fidelity infrastructure for the SAR system design team to determine or tweak the parameters for the system to realize the requirements. On the other hand, a Mission Simulator mimics the behavior

Hakan Urhan; Ozgur Sutcuoglu

2011-01-01

439

Spacecraft systems engineering: An introduction to the process at GSFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective in systems engineering is to devise a coherent total system design capable of achieving the stated requirements. Requirements should be rigid. However, they should be continuously challenged, rechallenged and\\/or validated. The systems engineer must specify every requirement in order to design, document, implement and conduct the mission. Each and every requirement must be logically considered, traceable and

Tony Fragomeni; Michael G. Ryschkewitsch

1993-01-01

440

Waste feed delivery program systems engineering implementation plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document defines the systems engineering processes and products planned by the Waste Feed Delivery Program to develop the necessary and sufficient systems to provide waste feed to the Privatization Contractor for Phase 1. It defines roles and responsibilities for the performance of the systems engineering processes and generation of products.

1998-01-01

441

Complex Systems Engineering Position Paper: A Regimen for CSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest description of the Regimen for Complex Systems Engineering is provided, a minor update from what was presented at the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) International Symposium in July, 2005. Additional material concerning multi-scale analysis and life cycles of complex systems have been added. This paper documents the context of the second author's planned remarks during the opening

M. L. Kuras; B. E. White

442

Waste feed delivery program systems engineering implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document defines the systems engineering processes and products planned by the Waste Feed Delivery Program to develop the necessary and sufficient systems to provide waste feed to the Privatization Contractor for Phase 1. It defines roles and responsibilities for the performance of the systems engineering processes and generation of products.

O`Toole, S.M.

1998-09-24

443

Engineering-support services for the DOE\\/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kellog activities during April to June 1981 included continued monitoring of activities at Bi-Gas, Westinghouse, Exxon and IGT (for peat gasification). Pilot plant\\/PDU tests which were monitored and reported include Bi-Gas tests G-16B, G-17, G-17A, G-17B, and G-17C; Westinghouse PDU test runs TP-029-1\\/030-1, TP-030-2 and TP-028-1 and CFSF tests TP-M002-1 and TP-M002-2; Exxon run period number 28; Peatgas pilot plant

D. M. Bernard; L. E. Bostwick; T. R. Ethridge; W. C. Gilwood; D. A. Hubbard; R. L. Montgomery; E. A. Senules; D. L. Singer; M. R. Smith; W. E. Ward

1981-01-01

444

Engineering-support services for the DOE\\/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kellogg activities included continued monitoring of test operations at BI-GAS, Westinghouse, Exxon and IGT (for peak gasification). Pilot plant\\/PDU test runs which were monitored and reported included: BI-GAS tests G-14, G-14A, G-15 and G-15A; Westinghouse PDU tests TP-027-5 and TP-031-1 and CFSF tests TP-M001-1, 2, 3 and 4; Exxon run periods No. 23 and No. 24; and IGT single-stage peat

L. E. Bostwick; R. J. Brancheau; R. G. Chen

1980-01-01

445

System Engineering for the NNSA Knowledge Base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring capability, GNEM R&E (Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research & Engineering) researchers at the national laboratories have collected an extensive set of raw data products. These raw data are used to develop higher level products (e.g. 2D and 3D travel time models) to better characterize the Earth at regional scales. The processed products and selected portions of the raw data are stored in an archiving and access system known as the NNSA (National Nuclear Security Administration) Knowledge Base (KB), which is engineered to meet the requirements of operational monitoring authorities. At its core, the KB is a data archive, and the effectiveness of the KB is ultimately determined by the quality of the data content, but access to that content is completely controlled by the information system in which that content is embedded. Developing this system has been the task of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and in this paper we discuss some of the significant challenges we have faced and the solutions we have engineered. One of the biggest system challenges with raw data has been integrating database content from the various sources to yield an overall KB product that is comprehensive, thorough and validated, yet minimizes the amount of disk storage required. Researchers at different facilities often use the same data to develop their products, and this redundancy must be removed in the delivered KB, ideally without requiring any additional effort on the part of the researchers. Further, related data content must be grouped together for KB user convenience. Initially SNL used whatever tools were already available for these tasks, and did the other tasks manually. The ever-growing volume of KB data to be merged, as well as a need for more control of merging utilities, led SNL to develop our own java software package, consisting of a low- level database utility library upon which we have built several applications for specific tasks (e.g an event/origin merger; a waveform merger). Our package now includes applications for nearly all of the KB merging tasks, but development continues with an emphasis on improving user interfaces by adding GUIs and on increasing performance. Not all types of data products are well-suited to storage and access from a relational database, because of their basic underlying structure as well as the performance requirements for their use. In some cases, such products already have a standard format and corresponding software library in the existing monitoring system, but for others, this is not the case. For some of the latter, SNL has developed a large and complex C++ library for storing and accessing a wide variety of interpolatable geophysical data. Our library was first developed to support kriging of empirical data to provide value corrections and uncertainty estimates for underlying base models. Operational performance constraints led to the addition of an optimal tessellation capability to deliver kriging results using the much faster natural-neighbor interpolation method. To provide better predictions in areas without well-recorded seismicity, the library was further enhanced to provide the capability to use complex polygon delimited regional models as a base model for a single station/phase. Our latest work has focused on improving system performance and flexibility by running the library as a server application on a dedicated multi-processor server. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy.

Young, C.; Ballard, S.; Hipp, J.

2006-05-01

446

Development of Robotic Welding System for Jet Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors have succeeded in developing a robotic welding system to enable automatic welding of large parts of jet engine; the system is widely applicable and increases processing efficiency and product's quality. The main equipment of the system compris...

S. Tanioka Y. Oka T. Murayama K. Iinuma A. Tejima

1990-01-01

447

Computer-Aided Engineering for Power-System Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer-aided engineering (CAE) system has been developed to assist planning, design, and analysis of entire power-plant systems from the generator to the substations, as well as determining operation and maintenance procedures for the completed system...

T. Tsuji S. Watanabe K. Ikeda A. Maeda

1985-01-01

448

Incentives boost coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

Hess, G.

2006-01-16

449

Studies of biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

A downdraft gas producer was designed and fabricated to investigate the thermal behavior and performance of several types of biomass under gasification conditions. The reactor was a batch fed system with a stationary grate which operated at near atmospheric pressures. Air was used as the oxidizer and was introduced to the midsection of the gasifier at various mass flow rates ranging between 1.1 to 15.9 Kg/hr. This resulted in the production of a low energy, producer gas with heating values as high as 9MJ/SCM. The particle size ranged from 1.3 to 4.1 cm depending upon the fuel type and preparation conditions. The dynamic measurements of the gas temperatures inside the reactor were made at various locations using an axial and a radial temperature probe. The gas samples were collected from the reaction zone and outside the gasifier and were analyzed to give product distribution using a gas-chromatographic system. The biomass fuels which were investigated as a possible feedstock in the reactor included several types of commercial brand charcoal and wood, densified Refuse Derived Fuel (d-RDF) and densified Digested Sewage Sludge (d-DDS). The unit was placed on a balance and the extent of the fuel conversion was determined directly by measuring the gasifier weight loss. It was found that the thermal response of the reactor could be divided into a transient and a pseudo steady state period. The dry gas yield for high content volatile matter fuels was found to be a function of fuel conversion and reached a maximum value which was significantly higher than that of charcoal depending upon the type of the biomass and flow conditions. Although the efficiency of charcoal gasification appeared to be higher than wood or d-RDF, the heating value of the gas produced from charcoal was lower due to excessive dilution by the inert nitrogen.

Tabatabaie-Raissi, A.

1982-01-01

450

Dueling Stakeholders and Dual-Hatted Systems Engineers: Engineering Challenges, Capabilities, and Skills in Government Infrastructure Technology Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems engineering projects that support govern- ment enterprises face substantial challenges due to demands from diverse stakeholders and rapidly changing technologies. In this pa- per, we present findings from the analysis of five case studies of systems engineering projects for large government enterprises. We focus on what can be learned from systems engineers, their essen- tial role, and their engineering

JoAnn M. Brooks; John S. Carroll; Jon W. Beard

2011-01-01

451

Valve operating system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a valve operating system for an internal combustion engine, comprising an intake rotary valve and an exhaust rotary valve separately disposed in an intake passage and an exhaust passage, respectively, which independently communicate with a combustion chamber defined between a piston and a cylinder head in an internal combustion engine, the valves including spherical valve bodies adapted to open and close the intake and exhaust passages, respectively, and a valve operating mechanism having an intermittent operating function of rotatively driving the valve bodies of the intake and exhaust rotary valves in response to movement of the piston to provide an opening and closing control for the intake and exhaust rotary valves, and holding the rotary valve bodies in valve-opening and closing positions for respective predetermined periods of time, wherein the valve operating mechanism includes cam means adapted to be continuously rotated in one direction in response to the movement of the piston, rocker arms abutting the cam means and adapted to swing within a predetermined angle in accordance with the rotation of the cams, and rotary shafts each having one of the spherical valve bodies secured to one of the opposite ends thereof and adapted to reciprocally rotate between the valve-opening and closing positions of the valve body around an axis of the rotary shaft in accordance with the swinging movement of the rocker arm upon receiving a driving force from the rocker arm on the other end thereof, and the spherical valve bodies being each supported within the cylinder head through a valve seat member, and a seal spring being interposed between the valve seat member and the cylinder head.

Matsuura, M.; Nakamori, M.; Kuroki, M.

1988-10-11

452

Mark 7 Arresting Engine Alignment Measuring System and Procedures for Aligning Crosshead Tracks, Side Rails, and Engine Cylinder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains instructions for the use of Arresting Engine Alignment Measuring System, 61545-1 to determine alignment conditions of crosshead tracks, crosshead side rails, and engine cylinder bore on Mark 7 Arresting Engines, and outlines procedures...

W. A. Teasdale E. W. Williams

1971-01-01

453

Agile approaches to meet complex system of system engineering challenges: A defence perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies four challenges facing researchers and practitioners of Systems Engineering and Systems Thinking in defence capability: Language, Complexity, Longevity and Agility. Its purpose is to stimulate a debate on how best to meet these through systems research and systems engineering. It argues that this will require innovation in the development of new systems engineering practices for all parts

David Oxenham

2010-01-01

454

Development and Application of Optimal Design Capability for Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

The basic objective of this research is to develop a model to simulate the performance and cost of oxyfuel combustion systems to capture CO{sub 2} at fossil-fuel based power plants. The research also aims at identifying the key parameters that define the performance and costs of these systems, and to characterize the uncertainties and variability associated with key parameters. The final objective is to integrate the oxyfuel model into the existing IECM-CS modeling framework so as to have an analytical tool to compare various carbon management options on a consistent basis.

Edward S. Rubin; Anand B. Rao; Michael B. Berkenpas

2007-05-31

455